1 Editorial Team Jean Vinten Sarah Yu Foteini Bakarou Sofia Simeonidou Helen Tsismetzis Maria Ioannou ISBN Super Course System Aegaleo Strovolos Nicosia, Cyprus All rights reserved; no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means without the prior written permission of the publisher.
2 Contents LESSONS GRAMMAR pp. Remember Lesson 1 Remember Lesson 2 1 Welcome back! Articles Too & Enough Question Words ronouns & ossessive Adjectives ossessive Case Countable Nouns Uncountable Nouns Some, Any, No, Every Have got vs. Have A lot of / Lots of / lenty of - Much - Many repositions of Time repositions of lace & Movement resent Simple vs. resent Continuous Non-continuous Verbs Back to school ast Simple vs. ast Continuous Used to & would American schools in the past 4 Don t let bullies get you down! resent erfect Simple resent erfect Continuous ast Simple vs. resent erfect Have gone / been to / in ast erfect Simple & ast erfect Continuous repositions of Time, lace & Movement What your star sign says Future Tenses Future erfect Simple Future erfect Continuous Crazy laws from around the world Modal Verbs Jobs for teens Modal erfect Forms Semi-modal Verbs The strangest world records Adjectives & Adverbs: use, form & order Adjectives & Adverbs: Comparative & Superlative Degrees Leo Messi: A footballer who cares Full vs. Bare Infinitive How can I quit playing video games? The Gerund Be / Get used to Gerund vs. Full Infinitive Writing roject 1 Let me give you some advice! Revision Lesson 1 Lessons The National 9/11 Memorial assive Voice An interview with Daniel Radcliffe Zero, 1st, 2nd & 3rd Conditionals How to make cupcakes Nouns: Special Cases Quantifiers You wouldn t eat this, would you? Question Tags Subject / Object Questions Unique charity events Wish / If only Had better - Would rather - It s time - Unreal ast Daydreaming of a honeymoon Relative ronouns & Clauses Making your city bloom Clauses of Time, Concession, Result, Reason & urpose arkour: A new extreme sport Indirect Speech (1): Statements, Questions, Commands, Requests Yellowstone: A great place to visit Indirect Speech (2): Special Introductory Verbs Reality shows that get things done Causative Form Writing roject 2 If only I could meet Revision Lesson 2 Lessons Irregular Verbs 155 Lesson lan 3 Coursebook answer key & listening transcripts quick steps 4
3 LESSON LAN 1 Remember Lesson 1 Articles - Too & Enough - Question Words ronouns & ossessive Adjectives - ossessive Case 2 Remember Lesson 2 Countable Nouns - Uncountable Nouns Some, Any, No, Every - Have Got vs. Have A lot of / Lots of / lenty of - Much - Many repositions of Time repositions of lace & Movement 3 Lesson 1 Welcome back resent Simple vs. resent Continuous Non-continuous Verbs 4 Lesson 2 Back to school ast Simple vs. ast Continuous Used To & Would 5 Lesson 3 American schools in the past resent erfect Simple resent erfect Continuous ast Simple vs. resent erfect Have gone / been to / in 6 Lesson 4 Don't let bullies get you down ast erfect Simple & ast erfect Continuous repositions of Time, lace & Movement 7 Lesson 5 What your star sign says Future Tenses - Future erfect Simple Future erfect Continuous 8 Lesson 6 Crazy laws from around the world Modal Verbs 9 Lesson 7 Jobs for teens Modal erfect Forms - Semi-modal Verbs 10 Lesson 8 The strangest world records Comparative & Superlative Degrees 11 Lesson 9 Leo Messi: a footballer who cares Adjectives & Adverbs: use, form & order Adjectives & Adverbs: Comparative & Superlative Degrees 12 Lesson 10 How can I quit playing video games? The Gerund - Be / Get used to Gerund vs. Full Infinitive 13 Writing roject 1 Revision Lesson 1 (Lessons 1-10) TEST 1 14 Lesson 11 The National 9/11 memorial assive Voice 15 Lesson 12 An interview with Daniel Radcliffe Zero, 1st, 2nd & 3rd Conditionals 16 Lesson 13 How to make cupcakes Nouns: Special Cases - Quantifiers 17 Lesson 14 You wouldn't eat this, would you? Question Tags - Subject / Object Questions 18 Lesson 15 Unique charity events Wish / If only - Had better - Would rather It s time - Unreal ast 19 Lesson 16 Daydreaming of a honeymoon Relative ronouns & Clauses 20 Lesson 17 Making your city bloom Clauses of Time, Concession, Result, Reason & urpose 21 Lesson 18 arcour: a new extreme sport Indirect Speech (1): Statements, Questions, Commands, Requests 22 Lesson 19 Yellowstone: a great place to visit Indirect Speech (2): Special Introductory Verbs 23 Lesson 20 Reality shows that get things done Causative Form 24 Writing roject 2 Revision Lesson 2 (Lessons 11-20) TEST 2 quick steps 4 3
4 Remember 1 Articles A / AN THE ZERO ARTICLE όταν μιλάμε γενικά για κάτι: Ηe wants to buy a car. εκφράσεις μετρήσεων, ταχύτητας ή συχνότητας: a thousand, a million, fifty kilometres an hour, once a week, twice a month / a year ιδιότητα, επάγγελμα, θρησκεία: He s a student / an actor. She s a Catholic. όταν μιλάμε για κάτι συγκεκριμένο: The people of this village work on farms. κύρια ονόματα πληθυντικού (οικογένειες, οροσειρές, νησιά, ενωμένα κράτη): the Smiths, the Alps, the Bahamas, the UK,... ωκεανοί, θάλασσες, ποτάμια: the acific ocean, the Aegean, the Thames μουσικά όργανα: the guitar, the violin... μοναδικά πράγματα: the Sun, the Moon δεκαετίες, αιώνες: the 1960s, the 16th century επίθετα (αναφορά στο σύνολο): the poor, the old and the young, the homeless,... ουσιαστικά ενικού (αναφορά στο σύνολο): The dolphin is a sea mammal. κύρια ονόματα προσώπων, τόπων, λιμνών: Mary, Tom, Europe, Greece, Athens, Lake Michigan,... παιχνίδια, μαθήματα, αθλήματα, γλώσσες, γεύματα: Monopoly, history, English, basketball, breakfast / lunch... αφηρημένες έννοιες: freedom, nature... μεταφορικά μέσα: by car, by train, by bus... But: on foot εκφράσεις όπως: watch TV, listen to music, go home, go to bed / school / church / hospital / work... ουσιαστικά πληθυντικού (αναφορά στο σύνολο): Dolphins are mammals. 