ΣΗΜΕΙΩΣΕΙΣ ΟΠΤΟΗΛΕΚΤΡΟΝΙΚΗΣ

Μέγεθος: px
Εμφάνιση ξεκινά από τη σελίδα:

Download "ΣΗΜΕΙΩΣΕΙΣ ΟΠΤΟΗΛΕΚΤΡΟΝΙΚΗΣ"

Transcript

1 ΠΑΝΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΙΟ ΑΙΓΑΙΟΥ ΣΧΟΛΗ ΘΕΤΙΚΩΝ ΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΩΝ ΤΜΗΜΑ ΜΗΧΑΝΙΚΩΝ ΠΛΗΡΟΦΟΡΙΑΚΩΝ & ΕΠΙΚΟΙΝΩΝΙΑΚΩΝ ΣΥΣΤΗΜΑΤΩΝ ΣΗΜΕΙΩΣΕΙΣ ΟΠΤΟΗΛΕΚΤΡΟΝΙΚΗΣ ΝΙΚΟΣ ΚΟΝΟΦΑΟΣ ΕΠΙΚΟΥΡΟΣ ΚΑΘΗΓΗΤΗΣ ΣΥΝΕΡΓΑΣΙΑ-ΕΠΙΜΕΛΕΙΑ ΑΝΤΩΝΗΣ ΒΡΑΝΑΚΗΣ ΜΗΧΑΝΙΚΟΣ ΠΛΗΡΟΦΟΡΙΑΚΩΝ & ΕΠΙΚΟΙΝΩΝΙΑΚΩΝ ΣΥΣΤΗΜΑΤΩΝ ΣΑΜΟΣ

2 I !"# #$% &'( ) * " + $( -,-.(/ " (# # - +/" " $#% ( Snell #,-% "%.' "% N P P-N % Zener % 1% % +,,% (Tunnel Diode) P-N TRANSISTORS Transistor 0( (Field Effect Transistor) (THERMISTOR) (VARISTOR) &

3 '*+, # % / (/ #$%"'/*/ &/ ## % /! #$%,( " QUASHI-FERMI µ µ 0µ P-N µ P-N µ P-N PIN LED LED LED LED LED LED (OLEDS) OLED LED LED LED LED LED LED LASER µ LASER

4 2.2.1 µ LASER LASER LASER µ µ µ µ µ LASER LASER LASER µ LASER LASER LASER FEMTO - LASER LASER LASER LASER LASER LASER III O

5 DSS ; H ( ) ,1 ',##*/: E'$" Bragg: (." ('+,#*/: #$* "#!"# #+ ( /+ #,'*#*/ *% /'!*/ '('-%!/-% /,/* " +8()"% - "% PHOTOREFRACTIVE LCD (LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY) % #,-% (PIXEL) TFT (THIN FILM TRANSISTOR) '/1#

6 /1# TFT TN IPS MVA PVA ASV PLASMA PLASMA PLASMA PLASMA "% $/ "% OLED

7 I !" / ' "% ( 1% ( #' "/ "'#,/"1 /9' "/!1 ( + *$%, % $"% "% "/ ''"' " "% # "/ +'". + " "% "'#,/"1% /9'%, / $' "% #, $ +# -*% "/!1 "% 1% -/ (1% #-! "/ /9', "/ #1 /9'. /9' '-, "'#,/"1, (, +# / (/( #$% "'+ #,/"+ (, -/. '' "/.!/1,#1. "# (!&(. #$ "% "'#,/"1% /9'% /#8 /(,# "% -/ "% #%!1% "% "'#,/"1% /9'%, / (/" " ( #1(% +#% 1 "% (!/$"%, "'1 "% %&'(%), "% /9'%. "'#,/"$ # / *&%+'),!*% / (!(/ / #)+ /$% "(%" /9'% /$% ''(. '$'" # /, # (. $ &!-%, ( $ (% / - 6 -

8 / # 9. #1% +#% ' " (!/$" f #% /9'% (/-/ # "!- ": c = ' f (1.1) $( c / "!+" ( *$%, "'1 3x10 8 m/s. 3/,## ( "'#,/"+ #% $(% #1(% +#% (!/$"% "% /9'% # -% % &!-% (, /! #1" +#% */!&/ (. #%!'1 (/ / #, / +,(# "!1 " #,'*/.#&/,. (# % )1% #/%:!. 1-1: # "% "'#,/"1% /9'%. ()/$#/ #1% +#%, $ # ( 8 *% )1%: &%-450/?#, (/$-480/?#, /-520/?#, /-580/?#, '-600/7?# $/-640/?#. #"!/ #$%,*,1% "% /9'%, ' "% #1% 0("/1% ( 1%. / $#*% $# / (/.(# (# & $ " -, " /$% "'/( #, $ 9 /, (:"'$"%.#"% 9!#"'$"%.#"%, *$/ /-,% "% # " /-,% */ + 9*/.!(/ $ -, "% */ $#*/ /$% ('+, #1 /9'%

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e), ;'/ (He).'.. (!" #+/ % "# -% #8%.,) *'1/% Geissler (!" #+/,, "+% +% $*% ) '(!/% - 8 -

10 (,+( (:"'1% - *%. ) '#1% /'#1% (flash) (!" #+/, '1:" *,&/ (/.1% /+% * #+. / #'".+/ '+ /$#/,!."/ % #,'% ",%, /', # #,-." ( #'&/ % (/-.1% ( 9''/. ",% (-% # /! /$#/ -!(/ *% )1%: (.+,##" " ( *$% 0 #-/"!+" ( *$% /' " ( *$%.' " ( *$% 0.' " (#*/ (#9'1 (#*/ 0$'* " ( *$% '1.' " ( *$% *"'$ /$#/ /$#/ Compton #1 -, " $ (-% % ",% " &" >.- "/!1 "% *#1% + "%, /& " +" "% (#1% + "% ( *$%. " ", #' ' "% #1% 0("/1% ( 1% #$! 4!") "!&46410) /'( " ( ( + *$% "'1 "% "'1% /9'%, $,/ (, % ( -! " #$ (/1.*% # $ # '/1 #$, #% ( 8 '+,/* $ #) /(* $ /$#/ ( (/( $)(. #"/ (1% "% $/% "8 /$#/ "%.' "% ( *$%, ( / ('.. (1 " " (/!1%"!1 $'*/ */!*#*/ (.-/ /! -/ (,#-/ #1% +#%,!*% * $ / / (/$ /. # 1 #-, / " &#1*/!4*.#$!4) %" 4$ ) ( "'+ *$% "/!1 "% 1% /9'%

11 /9' "/!1 ( + (!$# $ / 1', /#8.*"2.) # "% / (/!-%. %*"2.) /#8(# "/ /9' (, $!/"-% ",-% # "% -! $' #1" +#% "%!1% ( +. #!*8/ + #,'% ",%, *% % / $ # /!8$# "/ /9' / "/ /'( 1 "% $ # $: ) #$! %" 4$ ): / # ( /(# $/ /'+(# (./ "/ /9' ( -# -/ &#, $/ ($, # /1 $, & / /9'1. 9) #$! 4((2.//): / # ( /(# $/ /'+(# "/ /9' ( / #- $ -/ &# $ $ (1 $/ " /9' -! $ ",1 #1% '(+ *$%. / /-% $ # #1% / -,!*# #-% "% #1% $/%, "'1 +/' */ */&/!&/, /& # $" "% / /$ #-% "% #1% $/%, "'1 +/' */ /&/!&/ $ +/' ( '(+ #% "%!1% /9'%. '( "#/ $!-% ( #% ( / /-% 1."/ $ ('$#- $ - " /9'. # #1%, '' $# # $" "%!*8/ +#*/ # "/ (1 (%, % )1% + #-(% ",%: # #. #'-" */ #*/, $! #$/ "/!1 ( + '' "/!1 ( (-(.( ( (&(%, / '+ #-/" #-.% 1% 1% /'( "%!"#&/ ( &/. -!(# $/ /'+ (# "/ /9' ( -#(/ 7# *( (,, &# "'1 ( 9 / '+ (:"'-%.# %..#-% ",-% ( /-/ /* /1(/ ' (1 "/ ",. (/!1 # */ $*/ *#*/ / -(/ #)+ (% (/&% " '" ( #-(/ / ""1! # " + " ( ('+, / -! # ). #/1 '" ( -! -/ - #,

12 /', # "/!1 ( / )/&/% $ (.$, / ".# 1 " ( ('+. -!(# $/ /'+ (# "/ /9' ( -#(/ - 1 # ( &/ ( -!(/,. # -/* ",'"% 1 $)(. % ( % '#9/(# /% ( % (/1.%.# % / -% ( (/1.*% #-''), #+% */ */ "#(,+# /$ -% $ #1 #8 ( 9 " '+ (:"'1%.# %. '(!/ #&/ (,+(.!. -!,##$ # #1% #!" -%,##-% ( / % $'" "/!1 ( +. '(!/ ( "'( -!,##$ # #1% (!" -% (,##-% 9 / #1" +#% 698/ ((.$), 663/ ((.$), 585/ (/), 500/ ( /), 490/ ( /), 470/?# ((/$), 446/?# (&%) #-/% $'" "/!1 ( +. ($% / '$,% (,##$ # #1% (&/ */ '(!/&/!" #, " 9.#/$#" " */ # */ ( /.-(/ *$ + "# /%.,## # #1%, /. $ (/!1, / +("!/(!"# ( (% */ $#*/ ( -#/% ('+,,!" #+/ (!/$ " #'-" */ ('&/. -!(# $/ '(1 /9' / #- $ -,!*# /1 (,. $/ ( "+# / /" ( (/!+% #% ( '(+ *$%, $ $#*% ( 8 -/ #,' #-% - $ "/!1 ( # "+#/(!&#% ( ('+ */ +,/&/!&/ (, % #,'+ #$ #1" +#% (+. <*% (/!1 # #1%, - & # / /!" $ ( ('+. /(# $/ '(1 /9' / #- $ - #+%. "/ * " (1 " $/ ( "+# / '1% # ( '(+ *$% $ $#*% ( 8(/ #!" #1" +#%, ( #/8/ / /-%,##-%. /.!. "+ # # $" "% ( ( "'(,. 9'-# $ $ (/!-% # ( '(+ *$%. ( 8/, "'1. 1/ #'/-%,,##-% ( /!+/ #1" +#% ( /-# ",(#-/*%,/% # #1% ( ( "'(. +/' (&/ */,##&/ ',##$ #

13 $" "% ( ( "'(. <*% "/ * " */,##&/ #*/ #1%,,##$ # $" "% / +("!/(!"2 ( (% */ $#*/ ( ( ( +/,,' ($!" #+/ ( (+ " #'-" */ ('&/. 0'+ (!/,/ / # #1% 1 $" "%. 3 /#8/ # $/ " $/ ( "+# / $*% */,##&/ #*/ #1% 1 $" "% /',, '' (,##-% #/8/ #-/% & / #8(/ /%, ' $( $/#. - # "+/ $/ (' ( #'+# / (, 1 - ( 9 / #1 ". ".* */ #*/!+ &2$4)!4* Kirchhoff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

14 /9'%,) # $ -' # ( * #+ /$% /#-/( $ " */1 - #" ( / -% "% */1% /-,%

15 1.3.1.!%(%# &0 "/ '+" /$" " */ $ */ /.+/ " (/-!, - / (# -/,*#$ #-,.% ( / /'&% ", / #$ "/,1 */ *#&/ #,.&/, "!%(%# &0. "/ ",*# 8(# /,*/. #1% s /$% $)( "% -% /$% +'( $*% ($ "/" $ -/ ( +'(, #-/ # "/ / ( +'( r #! (radian) - rd, $*% /! $# $ 8(# /!& ",*/, $( "/ - +'(. 3-1:. /% r /. " /% R $) s /. " / S /* ", $*% /! % +# $,!"#,!%(%# &0 / $, "-!" #- "/ */1 / (!"#8 $ $'% % /% "% % ( '1,(/ $' "# (,##% "% 1% /% S 8 *% '$,%:. 3-2:.! (steradian) - sr / "#/ #-" "% "% %,*/% 8 *% ",*/ # "/ / $ -/ "% % #!1 "% /% "% " #,*/ "% /% "%. <*% " ",*/ - ",*/ / #-,.% $- #" $*% -/ /$% +'( "9'-" '$'"" "/ - ( #,*/ (27r)rd - -/ #% % "9'-" '$'"" "/ / "% #,*/ (47t)sr

16 1.3.2.!%& (4 $ "/ "'#,/"1 /9' ( -#(/ */-% ",-%, -/ #$ #-% "% /1 "/!1 "% 1%, "'1 /# 400/?# 700m. "1 % #% -)/ $ /.&/ # / // $' #1" +#% ( /.- " / "1. */1 '(!/.!. */ 401/1/ ( -# "/!1 ( (.+, / ',$ */1 $ # %!+% (401/1/) ( -# "/!1 ( /(. #1% +#% # ( 8 " #,'+" (." / / / */ 555/?#. */1 /-, ( -# # ",1 " #/ (!$/( / (+.(/", /, "/." " "% $ "% /#8.!%& (4 (luminous flux) F. $/ 10% "%!+% ( /9' # /1 '# * #+, / */1. / #-" "% "% */1% 1% / #$ (lumen) -lm, ( 8!- " # #.1 ",1 $*% (1 (8 $./-% -*/.#&/. 3/ lm / " */1 1 (1 " 1 /9'-/9'+#/"!+%) ( -# $ 1/60cm 2 /% '($!( ( ".# 1)"% ( -! #,*/ 1 sr ! " */1 1 / /.1 (/1.*% % $'% % (.+/ % *% % "/ ",1 ( "/ -#,,($. 1/!1 # / (# -/ /''* #-,.%. - / ".!46410 (luminous intensity) 1 -/ " #% ",1%. *9' #% */1% ",1% / " */1 1 ( -# $ "/ ",1 / 9''/!& / #/ %,*/%. / / F " */1 1 ( -# $ # ",1, $ " *9',*/ /:

17 % #/ "% *9'% -!. " %# (candle) - cd / " */1 1 1lvn, ( -# $ # ",1 #-,*/ 1sr. 0- / "#& (# $.&% ",*/ / -/ #-,.%, " *9' " */1 1 -!(/ % % %. ",1 ( -# *% #$# % $'% % (.+/ % /#8. 1 ",*/ # "/ / " / #% % $ -/ "% / 4, / /-% $ " (/'1 */1 1 ( -# $ # $" ",1 -/ "% /: 1.3.4!$2) /8"&/% -/ /''* *#$ #-,.%,. (# / (, $ " */1!+% '1, /* # / "/ *8. $ */1 / # /, ) $ "/ (/$" "% */1% 1% ( - /* "%.!$2) (illumination) #% /% S, / " */1 1 F ( -!. " #/ "% /%. / "'1:

18 / * #+ / Lux 8 *%, " */1 1 1lm ( *8 & # / 1m 2. 1" " #% -! ) $ $ / # ",1 9 # " /, $ '' *8 $ " (,#-/" ",1. "!- " -/ "% ",1% *8$#/"% /% S ( -! $ " r $ "/ ",1, #+# / (& (#.*&/% $ "." "/ /!"#8,*/. # "/ +.(/ " "% /9'% $*% /! / / ",*/ ($ "/ / " / S $ "/ ",1, " */1 1 F ( / $ (1 "/ / / # " 91. "%. 3-3: S -. (3.4):. F = I (3.5) */1 1 / /&% $ "/ / ( /." " +.(/ " */ /&/ ( -# " ",1 9 "/ $ " # "/ / S $*% /!1#. (1 " / / Scos., /& ",*/ ($ "/ / $ "/ ",1 /: (/&% " */1 1 ( / $ "/ / Scos., / # / " "%!. (3.6) "!. (3.5): #-/*% * #$% "% /% S / $ "!. (3.4) ( # " 91. "%!. (3.7),/ ': $ "/ / $:, & '!'! & $& #!, %,! r

19 $ " (1 /,/* 1 " *# /. 1.4 %$%!("!" " *#1 1 ),8$# /$#/ * / *% / ' #$/ $ *#. ($. " (1 #% ) '8 "/ +'" #"/ */ /#-/*/ "% %*,8($$/) 7#74/) ( *$%, "% &#"1/) (reflection) "% 7#,1) (refraction) (.,,/$% $ *% / (.+,## #% - / /(#!1 " */ //&/ "% ('%,*#%. /&,,/$% $ *% /' $ "/ / */ ('&/ *#*/ 1.' /&/% "/ 1 / /$% /,+ ('+, #% / " (/$" / "1 (# ( (' % /-% (%, #- ( '"% ( /8"+# / "% )"% #,-.(% ( #1(% +#% "% 1% /9'% 1 #,'+"%. "/, "% /' "%. /)(# 99*% % #,-% ( +/ " #'-" "% 1% (#% */ -*/ &/ $*/, /& ".' ". '9(# % #,-% ( +/ " #'-" */ &/ 1*/ */ #*/ */ &/ &/

20 1.4.1.!%& "!0& - *,8($$/ 7#74/!4*.!2) -// "%.!%&) "!0&) (!" # ",*#1 1 / (/#-/" # "/ (.+,##" " ( *$%. *% -# $ # */1 ",1 # " #1 &/ (#*/ (!. 4-1) / # -/ "/ ",1, /,*#$% $. 4-1:

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

22 &% '$/ (.+,## #!+" 3x10 8 m/s /$. / ' / #1% +#% "% /9'% -/ $ #- f " (!/$" "%, $ "!+" ( *$% c (,#-/ #- / $ ",/* 1!. (1.1).!+" ( *$% - $ ('$ ('$ //% " #, " "% #1 /$. '$,% "%!+"% ( *$% /$ c o, % "/!+" ( *$% ' -/ ('$ c, /#8 ($'(%) 7%0"!/) 7#,1/) (index of refraction) ( ('+ n: "%.' "% / #-,.% / #,'+% "% #/%.&% / c o >c. / / 4-1, "%.' "%, / *% #1(% +#% 589/?# #% % $!1 # ('.! 4-1: " # $ # /' " ( *$% &#"1/ (Reflection) / /$#/ # */1 / ##'!, $/ (// "!* 1 / + &/ &/ #- */, '' % #- ' $( -!. "/ /' " ( *$% $ % /% */ *#*/ ',,/$% $ (,// $ / /.&/.'#$. /' " ( ' $ # ) ' / /#8 "&4&" 1 "!4!(" (!. 4-3) /& " /' " ( -! $ '''-% ($!/% 1 (+( % /' % $ % #-% /% */ #" "1 #*/ /&/ /*#'&/ */ *#*/, /#8 &-$1/ &#"1/

23 !. 4-3: () //1 /' ", (9) /&#'" /' " 1 - ". ' "'7/ (diffuse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

24 %74 "#!4!(4 (mirror) / # ) ', # #''1 '#$", " /, " -! #,'" /' 1 /$". 1 / - / / #" (, -%!1 %) $ "/ 1 /9'. /#/ ($ /!1 # "/."#/1 #% 8*1%,' ($ $' -!(# #!1 # # % $/% (!"#8/ $. / $#*% /, / '(,$ ## &/ "#/&/,/*/ 1" "%. (1 ( / ( 8 % ( $'(%,.&% / #1# #% "%,('/"% /% %.(#"-% %, " # '( "% %./ # #,'" (/$" # /$% #''( # #,'" /' 1 /$" ( 9.# )!/* "%. 3/!"#8 *' #% "#1% ",1% 1 /$% + /#-/( (+/% (% /$#(% "% /' "%, $*% (% (& # "/ ",+#/",. "/. / #'1 (#!"# #$ &'( #% "#1% ",1% $ -/.*+#! (# (% '+% #+% "% "%,*#%. ( ""! & #& #! %&" $ ")#!!,! ) & * "&#.+% # "&#.!1#.*+# -/ */$ "# ( 9 # $ -/ 0 $ " ' ($. *' ( "#(!"# #-/ $. - / / "% -/ "#, (,*# # /. *% " #1 + (.&/. 0.+# / /!" #+# /% */ */,/*8(# "/ 1 ('! / #+# +' / "/,:(#. *+# '$/ # */1 / ( )/ $ "#. ( $( "#.,*/ $ * "% / 90 +#*/ # + /$# "% /' "% ",*/ /' "%. / "% 90, "'1 " /. /' ''8/% : % -.

25 +.(/ " 180. (! / "# #,*/ $ * "% /' #,*/.' "% '=. % */ + /'*#-/*/ /&/ (//&/ "# ' ( / *' ( "#(. $ ",*# (!1#%. /.=.'=', ' $( + $.=.' #-/*% ='=9. $#/ # / ", " (/-! "% /'( "%: ) /#8 ($!"2%0714 (real image) / (!"#8 $,#-% */-% /%. 3/,#$ *' #/ 9'". '-/ -#. 9) /#8.&!!"2 %0714 (virtual image) / (!"#8 $ */-% /% #",#-% "'1 $ % %,#&/ /&/. 3/ / $ *' / # / 9'". ' -/ -#. & #+# / +# $ *' /$% "#+ /#-/(, (!"#8 $ -/, / / $ ".- " ( / /* "/. $ "# %, * $#*% ' ($. $ 1 ( 9 $ / " # "/ $ " ( /#-/(. *' /$% + /#-/(!"#8 "# % "# # +' /!. '(.&/% (% /$#(% "% /' "% $*% /# ",(#-/*%.!. 4-6 $ *' ( /#-/( / - )- % '(-% (. (1 " / 1 ' -/ '+ 9 $!" $ "% 1% $/ "% !"# #$% &'( / " /' 1 / /$% $( / #+'" #' / #-% #% 1% /%, $ / $. / " /' 1 / /$% + $( / '" 1 (1,. -!($ /! "4014 (concave) 1 "*(!2 (convex).("2 "#!4!(4.!. 4-7 / / R " / #('$"% /$% + $(, -/ #('$"% "% %,$ -/ ( + + #1#% ( /#8 "4(*. ( $(, $ " (. /#8 "8(4) #34&) ( $(, /&. ''" (. ( / $ -/. 4-7: '.. 4-6: &$ #. (// "/ 1 /, /#8 7%*!%(%84&!) #34&). $- "% $ "% /#8 %!0 (focal point) ( $( / "# $( (.+// /'&#/% $'*/ */ */&/ /&/ ( +/ ''"' / + )/, $*% /! $ " =f /#8 %!" 2!/ (focal length) ( $( /:

26 "'1!! #. <' ' /#8/ *"10&4&!.&% # ''"'" - $" /&/ ( / ''"'" / + )/, (,'/ "/ # "/ /' 1 "% $ (!. 4-8). <#, $' (- ) m. 4-8: " $ () $ (), %. /$8/ 4"10&4&!.&% /% $% ''"'"% */1% - $"% /'&$/%. - / /+/ $ "/ ( $( (!. 4-89).!"# #$% &'( /$%,##+ /#-/( $ -/ $, '(. (% /$#(% "% /' "%. / /-% $ # */1 /. # 1 1 /, $/ " 1 " - 1 "% / $. 4-9: %. -/ #('$"% "% /%.!. 4-9.*+# -/ ' $ ( ( /, -/ #('$"%, " (1, ", +% )/% f " 1 $ ". 4*% / ",/$",.+# -/,##$ */$ /#/. / + )/ -/ ( -/( #('$"%.! (#,*# "/ (1 ( &'( ( $, (+/% (% /$#(% "% /' "%. *' ( "#( #-/(# / 9 ( /* / + )/,.,*#+% '$,(%. /8"1 (# *' ( "#(, '(.&/% "/ +!" &/ /&/ ( /!*+/ $ ($. "# "%

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f = R/2?:% /#-/( = = s?:% &'( = '' = s' $ "/ #$" */,&/*/ '' + $:

28 /& $ "/ #$" */,&/*/ '' + $: (/( #$% */!.(4.3) (4.4) /: $ "/ '( (1!- " +' + " %30/!4*.("48 "!2!(4*, ( # " 91. "% (4.2),/: ). (4.6) /, ($ $,,# ( # +' /,/& "% / ) / " "# / $. ($$" 1 %"#( $%',*&/ (lateral magnification) ( + $( / '$,% ( +:(% ( &'( % / ( /#-/(.!. (4.4) 8 9&% / #$ "%,##1%#,-.(/ "%: # " 91. "% (4.6),/: ( ' # ''" - " "%,##1% #,-.(/ "% (# # - +/" " 7/,(8(#!. 4-9 %,:(# /'( (# # $ "/,1 /'( " "% (1% ( &'( /$%,##+ /#-/( (. $ ", $( > 2R (4.9) # $ ' $ 1% $ "% f. 9 " $,:# (& # % ",+#/% +,(% " (/.1" (4.9), #+# / (/: (# )1%: 1. *' (!"#8 / %!- " # /#/. 2. *' /, +!"#8 $ %,#-% /% ( /'&/ ( &'( $ / $ "/ ). (4.6), + /,/* #,-." f. 4. *' / ( /#-/( # 9 " "!. (4.7), + / >

29 % (.- (# & $ #/+# /#/ - ( / #+/ $, "'1 ()/(#. ($ "#/ 99*% $ $ "/ ). (4.6) 9. - / '&/, "'1 *' / '" 8 % #-,.$% ( /,/ #$, /& ''! ( / #9''/. '+ #,'% %, - ( / / *;, *'.!"#. "/ ( $( #--,.$% (. / "#$. / /. /#/ '" 8 %, "'1 % -/ #('$"%, $ *' #+/ $, "'1 '" 8 ($ % -/ #('$"%. </ (#9 =R $ $ "/ ). (4.6). / 9=R, "'1.- % /#-/( &'( (#(/, $ $ / #$ "%!. (4.7) +:% ( &'(. / # +:% ( /#-/(. 1 " */ */&/ /*/ # / / '1*%,.*+# /#/ ".- " ( &'( (, $ *'$ (.!"#. /! ".- " ( /#-/(. 3 + & (# # #-/(/ $*% /, ''. -!(# <9 (/&% >1. / &.*1 (# $ /#/ '" 8 % #' % "/, $ *'$ (. #+/ $.#,'&/. </ ".- " ( /#-/( (#- # "/ (=^ $ -*'$ (.!"#.. / ) #,' (= ). ) (# &!"# #$ &'(. 4-10: (. $/ /#/ 9 /# "/ "/ (1, $*% /! '(.+# ' "/ + /*/ ( )/+/ $ "# ( /#-/( " # / ''"'" / + )/ /& "% ''"% " - " / $ -/ #('$"% ( $(. "/ /' " + /% '/(/ (//&/ *% % */ /'*#-/*/ * $ $. *' '$/ (!"#8 /: 1..$ 2. / $ " ( / $ "/ ). (4.6) 4. / #,'+ ( /#-/(,, /&%, 9>

30 .&% /#/ '" 8 % "/ (1 ( $(, *' '' '" 8 ($ % "/ (1 #/. "/ (1 /#/ *' (#(/.$', # #$/" $ *' / / $ #,1/!4*.!2) "/,. 4.2.,:# /$#/ "% &#"1/) ( *$%, /&!. 4-4 / ",*# #% */1% - #"% (,!$#/" $ # ",1 0, /' $ "!* 1 / + #- */. / + #- / $ $ "/ 1 /9'.*1 (# $ " ",1 0 -# /9', $ $% $ /$#/ "% /' "% (+ -/ #-% "% /9'%, " ($!/ /$#/ "% 7#,1/) (+-/ '' #-% "% /9'%. </ # */1 - #" (// "!* 1 / + &/ &/ #- */, $*% # "/,. 4.1., ''8 "!+" (. ($ -! / (/-/ '') " +.(/ " 1% (

31 + #-.! "% ##' $& "" % % % ##, ' 7#,1/.! "+# ",*# (!. 4-4,.-/% '-/ " 7-,1-$%&/ - #" "% % ",*/ # "/. "!* 1 / "#- $ * "% /..,*/. /#8 &0 7#,1/). "/, # / 21*!4 7%0"!/ 7#,1/) n /$% /,+ #- (, #/!*#1 /9', *% '$, "%!+"% ( *$% 0 /$ % "/!+" ( *$% #- c (!. 4.1). 1 # /$% #- ( +/ /-#(/ "/ "'#,/"1 /9' # "/ (!/$", "#/ $ ".' " / *+&2!/! f!/) "!&46410) 7% $%!6#11%!. $ %!. (1.1) (4.1) #1% +#% "% /9'% '. 4-11:. $( ' / #1% +#% "%!$#/"% /9'%. + #-, ) $ ".' "% n "%!$#/"% /9'% $ "!- ":. /,$ ('$ -! $ ".' "%, #1" +#%, $*% + $ / #$ ( ".' "% $ "!. (4.1). ($ /, # $ $!" #+#/.' ('! '-/ / $ (-% % (/ % #+# (#'"& (# (% /$#(% "% /' "% "%,. 4.2., # (% /$#(% "%.' "% *% )1%: ).'&#/" - #" 9 ( 9 / " ( 0 " /'&#/", "'1. "!* 1 -/ "# $ * "% -! "/ ",1 0. 9) '$,% ( "#$/( "%,*/% $ * "% % "#/ "%,*/%.' "%. /.$% : " $

32 $#% ( Snell % (.- (# $ -!(# + #-.!. - /$ # %.' "% /! 2, (!*8/ # " / $*% /! ''"'% /% #/!*#1% /9'% ( -!/ $ "/ */1 ",1 (//+/ "!* 1 / #,*/ $ * "%, "!/1,#1 t 1 =0 " # 9 "# "% /%, /& " ''" "# ( #- (. "!/1,#1 t 2 =t " +" / -! "# ' "%!* 1% /% -!/% /+ "#: $( (1 / "!+" ( *$% #-.!. 4-13: $#% ( Snell. &" /. (/! "/ "% #-, -!/% /+ /!$/ "#: $( ( 2 / "!+" ( *$% + #-. "# 9 / #-* +#%, $*% "# ' ' 9 / '-/ '' $ ( &(. #-/*%,*/ ' '' /.,&/ ' /!. $,*/ ' (/( #$# "!. (4.11) -!(#: <# $,*/ '' # " 91. "%!. (4.12). /: #-'" " */!. (4.13) (4.14) #% ", "!- ":

33 $ "!. (4.1) -!(# $ ( 1 = c o /n 1 ( 2 = c o /n 2, $ "!. (4.15) ", " -' # ($ /#8 &2$4)!4* Snell % #1/ ( ''/+ /$#( #."#+ Willebrord Snell ( ) ( / +* &%.!. (4.16)!+, ".' " (1 (% (#*/ ( (/ "!* 1 / + #- */. '$, n 2 /n 1 /#8(# +%!"2 7%0"!/ 7#,1/) ( #- ( *% % #-. / /-% $ /$#/ / '1*% / $. /% '(.+/ "/ / " / - (/ "!* 1 / */ + #- */!$#/% $ + $ #-.,*/.' "%. / #$" "%,*/% $ * "% (.<) $ / *% #9/ $ #- (n 2 >n 1 ). / 99*% " */1 - #" -. "!* 1 / */ #- */ (=0), $ " #$/",*/.' "% ( # / '".+ "!. (4.16) / ".=0. (/&% "%! & " "$ ) % ""!" " $ %! ## $&. % (.- (# &, $ #/!*#1 - #" #9/ $ (/$ #- # ".' "% n 1 $ # ".' "% n2 (n1>n2). '(. "'1 "/ /." ( ",(#-/(,#%. <*% /! ",*/.' "%.. / #,'+" "%,*/% $ * "% $ /!+ /$#% ( Snell (!. (4.16)). / ",*/ $ * "% ()/, /! ()/ ",*/.' "%., (+/% / "!. (4.16) #-//%.>.,*/ $ * "%, * $, ",*/.' "% / " #, " "% #1 ( / 90 (',8 $ "!. (4.16):!. 4-14: '1 /' "

34 / ",*/ $ * "%,/ ', #,'+" "%, / /-% $ "/ ",+#/"!- " $ + / (! /$#/ "%.' "% (/&% " 1 - #" /' )''1(. /$#/ 1 - #", " #9 1 "% $ (/$ #- $, /' )''1(, /#8 41" &#"1/ 141" %!%(" &#"1/ (total internal reflection).,*/ $ * "% 1% - #"% ( #9/ $ (/$ #- $ "/ ",*/.' "% / 90 /#8 4(" &0 (critical angle). /$#/ "% '1% /' "% 9 #,1 # '1% /' "% (!" #+/ (+ "/ (1 &/, "&/,/*/ % *,-% #"!/-%. '+ /-( #,1 "% '1% /' "% " +,!/"!/',, / " # #% '1% */1% - #"% 1 #,'% % # 4!"') 0&%) (glass fiber). (-% / ( #-/% $ (:"'1% /%,('!1# '&/ ('/&/ /&/ (!. 4-15). / # */1 - #" -! ''"' / )/ "% /%, (// $ *$ "/ ('/1!* 1 / #,*/#,'+" "% 1% (/&%( '1 /' ". ($ (#9/! $'" "/ "% #- "/ /, - & /./ "/ -)!*% &'% "/. 4-15:. -/ 1 "% '$,*.' "%. "/ 1, # -% - #% /&/!" #+/ /.1%, "/ )- " "#/&/,/*/ ( /.&/( 1 8*+,/ #+!*%!(,1 -#9 ". "'/*/ ( 1#, # '1,('/" / # % /.&/"%!% #- '-/ 1 1 ( 1 '" +/#" # */-% ( #'+/ ($!/

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

36 !1% ' " $#/" #,1, ( " $/ *% -! $ /1 (.!.,('/") '!(% d ".' "% n, # ''"'% % -// -% (!. 4-18). +' #+# / )(# $ " )!$#/" - #". ( ' ''"'" #$ " $ " +.(/ " "%!$#/"%, ( / /'," (!(% d "% '%.!. 4-18:.' " $ '!(% d

37 "#,*, -!(/ #-% 1% / "% #)+ /$%,*,+ /$% #/*1. 9 $!" $ (% / " " $#" '+ #&/ (,/& */ #)*/ " 1 / ". # /# # /$% "#,*,+!( / #'.,#! Si Ge ( /1(/ "/ -" # ( + ( 1#%. ( ''1 #1 $'*/ */ "#,&,#*/!*/ / $# # "/ #1 ( #/.!1# / &% "'$/.-/(% ( Ge!"#8(/ #'+% #+% #,/ (% 2.2 &74%&%0) /$40 /,/% "#,*, / "#,*, + '' (:"'1%.$"%!*/ $*% Si, Ge ''. $ (%!" $ / " )" " "%,*,#$"% (% $ "/.#.. /,$,## /$% "#,*,+ /!1#..# T=0 '+!#"'-%.# % " 8&/",*,#$"% / /'&% " 8&/".-/(% '1*% '"##-/". (' (#-/ / #/*-%

38 /,$! # / (/1.*% #$ E g = 1.14eV, Si 0.67 ev, Ge /& */ #/*&/ / "% )"% */ 5 ev. 3.# *#( -/% "#/$%.#$% "'/*/ #+/ / 1 (/ 1.#1 /-, / #"1 (/ $ "/ 8&/".-/(% "/ 8&/",*,#$"%. ($ "#/ $ #' # 8(/ "'$/ ( #(#-/ $ # #+/ / /".+/ '(.- / + '' /, ( $#/ "/ 8&/",*,#$"% /' #-/ ($ "/ " "'+ ( (/ -/% - "/ "'1,*,#$".#$% (% ()/ ()/#-/"% "%.# % / (/- (1% "% +)" "% ()/ ",*,#$" ()/#-/"% "%.# %. </. -/ "'$/ $ -/ #'$ #$ "/.- " ( "#(, -/ /$ /,$,## (!1# / $ " &' ( "'/( (/# # "/ "#(, #% 1% "/ /.-/(%. 1 (#- / -/. #-/ *# ( # / '+. " /.-/(%. (,/, " /1.- " ( "'/( ( -(, '#9/ $ -/,/$ "'$/ "#(, # "/ ( # 1 - " 1 / #- "/ 8&/".-/(% /. # "/ /" " ( "'/( "/ 8&/",*,#$"%. 3 " /' #-/" /" " * $ "/ " /$% "'+ ( E ( "'/( "/ 8&/",*,#$"% ( (/# # /" ".+ (. " /" " "% 1% /$% ''( "'1 #-/( *#(. "'$ +# /. $ -' # */ + (&/ (/ &/. / -' # "%!1% "% "'1% ($"%.#$% */ &/ "/ /.-/(%. / % # /.#$ */ "'/*/ "/ /,*,#$"%

39 % ($ "%,*,#$"% /#8 %&74%&) $2!/! "#,*, ( #/8(/ %&74%&%0)/$40. 3!/% ( $:/ $,*,#$" & ' + " -*/ "'$/ % -% #+# /,/+ (# (# #, "/,*,#$" */ #''*/ / +# "/ " */ + (&/ -*/ "%.# % "/,*,#$" ( /,/+% "#,*,+. / n / " (,-/* " */ "'/*/ "/ /,*,#$"%, p " (,-/* " */ &/ "/ /.-/(%# " " (/" */ "'/*/ # " (/" */ &/, ",*,#$" 8 *%. # "% (/ % */ #-(% -*/ */ &/ */ "'/*/. H,*,#$" + #, /*8/% %.- #% /,-% % % 8&/%.-/(%,*,#$"% /! $ # "/ 91. "%!- "% ''"&//% # /, $ ''1* "% / (.#-/ "% 8&/"%,*,#$"% E c -*%, 9 (# $ " (,-/* " n */ "'/*/ " 8&/",*,#$"% / $ "!- ", $( m n * " /,$% #8 ( "'/(, h ". ( Plank, k ". ( Boltzmann. /',(% (', #+% #+# / 9+# "/ (,-/* " */ &/ "/ 8&/".-/(%, ''"&//% # /, $ $ / (.#-/ "% /%.-/(% =0 -*% "/ (1 "% /

40 $"% N c N V ( )&/./&% $ "/.# (~ 3/2) /#8/ /,-% (/$"% "% /%,*,#$"%.-/(% /!.!- % (4.2.2) (4.2.4) / '&(% "# % $ (/-(/ n, p,?, T #)+ (%!+(/, "#,*,$ (B c -E F ), (E F -E v )>(# kt), "'1, % $% & %. 0''' 8/% %!- % (4.2.2) (4.2.4) /(# /,/1 "#,*,$ # 9 " "/!1 "% "'1% ($"% -!(# " (4.2.6),/, "'1,/$#/ */ n p / /)" $ ".#" Fermi ) #$/ $!" ( "#,*,+ "'1 $ Eg. $ % (4.2.4), (4.2.6), (4.2.7) #+# / '+ (# *% % EF, 1 % $% & % «+% $% "/ (4.2.9) / '+ #$% ( &( ".#" Fermi 9 /, #- ( /,+! #%. (,/& % */ "'/*/ &/ % /%,*,#$"%.-/(% /! 9 / $ / (/( #$ */ (4.2.7) (4.2.8) / 9 $!" $ "% (4.2.10) / "!.1 +)" " ( n.&% ".# ()/. / "!- " (4.2.1) / 1 (# "/ (4.2.10) $,

41 ( ' "/ #1!- " ( / "/ )" " "% "'1%,*,#$"% $ "/.#, /,/1 "#,*,$.,.#8/% "/ (4.2.13) /(# "/ $,## "% (.% 9 (# Eg ) (',8(/ "/ ' "

42 2.3 3%&%0) /$40 (% /,/% "#,*,+% '1.% */ '+.*/ -*/, #-/ "#,*,$. #-/".# /. #-/. % "#,*,-% )% $#*% / #+# / ()/(# '1.% */ + &/ '(.-*/ -*/ (&/ "'/*/) 1 #$/ ( /$% (% /)" # /,$! # "/.#. ($ (,!/ / #"$ '-,# ( "#,*,+ (!(/ #-/ " #)*/ ##-/ $!.,## #-/".1" #)*/ %$ 14*!$2) (doping). -/ "#,*,$ /# $40!8 4* n!1# / Ge -/ # ( -! /. # # As -! -/ "'$/.-/(%. -# "'$/ / (##-! "/ "#(, */ #'&/ #&/ /!' (/#-/ / $ ( (1/. '+ +' / '+. / / '(.- '-,# / #. " 8&/",*,#$"%. 3 /,, #- % /,-% /% ( Si # #/*#-/".#" (+ ( "'/( ( As, 0.01 ev!#"'$ $ / (.#-/ "% 8&/"%,*,#$"%..#" (1 /#8.#" 1 $" >.! */ */ # *% #)% (#-/ $*% As /#8/ $% "'/*/ 1 '&% $%. /!%.#%.#% &/. 1.#% &/ / '+ / "/ /,*,#$"% % (/". #-/%.# % -% / / #-/ $' "'$/ (% -!(/ #"1 "/ 8&/",*,#$"%.,*,#$" ( ' %.#% */ &/ /#8 )*,/1%,*,#$". / n>>p $ "#,*,$%!"8 *% +( n. % ':" /#8/.4(%0) 1%4&2!/!) ( & / "'$/ % #:".4(%0) $%4&2!/!) ( & / -%. /,$,##, -/ "#,*,$ +( n /!1#