1. Choose and circle. 1. Garry is moving to UK with his family. a. - b. the 2. Jane is doctor at the local hospital. a. a b I have to go to work very early tomorrow. a. the b Will you go to work by car or on foot? a. the b I have computer lessons twice week. a. a b. the 6. Fiona is a musician. She plays piano. a. - b. the 7. Who was the first man to land on Moon? a. - b. the 8. We ll go hiking on Mount Olympus this weekend. a. the b Browns live in the house next to us. a. The b My sister wants to find apartment in the city centre. a. the b. an 2. Fill in with a, an, the or -. the 1. Jeff reads local newspaper every day What does your dad do? - He s an architect. 3. We attend karate lessons twice a week. 4. The children s favourite game is - football. 5. We must help the homeless of our city. 6. She always listens to - music after school. 7. Maria is the person to ask for advice. 8. The Beatles were a famous group of the 1960s. 9. I ve been to the USA twice in my life. 10. The children always go to - bed early. 11. He usually goes to - work by - bus. 12. Does your brother play the violin? Everest is the highest mountain in the world. 14. What time are we meeting for - lunch? 15. Don t drive over 50 kilometres an hour here. 16. The lion is the king of the jungle Whales / whales are large sea mammals. 18. Albert is a high school student. 4 quick steps 4
5 Too & Enough Το too μπαίνει πριν από επίθετο ή επίρρημα. Η υπερβολή που εκφράζει έχει αρνητικές συνέπειες. The milk is too hot. > I can t drink it. Ted is walking too slowly. > He might be late for school. Σημείωση: το too συνδυάζεται και με τα ποσοτικά επίθετα much / little και many / few δείχνοντας υπερβολικά μεγάλη ή μικρή ποσότητα. There s too much / too little salt in the food. Freda s got too many / too few clothes. Το enough μπαίνει μετά από επίθετο ή επίρρημα. Έχει θετική σημασία. Dave is fast enough. > He can win the race. Julie works quickly enough. > She can finish on time. Tο enough μπαίνει πριν από ουσιαστικά. Tania s got enough time. She can visit her relatives. Όταν το enough μπαίνει μετά από ρήμα σε άρνηση, δείχνει ότι κάτι δε φτάνει και χρειάζεται κι άλλο. The water is not warm enough. I can t have a shower. Τα too και (not) enough ακολουθούνται κάποιες φορές από to + verb (full infinitive). Sophie s too young to enter the club. He hasn t got enough experience to get the job. Όταν χρειάζεται να διευκρινίσουμε το υποκείμενο του ρήματος, πριν το to + verb βάζουμε: for + πρόσωπο. This text is too difficult for me to understand. Ross lives close enough for us to go there on foot. Note: Tο very μπαίνει πριν από adjective ή adverb για έμφαση χωρίς αρνητικές συνέπειες. Sonia was very rude but she apologised. Ben walked very slowly but he wasn t late for school. 3. Fill in with too, very or enough. 4. Rewrite the sentences with too or too enough (for sb) and the words given. 1. He can t win the race. He s slow. 2. Amy s not strong enough to lift the box. 3. Melina works very carefully. 4. I can t make a cake. I don t have enough flour. 5. He can t reach the shelf. It s too high. 6. Jo isn t talented enough to win the prize. 7. This text is too difficult for me to understand. 8. Kate s too fat. She needs to go on a diet. 9. We don t have enough time. We ll be late. 10. I m very hungry but there s nothing to eat. 1. Ken can t eat all the food. (much) There is too much food for Ken to eat. 2. Sue can drive a car now. (old) Sue is old enough to drive a car now. 3. I don t want to read this book. (interesting) The book isn t interesting enough (for me) to read. 4. We can t go to the beach. (cold) It s too cold (for us) to go to the beach. 5. She won t go out tonight. (tired) She s too tired to go out tonight. Question Words who whose what which where when why how how much how many how long how often how + adj. how + adv. WH-QUESTIONS Who broke the vase? Whose is this ball? / Whose ball is this? What was her name? Which car is his? / Which (one) is his car? Where did they go? When will I see you again? Why didn t you come with us? HOW-QUESTIONS How was last night s party? How much time do we have? How many brothers have you got? How long have you been working here? How often do you go out? How big is your house? How fast can you drive? 5. Fill in with the correct question words. Where 1. - will you spend your holiday? - In Rome How long have you been waiting here? - Almost 30 minutes Whose is this jacket? - It s Larry s Which shoes do you like? - The brown pair How was the maths test? - Very difficult Why did you lie to me? - I didn t want to hurt you What are you doing tonight? - I don t know yet How often do they visit their grandparents? - Twice a month Who phoned you this morning? - Bill When will she finish the project? - In a couple of days. quick steps 4 5
6 ronouns & ossessive Adjectives Subject ronouns I you he she it we you they Object ronouns me you him her it us you them ossessive Adjectives my your his her its our your their Remember Subject ronouns - Λειτουργούν ως υποκείμενα. He is coming out. They have arrived. Object ronouns - Λειτουργούν ως αντικείμενα ή μπαίνουν μετά από προθέσεις. We can t see him. Don t worry about them. ossessive Adjectives - Ακολουθούνται πάντα από ουσιαστικά και δείχνουν σε ποιόν ανήκει κάτι. My house is here. That s our car. ossessive ronouns mine yours his hers -- ours yours theirs Reflexive ronouns myself yourself himself herself itself ourselves yourselves themselves ossessive ronouns - Αντικαθιστούν τα κτητικά επίθετα μαζί με τα ουσιαστικά. - Is this your bike? - Yes, it s mine. (my bike) Reflexive ronouns - Χρησιμοποιούνται όταν το υποκείμενο και το αντικείμενο του ρήματος ταυτίζονται. I hate myself for lying to you. (Not: I hate me for...) Θυμήσου τις παρακάτω εκφράσεις με reflexive pronouns: I enjoy myself (διασκεδάζω) I help myself to sth (σερβίρομαι, πάω και παίρνω κτ μόνος μου) I behave myself (συμπεριφέρομαι σωστά / καθώς πρέπει) I introduce myself to sb (συστήνομαι σε κπ) I cut myself (κόβομαι) I burn myself (καίγομαι) ossessive Case Βάζουμε s στα κύρια ονόματα και σε πρόσωπα ή ζώα για να δηλώσουμε σε ποιόν ανήκει κάτι. Tom s room, the boy s bike, my dog s toys Αν όμως έχουμε ουσιαστικό σε πληθυντικό με κατάληξη -s, (boys, dogs) και θέλουμε να μιλήσουμε για κάτι που τους ανήκει, βάζουμε ΜΟΝΟ την απόστροφο ΧΩΡΙΣ το s. the boys bikes, my dogs toys But: the children s books This is Mary and John s car. (Βάζουμε απόστροφο μόνο στο δεύτερο γιατί το αυτοκίνητο ανήκει και στους ΔΥΟ) These are Mary s and John s cars. (Βάζουμε απόστροφο και στα δύο γιατί ο καθένας έχει από ένα αυτοκίνητο) Όταν θέλουμε να πούμε ότι κάτι «ανήκει» σε ένα ΠΡΑΓΜΑ (ή γενικά κάτι άψυχο), χρησιμοποιούμε την πρόθεση of. the legs of the table, the window of my room. ΠΡΟΣΕΞΕ: μη μπερδεύεις το s της Γενικής Κτητικής με το s = is ή το s = has. Ray s room. Ray s ten years old. Ray s got a cat. 6. Choose and circle. 1. My books are on the shelves. a. childrens b. childrens c. children s 2. fathers work in the same office. a. Jim s and Ian b. Jim s and Ian s c. Jim and Ian s 3. The are green. a. leaves of the tree b. tree s leaves c. leaves tree 4. Kelly cut on the broken window. a. herself b. me c. hers 5. These are not your shoes. are smaller. a. Yours b. You c. Your 6. That book isn t. lease give it to. a. your / me b. yours / me c. yours / mine 7. My family and usually spend Christmas together. a. me b. I c. my 8. lease behave when the new teacher comes. a. themselves b. yours c. yourselves 9. The two dresses are the same. a. girls b. girl s c. girls s 10. We went to house for coffee. a. Kim s and Jo s b. Kim s and Jo c. Kim and Jo s 11. Could you help carry these bottles? a. myself b. me c. yourself 12. Which one is mother? a. Tom and Ben s b. Tom s and Ben s c. Tom s and Ben 6 quick steps 4
7 Remember 2 Countable Nouns Τα countable nouns σχηματίζουν πληθυντικό ως εξής: με κατάληξη -s: school - schools, house - houses με κατάληξη -es όταν λήγουν σε -s, -ss, -sh, -ch, -x, -o: bus - buses dress - dresses brush - brushes church - churches box - boxes potato - potatoes Βut: photo - photos kilo - kilos video - videos με κατάληξη -ies όταν λήγουν σε σύμφωνο + y: lady - ladies baby - babies But: φωνήεν + y: boy - boys με κατάληξη -ves όταν λήγουν σε -f, -fe: leaf - leaves But: roof - roofs με ανώμαλο τρόπο: man - men mouse - mice ox - oxen woman - women child - children goose - geese foot - feet species - species person - people 1. Write the plural forms of the nouns. 1. baby 2. wife 3. tooth 4. roof 5. tomato babies wives teeth roofs tomatoes 6. boss 7. fox 8. person 9. kilo 10. lorry bosses foxes people kilos lorries 11. knife 12. ship 13. city 14. life 15. slice knives ships cities lives slices 16. foot 17. child 18. mouse feet children mice Uncountable Nouns Τα uncountable nouns δεν μπορούν να απαριθμηθούν και δεν έχουν πληθυντικό αριθμό. Πρόκειται συνήθως για: τροφές / υγρά: cheese, bread, sugar, fruit, water,... υλικά: paper, plastic, cotton, metal, wool, wood,... αφηρημένες έννοιες: love, hate, health, freedom,... διάφορα άλλα: time, traffic, help, advice, luggage, furniture, money, hair, information, weather, work,... Για να αναφερθούμε στην ποσότητά τους χρησιμοποιούμε μονάδες μέτρησης ή άλλα ουσιαστικά + of: a kilo of flour a carton of milk 200 grams of sugar a jar of honey / jam a loaf of bread a litre of juice / water a packet of tea a bar of chocolate / soap a piece / slice of cheese a tube of toothpaste a can of coke / beer a bag of flour a piece of information / advice / furniture / baggage 2. Choose and 3. Choose and circle. fill in the list. can(s) - loaf/-ves bar(s) - slice(s) litre(s) - carton(s) gram(s) - jar(s) 1 litre of juice 2 jars of honey 3 loaves of bread 4 cans of coke 300 grams of bacon 1 bar of chocolate 2 cartons of milk 3 slices of cheese 1. Could you give me some? a. advices b. advice 2. You can t carry all that by yourself. a. luggage b. luggages 3. Their expensive. a. furniture is b. furniture are 4. I d like some more. a. informations b. information 5. The grey fit me better. a. trousers b. trouser 6. We had awful weather yesterday. a. - b. an quick steps 4 7
8 4. Some, Any, No, Every Με τις λέξεις some, any, no και every σχηματίζονται compound words (σύνθετες λέξεις). some any * no every someone (κάποιος) somebody (κάποιος) something (κάτι) somewhere (κάπου) anyone (κανείς) anybody (κανείς) anything (τίποτα) anywhere (πουθενά) no-one (κανείς) nobody (κανείς) nothing (τίποτα) nowhere (πουθενά) Fill in with the compounds of some, any, every or no. everyone (όλοι) everybody (όλοι) everything (όλα) everywhere (παντού) * any: σε ερωτήσεις και αρνητικές προτάσεις There isn t anyone here. But: There is no-one here. 1. Did anyone/anybody call me this morning? 6. We ve got nothing to do. Let s go out. 2. I m sure my glasses are somewhere here. 7. There s something I want to talk to you 3. I asked where he was from, but no-one / nobody knew. about. 4. She took everything in the house and left. 8. Are you going anywhere on holiday this year? 5. I ve looked everywhere for my keys but I can t find 9. Is there anything I can do to help? them. 10. Can I stay here? I have nowhere to go. Have Got vs Have Παρατήρησε τις διαφορές στον σχηματισμό των ρημάτων have got και have: I have / ve got you have / ve got he has / s got she has / s got it has / s got we have / ve got you have / ve got they have / ve got Have I got? Have you got? Has he got? Has she got? Has it got? Have we got? Have you got? Have they got? I haven t got you haven t got he hasn t got she hasn t got it hasn t got we haven t got you haven t got they haven t got 8 quick steps 4 AFFIRMATIVE I have you have he has she has it has we have you have they have INTERROGATIVE NEGATIVE Do I have? Do you have? Does he have? Does she have? Does it have? Do we have? Do you have? Do they have? I don t have you don t have he doesn t have she doesn t have it doesn t have we don t have you don t have they don t have Short Answers - Have you got a car? - Yes, I have. / - No, I haven t. - Has she got a pet? - Yes, she has. / - No, she hasn t. 5. Choose and circle. 