43 (% )*,/% "#,*,+%!+(/!- % $, "#,*,+% +( n /', # "/.# 1!1 : I) 4#"'-%.# %! #&% / #$% */ &/ /& / ".#1 /-,, "/.#1 -, " $ "/ /.-/(% "/ /,*,#$"%. n / $ "!- ", $( " (,-/* " */ / #-/*/ &/..- " "%.#"% Fermi $'( #"-/ /.&% ()/ ".# ".#" Fermi / % * # +.(/ " #- ( /,+! #%. ) - % ( (/". #-/%.# %) <' $% / / #-/ / " (,-/* " */ &/ / -!(/ / $' $,.*&/% #'"- "/ (/ "% /,/+%,*,#$"%. ) :"'-%.# % /& $' $% / / #-/ " n -! $ "/.#1 -, " "'/*/ $ "/ 8&/".-/(% "/ 8&/",*,#$"%. (! " /,/1%,*,#$" # "/!- " (4.2.10)!- " (1!+ $, )*,/% $, /,/%. )" " (% (,-/* "% */ "'/*/ $ "/.#, "#,*,$ n +( /!1# 4-4.!1.# &/, "/ ",*,#$" #-/.1 /#8!1 $(

44 4.3.2 $40!8 4* p

45 !1# / Ge -/ # ( -! /. # # Ga -! "'$/.-/(%. Ga # / / -/

46 "'$/ $,/$ # / (#'"& - % #'+% #+%..,/$ # -! & -''## "'/( "'1 # 1 " (#- /.$ $'(" #1 # ( "'/( h # / /". '+. 3 /,, #- (% /,-% /% ( Ge # #/*#-/".#" (+, 0.01 ev :"'$ $ "/ (1 "% /%.-/(%..#" (1 /#8.#" 1 $".! */ */ # *% #)% (#-/ $*% Ga /#8/ -% "'/*/ 1 '&% -%. /!%.#% /#8/.#% &/. 1.#% */ &/ / '+ / "/ /.-/(% % (/". #-/%.# % -% / / #-/ -% (% -!(/ #"1 "/ 8&/".-/(%. /,$,## (% "#,*,+ p +( /!1#.9,*,#$" ( ' (%.#% */ &/ /#8 (1 )*,/1%,*,#$". / n<<p $ "#,*,$%!"8 *% +( p..4(%0) 1%4&2!/!) & / -%.4(%0) $%4&2!/!) & / "'$/. (% )*,/% "#,*,+%!+(/!- % $, "#,*,+% +( p /', # "/.# 1!1 : )4#"'-%.# %! #&% / #$% */ &/ /& / ".#1 /-,, "/.#1 -, " $ "/ /.-/(% "/ /,*,#$"%. p / $ "!- " <( N a ~ " (,-/* " */ / #-/*/ &/..- " "%.#"% Fermi $'( #"-/ /.&% ()/ ".# " Fermi / % /* # +.(/ " #- ( /,+! #%..#" ) - % ( (/". #-/%.# %) <' -% / / #-/,!+ (1 "!1 $( ",*,#$" #-/.1 /#8!1 $(. ) :"'-%.# % /& $' -% / / #-/ " p -! $ "/.#1 -, " "'/*/ $ "/ 8&/".-/(% "/ 8&/",*,#$"%. (! " /,/1%,*,#$" # "/!- " (4.2.10)

47 2.3.4 &!!,$$'&4 /$40 </ (!(/ $% -% $ "#,*,$% /#8 /.# #-/% /,$ (,## /!1# 4-6 <*% /!1# 4-6, % / '% $/ (!(/ + " #)*/. 3 "'$/ "/ /,*,#$"% #+/ / 9.+/ "'$/!$#/ $ "/ /.-/(% #.#1 -, " 1 #.#$ / #$ */ &/ /! -% # / 9.+/ " /.-/(% ) % "%.#1% -, "% */ "'/*/ $ "/ /.-/(% "/ /,*,#$"% " $ "/.#1 -, " */ "'/*/ $ "/ /.-/(% %.#% */ &/.-*% "'$/ # / - (/ $ %.#% */ &/ %.#% */ &/

48 2.4 /& % "#,*,&/ '+/ /& % "% #% -V. "'1 (-% /& % (!"#8/ $! "% "% -#"% #% ( + ( 1#% $*% /& % GaAs GaP, InAs, GaSb ''-% ''%. ( ''1 #1% (% / $# # ( #/ # "/ $ " 9 " ' & $ + #.! Ga As # / #'. 2''% "#,*,#% /& % / /& % */ #*/ -V $*% CdS ZnS /& % "% #% rv-vi $*% PbTe / /-% #"!#-% #$% / /$%. "#,&,#" (# (% ' % "'/-% ( ''-% -'% #1% ( / -' # "% $' "% $ "!#1 (% + ". /& % # $/*/ / "#,*, n +( /& /& % # /$/*/ / p - +(. /.!"#1 -/* " # / #/ "#,*,#$" #.1" # ''"'" #-. /$/*/ 1 $/*/ 0.!. + '' NaCl $/.+/ -!'& (:"'1.#,// "#,*, p +( /& $/.+/ #+% Na,//"#,*, n +(. 2.5 '+." / /$% "#,*,+ )% "% /#$#"% /#1% */ "'/*/ /# / * #, $ /.+#" # #)*/ 1 ) ( (!(/ "/ /, $.% /,-%.#%,/* -% *% /-% %. / # */ ( ''*/ '(,+/ / -%. /-% /.+#"% #)%'(,+/*% -% 1 -%

49 2.6 )#& % #&/(/ "/ (/" */ "'/*/ 1 &/, (/ /!-% ( #8(/ "/ /" " (%.,(/ /-% /,-%.#% (.- % (% )&/ $ / + ( "#,*,+!1# 4-7 / -/% "#,*,+% n +( # "/.#" */ )#& */ / '(, / -"% #-% */ "'/*/ ( $",+/ /,$ )#$ */ /,/ " 8&/",*,#$"%. 0/* $ "/.# 1!1 $( ".#" */ )#& */ /8 "'$/ #(/ " /,*,#$"% #-/*% % (:"'-%.# % ",*,#$" / "8 "#/ $ % )#& %. $. # / /.+#",,(/ /-%.#% 1 1 -" /,$! # # -' # / ''&/ " # #,'" 9 *$#/" (,-/* " "'/*/ 1 &/ (.8(/ / + "%,*,#$"%.,# " (,-/* " #)*/ ( $#./ -/#/+ '' / "% )"% 0.1 " 10 ppm 3 ##1 (,-/* " '$,* /.+#"*/ #)*/ # " % $"% */ "#,*,&/. / '$, ($ #,'"!1 '#9/ "/,*,1% "#,&,#*/ ('&/! #-/, 1 (:"'1%.$"%

50 2.7 "/ (1 "#,&,#*/ #/( ''*/ # #$.#$ )#& */!" #+/ ''-%!/-%. $ (1 / "!/1 Czochralski. 3/% #$% #/+ ''% Si 1 Ge #98 1,# Si 1 Ge "/ (/-! / + # #1!+" 1cm/h 1 / $ ($ # ( 1,#% ''+/ / #/+ '' /(/ "/ #1 (.!$% + ''% - / -! $ (/$/ '! % )#& %, (-% /,/ // /!"# #$ ( ( ''( #-.%, "/ (1 (&/ 1 &/ "#,&,#*/ /& */ / " #-.% 9% :+)"%. +#*/ # " #-. (1 ''"'" #+' $!'8 /$ /#,/+/! (. '- (/ "/ -/* " # "/ ''"'"!#.#// ''"' +/ C /* $ "# 1)"% ( + "(!(. "# ($ ".# #-/.1 #-! / ''"*. " / ". " (/-!, "#-% #-/(/ 50 # 10 0 C * $ "# 1)"% "/ (/-!:+!" #+' # '+,$ (.#$ (8 + ''% 2.8 "#,*, '+/ /.#-' '. "% #"'/1% //"'/1%. 4" #+/ % "'/-% "'/-% )% / /8, ''"*#-/ ('&# / "'', ('. -% #,-% */ "#,*,&/,/ $#/. <'% "#,*,% )% 9 8/,,/$% $ ",*,#$" ( ('+ '-,! # "/ (,-/* " */ #)*/ 1 # / #9'' ##,'"!1 #&/ / ''8 $!1!1 /* " )" ) %.) p-n % 1% p-n / (/1.*% -/% + ''% Ge 1 Si # #)% +( p #!1 +( n #/ ''" 1 + "#,*, -/% p +( $*% Cu 2 O -/% n +( TiO 2. $,*!( "% -% $ "!1 p #9/(/ "/!1 n "'$/ $ "/!1 n "/!1 p. "'$/ ( +,(/ $ "/!1 n ( ( ''(!-/ "/!1 p 1/(/ #-/ # ( $" ( '+/ '-/ /". $/ "/!1 p /* "'$/ '#9/(/ %.- % */ &/ # ( -" 8(/ /" # ( '+/ & /" /" $/ "/!1 p.!1 (1 /#8 %(4+.4(!0& +-(4* 1 %(4+ %11%05%).4('& -' # / " "#(, #% /1%!1% "% %(4+) %.) # "'$ $ "/!1 n "/!1 p (!-4-8). 1 "/!1 "% 1% / (!(/ '+. % " &!0!/ %.) / #,'". </ #$ (# )*$ "'$ #,'+ /. $ "'$

51 ( (/#+ 1% $ (/#$ "!1 p. - / / #,'+ $ (/#$ "/!1 n. H +/ " (1 /#8 4(, 21/ " ( "'+ ( $ p n % $ "/!1 p -!/ "!1 n "'$/ $ "/!1 n -!/ "/!1 p 3 & (!(/ '+. % "/!1 "% 1% " / " 1%. /!!#"'1 +# "/.1 $'* ". / #,'. (1 " 1 (/!4 4(,2 (%8$. "/ /." * " $/ " $'* " / &#!(4./ -% $ "/!1 p / #+/ / + (/ "/!1 n. (#9/ # "'$/.#$% */ "'/*/ "!1 p / '+ #$% #$/ $ $ 9'-/ $ #"!/ #$ "% /,/+%,*,#$"% $ -(/ /!(.+/ $ "/!1 n. "/ * " (1 " / " "% 1%. / #,'". 3 "/ / " $'* " " 1 /,. #-/*% "/ / " $'* " " 1 '(, / #/*1% #-/*% /'' $#/ +# / /.*1% + - #$/ "/ # +.(/ " "/ #"#. </!+, pp=nn, $( p P " (,-/* " */ -*/ '/$"% "/ p!1 n N " (,-/* " */ -*/ '/$"% "/ n!1 $ " 1 /#8 *$$%!(".!+ p P >> n N 1 p P << n N $ " 1 /#8 8$$%!(/. "/ )"!" #+/ +##% -% % % " % (,/& % (#/ $ 100 -*% %. +# # 1 p-n / $ "/!- " ( Shockley " ' / /$# "% /1% $( 1%, $( #!" 1.1 "% )"%, +# $(, e ( "'/(, k ". ( Boltzmann T " $'(".#. +# $( ) "#/ $ "/.# +#*/ # "!- " #-/*% +# 1% ()/ "#/ # "/.# " " "%.# % %!" -% -V / "#/1. "!- " ( ) "/ / " $'* " " " / -V. Si +# $( / 0.01# (/#$ *'( 0.6V, /&, Ge +# $( / 10# (/#$ *'( 0.2V

52 " V +# / / #$ "#.&% V,/ #,' /"$ +#,,8 "/ #1 -.!" 1 I-V #% 1% p-n /!1#. "/ * " ( " / " " (9 # #" #1 ( /#8!#/ 7# /) "!#((%*/) 7#!(//) V b (breakdown voltage) " 1 / '(, '-/ / /.*1%!1 -V ( "% /, $ "/ ( ). % ( '+/ "/ " "% $( / ) " ( 1 " " Zener </ " -/ " ( "'+ (,/ '+ #,'" "% )"% ( 10 6 V cm -1 $ / (/$/ / '9!& #* "% "'/*/ $ "/ /.-/(% "/ /,*,#$"% '$,* ( 9/#"!/+ /#-/( "% +,,%. / $ ($ / (/$/ / ()".+/ % #/$"% "/ p!1, "'1 "'$/ / ()". "#/ / +#. ) " "!/ 9% "/ " (1 "'$/!+// (,+/# (- # /8(/ # /$#/!/ 9% ''' 8(/ (% '+.(% % # -' # "/ #/ "#,'"%-/ "% +#% ).#1 " "/ 1 ( / ( +#% " &' "'1% /-,%.#$" * $ (/.1% (:"'1% / "% "% (/' "/ +)" " "%.# % 1% " # " "% ' +)" " ( / ( +#%.. -*% $( " 1 / /.! / (/. # # #,'" / " " / 8 +# #-% #$% #% #-, "% #1%

53 ) Zener #. #-/" " "% ( (8/, / '(,+/ ' "/!1 ( "% /#8/ Zener. / /$ $ -!(/ "/ $" / "+/ "/ " (%!$/.1, #,'% #9'-% +#%!" #+/, "/ */ ('*#*/. " "% (.#8 # "/ (,-/* " */ #)*/. Si (#/ $ V.!1# 4.9 / "!" 1 I- V #% $( Zener ) %.) (8 $ #/+ '' + '' Si # #)% In 1 $ #/+ '' Ge # #)% B 1 Al.!*"$" 1% / "% )*% */ 10pF "'1 #,'" $ / # /!" #". ('&# (:"'&/ (!/1*/ /* $ 100KHz. 4" #,-." */ $*/ Si / V b =1.5 -*% 2 KV, #-, ".# '(,% ^^=150 0 C /& /!!" #,-." "% $( Ge / V b =100 -*% 400V, #-, ".# '(,% ^^=80. 0 C

54 ) 8() (Tunnel Diode) +,,% -!(/ '+ #,'.#$ #)*/ #/" 3!- " # "/ (,-/* " #)*/ #/cm 3 */ /&/ $*/. $,* "% #,'"% (1% (,-/* " */ #)*/ ( 9/#"!/+ /#-/( +,,% /,-%.#% */ #)*/ /,// /,-% /% $ /&// # % /% ( "#,*,+ # -' # " /,1 #1 ( "#,*,+ / '" 8 "/ /,1 #1 #''(. -' # / "!" 1 +#% "% / #/8!1 # /"1 1 / ". "% "!1 1% ( 8 '+ #1!*"$" 1%. % +,,%!" # / /!+ / '/*1% /& / #/!" #". / /.& ',474 "!"%*) %.-& p-n! 9 -% #-. (1% &/ -" 1/: () " 1 #-.%!"# #+ &/ " /()"% #/( ''&/ "#,*,&/ ('&/ (.) " #-.%!"# #+ &/ # #" ". + (-% #-. //,## $#/!1#

55 "/ &" #-.!"# #+ &/, " "% /()"% */ #/( ''*/./ 1,# ( "#,*,+ #)*/ #-/( +(.!. +(. "# "% /()"% ( #/( ''( " (,-/* " */ #)*/ 1,# #9'' $# # "/ $. "

56 $"% #)*/ ", # -' # ($' ( #/( ''( / / +( ". "/ /()" */ #/( ''*/,# $9 ''"' '#9/(/ "/ 1 #-.% (1 $#*% / / ''"'", #81,*,1 "/ " 9#"!/. " #-.!"# #+ &/ # #" ", -/ "#,*,+ ('+ +( ". #$,('+ ( '#9/ #)% +( p " (/-! (.#// & #-% ( ( /!"# # # "#,*,$ '. "/ :+)" ( ( ''( /( ''+ % ) #-/ # #)% +( p $*% /!1#, -!"#8 " 1 p-n. #-.% (1! /!" #". # #,'" (!, " #81,*,1 $*/ /8. 0'"/ $#*%, ()/$#/% 1 %, $ / " '(, */ /8 - " / /-% % (/#% "% #.$( (1%. ($%,/%,/% (.8 "/ '(, ( /8 &/ / " $ " #)+ */ + &/ "/ /* #-. ".- " */ &/.8 $!% */ /( ''*.-/*/ *#*/, $#*% / / +' / ',!. # 9. / 91 -',! "%.- "% */ &/ p-n, " -(/ 1," " #-. "% " $*/ #)*/ #- / "#,*,$. "/ * " (1 " / ( '(. # ",1 #,'"% (,-/* "% #)*/ +( /.( /( */ #)*/ ( '( 0/&%, / '#9/!& #!"# #$% */ #- "#,*,$ ', '' #)% +(/ #- / + '' #!( ", " / (/$/ / ',!. # #,'" 9. /'(:" $ -/ '$ &# SiO 2 9'' "#/1 / " "!( " */ $*/ #)*/, &/ &/, $. $#" #,'+" 9 / -',! "%,*#% */ "#,*,&/ )*/.,*# #% )"% / (/$/ /. # '(:" ( "#,*,+ # SiO 2 " (/-! # -. " % #)% #-/*/!&/ ( "#,*,+ $ % % -! #(/. SiO 2.!-% ((-%.8/ # "!1 " "%!/1% ( /,/* 1 / #&!. "!/', /,##!1#. #-.% (1 (/(8 '/1# "% #.$(!"# #+ &/ #!( " # "/ $" ( SiO /,+ "!( " $*/ #)*/ #- ( (+ - - / 91. #$ "%,*#% */ )*/. "%, "!/', (1 #''+,,/$% $ "'-% $"% #% /% Si, " -! '(. # SiO 2, / '+ /&% $ /% ( / -!(/ '(. # SiO 2. ($ / $ " "!/', 1," "/ /()" */ ''"*#-/*/ ('*#*/, '+/ " +" / " "/ '/1 # "/ #/ " ( '!