1. Our neighbour a big yard in front of his house. a. have got b. has 2. you dinner at 8.00 every day? a. Have got b. Do have 3. she a new apartment in the centre? a. Does has b. Has got 4. - Do they have a serious problem? - Yes, they. a. do b. have 5. I tea for breakfast. I prefer coffee. a. don t have b. haven t got - Do you have a car? - Yes, I do. / - No, I don t. - Does she have a pet? - Yes, she does. / - No, she doesn t. Note: Τα ρήματα have got και have εκτός από διαφορές στον σχηματισμό τους έχουν διαφορές και στο νόημα. have got = έχω They have got a big house. have = έχω / τρώω / πίνω / κάνω They have a big house. / He has lunch at 2:00. I have some coffee in the morning. / He has a shower every night. 6. He any free time at the weekend. a. hasn t b. doesn t have 7. My sister a fruit salad for dinner in the evening. a. has b. has got 8. - Has Julia got a good job? - No, she. a. hasn t b. doesn t 9. a good excuse for being late? a. Have you b. Do you have 10. Rita many friends at school. a. hasn t b. doesn t have
9 a lot of / lots of / plenty of - much - many Το a lot of, lots of και plenty of + μετρήσιμα ουσιαστικά / μη μετρήσιμα ουσιαστικά που είναι στον πληθυντικό χρησιμοποιούνται κυρίως σε καταφατικές προτάσεις. I have a lot of / lots of / plenty of things to do. Ben s got a lot of / lots of / plenty of money. Σε σύντομες απαντήσεις, ΔΕΝ βάζουμε το of. - Are there any sandwiches left? - Yes, a lot / lots / plenty. Note: Το very χαρακτηρίζει επίθετο ή επίρρημα και δεν μπαίνει ποτέ πριν από ουσιαστικό. She s very sweet. / He can work very fast. - Is she angry? - Yes, very. / - No, not very.! Thanks a lot! But: Thank you very much! Tο much + μη μετρήσιμα ουσιαστικά xρησιμοποιείται κυρίως σε ερωτηματικές και αρνητικές προτάσεις. - Have you got much money? - No, not much. We haven t got much homework. There isn t much juice. Με το How much ρωτάμε για μη μετρήσιμα ουσιαστικά. How much water do you drink? How much milk is there in the bottle? Tο many + μετρήσιμα ουσιαστικά που είναι στον πληθυντικό xρησιμοποιείται κυρίως σε ερωτηματικές και αρνητικές προτάσεις. - Were there many people? - No, not many. There aren t many facilities in my village. Με το How many ρωτάμε για μετρήσιμα ουσιαστικά που είναι στον πληθυντικό. - How many chairs will we need? - Two. - How many people came to the party? - Ten. 6. Fill in with a lot (of), lots of, much or many. much 1. Let s go! We don t have time. 2. There are a lot of / lots of tourist attractions in London. 3. There aren t many fish in the aquarium Here s your coffee, sir! - Thanks a lot. 5. Sam hasn t got much experience. He can t do the job. 6. I saw a lot of / lots of sights while I was in New York. 7. There aren t many pandas left in China. 8. There isn t much tea in the pot. 7. Fill in with plenty, very, not much or not many Were there many people at the party? - Yes, plenty Is there any wine in the bottle? - No, not much Has Helen got many friends? - No, not many Is Ned a rich businessman? - Yes, very Have you got much work today? - Yes, plenty Is she still angry with me? - Yes, very. 8. Fill in with How much or How many. How many 1. books are there on the shelf? 2. How much butter do we need for the cake? 3. How many children have you got? 4. How many tricks does your dog know? 5. How much money is there in your wallet? 6. How much sugar do you take in your tea? 9. Choose and circle. 1. Were there tourists at the resort? a. much b. many c. plenty 2. I couldn t find information. a. very b. a lot of c. much 3. There was of food at the party. a. much b. plenty c. lot 4. Hamburgers aren t healthy. a. very b. a lot of c. much 5. I don t earn money. a. plenty b. many c. much 6. - Were there many people at the concert? - Yes,. a. lots b. plenty of c. lots of 7. How students are there in your class? a. much b. many c. a lot of 8. I m sorry about what happened. a. very b. much c. a lot 9. There s sunshine in Greece. a. plenty of b. a lot c. much 10. visitors attended the local festival. a. A lots of b. Lot of c. Lots of quick steps 4 9
10 repositions of Time at in on at two o clock at noon / midday / night at breakfast / lunch / dinner at the moment / the weekend! at Christmas / Easter in the thirteenth century in 1984, in (the) summer in the morning / the evening in May, in October in five hours / twenty minutes on Wednesday on Friday morning on 3 rd February / New Year s Eve on a hot / cold day on my birthday 10. Fill in with on, in or at. in 1. Chris usually goes surfing the summer. 2. Mum cooks turkey at Christmas. 3. Jean is taking a trip to eru in September. 4. Uncle Bob s arriving on Monday morning. 5. He works on his project at weekends. 6. They got married in We have our lunch break at noon. 8. Isn t he busy at the moment? 9. Our wedding anniversary is on 11 th of June. 10. Van Gogh was born in the nineteenth century. 11. They first met on a warm summer s day. 12. We re having a party on New Year s Eve. repositions of lace & Movement in (για εσωτερικό κλειστών χώρων / τοποθεσίες) in the garden / house in bed, in class in France, in the UK / USA in London on (για μεταφορικά μέσα / επιφάνειες) on the bus / train / plane on the beach / coast on this floor / the farm on page ten 11. Choose and circle. 1. Dad s on / in the vegetable garden planting tomatoes Isn t Cindy home yet? - No, she s still to / at work. 3. Helen went to / at school on foot this morning. 4. They were waiting for two hours at / to the station for the bus to arrive. 5. We should reach our destination at / in 30 minutes. 6. Jack and Jill are coming at / to our house for a game of monopoly this evening. at (για συγκεκριμένα σημεία, κτίρια, περιβάλλοντα) at the bus stop, at the corner at the station / cinema / theatre at home, at school, at work at the party to (για κίνηση / κατεύθυνση) I m going... to France, to the UK, to the cinema, to... to bed, to work, to school to the beach, to the party 7. Samantha was lying at / on the beach in the hot sun. 8. Edgar s in / at his room studying for his history test. 12. Choose and circle. 1. Eva s not in the. She s outside. a. work b. bus c. house 2. My pen fell the floor. a. in b. at c. on 3. Sue is spending her holiday Rhodes. a. in b. at c. to 4. My father is at at the moment. a. house b. work c. class 5. I saw her the corner of the street. a. at b. to c. in 6. She walks work every morning. a. at b. in c. to 7. Amy s bed with a terrible cold. a. in b. on c. to 8. There are many animals our farm. a. at b. in c. on 9. My son often goes the local youth club. a. at b. to c. on 10. The Waltons live the 3 rd floor. a. on b. at c. in 11. Mrs Davis gets angry when her students talk class. a. on b. to c. in 12. I ll meet you the cinema in half an hour. a. to b. at c. on 10 quick steps 4
11 Lesson 1 Welcome back! 1. Listen, repeat and learn. (track 1) (track 1) 1. multicultural πολυπολιτισμικός 2. diversity ποικιλία, ποικιλομορφία 3. million εκατομμύριο 4. culture πολιτισμός, κουλτούρα 5. densely πυκνά 6. population πληθυσμός 7. co-exist συνυπάρχω 8. resident κάτοικος 9. mother tongue μητρική γλώσσα 10. international διεθνής 11. street vendor πλανόδιος μικροπωλητής 12. local τοπικός 13. variety ποικιλία HRASES fill (sb) in ενημερώνω (κπ) the Big Apple Νέα Υόρκη (παρατσούκλι) densely populated πυκνοκατοικημένος 2. Choose and fill in. 3. Choose and circle. a. variety average inexpensive resident apartment culture 1. We own a luxurious apartment in the town centre. 2. Mark spends a(n) average of 150 per week. 3. This T-shirt is available in a variety of colours. 4. Lara was a(n) resident of a small town in Wales. 5. What do you know about the culture of Japan. 6. It's possible to find inexpensive restaurants in NY. b. crime rate diversity originally increased little-known million huge variety τεράστια ποικιλία do just that κάνω ακριβώς αυτό love at first sight κεραυνοβόλος έρωτας 14. foreign ξένος 15. little-known ελάχιστα γνωστός 16. originally αρχικά 17. Native Indian Ιθαγενής της Αμερικής, Ινδιάνος 18. crime rate εγκληματικότητα 19. average μέσος / μέσος όρος 20. apartment διαμέρισμα 21. increase αυξάνω,-ομαι 22. inexpensive οικονομικός, φθηνός 23. immigrant μετανάστης 24. besides εκτός από DERIVATIVES NOUNS diversity ποικιλία culture πολιτισμός variety ποικιλία resident κάτοικος residence κατοικία ADJECTIVES diverse ποικίλος cultural πολιτιστικός various ποικίλος residential κατοικημένος 1. Beijing is one of the most populated cities in the world. a. originally b. densely c. average 2. Auntie Meg on the local news. a. did just that b. filled us in c. co-existed 3. Different nationalities in multicultural societies. a. co-exist b. do just that c. fill us in 4. I bought a lovely souvenir from a this morning. a. culture b. population c. street vendor 5. He used to own a small local store before becoming a(n) businessman. a. residential b. international c. foreign 6. - You should do your homework. - I ll, mum. a. do just that b. co-exist c. fill you in 1. I discovered some little-known facts about the Native Indians. 2. There is a high crime rate in many big cities. 3. Greece has a population of over 10 million. 4. The number of employees in this company has increased. 5. There is a great diversity of reptiles in the wild. 6. This building originally belonged to my great grandparents. 4. Underline the correct derivative. 1. He s been a resident / residence in this house for years. 2. You ll find a various / variety of animals in this zoo. 3. This club offers diversity / diverse activities to all. 4. Each country has its own unique cultural / culture traditions. 5. We live in a residence / residential area near the city. quick steps 4 11
12 5a. Listen and read. (track 2) (track 2) Hi everyone! I m Kate and these are my twin brothers, Sam and Rob. We re going to have a great time together this year, learning English and plenty of other things! My family and I live in New York. It s a wonderful multicultural city with a lot of diversity. Hey guys, what s up? I m Sam, Kate s brother. Let me fill you in about the Big Apple. Do you know that more than 8 million people live here? It s the largest and the most densely populated city in the US, and the population is growing all the time! More than 800 languages are spoken in New York City (NYC), so you can imagine how many different cultures co-exist here. Almost half of the residents speak a mother tongue that is not English in their homes! So of course, we have restaurants from all over the world. Oh, and you can also get really cheap and tasty food from one of our 4,000 international street vendors. They re an important part of our local culture. 5b. Choose the best answer to complete the sentences. 1. Sam is... a. Kate s cousin. b. Rob s brother. c. Betty s brother. 3. Sam tells us that NYC... a. is the world s largest city. b. has 800 residents. c. has a population that s increasing. 5. Rob says that... a. many tourists visit NYC. b. all tourists love NYC. c. no New Yorkers are immigrants. 2. Kate says that New York has... a. a lot of variety. b. too much crime. c. tasty restaurants. 12 quick steps 4 4. Street vendors... a. can't speak English. b. work at restaurants. c. sell inexpensive food. 6. According to Kate, NYC... a. used to be very expensive. b. has the lowest crime rate in the world. c. is quite safe these days.