57 2.8.3 Transistors / -% n-p-n 1 p-n-p. transistor 1% (8 $ #/+ '' / "#(,+/ + p-n -%.!1# 4-11 / " "#,*,1 )" p-n-p ( ' transistor p-n-p.&% +#9'$ (.!1# / " "#,*,1 )" n-p-n ( ' transistor n-p-n.&% +#9'$ (. # $ % %!-% (/1.*%" 1 /#8 " 4$ 2) ()"#!1 / " #/ () " ''" " ) ' *11'"!/) (C). +#9 " #$% (#9'8 # -/ 9-'% ( -! " */ &/ </ #$% -! -% " 9 " $ 9-'%!/ % (1 /& $/ -! "'$/ " 9 " 9-'%. -! $ " 9 " / #$. '(, ( transistor p-n-p /!1# / " +/ " */ )*&/ &/,^ "' */!&/ 1% #+ -9 "% 9 "% - (''-" / /.. 0'&//% "/!1 1% #+ - "%. "%- (''-" / -!(# #* " ( "'+ ( "%!1% 1% ( #+ /!" #* " ( (/#+ 1% #+ - 9 "%. /! # "/ / " $'* " "/!1 1% (''-" - "% -!(# +)" " ( "'+ ( "%!1% 1% 9 "% - (''-" /!" +)" " ( (/#+ 1% 9 " (''-",- & ^^^^. / $ ($ '!( " &/ " 9 " #- * ( #+ ( /! -/ (%8$ %" 4$ 48 IE. (,-/* " */ &/ "% 9 "% ()/ -%!-/ % "/!1 1% ( (''-". $#*% -!/ '-% (/#% F 2 '$,* ( "'+ ( E pn2,!+// /+/ "/!1 ( (''-" "#(,&/% -/ (%8$ *11'"!/ IC "/ -) ( transistor. To (%8$!/) 6#/) -! $ "/ /'1* " */ "'/*/, (!// ) % "% / +/ "% (% # % -%, $ "/ / /-% $ $/ / (! +# +'*# ( #+ +# +'*# ( (''-" / '+ #$, " " "% 1% 9 "% (''-" -! / ". / $ ($ +# +'*# ( (''-" '-,! $ +# +'*# #$+.!+,

58 / 9 1 #% ( transistor ' '91 +#% #-,.% #-,.% ( " (,-/* " */ -*/ '/$"% "/!1 ( #+ / '+ #,'+" $ "/ (,-/* " */ -*/ '/$"% "!1 "% 9 "%. 3 % '/$"% "/!1 ( #+ / '+ $ $ (% % '/$"% "% 9 "% # -' # / -!(# I C <I E <1 # #-% $ *% / transistor #!1 1% 9 "% 1#.1 $'* " 0.2V / " $'* " 5V -*% 10V / #-% $ *% =32 #-! 99. $ '$,* "% ( ) I C =99 I B. '3 # #1 #9'1 ( +#% " 9 " /!+ # "/ $'" " #% #,'"% #9'1% ( +#% (''-". transistor # / $ ($ # / '(,1 / /!(1% +#%. / #)+ #+ 9 "% #$ (# # " U E (1. '- '',1 ( "'+ ( ' - " #9'1 ( (/#+ "%!1% /# / #$ " 9 ". (1 " #9'1. / /'," "% #9'1% ( 1#% U E. 3 "!( " */ &/ $ / #$ " 9 ". '(.1 (.#$ "% #9'1% ( 1#% U E. 3. -!(# '',1 "%,*,#$"% "% 1% (1%, # /!( " "%!( "% */ &/ $ / #$ " 9 " +)" " ( +#% ( (''-" I C. +# ($ - "/ / " R C ' & " "% " / " " )$( ( transistor. 1 " 1 p-n ( (''-" - 9 " / / '*#-/" #/8 #,'" / " 1%. 3 #+# / (/- (# / " R C # #,'+" #1 / -!(# #,'" " )$( "/ Rc!- " # "/ " V e $(. 3 #+# / -!(# /!( " "% /!( "!+% "/ -)

59 Transistor %704* (Field Effect Transistor) 0'',1 ( transistor ' transistor ( (!1# 4-12). 3/ ' Si +( p ( /#8 /' - "/ # ( / +!-% +( n ( /#8/ ",1 (source) 1 (drain)..-/ #$8 -/% #''$% -"% (terminal). '(. /* "/ / -/ #/*$ &# SiO2 /* $ ($ -/ #''$ "'$ " +'" (gate) </ / (! "/ +'" #$ (# (/#+ # 1 '$" #)+ +'"% 1% +# / '+ #$ 1 # $ % -% p-n / / '*#-/". " (/-! 8(# "/ +'" #.$. ('$ +( p / (!(/ '' "'$/ (!/ $ "/ /,/1,*,#$" -'/ % "/ +'". /' " +'" '+/ (% ' #+% /$% (/*1 # "'$ SiO 2..&% ()/.$ (/#$ "% +'"% ()/ " (,-/* " */ "'/*/ /' # -' #/ ()/ ",*,#$" /'

60 / & #$ (# (/#+ /# "/ ",1 "/ 1 $ '$,* "% (:"'1%,*,#$"% /' - $ +# #1% (. +# ($ # / ''8 ''8/% "/ " "/ +'" '$,* "% '',1% "%,*,#$"% /'. +# ($ / '+ (." (/#$ "% +'"%. )" '(, *% /!(1%. "#,*,1 )" (,:# /#8 Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor MOSFET. MOSFET / # "#,*,1 )" &/ &/ "/ +# /# + -% '-,! # #,'" 9 ''8/% (/#$ / -" "1/($'& "*"1-$!.!1 /$. " *#*/ ('&/!"#1,!)" #&/ +#% / (/$/ / +!(# (/( #-/" '(, ''&/ MOSFET, (/*&/, / &/ /* -/,*/ #! ('+ #,-.(% ',*/ mm. - " (1% "% -% -! ",1 ''"*#-/ ('&# #,'"% '#%( ^) "/ ''1* " '+ #,'"% '#% (VLSI)

61 2.8.5 %($0!4( (Thermistor).# (Thermally Temperature Resistors) #''($# "/ )" " "% 1% / "% */ "#,*,&/ $ "/.#. / )1# ( (8/ $ "#,&,# ('. +#*/ # $ "# (.#+ (/' 1 / "%.# // ) NTC (Negative Temperature Coefficient) #.#$ (/' 1 / "% /"$ ) PTC (Positive Temperature Coefficient) #.#$ (/' 1 / "%.$ NTC.# " )" " "% / "% # "/.# / $ "!- ", $( R0, #!1 #1 "% / "% (.# "/ (/1.*% "/.# 9''/%. $ "/!- " (1 / $ " / " '&/ ()/#-/"% "%.# %.!- " (1 /!1# 4-13.# '(,% */ NTC / )/ (% C. NTC!" #+/, $*/ "'&/ "'/&/ )"#*/ 1 ( 8(/ #,'" / " :(!1 " +(/ +'*# "/!1 ( '(,% ( - & / #"/ () #,' +# +'*# 1 #-/ "'', )1# ( 8(/ #1 / " '$,* (.+.#+ (/' 1 / "% (%..&% ()/ ".# '$,* '(,% ( ('&#% + /..# (/' -% / "% /.#8/ " -/ " ( +#% #-/.. 4" #+/ "/ 9.# $("% * "% */ &/ "'+ 1#%, "." " (

62 '(% "% * "%, (% #"-%.# %, (%.#+% $% '-,!(.'.. NTC (8/ # / % # #-% $ (8/ $ MnO,Fe3O 4 #,# "'1 #''*/ Mn, Cr, Co,Ni, Fe. PTC -!(/ / " ( #9'' # ".# $*%!1#

63 $!1# 4-11 / $ %!#"'-%.# %.#$% (/' 1% / "% # / / /"$% +/ /!" #".+/ / NTC, #!1.# &/. 4" #+/ $,/ #-" "%.# % # '+ #,'" 9 $*% ('&#." "% ( +#%. (8/ # $# $ $*% NTC, $ BaTiOs, SrTiOs

64 2.8.6! (Varistor) Varistor (Voltage Dependent Resistors)!" -% +#% "% / #",##-%. / " ) $ "/ #8$#/" "!.!1# 4-15 / "!" 1 I -V " )" " "% / "% $ "/ " -/ Varistor.&% "!+% /'* "% P (/" " # "/ " V. / #/* ( "'+ (!#"'1% -/ "%, " '(( ''$" $% /' #$% */ $*/ #8(/ "/ #/" " */ /#,/+% $(%. 0/* $#*% $ -/ &' -/ "% "'+ ( " /" " */ "'/*/,/ $*% / ( ''$ ('$ " / " '&/.. Varistor!"8 $ # #-, " $#/" " '(,% (-9 " "% % ' 1 "% ( ''1% #1% " (1 (#/ $ 8V-1300V. H #-, " #1 ( +#% (#/ $ 1 -*% 100 ma. 4" #+/, "." " "% "% 1, ( (&/ $ (- ". (8/ $ /.(, ) Zn Ti

65 2.9 & 2.9.1!" 4((2.// '+ "#/1!/1, " #-" " ( /,+! #% /$% "#,*,+ / " $" " "'/( $ ('$. ($ # "+# *$/ $ ',#-/ #1" +#% / (.+// '1!1 # " $*/ */*/. #-/( $, *$/ # /-, #,'+" $ /,$! # +/ ''"' # "/ # " */*/ ##$" #1 /-,% $ /,$! #, / /"$ $ # ($ / -/ 9-% #- ( /,+! #%. / /-% $ -/ *$/ # /-, hv>= Eg # / ". -// "#,*,$ (!. 1.1 ). #-/( $ " 8&/".-/(% -! '' "'$/ " 8&/",*,#$"% -! ''-% /-%.- % % % "'$/ #+/ /,.+/, $ "./$" $" "% */*/ / (:"'1. <*% /!1# 1.1, -/ "'$/, "/ 8&/",*,#$"% $ 1 $" " #/-! $" /-, $ (1 ( / (/". #-/", "'$/ " 8&/",*,#$"% (!$/ $' "'$/ ( / / " Ec $% /,# / /!(#-/ #,' 9.#$ ). 3,,#-/ "'$/!/ /-, #-! "!+" ( "/!+" "%.#1% % */ ''*/ "'/*/,*,#$"%. Figure 1.1 Optical absorption of a photon with hn > Eg: (a) an EHP is created during photon absorption; (b) the excited electron gives up energy to the lattice by scattering events; (c) the electron recombines with a hole in the valence band

66 "'$/ " 1 ( "#(, $ (1 " $" "% / (-9 " */ #-*/; #-/( $ / $% % # 9''/ (%, - ' / / (/ +/. /& " (-9 " #-*/ (! % /!% 8&/%, * $ / '+. / (/ -(/ "/,*,#$" ( ('+. 3/ *$/ # #$" /-, $ Eg / +/ /, -/ "'$/ $ " 8&/".-/(% " 8&/",*,#$"%. 3 -/.$ "#,*,$ (! #'"- $" " */ */*/ # hv < Eg. ($ )",, # (' / / #-/%!-% #1(% +#%. +# '-/ / /(# #-/(% #/*-%, $*% '$% NaCl + ''%, '$,* ( #,'( /,+! #% */ "'/*/ ( / (! ('$. /! # / ( 2eV '%, #$/ #,' #1" +#% $/ ## $ /-% # 998/; $ "/ ''",! # 3eV - (-(.% $' $ # / 99. / # - #" */*/ # hv > Eg (, -/ "#,*,$,. (! #,' $ $" "%,.8 $ % $"% ( ('+. /#-/(# "% */ #$#/*/ / 998 "/ -/ " ( *$% / ) $ #1% +#% */(!% (,#%. / (', (# (1 "/ )" ", % (.- (# $ " -/ " #% - #"% */*/ ( *$/ / cm2 s ) (.+/ -/,# $!% l (!. 1.2 ). - #" -! *$/ # #1% +#%, ',#-/ $ #/!*# 1. <*% " - #" -! $,#, " -/ " "% $ " 4 $ "/ / # / (', # "/ )- " "%./$"% $" "% /$% 1 +)" " dx. #-/( $ -/ *$/, 9*, $ " 4!*% / ". / -! #/1#" ( $ '+ -! )-:, "./$" $" "% (. dx /.1. (/-, " (9.# " "% -/ "% dl(x) / dx / /'," "% -/ "% ( #-/ x: dl(x) / dx = al(x) (1.1) '+ " "% ) * "% /: (!) = e-ax (1.2) " -/ " ( *$% ( # $!% l (,#% /: t = Ioe-al (1.3)

67 Figure 1.2 Optical absorption experiment. (/' 1% ' (/' 1% $" "% -! #/% cm-1. (/' 1% ($% (. - # #1% +#% ( */( $ ('$. # '1 ( # #1% +#% (!. 4-3 ). (! #'"- $" " #,' #1" +#% ( hv small ) "#/1 $" " */ */*/ # /-,% #,'+% ( Eg. +#*/ # "/ ) * " (2-2), "!- " #)+ "% /-,% */ */*/ ( #1(% +#% / =hc/'. / " / "'$/9$'% ' #$, $,/ = 1,24/'. Figure 1.3 Dependence of optical absorption coefficient a for a semiconductor on the wavelength of incident light

68 !1# 1.4!/ /,$! # #&/ $ (% /+% "#,*,+%!- "# $, % (-(.%, (&% #1# ( *$%. 0"+# $ GaAs, Si, Ge lnsb 9 / -)* $ "/ 1!1, "/ (-(.". 2'' "#,*,, $*% GaP CdS, -!(/! # (+ - & / *$/ "/ 1!1. / "#/$ / "#& (# $ -/%"#,*,$% *$/ # /-,% % #! # 1 #,'+%. 2 Si $! #$/! # ( -1 #.m ) '' #$ #1" +#%, (#'#9/#-/( (&/ ( / "/ 1!1 ( #%. Figure 1.4 Band gaps of some common semiconductors relative to the optical spectrum

69 2.9.2!8% </ "#(, 1 $ 8+," "'/*/ -/ "#,*,$ 1 $/ #%,/ (:"'$ #)*/ $ #(/ % % %, *% # /. $ ('$. 0'' $ (% "#,*,+% / ''"', "/ #1 *$%, */ "#,*,&/ # # " 8&/" /&/.,/1 $" #1% *$% /#8 *,-/. (1 " ", # / (. /', # #"!/ #$ -, "%. / #% /,#-/ $ "/ $" " */*/, " /9' ( + $ / / (/-# */,#-/*/ #-*/ ' *,-/; /,#-/ #% ( "#(,+/ $ 9#9 #$ "'/*/ (:"'1% /-,% $ ('$, $ ($% #"!/ #$% ' cathodluminesence; / " -, " + $ "/,*,1 */!$/*/,# " '1 *+, ' "'*+,. 2'' " -, "% /./, '' ( / $ % "#/-% #,-% ( (&/. '$,# #1% ( *$% $ -// "#,*,$ ( 8, "/ (.% -, " /! #+ /$%, $*% /8!1# 3-5. / / (/ #$% (#9/ # $! #- * /$% '*#+ -(,! # *$% / / "..1 " -, "%, / (/ #$% (#9/ # (% (% (.#+% # "/,*,1 -/ *$/ -#,. *$/ (. # % / (/ #$% / #,1," ; #- " 8*1% ( / (/1.*% $ 10-8s 1 ',$. 2 " #1 */*/ # ( 10-8s # -'% "% -, "%. -,1," *9$'% /- (!/ *%. #$%. $, (' " #1 (/!8, $(% $ seconds #-! ' + #(/. " -, ". (-%,-% % '+/ * #$% (' * +!. 3/,#,1% % /!1# 4-5. ('$ ($ -! ( *% '$,* $ #)"% ) " 8&/" /+ ( -! # -//" ", "/ */1 +''":" "'/*/ $ " 8&/",*,#$"%.,,/$ ( /8/!1# -!(/ *% )1%: () 3/!$#/ *$/ # hv1 > Eg "#(,&/% -/ EHP. (9),$#/ "'$/ $ "/ /-, '-,# $ - " #-! / '" -'% "% 8&/"%,*,#$"%. (c) "'$/ /,(#-/ $ */ )-/*/ ('&/ Et #-/,(#-/ #-! / )/,..# " 8&/",*,#$"%. (d);(e) -'%, # % / (/ #$% + $/ "'$/ - # " " 8&/".-/(%, 1//% -/ *$/ (hv2) $ /,$! #.!$/%.( -" "% #)+ -, "% /! #+ # / /! #,' / "./$".#1% /-, "% $ "/, (d) / #1. $# #,'+%.( 1 % (!(/ $/ "'$/,+ -% -% / / / (/-#. / "./$",( "% / #,'+" $ "/./$" /! #+, -/ "'$/ # / / #-% #-% #)+ "%,% "/ 8&/",*,#$"% / +: / (/ #$%. -/ - ('$ " #1 ( * 8/ *$%, #,'!!/$ "# # "/ #(/ " "% -, "%

70 Figure 1.5 Excitation and recombination mechanisms in photoluminescence with a trapping level for electrons.!&# ( *$% ( -# $ -/ & ) (*% $ % + % #)%, #-/( $ ''-% #9 % /9'% (/,(/ $ #)"% /$% "% 8&/"%! #%. (1 " ',1!*#*/ /!1 #", "/ (1 /$%!&#% "'1%.$/"%. 3/ $ (/1.",# photoluminescence / '#1%. #+. (/1.*% # - '(!/ ' $ -/,('/ *'1/,# -, # -/.8/! # *$ ( *'1/. </ "'1 -/* " '1." #)+ */ "'*/ *'1/,,#-/ # ( ( -#(/ *$/, #,' 9.#$ "/ 1 "/ (&"!1 (! #%. *% -! ". $ "/ *9$' * " -#/ *$/. (1 " ' #$" /$% -( '#1 /." '+" $ /" /$% '#1 (& *% " /#)" /$% #1(% +#% *% # / (.#8 $ "/ '+" ',1 ( ('+. #+. 0,# 1.1 3/!+,# 0,46 #m ( GaAs *8 # #/!*#$ *% hv=2ev. (/' 1% $" "% / 5x104 cm-1.!+% (,#% / 10 mw. (a) " (/'1 /-, $" "% $,# / second (j/s). (b) $ "% '/8( %.#1% /-,% ( '(.&." $ "'$/ '-,# / / / (/-# (j/s). (c) /.#$ */ */*/ / second ( '(.&."/ $ $,,/$ /! #+ (.-/% -' 9/1 $ "

71 + " $ "/ ) * " (1.3): It=I0e-al = 10-2 expl - 5 x 104 x 0,46 x 10-4 = 10-2 e-2,3 = 10-3 W $ " (/'1 /-, $" "% /: 10-1 = 9 mw = 9 x 10-3 J/s ' # */ */*/ / #/ /-,% ( #-.#$" /: (2-1,43)/2 = 0,285 $ $ /-,% ( #".#$" / ($' /: 0,285 x 9 x 10-3 = 2,57 x 10-3 J/s.-/% -/ #$#/ *$/,. *$/ ( (-' 9/1 $ "), -!(#: (9 x 10-3 J/s) / (1,6 x V x 2eV/photon) = 2,81 x 1016 photons/s /''1 '+ ": / (/ #$% /9'%, 9-2,57 = 6,43 mw 1,43 ev/photon (6,43 x 10-3) / (1,6 x x 1,43) = 2,81 x 1016 photons/s %"!(4.!8%!(/ '' $ # (% (% " "'1 /-, # /!" #"., "/ "#(, #1% */*/ $. LED -/ "'$ +# ' -,!( " */ #/&/ #-*/!-% ( ( ''( $( #+/ / / (/ +/ # ':" #-*/, # '- # "/ #1 /! #+ /9'%. "#/$ ($ -' #. /'(. ' 8 (% $(% "%.*% "% p-n +* "%. & -' # "'*+,% ( "1." 1/ " #1 */*/ $ (,#-/ * +! /'' $#/ "'/$. " ( (1 (1, # * +! $/" $*% ZnS 9 (/$ ('$ ( (/1.*% ' $ ) #% "'1%.%. </ #$8 -/ --- "'$, *% / $% ( * +!(. - + # / /!1 # *% * #$% -----, / " ' #$" (% 1/ '+!#"'1, % $% #,-% " ) (% /

72 2.9.3 %!.4(%0) "!4/$2!/! </ "'$/ -% ( "#(,+/ "#,*,+%, (! /!" +)" " "/,*,#$"% (,#% $*% /- "/ ) * " (3-43). / " (-9 " */ #-*/ +: $ "/ 1 *+, /#8 *,*,"#$". ($ / -/ "#/$ -' #, #!1 #% #,-%, "/ /'( " */ ('&/ */ "#,*,&/ '(, */ ''&/ &/ ( (-%. #1# ($ )8(# (% #"!/ #+% # (% (% "'$/ -% / (/8/ #$8(/ / (/ #$, "/ /'( " *,&,#*/ ( (&/. $, " "# ( /! #+ / 8 % & % % % " (-9 " */ #-*/ "#(,+/. "/,#$",!$/. ( (1 "#,*,&/ ) / $ $ "/ (-9 " ( /! #+ "'/*/ &/. % +(, -//% ( /+ / $/ #1#.!" #".+/ (-*%, "/ /'( " */ $*/, /8, '-8, ''*/ ( (&/ $#/ '

73 $%4) &*&7$2) /1%"!(4&0& " 4 -& '$/,*,#$"% " 8&/" */ "#,*,&/ #+/ / /(/ " #9 " " 8&/".-/(% # -##. # / (/ #$ (9'+ '".( #+ */ "'/*/ &/ (/.-/ $ "'$/ ( '(.+/ & " $ " 8&/",*,#$"%, / " "% 8&/"%.-/(%. /-, (!/ -/ "'$/ " #9 " / $ -/ *$/. # % / (/ #$% (#9/ (.$#"../$" $ -/ "'$/ # 1 / (/8/ /.1!$/. <*% "/ * " "% - "% ( #-, (1 ".1./$" #% ", / /#-/(# #.1 '+ ", " " "% (-9 "% */ #-*/. "/ * " (1 $ "% +/. "% */ "'/*/ 1!/1,#1 t / /'," # /.#$ */ &/ #.1 /',%, / (/ #+% Ar*..$ $ #9'1% " 8&/",*,#$"% "'/*/ / (/' 1%.#1%,/% #*/ $ / (/( #+. dn(t)/dt = arni2 - arn(t)p(t) (1.4) % (.- (# $ "#(, '$/ # "'/*/, t=0,,,# $ -/ +/# '% *$% "!1 (-9 " &/ "'/*/ n p / %. " (/-!, $*% "'$/ -% / (/8/ 8+,",#% (,/& % */ #-*/ n(t) p(t) / "% %. 3, #+# /,:(# +/' */ (,/& */ "% ) * "% (1.4) $ "/ #&/ n0 p0 % (,/& % #-*/ n(t)=p(t). 4" #&/% "/ ) * " (3-24)-!(#: dn(t) / dt = arni2 - ar[n0 + n(t)][p0+p(t)] = -ar[(n0+p0)n(t) + n2(t)] (1.5) ) * " (1 / + ' / '(. (1 " #1 ((!&% ( / (/$ / '".+/, "/ * " (!#"'+ -( -,!( "%. / (,/& % "% (-9 "% */ #-*/ / #1 #+# / #'1 (# / $ n2. '-/, / ('$ / )*,/-% #+# (/1.*% / #'1 (# / $ ( / *+ "/ #/$"% #-*/.,# / ('$ / p-+( (p0 > n0), " ) * " (1.5),/: dn(t) / dt = -arp0n(t) (1.6) '+ " (1 "/ ) * " / #.1 +/. " $ "/!1 (,-/* " -/ ( #- (n): n(t) = ne-arp0t = ne-t/tn (1.7)