13 Hello there! This is Rob speaking. New York has a lot more than just great food. When I walk down the streets, I love the huge variety of stores. Sometimes I feel like I m in a foreign country because everyone around me is speaking another language! You have to visit it to believe it and last year, over 47 million people did just that. With most tourists, it s love at first sight! Now, let me tell you some little-known things about New York. - Was New York an expensive city in the past? Definitely not! The Dutch originally bought New York City from the Native Indians for $24! - Do you think New York is dangerous? If you do, you re wrong! It s now the city with the lowest crime rate in the US. - Is New York an expensive city now? Absolutely! The average price of an apartment in Manhattan is 1.6 million dollars! 5c. Who said what? Tick the correct box. Kate Rob Sam 1. There are so many different shops! 2. Learning together will be fun. 3. Many visitors love NYC. 4. About half the population speak another language besides English. 5. I live in NYC with my family. 6. It's not expensive to buy food on the streets. 6. Ask and answer. 1. What do you like about your town / village? 2. Do many tourists visit your town / village? What do they like about it? 3. Do you know any interesting / strange facts about your town / village? You can ask students to find out some little-known facts about their town / village. quick steps 4 13
14 Grammar Theory resent Simple I walk / Do I walk? / I don t walk Use Για συνήθειες, μόνιμες καταστάσεις ή γενικές αλήθειες. They usually watch TV in the evening. My father works in a bank. The Earth goes round the Sun. Με μελλοντική σημασία, για δρομολόγια μεταφορικών μέσων, ωρολόγια προγράμματα, κτλ. The flight from Madrid arrives in 2 hours. Schools finish in June. Για ζωντανές αφηγήσεις και οδηγίες. She opens the door and starts screaming. You take the No. 5 bus and get off at the next stop. Key Words / hrases always, usually, often, sometimes, rarely, never once a week, every day, on Mondays, in the morning, at weekends, in (the) summer... resent Continuous I m walking / Am I walking? / I m not walking Use Για πράξεις που γίνονται τη στιγμή που μιλάμε. Dad is reading the newspaper at the moment. Why aren t you working? Are you taking a break? Για προσωρινές ή εξελισσόμενες καταστάσεις. The Smiths are painting their house this week. More and more teenagers are using the Internet. Για προγραμματισμένες πράξεις στο κοντινό μέλλον. Tom is going to London next week. Jane is meeting her friends tomorrow. Για να δείξουμε ενόχληση με τα always, constantly. You are always telling people what to do. She is constantly talking about herself. Key Words / hrases (right) now, at the moment, this week / month / year, these days, today, tonight... Non-Continuous Verbs Τα Non-Continuous / Stative Verbs, δε σχηματίζουν χρόνους διαρκείας (continuous) γιατί αναφέρονται σε μία κατάσταση (state) και όχι σε συγκεκριμένη ενέργεια. Mε αυτά τα ρήματα χρησιμοποιούμε απλούς χρόνους (resent Simple, ast Simple, etc.). Ρήματα προτίμησης like = μου αρέσει dislike = δε μου αρέσει love = αγαπώ want = θέλω hate = μισώ prefer = προτιμώ wish = εύχομαι Ρήματα εμφάνισης appear = φαίνομαι seem = φαίνομαι look = φαίνομαι Ρήματα αντίληψης think = νομίζω believe = πιστεύω know = ξέρω remember = θυμάμαι forget = ξεχνώ understand = καταλαβαίνω realise = συνειδητοποιώ Ρήματα κτήσης have = έχω own = κατέχω belong to = ανήκω σε Νote: Κάποια από αυτά τα ρήματα σχηματίζουν χρόνους διαρκείας αλλά η σημασία τους αλλάζει. think I think (that) it s a difficult problem. (νομίζω) But: I m thinking of / about my friend. (σκέφτομαι) look She looks nice in that dress. (φαίνομαι) But: What are you looking at? (κοιτάζω) weigh The apples weigh two kilos. (έχω βάρος) But: The grocer is weighing the apples. (ζυγίζω) have We have a house in the countryside. (έχω) But: I m having breakfast at the moment. (τρώω) He s having a glass of milk now. (πίνω) Kate s having a shower right now. (κάνω) 14 quick steps 4 Ρήματα αίσθησης see = βλέπω / καταλαβαίνω hear = ακούω smell = έχω μυρωδιά taste = έχω γεύση sound = ακούγομαι feel = έχω αίσθηση Άλλα ρήματα need = χρειάζομαι cost = κοστίζω weigh = έχω βάρος fit = ταιριάζω σε μέγεθος be = είμαι I prefer to stay in tonight. (Not: I m preferring...) I don t remember seeing him before. (Not: I m not remembering...) Do you want to eat something? (Not: Are you wanting...) This wine tastes great. (Not: This wine is tasting...) appear Tom appears to be clever. (φαίνομαι) But: The actor is appearing on stage tonight. (εμφανίζομαι) taste / smell This meal tastes / smells wonderful. (έχω γεύση / έχω μυρωδιά) But: Dad s tasting / smelling the wine. (δοκιμάζω / μυρίζω) see I often see the sunrise from my window. (βλέπω) But: John is seeing the dentist tomorrow. (συναντώ) feel My hands feel soft. (έχω αίσθηση) But: I feel fine. / I m feeling fine. (νιώθω)
15 1. Use the time expressions given to write complete sentences in the resent Simple or Continuous. 1. Sylvie - work - at the office? Does Sylvie work at the office on Saturdays? Is Sylvie working at the office this Saturday? 2. They - go - camping in the woods? Are they going camping in the woods this weekend? Do they usually go camping in the woods? 3. I - shop - at the local store I always shop at the local store. I m shopping at the local store at the moment. 4. Andrew - not take - a shower Andrew isn t taking a shower right now. Andrew doesn t take a shower every day. (on Saturdays) (this Saturday) (this weekend) (usually) (always) (at the moment) (right now) (every day) 2. Fill in with the resent Simple or Continuous. 3. Fill in with the resent 1. Tammy has a dog and two cats. (have) Simple or Continuous. We are having is appearing lunch in 30 minutes. 1. Dad 2. The baby s skin feels (appear) on a TV show tonight. so soft! (feel) Jim is feeling / feels better today. 2. Celia is having He hasn t got a fever. (have) breakfast in bed right now. 3. The doctor is weighing the baby. (weigh) The baby weighs 3 kilos. 4. Mum is tasting the soup to see if it needs more salt. (taste) This soup tastes awful. 5. I don t think his name s John. (not think) I am not thinking of buying a new car. 6. Kate has two younger sisters. (have) aul is having lunch on the balcony. 7. Are you seeing Sandra tomorrow morning? (you / see) Do you see the mountains from your house? 8. Dinner smells delicious. (smell) Sue is smelling the roses in her garden. 9. Dennis isn t appearing in the new theatrical play. (not appear) Lola doesn t appear to be very friendly. 3. Margaret s very friendly. She makes (make) friends easily. 4. The next plane to Rio de Janeiro leaves (leave) in eight hours! 5. Mat is working (work) out of town this week. 6. Are you coming (you / come) to the cinema tonight? 7. Harry doesn t study (not study) much but he still gets good marks. 8. Our teacher is always shouting (always shout) at us. He s very strict. quick steps 4 15