74 Figure 1.6 Excitation and band-to-band recombination leading to photoluminescence. 9+/ "'$/ -/ p-+( "#,*,$ / (/8 # (/!1. Tn = (ar t0)-1 ' / (/ #$% 8*1%. #-/( $ (', #$%,/ $ "/ :" "% #:"% */ #-*/ Tn ' (!/ " 8*1% "% #/$"% #-. (9'1. &/ -/ n- +( ('$ #/8 # Tp=(art0)-1. "/ * " */ # */ / (/ #&/ " ':" #-*/ (/. 9&% # / (.#$ # " #/$"% #-*/.! -/ #,' $ #9'1% "% #/$"% "% (,-/* "% #-*/ "'/*/,# 1.2 -/ #$ $ #9'1% "% ':"% (,-/* "% */ &/. " -,, " */ )*,/&/ ('&/!#"'$ #% - / / *+ (# n(t) "/ ) * " (1.4) $ "/ (9'1 (,-/* " n(t) p(t) $ "/ #1 % p(0).!1# 1.7!/ $ (1 / # '1 -,, ",,#.,/1 +* ", #- "% 8*1% /: Tn = 1 / ( ar(n0 + p0) ) - " (1 / -,(", n-n p-+( ('+ / /!#"'$

75 Figure 1.7 Decay of excess electrons and holes by recombination, for Dn = Dp = 0.1p0, with n0 negligible, and t = 10 ns (Example 1.2). The exponential decay of dn(t) is linear on this semilogarithmic graph #"$,# # / /!1 # "/ 1 -,, " ",/, "/ /'( " */ # */ / (/ #&/. % (.- (# -/,# ( GaAs / /!(#-/ # 10^15 acceptors/cm^3.,,/1% (,-/* " #- ( GaAs / ( 10^6 centimeter^-3. 3 " #:" (,-/* "% "'/*/ / n0=ni^2/p0=10^-3cm^-3. '&% " -,, " ( p0>>n0!+ "/ * " (1. & / 10^14 EHP/cm^3 "#(,".+/, t=0. # / (', " " */ / '$,* #-*/!&. -,, " n << p0 / ',1 $*%!/!1# 4-7. $ ($!/ ".!$/ "% % ( '".( #+, -/ #- / (/ #+ 8*1% $( Tn = Tp = 10^-8s

76 :$$%4) &+%7$2) 07%*/ " 1'" IV "#,*, #-/% /& %, "./$" # ( / (/#+ "'/*/-&/ / '+ #1.! 8&/"! #% *% /. $% */ ('&/ $*% Si Ge " ( / (/ #+, '' (1 " /9' / '+!#"'1 # / /!/(. #$/ $ (."(% )' #+%. (/1 ':" */,,/$*/ / (/ #+ /$% "% 8&/"% ( /+ "% (/$'(."% &'% /-,% $ / (/ #$ "'/*/ (/1.*% #-! '-,# *%.#$" $! # "/ #1 */ */*/.. $ #)"% '*# # /!" #+ *% -/ / (/ #+ / /.- " / '#9/ #-% /$% +( " (/-! / (''9 /. % ( -, - 8+,% )'.+.,#,!1# 4-8 /8 -// / (/( #$ -( En % / * $ Ef *% +(, / "#/,#" # "'$/. </ (9/(/ "'$/ -% ( "#(,+/ ($ ('$,. EHP / (/8 Er, + : (a) +''":" 1% (b) +''":" "'/(. Figure 1.8 Capture processes at a recombination level: (a) hole capture at a filled recombination center; (b) electron capture at an empty center

77 #-/( $ -/ / (/ #+!1# 1.8 -!(/,# "/, & (#9/ " / (/ #+ / " +''":" 1%. / "#/$ / "#*. $ (#9/ ($ / +/# # -/ "'$/ E, ( (, " 8&/".-/(%, 1//% * (% # " /+ / (/ #+. 3 " +''":" 1% " /-, / #-/" *%.#$" '-,#. "%, " /-,,'." $/ (,$"# "'/*/,*,#$"% (/-! - # " "/ Er. </ ( (,,/$ -!(/ (#9, -/ / (/ #+ / * "/!1 ( " ( (#'"&/ # -/ "'$/), '' ' -/ EHP. 3 $/ -/% EHP / (/ #$% -'9!& '' -/ / -# / (##! ''" * " / (/ #+ //% +''":" #% 1%. #-% 8*1% ( + $ / -## / (/ #$ / *% '+' $ $ / " * " ( # ( / (/ #+, #-/( $ / /, / '". ($:" / %!$/% (, " '1:". +( #-. *%, / (/ #$% (!/.( $ "/ " /$% #- / /.#,#-/% "/!1 8&/" / " +''":" ( -// (% #- ( # / +:,#, / (''". -/ "'$/ (b) / '(. #- *% # " +''":" "% 1% (a),!1# 1.8, " 1 / # /,..# " 8&/".-/(%. (1 "!8 /-,, ( /! 8&/".-/(% "'/*/ ( 9''/ # "/ " / (/ #+. (1 ".( / / (/ #$,.&% " 1 - / (''". ' / ''"*. / (/ #$%.,*,#$" (,#% " "% +/. "% /: (t) = q[n(t)#n + p(t)#r] (1.9) % +(, " )" " $!$/ ( #- # / '(.". $ "/,1 / "% (,#% (/" " #!$/. ",1 #&/ '#&/ *$%, #8 # -/ '#,, "/ $/ " (,#% "%.&% " / " ''. 0'# *$% #('-*/ #+/ / '".+/ # -% :% -// (/*1 #- * /$% *'1/ #- * /$% '% ( -! -/ - $*% xenon. #$(% '#+%, -%!/-% $*% "!1 " */ '#&/ laser - /!" #+/

78 QUASHI-FERMI "/ ",+#/" (81" ", / # "/ 1 (9'1. ( '".( #+ EHP. $, #"!/ # / (/ #+ / "% "#/ -/,#.#1% %.,#, -/% "#,*,$% -!.#1,/ EHPs $ g(t)=gi (, "/ ) * " 1.7. (1 ",/ / "#-/" $ $ / (/ #+ - & " */ (,/& */ */ #-*/ n*^0 p*^0 / "+/: g(t) = arni2 = arn0p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i. ($,##.-"% "'&/ / " $ #)" /.11 /"1 $/ /8/. #-/% #)%,(/ ''' " 8&/"! #%.,# Zn, -/ (Zn-) 0,31eV ( / #- (! #% Zn $ #)". $#( /.- "/!. + "'$/ $ / "#,*,$, -/!#"'$ " (/-!# /&

79 Figure Energy levels of impurities in Si. The energies are measured from the nearest band edge (Ev or Ec); donor levels are designated by a plus sign and acceptors by a minus sign. & % ( / (/ #+ "%,( "% # / #". $ -/ # *,&,#"% +/. "%. <*%!/!1# 1.7, -/ $ '".( #+,#-/*/ "'/*/ &/ )/8 # -/.$!" $ +/. "% "% % ( / (/ #+. / -/.$ *%,#, -/ $ 1%,/% gop..,.#1,*,1, (,/& % */ #-*/ n p. ()".+/ /-%.-% #-%. #+ # /,:(# "/ */ n dp: g(t) + gop = arnp = ar(n0 + n)(p0 + p) (1.11).1 " / (/ #+ $!,( ", n=p. 3 " ) * " 1.11,/: g(t) + gop = arn0p0 + ar[(n0 + p0)n + dn2] (1.12) $% arn0p0 / 9&% % # / (/' 1.#1%,/% g(t). 3,,/*8/% $ n2,!#"'$ -, "%, #+# / )/,:(# "/ ) * " 1.12 *%: gop = ar(n0 +p0)n = n / Tn (1.13) (,-/* ",#-/( #- # /, *%:

80 n = p = goptn Figure Experimental arrangement for photoconductive decay measurements, and a typical oscilloscope trace. ('-( '#$% *$% # / '". # -% :% /$% (/*1 #- * /$% *'1/ ( -! - $*% xenon. (/#$(% '#+%, -%!/-% $*% "!1 " */ '#&/ laser - /!" #+/ ,# 1.3, ".1 " (,-/* "% "'/*/ /: n = n0 + n = 1,2 x 1014 = (1,5 x 1010)e(Fn - Ei)/0,0259 <( KT 0,00259eV.# *#(. 3 "'$/ Quasi Fermi 9 ".- " Fn-Ei $: Fn - Ei = 0,0259ln(8x103) = 0,233eV Fn / 0,233eV /* $,,/-%. $ -/ $# (', #$, " 1 Quasi Fermi 9 0,186eV * "% Ei (!1# 1.11). ($,#, " ( -( Fermi / 0,0259ln(6,67x10^3) 0,228eV /* $,,/-%. quosi-fermi (!1#% 1.11 /8(/ # "/ $' " $ "/ ( ' $ "/ 1 -, "..1 " Fn 8 * "% EF. $!1# / /-% $ " -, " ' -/ #,' $ #9'1% #:"% (,/& */ #-*/ &/! #1 #9'1 "% (,-/* "% "'/*/

81 Figure 1.11 Quasi-Fermi levels Fn and Fp for a Si sample with n0 = 1014 cm23, tp = 2 ms, and gop = 1019 EHP/cm3-s (Example 4 4). (/, quosi-fermi Fn Fp / ".1 " /', "/ ( -( Fermi Ef. </ / $/%,#-/ #%, ' % */ Fn Fp $ Ef /- $ # "'$/ -% 9 / $ % #-% % no po. #-/" (,-/* ",#-/( EHP ' #,#-/" 1 "/ #/$" #-*/ */ quosi-fermi Fn-Fe /!$/ # #- "% $' "% $ "/ ( Fn=Fp=Ef). -// */ quosi-fermi -*/ / '+!1 #", "/ $/ " "% #/$"% "% '/$"% (,/& */ #-*/ ( (-%, % % $"% (-% ''(/ /', #.- "

82 3- % / '+ % +% ( (1% "µ,*,+. /, / µ "'/1 ( (1 + &/ -(/ +µ / - - µ +.(/ ". +µ / ) +µ*/ µ "/ " µ)+ */ &/. / (+(/ /$µ ( *µ.!(/ "#,*,&/ ('&/: * $( "µ,&,µ% $"% ( ('+ (#9/(/ (, "'1 / -% " + " ( ('+ )* $( "µ,&,µ% $"% ( ('+ (8 $ µ% & ('$ / (µ- µ / $ µ / µ%.(µ+µ.!$/ $' "µ,*, +,!/ "'/ ( 1µ / )*. ($ "µ/ $ -!(/ "µ(,". µ9''/% % "'-% $"% ( ('+. /-% µ-. / 1 (µ % "'-% $"% / *: 0.1" µ)*/ "'1 ".1" «)-/*/» $µ*/ ('$. % 1% "'1,,/$% ( (µ9/ $/ /& (µ (' µ8. / /1 (µ *% '(, µ % 1% p n, )/µ (.-/% + )!* µµ /$% "µ,*,+, -/ µµ p -/ µµ n

83 $/ !-% p n. $/ 2.2. /*µ-/%!-% p n µ. % µ' (% (µ9'8(µ '+. "'$/, µ µ',*/ µ ( -", µ $/,*/ µ ( $" µ $/% (% % '+.% -%. -/(µ %!-% % /&/(µ, / )(µ -/ µµ "µ,*,+ -!,/ ".1" µ)*/,. '( "% 1%

84 $/ " " '+.*/ "'/*/ $ "/!1 p "/!1 n. '+. "'$/ "/!1 n '+.% -% "/!1 p µ+/! / -/ µ (! /" " µ- "/ 1. </ -/ '+. "'$/ (//1 µ '+." 1, $ «-» µ- (1. < / % /1 % */ */ ($ "µ/ $ " 1 "'$/ -(/ -/ '' )/8/

85 $/ 1.4.,µ1 «& "%» ( "'/( µ- µ 1. -' µ / $ '+. "'$/, 9 / / "/ 1, /(/ / «,*.+/» µ)+ (%,,/% µ!1 µ*µ-/" $ 1 /+µ/.,,/$% ($ "µ(, "/ /µ8$µ/"!1,+µ/* "%. $/ *% "µ(, "!1,+µ/* "%. &. '+. - µ- "/!1,+µ/* "% 9 / ($ ( µ!1!*% '' '+. "'$/. 9'- ''. ( µ */ &/) "/!1 n '' /" ( µ */ &/) "/!1 p. ( 9''(/ +/µ" -/ '+. ",&/% * "/ «1» (%!1 "% 1% µ $ "/!1,+µ/* "%. µ */ &/ */ &/,.+/ $ &µ / µ+/ / µ/".+/. $, /"$ ( "'/( ( -".$ ( */( ( $" (.-#/ $!µ-/ "'$/ () / / "1 "/!1,+µ/* "%.1 $ '+. "'$/.&%!"#8 "!1. 3/ '+. "'$/ & '-/ /-,, / (/1 % (/µ% $ µ */ &/ &/ & /!8-84 -

86 "/!1. 1 µ-/*% / -/,µ, #8/% 1 / + (+µ) µ- ( (,#%. $/ p n $/ " (,#%. (/1.*% / +µ,µ ($ '//% "/,*,#$" % 8&/%.-/(%.&% (-% /+/ "/!1,+µ/* "%. & µ+µ / / +µ "'$/ / ",+/ «/», / /".+/ $ "/!1 n "/!1 p. -% (µ-/ / / / µ'$/ µ/8/ )/ // µ 1. ($,µµ.! +µ /-,, / 91)(µ % * / µ- (/ µ/".+/ $ "/!1 +( p "/!1 +( n. /-, " $ % '+.% -% "'$/ µ / #".( $ ''"'" " # #-/" µ)+ */ + */ "% $( p n 1%. #9/#-/( ($:" $:/ $ " " (1 - / # µ * $ $, ($ *. /* $,µ. $, #$8/% "/ " µ '.% $,µ,//!$ 9&/% $ '+. 9 / µ $ "/ 1. ($,(/ µ µ$/ +.(/ "

87 "µ(,+µ µ 1 p n /&//% µ8 + µµ /$% "µ,*,+, -/ µ µ)% +( n '' µ µ)% +( p. ($ ' µ!1,+µ/* "% (!"#8,+* $ "/ 1 ("/ -/* " "'1) µ)+ */ + ('&/.!1 (1 '-,! " (# "% $(. $/ &% '(, " %. </ -(µ µ8 % +!-% "µ(,,+* $ (-% µ!1,+µ/* "%. ($, -/,µ µ8 / + (/.! " " µ)+ */!&/ p n / µ"/1. µ$8(µ " "/.1. µ'!&µ (µ9'8/ "'$/ /"$ "% (/!+% "% (-) /& µ $/!&µ (µ9'8/ -%.$ "% (/!+% "% (+). &/% µ.1 $'* " "/ 1, "'1 /"$ "/!1 n.$ "/!1 p,µ µ&/ ($ - µ / (/ "/ 1, "#(,&/% -/ +µ µ- * "% $(. "/ +)" " "% *%,µ )/8 -! *% -' µ / -(/ µ- * "% $(. ($, -/ µ,'+ +µ $(.,,/$% ($ (µ9/ µ-! " " /. ( µ-! 0,7 V. +µ & "/ / ", "'1.$ "/!1 n /"$ "/!1 p. (1 (/µ+ ( µ$8 ()/ ' +% "%!1% +:% (,#%. (µ µ '$/ $ " 1 µ / " " " % /,, /& $ µ.1 "" %!8 /, $ "/ " % */ 0,7 V ( /*. - "% / /-(µ $ % + & % (! µ µ1 "% "% "/ " % / /(/ /. "/ µ/.1 $'* " /µ8 µ-, " ", " / " $'* " /µ8 µ-, " / " ". *!1µ µ%!/ "!" 1 $( 1% p n

88 $/ " 1 "% $( 1% p n

89 $ "/!" 1 "% $( / $ " %, 0,7 V $/ '&/., /& $/ '&/ / +µ,*,1% / µ"/$. (www.mtmi.vu.lt/pfk/funkc_dariniai/diod/index.html) 2.2!4641!;"2.&2µ%&4 *+µ µ "#,*,&/ µ 1 /9' " -! +.(/ "." "% 1% p-n " *8 "/!1 n "% $(. </ ('$ *$/, */ */ " /-, / µ,'+" 1 " $ +% Eg ( /,+! µ%, "!1 n "% $( µ/8/ 8+," "'&/ -*/, ("'$/-.-% -%), µ-! -/ 9.% 40 $ "/ / ( "µ,*,+ ($/ 2.9). $/ 2.9 % (, ( '-,/ *%,!-/ µ- / "µ,*,$ µ-! /. (/ "/ / 1%. / (µ9 ($ -!% ( "µ,*,+ (+ / / - &, -/ µ,' µ-% $ (% *% /./ "/ / 1% / / (/.+/. -!!* µ$% */ *-*/. "'$ EJ "% 1%, µ8 "'$/ /!(.+/ / "µ,*,$ p. ( ( *+/ "!1 ( "µ,*,+ n ( (/+ µ "/ 1 ($/ 1.9). /.,.-% -%!+// $ "'$ EJ, // "/ 1!-/ µ- / "µ,*,$ p. 0"+µ $, +µ */ *-*/ ( - "/ 1 p-n / -' µ */ -*/ µ/$"%, ( /.-% -%. '$ -' µ (1% "% % / " µ/ " "'1% $'* "% "% *$(, $( "µ,*,$% n 8 /" "µ,*,$% p 8.. $'* " (1 /µ8 *9'=1 " " ",1 ( + /µ8 *9'=$!

90 2.3 &+&%*!').!2) /!/(-% *$% '+/ "/ 9&% /." '(, $ (% µ+% *$%. µ $*% 1",/*8(µ / "'- )1µ. /!/(-% / "' )1µ. -(/ (% "'+% 'µ+% 'µ+% *$%. -(/ $ 1µ / µ )/ "'+% 'µ+% ( 'µ9// $ / -" */ µ-/*/ */ &/ /&/, &/ ( &/ (/- */. (/". µ-/% /!/(1% / " *% "µ,*,+, (, +µ / $ " / *%. µ µ1% *$% (Light Emitting Diode LED), " /-, ( -µ "/ / +/ " "'/*/-&/ / µ " µ1 *$%. µ *, (µ9/ /. /$µ/. *% ( - " * "µ(, -/ +µ )*$ +'*µ. "µ-/ *$/,(/ "'$/ -' µ / " "µ(, /$% 8+,(% "'/(- 1%.. 8+,% ( "µ(,, -/ "'$/. (' / +µ )*$ +'*µ. <*% (% µ+% *$%, " '(, */ /!/(&/ 9 8 "/!1 "% 1% p-n. </ -/ *$/ " / -/ "'$/ µ- " 8&/".-/(% 1 /-,, / µ9 " 8&/",*,µ$"% "#(,&/% - -/ '+. "'$/ µ 1. / " "µ(, (&/ */ -*/ (µ9 µ!1 * "%, %,1,. +/. "µ(,1 (/ +µ.&% /(/ "%!1% * "%, "'/-% (/µ% '&// +µ + / (!. /& p-n / ''"' /!/(-%, ( 1µ &/ /&/, * PIN / *!/ 9% (APD s) /! µ-/, / /.µ8(/ µ/1µ */ $*/ p-n /µ&!"') (#µ%!(4.!4&+&%*!-& /!/(-% *$%!"8/ $ % µ-(% % "µ/$% / *: µ$": µ$" /$% */!/(1 / '$,% ( +µ% )$( % *% $(. < µ,'+" " µ$" ( /!/(1, $ '+" " (." ( -". + " µ$" '!- " µ µ1% +µ%,.8 µ1% +µ% "% µ-, "% µ$"% µ1% +µ% ( µ% /-. % $% µ,-%, " µ$" / "µ/$!" $ /$% /!/(1 1.8 "!- " µ)+ "% 1% $( "% "'1% )$(. µ-, ".*"1 µ$" / ( 1,05 A/W -/ µ1% +µ% */ 1300 nm. /!/(-% InGaAs ( µ( -(/ (1 µ$" $ 0,8 0,9 A/W -/ µ1% +µ% */ 1300 nm. µ-, ".*"1 µ$" /$% /!/(1 + $/ " 9/1 $ " ( /!/(1 / 100%. µ$" 9/1 $ " (") (/-/ µ "!- ": R="*'/1240 $( R=µ-, ".*"1 µ$" A/W "=

91 9/1 $ " '= µ1% +µ% nm. (/&% -/% /!/(1% 1300 nm. -! µ-, ".*"1 µ$" 1,05 A/W -/% /!/(1% 850 nm. -! 0,68 A/W. 9/1 $ ": 9/1 $ " / '$,% */!&/ 8(,&/ "'/*/ &/ ( "µ(,+/ $/ (/ *$/ /* ('$ µ% $(. 100 % 9/1 $ " "µ/ $. *$/ ( "µ(, -/ 8+,% "'/( 1%. (1 9/1 $ ", -// /!/(1 ( µ( / $ 70% *% 90%. ($ µ-,.% 9/1% $ "%!/ $ 7 *% 9 $ 10 *$/. "µ(,1 (/ %. 0,/% ( µ8(/ "/ 9/1 $ " $ / / 100% / &'% " 8+)" $ "/ / / /!/(1, " $" " *$% "/ p 1 n!1 -% (µ*/ / /!/(1. 4*"$":!*"$" /$% /!/(1 ) $ "/ /,$!1 ( )1µ% "/ / " " /* ($. µ1 /,$% µ% - µ$"!*"$". <µ*%,.&% " /,$% µ% µ&/,,/ ( '$ / (.(,µµ (µ "/ / $ / /!/(1. ($ '- $,,/$% $ " $ " "% *$( /,1 "% /,+!1%. / * +/, µ,1 $ ". µ/, ()//% «µ)µ» */ */. / "µ/$ / *8 µ$/ /$ µ-% "% /,+!1%, / '! 1 (µ ($ /$µ/.!*"$" "% *$( µ&/ µ "/ +)" " "% / "% "%.!" 1!/ $.&% " / " " ()/ /* $ Volt, " µ* " "!*"$",/ '! ". ($ "µ '-µ $ /!/(1% / '1*% *µ-/%. :"'$% / % % "% ()/(/ "/!+" ( /!/(1. (9'1 / " " µ / ()1.$(9 ( /!/(1 µ-/% & %

92 2.4! * µ+/ /!" µ".+/ / µ1 (/ */$". & " *% ( / (-% ) $ $ ( *$% ( - /* (-%. % led, *% $ +µ / $ (1. led µ+/ /!" µ".+/ *% ",1 *$% */ laser. ( (-% */( (µ,1% "% 'µ9/(/: ) 0",-% *$% $*% led laser "#,*,&/. 9) ( (-% % /!/+(/ 1µ (*/!/(-% 1."1% /!/( "%),) *9'=-% ( (-% ("' +) "'µ,/"1 /9' µ (!/$" A* < Eg / -// "µ,*,$ µ! µ1 $" ". /9' µ (!/$" Aw > Eg //$. - /9' µ / "µ(,1 8+," &/. 3/ / *µ*µ-/ "'$ (! / µ % 1% p-n 1 µ Schottky µ /!* "'$/ $ % -%. B '$, ($ (-% ( (-% / "' +,(/ "' µ$, / */!/(-%, /// "/ "'µ,/"1 /9',/% -/"'$ 1µ ! p-n ) &+&%*!) p-n / "% $'* "% /./$/ µ-/!1 " */!/(-%. B "/ /$" " "% '(,% (&/ */ ( (&/.-(µ "/!" 1 "% +µ% "% $( ($ */$" ($/ 4.10). "/ $/ (1 " +.(/ " ( +µ% " $(% '-, *% /"1, / "% +/".%, -/ "'$ +. & - (V>0, I>0), " % '(, *% "'$ (V<0, I>0), " % '(,*% */!/(1%

93 $/ 2.10: 4" 1 "% +µ% µ% p-n $(, +µ,$µ/ $ *%, IL=0,1 2 ma/cm2. µ (!" µ+/ /: +µ $( " $(% 10-9 ma/cm2, /$%,/% 1.1, / ", Rs=0, 1 / " 1% +µ%, RshC D,.µ T=300 ok. 3/ ($!- µ% p - n *$( / "/ $/ (1 " ( (1 "'$/ -%,/ "/!1!*% µ)%!*8/ $ / *µ*µ-/ "'$ $*% / "/ $/ ((1 / 1 $ -/ ( ''$ "'$ + $( % (''-,/ $ µ1"!( "% % (-%!-% µ% $( p-n.) µ-, +µ µ / (''!. $ µ p-n / $ "!- ": ().2.1) $( S / µ9$/ "% ( (1%, L / µ1% "% *1%!1%. ().2.2)

94 /* ) * " µ%!/ (.µ$,*,1% 8(,&/ "'/*/ &/ ((.-/% $. *$/ (, -/ 8(, "'/( 1%, P1 / " ( -/ " /9'% ( µ/% W/m2) Pl/h* / " 1 */*/ (/ µ/ µ9+ / ($'). () (9) $/ 2.11: ) *% p-n * µ-/" $ ($ *µ 9),µµ 8&/"% µ% / '*µ-/"% $( p n. /. &/% "/ ) * " 2.2 "/ ) * " 2.1 ''"&//% "/ ) * " 9 (µ $ +µ /: ().2.3) "% 'µ9/(µ / * (', µ$, " µ-, " $" ('',1%, µ p n: ().2.4)

95 / '9(µ ($:" $:/ µ%,,/$% $ µ$ $ ( *$% /' $ "/ / ( */!/(1, $ " ) * " (1,/ *% )1%:

96 ().2.5) $( R / (/' 1% /' "%, *% $ * "%- & 1-R / / ' µ */ */*/!*+/ / "µ,*,$. <*% / $ "/ ) * " 4.5 p n µ µ,'+% *-% (Intrinsic)!-% -!(/ µ,'+" 9/1 $". $ "/ ''",!$/% µ% ( -/% ( % 8 "/ $ " (!/$"% */ $*/ p n) ()/ /', L. ($.8 µ.1 '',1 / $! µ+ */ $*/ p n. µ-, " (!/$" "% '(,% */ p n *$*/ InGaAs / "% )*% */ 10 GHz. (1 / '+ µ,'+" $ % (-% % (!/$"% */ *,*,&/ (photoconductor), % / 100 MHz. "%.$(9% µ p n / (/1.*% '+ µ$% $ $ -/ *,*,$. $ "/ ''" * / ( 8(/ -% (Aph = 1), " $ " "% *$(, Rph E Qc'(µm)/1.24 / '+ µ$" $ $ -// *,*,$ ) 1%!4*(%0 µ0.!470474) * ( '' "' + / 9 /µ$( $*% p n. 0 + " %. *%, $( -/ +µ $. µ +µ "% $( & (/'$ +µ / $ "/ *!- ": ().2.6) $(.-µ/ +µ, ph, / $*% ",*,1 */ "'/*/ */ &/ / "/ $/ "'$/ ( -% µ8+/ "/!1 $( (! '/$" -*/ $ "'$, "/!1,+µ/* "%.,$µ/ $ *% % '+/ -/ +µ, /. +µ $( "/ / " $'* ". (/&%, " % µ /!" µ". *% */!/(1%,!" µ&/% / " 1 µ"/1 " $'* "%,.&% µ+µ/ +µ '$,* *$% / /', "% -/ "% ( /% *$%. % µ "% /!" µ". *% "'$ +,!" µ&/%.1 $'* ",, /, "'1!+. +!" µ% *$( / " $ ", +µ " $(% +% 8&/"%. $ " / +µ '$,* *$%!*8$µ/ $ "/ ( 1!+. µ-, ($ +µ, µ * + µ: ().2.7)

97 $( Pin " ( 1!+%. µ-, +µ 'µ9/!& $/.!$µ/ *$/ "µ(, -/ 8+,% "'/( 1% (µ9'' +µ '$,* *$%. +µ ($ "/ ( µ% /' "% R "/ / "% *$( µ% $" "% (/$"% d -/ ('$ µ (/' 1 $" "% $ "/ *!- ": ().2.8) +µ ($ + ' $ *% µ&/ $ / 8+," "'/*/ &/ (,/ '$,* *$% / (.+/ µ- " * / / /+/ µ- %!-% $( (!(/ '/$" -*/. +µ " $(% / +µ ( / " ( *$%. +µ ($ (! '$,* ( /+ +µ% $(, "'1 "%,*,1% - / + "% */ -*/ "/!1,+µ/* "%. /% 1%, " (µ9/ "/. +µ " $(% / µ/-% *% 8 "/ '! "!+ " /!/+ $ " *, $( +µ '$,* *$% / '+ µ$ $ +µ " $(% / + ' / µ"

98 2.4.3! p-n * / *(." "#,*,&/ (-% p-n), */ */ " '(, 9 8 *9'=$ /$µ/. '' '$,, (, $/ / *8/ (µ-/ *% //, /& $/ *8/ ''8(/ "/ "'1 (% (µ% )% ( *+ *"'+ /µ-/( ( /+ µ- (-%. /$µ/ ($, µ / "'*. *% *9'=$, $/ / (! )*1 "'1 $'* ", 1 / *,*,µ$", $/ (! $'* ". ($ "µ/ $ * µ+/ / '(,1 (/ / *9'=!, '' / *,&,µ ('. "/ &" * ", " *% (µ- / µ,//1 "'+ +µ% (*+µ) ($/ 2.13) ( ( " -/ " µ / (',. µ " 91. "% ) * "% 1.9 +/µ "'$ +'*µ / "/ $/ ) 9)

99 $/ 2.13 V ev/ = Ip - Ipn B I = IP(Popt) - I0 I= (e 1) ().2.9) R $(, IP(Popt) / *+µ ( ) $ "/ 1!+, R / " / " ( ('&µ% (/ " (), Ipn / +µ ( - "/ 1, V / " " "% / "% R, I0 (eev/ 1) + $,,/$% $, " /µ1 */ */ q µ- (/µ$ V "% 1% '(. " /µ1 Boltzmann, q = q0 eev/ ().2.10) $( / ".µ "% $(, e / ( "'/( =1.38x10-23 joule/grad (. Boltzmann) ("!/(!"') 1%!4*(0)!/).!47274* *+µ "'$ +'*µ "% $/% 1.14, / ) (µ % * & %: $/

100 0&" 0* ", VdF0. </ Vd=0.$% $% "% ) * "% 2.9 / % µ " µ/ $: Id = Ip (Popt) BPopt Vd=0 ().2.11) "%, $/ Vd<0 $.$% $% eev/ <<1 I0<< Ip (Popt), $ " ) * " 2.9 / ' "/ ) * " "/ * " '$/ ( VdF0 +µ (. - +'*µ "% *$(. / /)" "% "% Vd /', "% 1%!+% Popt. 1" " (1 /8 "/!1 ( ) "% "'1%!" 1% Id=f(Popt) ($/ 2.149), µ "/ 1!" 1 Ip=f(Popt) ($/ 2.15). ) 9) $/ * " +", Vd>V,. "/ * " (1, $/ "'1 " " Vd "% *$( / µ,'+" $ " ",*,1% V,, $.$%,/% "% ) * "% 2.9. / ''-% -% µ,'+% $ " µ/ '-/ +µ Ipn.1% $'* "% "% $(. / '+ µ,'+ $ *+µ Ip(Popt). $: Id E I0 eevd/ ().2.12)

101 ) * " 2.12 / *+ "/!1 (I) "% "'1%!" 1% Id=f(Popt) "% *$(, ($/ 2.149). 0* " ", Id=0. "/ * " (1 +'*µ "% *$( / /!$ (/- / - µ +µ, (Id=0). +µ*/ µ ( ( /-µ, *% ("'$/-.-% -%) ( "µ(,+/ µ- " * '!*8/ µ "/ " ( "'+ ( "% 1% µ -' µ (!( (+ / /+ "'1 " Vp " /µ8 " /!+ 9$!( "% *$( 1 *9'=1 ".!- " µ+ "% *9'=1% "% Vp + $ "/ ) * " 2.9 / (1.- (µ Id=0 Vd=Vp. (,µ-/: 0 = Ip (Popt) - I0 (eevp/ 1)B eevp/ = 1 + Ip (Popt) / I0 B evp/ = ln (1 + Ip (Popt) /I0) B Vp = /e ln (1 + Ip (Popt) / I0) Id=0 ().2.13) "/ $/ / " )" " "% *9'=1% "% Vp "% *$( $ "/ 1!+ Popt ( (1. 0* " -", 0< Vd< V,. "/ * " (1 +µ.1% $'* "% *+µ "% *$( / (, µ µ µ-/ $ *+µ Ip /.$, () µ$/ $ "/ 1!+), /& +µ Ipn ()/ µ "/ +)" " "% "% Vd, (/'$ +µ Id ( - " *. µ9'' $ " µ1 Ip "/ µ1 0, (!1 IV "% "'1%!" 1% "% $( ($/ 2.149). $ "/ /'( " ( ",1." (,µ-/ $ "/ "'1!" 1 "% *$( ($/ 2.149) +(/ * "1 %:

102 "/!1 ( ) " % /. '*µ-/" +µ Id ()/. µ "/ " Vd. "/!1 (1, " '(, "% *$( / "8 $ "/ 1!+ Popt (/-, $% -',!% ( +µ% "% $( / +/%. "/!1 ( ) " % / / '*µ-/" +µ Id -!.1 µ1 Ip (+µ $(), ( ),µµ $ "/ 1!+ Popt ( *8 " *. "/!1 (1, " *% '(, *% *,&,µ ('$!" µ (*%, "/ /!/( " / $ µ$ "%!+% "% 1% /9'%. "/!1 IV " % /. '*µ-/" '(, *% *9'=$!. "µ µ1% */ µ('&/ Id=f(Vd) µ / )/ Vd µ% /(/ % µ-% Vp */ *"',&/ (/µ*/, 1 *9'=&/ */. "%, µ-% */ µ('&/ (&/ µ / )/ Id /!+/ +µ 9!(+'* "% Is (=Ip) ( + $/ " " "% *$( / µ"-/

103 2.4.5 %4&%"!µ!!4727& p-n / * p-n µ+/ /!" µ".+/ / */!/(-% % -% /*/%, ( ( 8(/ % /.+µ"% $"%: / -!(/ µ,'" (.". 0( 8(/.$(9. / //, (/1.*%, /" %,1,% µ9'-% "% */1% 1% *% +( / µ+/ /!" µ".+/ -% /*/%, " µ µ,'"% (!/$"% "µ*/. $ % /.+µ"% (-% $"%, " " / " "µ/1, '$, ($..1 (µ / " (/1 (µ. $/ 2.16!/ µ / '*µ-/" * p-n.&% "/ /µ1 ( "'+ ( µ- "/!1,+µ/* "%. +% "%!1% (1%,, µ-/" / " $'* ", ) $ " (,-/* " */ $µ*/ $ µ)"% (% "µ,*,+% ( 9 / -*./ "% 1% p- n. $/ 1.16 $/

104 (,µ-/, $ µ1 / " (,-/* " (1 $ µ,' / +% "%!1%,+µ/* "%. 3, " *% "% $/% 1.16 ' $ -// "µ,*,$ +( p µ µ,'" (,-/* ".&/ &/ $ -// "µ,*,$ +( n µ '+ µ1 (,-/* " '(.-*/ "'/*/. / " )" (1-1 /9', *$/. -'.(/ / "µ,*,$ +( p $ (. + (/ "/!1,+µ/* "% $(. "µ(,1 (/ *"'+% %, ("'$/.-% -%). "/!1,+µ/* "%, "'$/.-% -%.!* +/ µ- *%. /".+/ /. )% "% +)"% ( "'+ (, /& *% ( "µ(,+/ "/!1 p.!(.+/ % "/!1,+µ/* "% $(. (''!.+/. "%!( "% / '+,1!- " µ "/ /" " */ "'&/ -*/ µ- "'$ *% +(. (!.( -" ", / '1"!* µ$ */ *"'&/ -*/ " *. ($ "µ/ $ * p-n ( 8(/ /, "'1 -!(/ µ1!+" $ "% % µ9'-% "% 1%!+%. -' µ "% /.+µ""% (1% $"% / "/ $/ 4.17 $( " $µ" µ9'1 ( *+µ% Ip - " *. $ /* + $, "/ +)" " "%!+"% $ "% "% *$(, - " $" " */ */*/ /,/, + '$,, µ- "/!1,+µ/* "%. &" 9'* " "% $"% (1% -! '&//% " (,-/* " */ $µ*/ $ µ)"% / "µ,*,$ p. 3, µ (1 *% p-n -! +%!1%,+µ/* "% ( 1-3 µm. " "% ) $ $ µ1% +µ% "% 1% /9'% $ $ ('$ "% )"%.,µ * ((, (Si), -!(/ µ-, " " "/ 1!1 ( + µ%, ( µm) /& *,µ/(, (Ge), "!1 '" / ( (-(.(, ( µm). ("µ& % "'/1% Laser, 1% (.%.1999, '.115) 2.5! pin $9'"µ "%!+"% $ "% */ *$*/,/ $µ -// % -% /*/% $( µ1" +µ% (!" µ+/ / "/!1 ( (-(.( 9." ( "% "% /9'% (% "µ,*,+% "% *$( / µ,'.,,/$% ($ 9'' "!1,+µ/* "%,+* $ "/ 1 p-n / -! $ (/$ µ,'+ +%. ($ µ / (!. / µ)+ */ + "#,*,&/ +( p-n µ9'". -/% % "µ,*,$% +( n µ '+ µ1 (,-/* " µ)*/, $ " & ($% /.* $µ" /,/1% (intrinsic).,*,µ$" "% /µ "% (1%!1% / µ$" $ "/,*,µ$" */ "#,*,&/ p n "% )"%. )" ( + ' " µ1 "% *$( pin, (Positive-Intrinsic- Negative), "% % "!1 i /!1,+µ/* "%. +% "%!1% i µ / ', " (1% "% *$(, - & $' '-/ *$/ / +/ µ- (1 µ '$

105

106 -' µ, $' *"' % /!*8/ / /+/ ($!/ ($ "/ " ( "'+ (. $/ 2.18!/ µ / '*µ-/" * pin.&% "/ /µ1 ( "'+ ( µ- "/!1 i. µ (1 * pin +% "%!1% i / µ) µm, " 9/1 "% $ "./ 85%,!$/% $ "% % µ9'-% */ &/ "µ*/ / µ$% ( 1ns. $/ 2.18 µ1, " ", µ '1, µ,'( µ1(% +µ%, $ " µ! µ- $'* "%, / " ',$µ/" p-i-n µ1, ( / "/ $/

107 $/ 2.19:!"µ1 µ1 µ% pin *$(. /- " /µ1 ( "'+ ( µ- " µ1 pin * pin -!(/ * '/1µ: ()/.- µ% $,%, "/!µ'& " */*/, ()//% (/- '% ( &µ% -/* "% µ-/( / +!(/ µ,'+" $ ". 3/ (+ &µ -/* "% µ&/ "/!*"$" 1% & / (),",$" $ ". $, ($!/ ()/!$/% µ "% - / " /,/ µ /.µ ". µ* " "% /',% /µ /.µ$ */ */ (,/,+* $ "/!1 /.µ$ */ */ (,/ µ- "!1 -/* "%, ()/ "/!+" "% ( (1%