16 4. Choose and circle. 5. Choose and circle. 1. Who this house to? a. does... belong b. is... belonging 2. Your job really interesting. a. sounds b. is sounding 3. The film at 6:00. a. is starting b. starts 4. That man over there at you. a. is looking b. looks 5. I to speak to Sam immediately. a. am needing b. need 6. Joe in class. It s very annoying! a. talks always b. is always talking 7. Look out of the window! Snow! a. is falling b. falls 8. I of selling my car. Would you like to buy it? a. am thinking b. think 9. It that there is something wrong with him. a. is seeming b. seems 10. Most people about computers nowadays. a. are knowing b. know 1. Why you at me? I haven t done anything! a. are... looking b. do... look 2. Joe on time for his lessons. a. is never coming b. never comes 3. I m so tired! I some rest. a. am needing b. need 4. How much these potatoes? a. do... weigh b. are... weighing 5. You sleepy. You should go to bed. a. are seeming b. seem 6. ete the doctor tomorrow. He s ill. a. is seeing b. sees 7. Judy our discussions. It s very annoying! a. constantly interrupts b. is constantly interrupting 8. The baby s skin so soft! a. feels b. is feeling 9. Everyone Dan. He s very popular! a. knows b. is knowing 10. Your plane at 5 o clock. Don t be late! a. is taking off b. takes off 5. Fill in with the resent Simple or Continuous. 6. Choose and circle. 1. lease don t play (not play) the music so loud. am studying I (study). 2. Do you need (you / need) an umbrella? It is raining (rain) outside. 3. Jerry believes (believe) that the apartment next door belongs (belongs) to a spy. 4. You look (look) worried. What are you thinking (you / think) about? 5. Small villages appear (appear) much safer because they have (have) a lower crime rate than large cities. 6. Keith prefers (prefer) to spend his evenings at home. He hates (hate) going out. 1. The new comedy is sounding / sounds really funny. 2. Grandad is seeing / sees the doctor again next week. 3. Greg isn t realising / doesn t realise how serious the problem is. 4. Martha is having / has a short sleep at the moment. 5. Aren t you wanting / Don t you want to come with us? 6. Does anyone here understand / is understanding French? 16 quick steps 4
17 Lesson 2 Back to school 1. Listen, repeat and learn. (track 3) (track 3) 1. timetable χρονοδιάγραμμα, πρόγραμμα 2. course σειρά μαθημάτων 3. nervous αγχωμένος 4. grown-up μεγάλος (ώριμος), ενήλικας 5. determined αποφασισμένος 6. essay έκθεση 7. hang out συχνάζω, κάνω παρέα 8. amazing εκπληκτικός 9. acting ηθοποιία 10. director σκηνοθέτης 11. immediately αμέσως NOUNS HRASES one thing s for sure ένα πράγμα είναι σίγουρο surf the Net σερφάρω στο ίντερνετ little did I know πού να φανταστώ It s the coolest thing ever! Είναι τέλειο! in the end τελικά have sth in common έχω κτ κοινό 12. in fact στην πραγματικότητα 13. act παίζω θέατρο 14. suspicious (καχ)ύποπτος 15. cast συμμετέχοντες ηθοποιοί 16. turn out αποδεικνύομαι, καταλήγω 17. embarrassing που προκαλεί αμηχανία 18. ambition φιλοδοξία 19. admit παραδέχομαι, ομολογώ 20. reaction αντίδραση 2. Choose and fill in. 3. Choose and circle. a. hang out ambition course suspicious turn out nervous DERIVATIVES ADJECTIVES determination αποφασιστικότητα determined αποφασισμένος ambition φιλοδοξία ambitious φιλόδοξος embarrassment αμηχανία embarrassed αμήχανος embarrassing που προκαλεί αμηχανία suspicion υποψία suspicious (καχ)ύποπτος amazement έκπληξη amazed έκπληκτος amazing εκπληκτικός 1. Little that the letter would change my life. a. was for sure b. was in fact c. did I know 1. The concert didn t turn out as successful as we had hoped. 2. My ambition is to become a famous director. 3. Emily is nervous about her job interview. 4. I prefer to hang out with my friends at weekends. 5. If you see anything suspicious, please call the police. 6. My mum s doing a(n) course in photography. b. cast determined immediately timetable essay amazing 1. This film has a(n) cast of famous actors. 2. Before writing a(n) essay, surf the Net for information on the subject. 3. My timetable includes a course in French history. 4. Ned was determined to pass all his exams. 5. The party last night was amazing! 6. When I discovered that my money was missing, I called the police immediately. 2. Did Tom that he had taken your things? a. act b. admit c. hang out 3. am was too to admit her mistake. a. embarrassed b. amazed c. determined 4. What was your to your brother s stories? a. director b. acting c. reaction 5. I can t believe Jan s only ten. She looks so! a. grown-up b. suspicious c. nervous 6. Rob is very clever., he s the best in the class. a. Immediately b. In fact c. In the end 4. Underline the correct derivative. 1. It is Fay's ambition / ambitious to become rich and powerful. 2. I have a suspicion / suspicious that he stole the jewels. 3. Ted is determination / determined to accomplish his goal. 4. We watched the most amazing / amazed film at the cinema last night. 5. I felt embarrassed / embarrassing when I was caught telling a lie. quick steps 4 17
18 5a. Listen and read. (track 4) (track 4) It s the first week at Kate s junior high school and everyone is getting used to their new timetables and courses. Kate used to think school was easy, but this year, she s a bit nervous. Everyone seems so grown up! But one thing's for sure, she knows she s a good writer so she s determined to win the school essay competition, where students have been asked to write essays with the title How I Spent my Summer. 18 quick steps 4 How I Spent my Summer by Kate Anderson Until this summer, my summers always used to be the same. My twin brothers would always go to a sports camp and I used to stay at home and hang out with my friends. But this year, all my friends went away, and one evening, as I was surfing the Net, I found out about an amazing summer camp called SOCAA. It's for people interested in filmmaking, acting and dance. I want to become a film director so I asked my parents if I could go. They immediately said yes. In fact, they agreed so quickly, I thought something was suspicious. Little did I know what was going to happen at the camp... Everything was fantastic at SOCAA. The most exciting part was during the last week, when we all made our own films. Other teens who were learning acting and dance acted in our films. You'll never believe who was in my cast: my brother Rob! It turned out that he was learning how to dance and act, but he didn't want other people to know so he told everyone he was going to a sports camp. He thought it was embarrassing. I thought it was the coolest thing ever! So, in the end, we made a film together. Rob's actually a really great dancer, and I have to admit, it was a lot of fun telling him what to do all the time! The best part is that now we can talk to each other about our dreams and ambitions. We never used to have so much in common!
19 5b. Read and tick. 5c. Answer the questions. True False 1. Kate didn t use to be a good student. 2. Kate s afraid she won t write a good essay. 3. Kate didn t use to go to a summer camp. 4. Kate s parents agreed to let her go to SOCAA. 5. Kate s dream is to become a movie star. 6. Kate was embarrassed by her brother. 7. Rob is actually very talented. 8. This experience has brought Kate and Rob closer. 1. What is Kate determined to do? 2. What did Kate's brothers use to do? 3. What would Kate usually do in the summer? 4. When did she find out about SOCAA? 5. What surprised Kate about her parents reaction? 6. What happened that surprised Kate at SOCAA? 7. Why hadn t Rob told anyone about attending SOCAA? 8. What did Kate enjoy doing while she was making the film? 6. Read these sentences from the text and tick state (S) or habit (H). 1. Kate used to think school was easy. 2. My summers always used to be the same. 3. My twin brothers would always go to a sports camp. 4. I used to hang out with my friends. 5. We never used to have so much in common! S H 7. Let's write. Write a short paragraph (30-50 words) about something unexpected that happened to you this summer. Before you write: A. Tick the points that you think are true about this essay. - It should be humorous if possible. - It should be full of details. - It should have an interesting introductory sentence and a strong ending. - Everything you write must be completely true. B. Remember: Which tenses / structures should you use for the following? Choose an answer from the box. Some answers can be used more than once. To describe the background / scenery of a narrative? ast Continuous actions that happened one after the other? ast Simple past habits? ast Simple, would, used to actions that were happening at the same time? ast Continuous things (about yourself or your life) that are generally true? resent Simple ast Simple would ast Continuous used to resent Simple quick steps 4 19
20 Grammar Theory ast Simple I walked / Did I walk? / I didn t walk Use Για πράξεις που έγιναν και τελείωσαν σε συγκεκριμένη στιγμή στο παρελθόν. I called Mary at 9 o clock last night. Για πράξεις που έγιναν διαδοχικά (η μία μετά την άλλη) στο παρελθόν. I had breakfast and then I went to work. Για συνήθειες ή καταστάσεις στο παρελθόν. Dad played football when he was young. I worked in a café when I was at university. ast Continuous I was walking / Was I walking? / I wasn t walking Use Για πράξεις που ήταν σε εξέλιξη σε συγκεκριμένη στιγμή στο παρελθόν. At 7 o clock yesterday evening I was watching TV. Για πράξεις που γίνονταν ταυτόχρονα κάποια στιγμή στο παρελθόν. While / As I was studying, my brother was playing. Για να περιγράψουμε το σκηνικό μιας αφήγησης. It was a cold winter s night. It was snowing and we were sitting around the fireplace. Key Words / hrases yesterday, when, last night / week / month / year, (two days) ago, the other day, the last time Spelling Tips: work > worked, decide > decided, stop > stopped, carry > carried, go > went* Key Words / hrases as, while, all day yesterday, from... to..., at that moment Note: While / As I was sleeping, the earthquake started. (η πράξη σε ast Simple διέκοψε την πράξη σε ast Continuous) * Λίστα ανωμάλων ρημάτων στο τέλος του βιβλίου. Used to (+ infinitive) = συνήθιζα να AFFIRMATIVE I used to play you used to play he used to play... INTERROGATIVE Did I use to play? Did you use to play? Did he use to play?... NEGATIVE I didn t use to play you didn t use to play he didn t use to play... Short Answers - Did Joan use to get up early? - Yes, she did. / - No, she didn t. Use Το used to + infinitive χρησιμοποιείται για συνήθειες ή καταστάσεις στο παρελθόν που δεν ισχύουν πια. I used to walk to school when I was a student. (συνήθεια στο παρελθόν, τώρα πια έχω σταματήσει) He used to live in Athens when he was young. (κατάσταση στο παρελθόν, τώρα πια δε ζει στην Αθήνα) Remember: Για συνήθειες ή καταστάσεις στο παρελθόν που δεν ισχύουν πια, χρησιμοποιούμε και ast Simple. I walked to school when I was a student. He lived in Athens when he was young. Would (+ bare infinitive) = συνήθιζα να Use Μόνο για συνήθειες στο παρελθόν, όχι καταστάσεις. He would go cycling every day in the past. = He used to go cycling every day in the past. = He went cycling every day in the past. But NOT: He would live in Athens when he was young. 20 quick steps 4
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