108 - 1-LED "#(, + 1#% / "#/1, # ' '(,&/ ), % '"&/. 1#!" #+/,.$/%, / 9''(/ '"% -% #/1#% +/, ( 1# #/1#"% 9 #-/ 1 /,/& ". % #1% *$%, ( (/1.*% ' LED (light-emitting diode) / # $ % '+ % "'/-% ( (-%, " -! 9 "#/-% #,-% *%.$/".&% "% *% ",1 + 1#%, -% /*/%. / # % "#,*,&/ ( -# +/ /+ #% *% $/ '&/. "/ +.(/ " "% p-n 1%. - % p- '(-%,!-/ "'$/ #- $ % n- '(-%,!-/ -%. ($ /$#/ / # #1 "'*+,% ($ "'$ /$#/ ( (#9/ $/ -/ ('$ -# &% *% -' # "'+ +#% ( -! $ ($ 1 /$% "'+ (). 3/ LED / (/1.*% # #1%!1% ",1 *$%, (!/ #.-#/ "%, / #& #/-' /9'% "%. LED!" #+/ (!/ *% # % *$% % "'/-% ( (-% $' (:"'$"%!+% #,-%, $*% -"% *!&*/.!&# ( *$% ( -# ) $ " +/. " "/ " ( ('+ ( "#,*,+ (!" #. ', / $/ LED #+/ / (/( +/, /,(/.!&# (#'#9/#-/( ( '(+. -(. (&" (UVA) LED / "%.- #. LED # "% /!" #". *% 1 ",1 *$%. $% $ * #$, /-( % #,-% / " * " ( /+ " '+#/ " */ ( (&/

109 1.1!4("#!4+%0 %!-% ( 20( &/, Henry Round "% Marconi Labs &% 1" $ "#,*,&/ #+/ /,(/ *%. & % Oleg Vladimirovich Losev "#+," & LED #- ( (/ (, $' ( "# +." *,,#/ 9/ "#/,,/1.". Rubin Braunstein ( Radio Corporation of America /-." "/ (-(." #1 $,'' arsenide (GaAs) ''*/ #*/ "#,*,&/ (/"-% "% Texas Instruments, Bob Biard Gary Pittman, * / 1961 $,'' arsenide )-# (-(." /9' $/ #8$/ ($ "'$ +#. Biard Pittman 1/.- " / )(/ "/,($" "%, % (% -'9/ '*# (!/%, "/ (-(." #1% *$%. Nick Holonyak Jr. "% General Electric Company!,$ 0/ 1# ( Illinois Urbana-Champaign, /-() & $ $ # LED 1962.* *% "-% "% $( #1% *$%". 3/% &"/ "1% ( Holonyak, M. George Craford, /$" 1972 & / LED 10 -% '#$ $/ $/-' LED. Shuji Nakamura "% */1% Nichia Corporation -) & (:"'1% */$"% #' LED #!1 " ( InGaN, 9 #-/ GaN nucleation ( &# 8+ 9 #-/ p-+ GaN (! /(!. $ / I. Akasaki H. Amano Nagoya Alberto Barbieri Cardiff University Laboratory (GB) +/" "/ ' #$" "/ ) ( (:"'1% */$"% LED /+/% (:"'$ -' #!" #&/% # /1 1 ( #-/" $ / ) ( ( (ITO) (AlGaInP / GaAs) LED. +)" ( #' LED (:"'1% $ "% 1," & '($ LED,!" #+, Y3Al5O12:Ce, 1 "YAG", * " * $( $ #,# /( #' *$%,/,(/ *% ( / '($. Nakamura! /#" # 9!/',% Millennium, "/ + 1 (

110 1.2 &"#1*5/!& LED &",/* 1 / "% $( #1% *$% ( -# - " -,/ 1907 $ 9/$ (/"1 H. J. Round. $, / -,/!1 " "% /'(:"%, -% %. /)", Oleg Vladimirovich Losev "# ( "*/$ /.( [9 ( ((] /!/(1 /!/( " # ( ''(%" (Luminous carborundum [silicon carbide] detector and detection with crystals) " * 1 "# Telegrafiya i Telefoniya bez Provodov ( +#" "', "'*/). -, ( Losev $#*% / #$ ", %. & LED (-." $ / Nick Holonyak, Jr., 1962 /& 1/ "/ General Electric Company - " #.- # -'" "% % ( 1960.!&# ( &( LED 1/ $/.!/!" #". (/1.*% *% (, % (* "%,! -#"#*/, & 9$ )' #$ $*% )' #$, "&/ "'/&/ #&/ " (/-! ( (-%, $*% "' %, $*/, "'-*/,.##"!/-%, $#" '$,. ( $/ LED 1/ '#, /!" #+/ #$/ *% % +,$#/ &% / 1/ $,/ *8 -/!&.,$, ''!&# -,// (-*%.- # "% #/ "/ ( (-% )' #$..&% "!/', */ LED ('&/ -,/ ",#-/", ",*,1 ( *$% ()1." ', "&/% "/ ' #$" "/ ), *% +( LED."/ */,/!" #".+/, * #$. $ LED ( "/ '+ - */ 5!' &/ T1³/B 3!' &/ T1, '' # (:"'$"!+. / '-/ /, " '',1 $ ".#$", #-/( / "". " '1 ), - ( -!(/,/ ' # #-/ "!( " "%.#$"%. '-/ -, (:"'1%!+% LED -(/ '," #$" #! LED

111 1. 3!%+&4140!& LED *" 1%!4*(0 LED ' $ -/ "#,*,+ ('+($*% # //1 %) # #-/ # #)% & / "#(,". # pn +* ". <*% (#9/ ''% $(%, +# - +' $ p ## ( ('&#%(''&% /$(), % "/ n- '((''&%.$(), '' / (#9/ /.. "'$/ -%, -(/ "/ 1 $ "'$ # -% %. </ -/ "'$/ (// # 1, ($ #" -/!#"'$ /,$, '(.&/ /-, # " #1 /$% */(. #1% +#% ( *$% ( -#, +*% /!&#, ) $ " /,$! # */ ('&/ ( '+/ pn #1#. % $(% (( 1,#/(, "'$/ -% / (/(8/ $ # #" /9'1 #9 " " /, 1 #1,.&% ( / (' -## ( /,+! #%. ('!" #+/, LED -!(/ # /,$! # # /-, ( /!!$/ (-(., $ 1 / "/ (&" /9'. LED )/" / / /+ / # (-(.% (.-% ( (-% ( -!(/ ( #,'' arsenide. )-')" "/ 1#" */ ('&/ -! 1 (/1 "/,*,1 =$/*/ # $' #$ #1" +#%,,(/ *% # '!*#*/. LED / (/1.*%,#-/ /* -/ n-+( ($ *#, # -/ "'$ ( (/- # p-+( ($ *#."#-/ "/ / (. p- +( ( &# / ',$ (!/!" #+/ "%. 0'' # LEDs, *% GaN / InGaN, "%,!" #+/ ($ *# (. $ (' (!" #+/, "/,*,1 LED -!(/ '+ (:"'$ "%.' "%. ($ "#/ $ '+ *% //' * " 1 ( ('+.&% / -. ( &# -(/ #$#/ #1% +#% /, ( "8/ $ # //' 1 & " # ( )'&/ &%, ()//% "/ ' #$" */ LED. "%.' "% ( ('+ ( ( %. - / 8 # / " */ "#,*,&/,,$#/ *% //' #&% * / "#,*,$ $( # / ". / # $.".#$" #&//% - "/ $ ". (+ ( (% " /' " (#9/, "%, "/ / ( -( / LED / (/#-/ -/ ($ *# # $ ".' "%, $*% #,('/" / " -%. "%.' "% */ $*/ "#,*,&/ LED / (:"'$%, - $'%!$/ % & % LED / (/#-/ -/ #- # '+ #$ ". #,'" ( ".' "%. "/ /' " -/ ($

112 $9'"# ( +#*/ # (% (/' -% Fresnel) (1 / (/1.*% # $ % (!% % /' #$"% */ LED. (!/, $ $ # $ ( #$#/( *$% //' * LED % )*-% ( (/- %. /' " % $% & % #&/!" #&/% -/ - # #1 +'( (# 1 ) # " -/ & )!$#/% /% /!(+/ "/ /.-*%,,*/ ( '! "/ /' ". 3/ /-/' $! # # /. "%. - # / / -/."/$ ' $ # / /!*# #-/, ($ $#*% /.,."+% '$,(% 1, / 9'& '$, /. "%.!&# "% ( ( % / "8 "#/!&# ( #$#/( *$%. 2''% ",-%, " #* " */ & */ "% /' "% '#9/(/! #$ ( LED & / / /-# /'&#/ *% (/+'* " */*/).&% "/ " " "% # 1% #1% "% /% & / #*. (/' 1% /' "%, # "/,*,1 (!% /*#'% "/ / # " #-. moth-eye. 0/% ('&/ "#,*,&/ $ (8/ (#9 LED:

113

114 1.4. ('+4*%) %3%103%)!/)!%+&4140) LED LEDs ( / ( #-/ $ (% "#,*,+% InGaAlP /+!."/ $ "/ Toshiba - "!/', -/ -/ '#!- " # "/ */$" */ LED. Toshiba, # "!1 " */ MOCVD (Metal Oxide 4"#1 /$. " #&/) /-() # #1, ( 1/.- " /, 90% 1 $ *%. ($ (/' "/!$/ ' +)" " "% */$"% */ LED +, " # % (#9-% ( (-%. $ " */ LED 9'&." -* # "/.-* " /$% &#% #$ "% " #1 ( LED - ($ (#9'' "/ '+" $ " "% ( (1%. % -' # */ )')*/ (&/, #,'+ #-% "% /()"% */ LED " ( /*. % 9 +% #%: &% / -',!% "% ('% ( (-%, / #+/ &, 1# */ 8&/,,#, & /+/( */ &/ /*/. +% / /% #9'"&/ #"/(#*/, $*% ($ ( 9 "/ Times Square "% -% $"% % #/8(/ 9 =$/, 1 % ''% '"%. % / #,-% (/1*/. LED! "/ $ $ #-! /!.+/ "/,(!$/ / $ 30). #' LED,!."/ $, ",+/ '-/ $ # '$'"",/ /-*/ #,&/. #' LEDs, '$,* "% (:"'1% /-,% */( (> 2.5eV) "%!!#"'1% (." % */ #&/ 1/ / + ' /!.+/. '-/, "!/', ( / /,, "/ (1 (&/ */ LEDs / '+ 1!- " # $( LED ('. LED -!(/ $ "/ 91 "' "/ "9 /#*8(/ '-/, /()" "/,. "!1 " ('&/ InGaAlP MOCVD (/( #$ # "/ ' #1!1 (% "#(, *%.!/', (1, #8 # '' /- LED. ) ' "/ ( #,1 */ LEDs. )')% #' ( #% " /,", "/,*,1 '(+ *$% ()/(/ % 1 %, % /#-% (-% ",-% *$%. 0% % */ ",1 */, / -#:(/ *%.8(/!&# ( *$%;

115 </ #$8 #-/" " chip, "'$/ #+/ / /".+/ +' #$/ # +.(/ " #1% "% +/ "% #)+ */!&/ p n. "/!1 p (!(/ '+ $. $ $ /". "/!1 n "'$/ / o '' $. "'. </ # " #$8 (! 1 "'/*/, "'$/ "/!1 n -!(/ "/ /-, /1 / / / /".+/ #1% "% +/ "% "/!1 p. "/!1 p "'$/ '+/ #- *% $. '$,* */ #9*/ (/#*/ Coulomb "% -')"% #)+ */ /.*/ "'&/ */. </ -/ "'$/ / / -/.$ "/!1 p, + /&//.. ( -!(# # -/* " /$% "'/( # -/.$, " "'1 /-, #- "'#,/"1 /-,.. -/* " /$% /"+.+ (, # $" (9/) "'#,/"1% /-,% -# ($ #1 */( # # (!/$"!" 1 ( ('+ $ -! ( "#,*,$% ( (/1.*% -/% (/( #$% */!"#&/!*/,''(, ( /+ ( * $(). $/ *$/ -/ '+ /$ # (!/$"% #+/ / #.+/ $ 1 ('$. LED ( -#(/!&# '+/ $ (' "#,*,&/, +/ -% /-,%, / -#:(/ *$/. 0$ " /-, -#(/ LED; "'1 /-, / /'," % "/ " (, / /, "'$/ / + (/ #1% "% +/ "% p-n.!*# #-/ LED -#(/ (*% '+ /$% /(!&#%. /-, (E) ( *$% ( -# $ LED (!8 # "'$ (q) /$% "'/( "/ " (V) ( +/, / /: LED +#*/ # "/ ) * ": = q*v Joules. (1 " ) * " ' '- $ " " / /'," % "/ "'1 /-,, / #,/1 1'* " (!+, 1 +'*#,.&% "%, LED..$ q / "'$ /$% "'/( + # -1.6 X Coulomb. / (.- (# $ -!(# #1 "/ " ( #$8 /$% LED.(#+# / 9+# "/ /!" /-, (, / /: LED. / (.- (# $ "/ * " /$% $/( LED " " ( #$8 #)+ */ */ ( LED / 1.71 Volt. 3 " /-,, / /: LED / = qv 1 = -1.6 X (1.71) Joule, #-/( $ -/ Coulomb*Volt / -/ Joule. $ "/ ) * " -!(# / -' # = 2.74 X Joule. + " "% (!/$"% #1% $ #1% +#% ( *$%. (!/$" ( *$% ( -# (!8 # #1% +#% ( *$% # -// '+ '$ $. #1% +#% (!8 # " (!/$" ( *$% #- * %!- "%

116 c = ' * f $( c / "!+" ( *$% (3 X 108 m/s) ' / #1% +#% ( *$% ( 98 $ #$# ( % #/% //#-*/ #-*/)..- $ "1 $/ LED #- * ( #$#(, & $ LED -# -/ +%!*#*/ # " #-, " -/ " ( /! -/ #1% +#% $*% 98 $ #$# # = 660 nm X 10-9 nm. /!" (!/$" "/ $/ LED -# #,'+ #-% ( *$% / X 1014 Hertz % LED ' LED / 9 #-/ (% "#,*,+% ( / ( #-/ $ GaN (/,'') InGaN (/-,''-/). +/ / (/( +/ # $/ / LED, /,(/ "/ /+* " ( ( *$%, / '-/ $*%. +# " (/-! LED /, # (1/ "/!/1. & #' LED ( " 1971 $ Pankove ((-"% */ LED /(-,''(), 1 RCA. 0$' ( (-% LED ( 1/ '+ +/#, / -!(/ 1!1 ". 0% -'% "% % ( '80, "#/-% /'+:% /* (% "#,*,+% GaN "/!/1 p-type doping $ / Isamu Akasaki / Hiroshi Amano! / " +,!/"!1 */ GaN "'/&/ ( (&/./ -' # 1993 (:"'1% */$"% #' LED ( " #- * "%, % ( Shuji Nakamura "/ Nichia. $ -'" % ( '90, #' LED!,/ (-*%.- # $!& $ 1% LED #' LED -!(/ # /,1!1 ( ' $ -/ 1 $ 9/ InGaN ( #&!// #)+ */!+*/ *#*/ GaN, '+/ &# -/( "%. 9''/% "/!1 $" ( GaN 9/ InGaN, " ' #1 *$% # / (#/. $ &% #-! 9.+ #'. /-,''(-'(#/( AlGaN '( #-(% AlN # /!" #"., / ( "/ -/( " 9/, (&" LED, '' (-% ( (-% / -!(/. $# $"%!/',$ */ #'/ /*/ LED ingan-gan. / /, 9/ / GaN, / '1 # /#,#-/ InGaN 1 AlGaN, " ( (1. -#: *% (,,8 (&%# #1" +#% / (#// ( nm. To 0 / LED ( (8 $ ingan-gan / '+ $ */$ $ / LEDs (, # (' #"-/*/. / ( -!(/ '(#/, (*% AlGaN AlGaInN, $# # #1" +#% / +)#. LED ( -#(/ *% #1" +#% ( nm, (,,8 "'1 (&%, / 1" "/ (!/ )+/ / ( black light, "/ /!/( " '," "% */ UV (,"#*/ -,,!/# #

117 #$( #1(% +#%, /& ( / 9$%, /.- #% #$, #1" +#% * */ 247 nm.&" LED ( -#(/ nm (*%!" #+/ ( (-% '+#/ "% * "%. #1" +#% * */ 210 nm +!."/, 1!" #&/% / '(#/( %*"# LED - cite_note-21!(/ + $, " "#(, LED '(+ *$% (:"'1% -/ "%. &% / "#(,&/% & ##/*#-/ LED ( -#(/!!&#, $/, / #' /#,/+/% - $',$#/!&# (, LED,/!. " /+* "'(+ *$%. % +( =$/ ' '+!*#- LED (#-% -% '+#/ RGB LED). 1 #"!/ #$% ( '#9/ ' "'$!-, / '-,) #,# "!( " */ &/!*#*/ (1 " -,, " -!!" #". / #8 =$/ ( LEDs " 9#"!/. /+% (1 " #-.% / /-(, ''+% (/"-% 1#/% '$,* "% (')% "% #)"% */ &/!*#*/.,/-%,##-%, ($% #"!/ #$% -! "% "/ (:"'$" 9/1 $" "/,*,1 ( ( *$%. $ "/ ''" # " +" #-.%,*,1% '(+ LED '#9/ "/ -/( " ( LED /$%!&#% ( (/1.*% #' LED,#-/*/ $ InGaN) # *# * 8( &/ ( &/ /$% +!&#%, /,, '($ *%. /', #!&# */!&/ LED, &# * 8( &/ ( &/ &/!*#*/ #+/ "% /!" #".+/. "/ #,1 */ *#*/ * 8( &/ ( &/ */ (*/!*#*/, #+# ' #/ ()1 (#!&# ( / LED. 1 (1 " #-.%,*,1% ( LEDs (. "!1 " * 8( &/ ( &/, $'(. LED ' 9 #-/ * 8( % ( % LED. / ('$ / ( $ '+!*# LEDs, 9 #-/ * 8( % ( % LED -! #!#"'$" 9/1 $". /+% / $# " "#'- "!/1 (1% (:"'1% -/ "% '(+ LED.&% "% (:"'1% -/ "% LED ''*/!*#*/ 1 '+ ('$" ('1 ), #-/*% 8 % "#/-% #,-%. 0''1. -!,/, "/ 9' " " ( '(,+ 9''/%, "'1.# +'*#,, ($/ / + */ LED.!(/ + '+!*#*/- */ LED: -, -!*#$ LED.,/%-' ( '#9// (' '$:" #)+ (&/ */ &/,, */ '#9/(/ ".$"!&#% (colour stability), " 9.# " */ */!& */ *$% (colour rendering) " */1 $" (luminous efficiency). */1 $" (luminous efficiency) / -/% $% ( 8 " */1 1 / "'1 #/ 1%. / -/%,/%-' " #'-" "% /,1% $"%.,/-%,##-%, / /-% ( (-% % "% * #+ #+/ / ( +/, */$"% # / (!. # /!" #1 #$/ 1/20 "% /-,% ( # /1 ",1-(& *% * #+..$"!&#% (colour stability) / -/% ()1,"%

118 $% o George Palmer! * $ /'"$!&# /$% /#-/( ) -// $ "/ ",1 * #+. /'(: $ # "/ ' ",&/ * #+,!&# /$% /#-/(,/$/ /'"$ # $ $. $,* "% /($#/"% + "% (% (! / /. " #)+ "% */1% $ "% $"% 9.# "%!&#%. 0,#%!/,!*#$ LEDs -! "/ '+" */1 $" (120 lm/w) '' "!#"'$" /$" 9.# "%!&#%. /.-*%!*#$ LED!&# '' *!1 */1 $".!*#$ LED 9 ( /# -!/% '1 */1 $" (> 70 lm/w) 9.# "!&#%. 9 #-/ * 8( % ( % LED (8/.&/% InGaN #' LED #- : #% * 8( % ( % LED 9 #- -/ )$ 9'"#. / (+ ( +( '( LED -!(/ -//! ('$ #"!/ #$ (1%, "/!1 " (%./(#.#'&% #+% '$,* "% /$("% &'% /-,%, # &' ( #/8 $/ #-/ *$/ #+ #1(% +#% *$/ #,'( #1(% +#%. )(#-/( (+ ( #/1#% "!/1 (1 (. $ #,'+ #-% "% 9#"!/% (1% LED '$,* (!#"'$( $ (% "% (:"'1% $"%. <' (:"'1% -/ "% '( LED "/, (8/ #' ($ / $. */ '+!*#*/-'(&/ LED / $! #$/ # ''" '+ ",*,1% ( '(+ *$%, '' / '$'"" /-!/1,*,1% *$% &/!*#*/.,/-%,##-% $'!&# $ # #+/ /!.+/ # " #)" ( + + &/!&/!*#*/!" ($. (/$% 91% (/#$% -',!%!&#%. /+% + / #- / # ($% +% LED -// $' "/,, - / '(.+/!/ 9'1#. - 9'1# '#9/(/,,/$% $ " -/ " ( #$#/( *$% (+ ( +( LED #&/. # "/ +)" " "%.#, # (/- # ( 1 '',1 ".$"!&#%. - $9'"# / / $, 9#"!/1!1 ". #-/*%, '' /-!- ( ( % /$% LED,(!+(/ / '+ (/ ($ $9'"#, -!(/. '- # (% /,/ $ (% (/"-% (% 1#/%. ' /$%, 9 #-/ * 8( % ( % '( LED / " 9-' " '+ ", /!. '($ *% (:"'1% -/ "%. 4" / '( (#-/ #"!/ #$ (, ($% +% LED -! '+ '+ /-/ "/ 9#"!/ * #+. $,* "%.$"% $ 1% (% - $ # #1.# &/, *$(.&% "% =$/ 9 #-/ ($/ / 9 #-/ * 8( % ( % #"!/ #$ LED -!(/ #/ 1" "/,. /#-/ /!.o+/ $# (:"'$"% -/ "% '( LED //$ #-''/. /+% " #,'+" $'" " ( -!(/ / /#* (/ (+ ( +( LED / " /#/ /$(" /,1 &'. ($ #/ (!. # "/ #,1 /$% '+(!( ( ( % 1 # "/ / " /$% ''"'$( +( * 8( % ( %. ($ LED # "% / ( $ "/ * " LED, -# *% '+ / "/ (&" / (NUV), # #,# (:"'1%

119 $"% $/*/ #' * 8( &/ ( &/,9 #-/% (&, (/!'$ ( -# / /!(#-/ #,' (aluminium doped ) (' :(,(((ZnS:6u, Al). (1 / # #-.% /'," # / $ # / ('+(/ '#1%. #+. /+% (&% *% ' " (9.# " )$ '(## '' '' (' (!" #+/ " ( ( */ LED -!/% / -' # # +/#" 8*1%. /$" #-.% (!" #, / ( '($ LED /!" # # * 8( ( / 9 #-/" '1/ :(,(( (ZnSe) -/ ($ *# ZnSe ( -# ($!/ #' *% $ "/ /,$!1 ( / *% $ ($ *#. /-!/1 ( /+ '#9/ "/ -/( " #' LED # 9/ "# ( /9'+/ '($ $ " #' *% (, #' LED. (1 "!/1, -/.#$, '(/ *% $# # ($ (, $ (% '#1% (& *%. BLUE-YELLOW LEDs: "/!/1 (1!" #+# -/ GaN #' LED.&% # * 1 -/* " (yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG) phosphor). #' *% ( -# $ LED $ "/ * 1 -/* " "/ (/-! (1 -# *$/ /( *$%!" #&/% /$#/ ( * #+. 3 '($ *% (, / (/( #$% #' /( *$%. <#*% "!/1 (1 ( 8 -/ $9'"#. < ()/ " -/ " ( +#% ( LED " -/ " ( #' *$% (electroluminescence) ()/!*% $#*% / -!(# #,'" +)" " "/ -/ " ( /( *$%. ($ -! *% -' # "/ +)" " # % (!&#% (/- *% / / $ % #'. RED-GREEN LEDs: "/!/1 (1!" # -/ $/ LED *% 9 " * 1 -/* " (, / *%. (1 "/ * "($*% "/ * " ( #'-/( LED) " +)" " "/ -/ " ( +#% LED -! *% -' # "/ +)" " "% -/ "% ( $/( #$#/( *$%!*% / -!(# "/ "" +)" " "/ -/ " ( /(. (/- (+ / LED /, *% #!#"'1.#!&#% (/ "'1 % $/). BLUE-GREEN-RED LEDs: "/!/1 (1!" # -/ #' LED.&% $/% /% * -% /& %. #' LED!" #,/, % * -% /& % $*% 9&% "/ * " ( BLUE-YELLOW LED. "/ +)" " "% -/ "% ( +#% ( - LED -!(# /$#/ ( "+# $'!$/ LEDs # '(:" * $(. +)" " "% -/ "% "% /9'% $ #' LED (/+ $ +)" " /9'% $ "/ '( */ * $*/. <#*% " +)" " "% /9'% ( $/( * $( /, / /.# "/ /9' ( /( * $( "% #' ",1% # -' # / /9/ ".# ( '(+ *$%

120 $/: 3/ " ( *$%!- " # "/ -/ " ( +#% #1" +#% Near-UV LEDs, Blue, Green, Red Phosphors: (1 "!/1 ( ' )-')" "% ",+#/"%. "/!/1 (1!" #+# InGaN AlGaN near-uv LEDs ( -#(/ *$/ # #1% +#% / (&%,.&% * -% /& % ( / (/$/ /,(/ $/, /, #' *%. LED ($ '(, $*% # '#. #+.! n-uv LED, *$/ "/!1 ( (&(% "/ (/-!,(/ #$ */ * &/ /& */ "/ (/-!,/,(/ *$/ # #1% +#% 450nm(#'), 500nm( /), 600nm($/). $/: 3/ " ( *$%!- " # "/ -/ " ( +#% #1" +#%

121 PHOSFOR-FREE BLUE-GREEN LED:!/1 ( LEDs ( '+/ $ -/ &# AlGaInP. 2 LED InGaN-GaN -#(/ /9' 460nm(#') 550nm( /) "/ (/-!,(/ &# AlGaInP # -' # ($ # "/ ( / -# /9' 630nm($/).&. - / / $ &# AlGaInP. - / / ( #-/ - & / 1/ "/ /9' $ o #' / LED / &# "/ (/-! /9'% / /#!.+/ /,(/ '($ *%. $/: #1 /$% BLUE-GREEN LED epitaxy AlGaInP layer Nitride-Based Cascade Near White LEDs:!/1 (1!" # + /9'% + #1(% +#%, / +! '($ *%. <#*% /!" #+# 2 LED #$/ -/ LED (, 2 -% /9'%. LED ($ / ( #-/ $ 2 &# InGaN-GaN # 1 $" In, / (!.+/ #1" +#%. $/: #1 /$% BLUE-GREEN CASCADE LED

122 0 1 ',1 */ &/ #"&/ +#% #+# / +!(# LED ( ".# ( '(+!&#% (, / #9'' "#/ $ ()/ " -/ " ( +#% ( - LED, /. " # LED # '(:" * &/ /& */. $/: 3/ " ( *$%!- " # "/ -/ " ( +#% #1" +#% Quantum Dot Leds 9/-% '% / //-+ '' "#,*, (.-(/ #/-% -% $"%, #$#/!&# (% # / (.# $ $ #-! (-(. #. ($ - 9/ #-/*/ '*/ LED / "#(,+/!$/ 1!&#,## CIE -! $% ',-%!*#*/ '+"%!*#1% $ "% '( LED. LED 9/ #-/*/ '*/ /.- # % % ( ( % # + +( LED * $(

123 1.5 (&"') %" 4$ ).!2) (OLEDs) / ('$ ( &#% #1% /$% LED / #,/1 -/* " $ ($ /,/* $ *%,/1 % #1% *$% (OLED). / '(,1 *% "#,*,$%. -,/$ ('$ #1% / -! (8(,% p- #+%. ('$ #1%. #+ / / -/ #$,/$ #$ #- # ( ''1 " 1 -/ '(#-%. 0'(#1 (' # / / (-', - LED /,/* *% PLED 1 FLED. +, " # (/1." LED, OLED / '+ '(#1 LED #+/ / -!(/ $. '/-"# $ / (-'. #-/% #''/-% #,-% */ OLED. #+ / / /:."/-%, (-'%.$/% 0",-% *$% #1 %!*/ */ ( # OLED -!(/!" #"., "/,*,1 &/.$/*/ "&/ "'/&/ ( (&/ $*% /", :"-% *,-% #"!/-% MP3 players. 3!(/ "% ( #,'+%.$/% '' " &#/" 8*1% (% / '+ #1 & / / -%, #$" $ 1000 &% !%1%$!"2!/! " 1%!4*("') (#$%!(4 / LED -!(/!, / '(,+/ # "'$ +# ( / (9/ milliwatts (mw). +* 1999, " Philips Lumileds 1,, LED /, (/!1 '(, 1 watt. ( LED!" #+/ '+ #,'+ #,-." #1% "#,*,+, /! +/ % #,'% -% +#%. "%, "#,*, 1/ /"#-/ #'' #1# & / -(/ "/,*,1.#$"% $ " #1 ( LED. 3/ $ 9 '/1# ( * #+ ( 9 8 LED / " (:"'1 $ ", $*% (1 # $,$#/ *% / #/!+% $(. '( LED,1, - / '' )- / "/ $ " */ ' &/ ( "#*/ * #+ (& *%. 2002, " Lumileds + LED */ 5 watt # */1 ' #$" */ Lumens / watt (lm/w). (,, -/% (#9$% '#1% (* "% */ W, ( 15lm/W /& (#9 '#1%. #+,(/ -*% 100lm/W. */ -#9 ( / /- % #' LED ( " $ "/ Cree Inc., "/!1 24 mw 20 ma. 3!." -/ #$ LED '(+ *$% -/ *% 65 lm/w 20 ma,. &/% */$ '($ LED ( 1/ #.- # /" "/!1.&% $ $ - % -% ' #$ $ (% /+% '#1% (& *% " $ */ 131 lm/w 20 ma, 2007 " Seoul Semiconductor ( -/ LED -/ 135 lm/w / */ 145 lm/w 1/ '+ ' #$ $ (% /+% '#1% (& *% $# '+ $ (% /+% '#1%. #+. -'%, " Nichia

124 Corporation /-() -/ LED '(+ *$% # */1 ' #$" "% )"% */ 150 lm/w 20 ma. - "% / "#*. $ (:"'1%!+% LED (W B 1) / /,, #,-% * #+ $. ($ +# '(,% (&/ */ ( (&/ )/ $ 350 ma. (:"'$"% $"% (:"'1%!+% '($ LED $ " Philips Lumileds Lighting Co # */1 ' #$" "% )"% */ 115 lm/w 350 ma *&!2!/!%)!& OLED 1#, OLED '(,+/ # "#/!#"'$" $ " $ /$,/ (( '') LED. '+" */1 ' #$" /$% OLED #-! & / ( 10% (.*"+ #-, ( */ 683, '($ *%, "'1 ( 68 lm/w. / '+."/$ "/ (1!- " # /$,/ LED #,'% (!% $ ( #+/ /.".+/ #.$/",!" #&/% '-% #.$(% +* "%, & / "#(,". # -,!*#".$/",&/. 1.6 (2 4!4+0) /$% $%!% */ LED / " 1 #* " "% #1% *$% " &' ' #$"%. $, )/-% (!% # / (#9+/ "%. #"!/ #$% #* "% "% /-,% "% /,1%!1%, $( (#9/ / (/( #$% "% /9'%, (#'#9/ (1/* " /()" ",#*/, ($ -/(!/ '*# + ''!+/ $ " 8- ", "/ (:"'1 (/$" ( +#% #$#/ *%. / (,''( / ( '(#/+!(,''( / (." / #"!/ #$ $ * +! / (,''( * +! /. $,* */ &/ 1*/ */ /,&/!&/ 8*+!,'' 8*+! / (,''( / ( 8(/ (." (+ ( (% '*#. $, (:"'1% (/$"% +# # / '- #/ ( " "'/*/ $ # ( 9 / $% */ /,&/!&/, '&/% #/ " #& */ "#!%, '(,&/% *% -/ #" /9'+ / (/( #+,/%.#$" /, *%. /8( /9' # / ",1-9'1# "%, '+/ /9'1 '1(/ " */ ('*#*/ ( -!(/ LED. "%, & $/ LED 1/,/*, " +/#" 8*1% (%. '( LED (!/!" #+/ # 1 $% * 8( % ( % % /(/ / (9.#8/ # ".#$" - # (!$/( ",&/% &' ' #$"% '&/% '',-%!&# (,$#/( *$%. 8 LED (!/!" #+/ #,/1 +/. " * $( ", $# # $ #-% &% '(,%, # / (9.# '&/% #,'" '',1,$#/!&#

125 :"' "' +# (/( #$ # (:"'-%.# % # / '- (/!( " $#*/ #''( $ "'$ "/ /,$!1. (', (*% /+! ) ( (,(%, ($/ #/ ( " "'/*/ # -' # " 1 +#% #" /9'+ / (/( #+ ( chip. #-/% & %, # GaN /InGaN $(%, #''$ #$!" #, / # % & % "% #/ ( "%. "!/-% - %, (:"' +# 9*$ 9''/ #+/ / ",1 (/!"# #$ ( ''& */, '&/% 9!(('&#. (:"'1%!+% LED / (." /$#/ ( /#8 current crowding, "'1 " #" #,/1 /#1 "% (/$"% ( +#% $'" "/ 1. ($ # / ",1 " "#(, &/.#&/ "#*/ (! "% /)-',"%.#1% '(,%. /#,-/% ($ *#, % '+/.#1,*,#$", /&/(/ "/ ". 0 /-% $ (-% % /#,-/% / /, ( '+/ $ '1 (,$''" " 1 $ #/ ( " "'/*/,.&% / Kirkendall. /, " /)-',".#1'(, / # /1 (!% */ LED. #+/ / ( +/ -% -% 8"#-% $/ #$#/ *% (9 -/ # # -' # / '". '& # "% /%. "%, # (' "% ' 1% ( ( % /(/ / /8(/ $/ (9''/.#$" '&/% #1 $" " */ "8$#/*/ #"&/ +#% (/- &' ' #$"%. 7/-% (!% */ LED '/ (!/.#-% /1 %. </ " )1 "/" (!" # " ( ( ".# #* "% (,('+,!8 / -'' #!% (.#+% '&/% #"!/-% /1 % / "#,*,$ " (/#-/" 1 '&/% "/ ).-/ " " $# # (%. /., '+!#"'-%.# % # / '- (/, # " ( (. -'%, " "' 1 $ " (ESD) # / '- # " (! "% 1% ( "#,*,+, # #$/#" '',1 */ #-*/ "% 1 $# '/./( % 9'9% ( '+/ ()"#-/ (.#$ $#" "%. 1.7 (461/$!$40 "!#!/ +(/ /. $ (% '#1% (& *% ( -#(/ *% /)" $ "/ "'1 '$", '#1% LED -!(/ *% #$// ".1 "'1 '$". </ " " " +8()".+ - /"+ (pn) / " * 1 +.(/ ", $ - "#/1 $" +#% " )"!"8 *% -!( "/ % #$% +.(/ " 1% +#%. / " +/ " " " -! /." '$", $ - '+ #1 $" +#% / -# *%. 0''! LED -!(/ #-/% (/$"% / "% 1% # -' # / -/ / ' (-% # " (:"'$" $ # 9'. 0'' " '#1*/ LED / (/$ / '(,1 (/ # /'' $#/ +# '' -!(/ *% #$/ " 1.+ +#%, #

126 -' # *% ( -! / #/8 /$#/ flicker. -'%, "!1 " (% (.% # /'' $#/ +#.* *% 1 * ", # -' # / / (!/1 " #,1 (% # (/!-% +# #- * #!"# &/ /.*&/ ( "#*/. #$/%,(% $%, / (# "/ '$" ( LED / / ) +/!" ( LED. * #-. / )$ %: +#9' + - #$ /% (A).% (K) #+ /$ )*$ $,,(',*/ *$ #$ #,' '** " $/" #+",$ )$ % #-., / #$ "% '$"% / $#/%: +#9' + - "# /-/ '* pin 1 2 '- $,,('",*/" 0$' ( / / "# )$ " #-.%, /!$/, #*% $ *% ## ( " #1 ( LED /! "/.. (/ /*% *% / # #!#"'1 " / "". * #$%, /)" $ " #-. (.!" #"., / #$ "% '$"%. 1!" */ LED, "/ " -// ( +#% / $*% $'% % $(% ("'1 +# /!$/.1% (/" "% *% % "/ ") # #1 '',1 "/ " ' '',1 +#. ($ "#/ $ # (,#-/" ",1 "% ( # # ( ' / /9 LED, '' / -:. / #/ "!+%!$/.1 #9'-% "/!1!" */ LED, - / (! ",1 +#% "'1 +# ( -! / /.$. / / (:"'1 $ ", # -,, " "/ ",1 +#% / /,/ " +/ " */ LED # # / " #+ +#%, # ",1 "%. $ LED "% -!(/!#"'-% #1 % / "% "%, $ # /.(/ 8"# # # / " " (. / /* $ # volt. 1 '' ( -% / '(.+/ %,-%,. - / ) +/!" ( LED / (/., 1 / # $, / (!.+/ -( (% 9'1#. LED '-/ #+# / #".(+# # / *#*#-/% -% / */. (-% #+/ / ) ' (/ $!& % '-% /!1 #% $/!// *$( 1 /,/ '-% # $ $ ' ($/ (!/ 9'-:! -%. 0$' ( " #1 "% / "% -!. " "%,*,1%, $ / # / ()#*. " -/ " ( LED. 0#-/( / ()". " ' #$", "!+% # / #. $ / (.#$% ( * #+ /

127 ,1,% $ ($/ ( # / / /.*%, LED. / *% / &% /##-/. 0''' LED #+/ / (/.+/ # # / " +#%, #-/( $ " " "% ",1% / #,'+" $ +/' "% "% (. LED. / (/1 " ''"'" +/ ", '' # / / 9'"#1. LED ( / (/#-/ ''"' - / -!(/ $#% %, / -!(/ +# $ -) *$%. LED 2!*#*/ '+/ $ 2 $(%, #. +.(/ ",.-/ +!&#% ( (/1.*% $/ /) //% " (/$" /!. -/ #,' #!*#*/, ''8/% $ (!$/( ( #-/ " ". $'.!(/ LED # /* $ 2 $(% +!&#%,#-/ /.. ( LED /!8 / / - " '$", /!.+/!&#, '' / " /(!(/ /* $ 2 "'$. (/1.*% LED #-/(/ /##-/,, $' "# ( /&/ $ +#, '' (!(/.- # LED ( /9 91/(/. ( '+/ $ // LED '' '-/ -!(/ -/ +'*# * ( / LED / /9 91/ ( (/1.*%. -/ ($'). (+ ( +( LED,/ (/1.*% /, $/ 1 /!&#, '' (!(/ "% # ''!&#. /$, LED /&( +( (3mm 1 5mm) -!(/ (/#+ ( / / * /. (/#+ ) $ "!"# ( LED, "/.# +#. 4&# (/#+ (Vf) -(. 1.6 V $/ V 0' 2.2 V / 2.4 V 0 / 2.6 V ' V V &% 3.5 V LED "% '(,+/ *% *+,(/ +# /', # *%. / / '+ 9-9 / *+,(/ #$/ ', ma, '' "'$ (/#$ (,(/ / "% )"% */ 2 # 3volt. ($ / /* $ $, / '(,1 -// /!(1 1 # ',1 +'" +( CMOS %4&%"!$! +(/)!& LED H!1 " */ LEDs #/8 "#/ '/1#, (/:8/ *% )1%:

128 LEDs +/ "#/!#"'$" /'* " +#%!- " # % '-% '#%.!" $ (% ($. +!" ( (-% (!" #+/ #% *% /,1 ",1. LEDs -!(/ " (/$" / -#(/ *% (,#-/*/!*#&/!& */,!*% / "!1 "!*#&/ '*/, $*% (#9/ # % -% #.$(% * #+, (#9''/% -* " #* " (!+ $ (%. (#,1% ( ( /$% LED # /! - & / /&/ *% $*% / /,, /& ''% ",-% * #+ +/ )*+% /' 1%, / (,/&/(/ *% / (.+/(/ % # +.(/ " # +!" $. </!" #+/ #,-% $( «( "», LEDs / ''8(/ "/ $!* 1 (%,.&% +# (!-!#"'&/, /. " # % '#% (* "%, % ' /8(/. LEDs (8/ #- (#,%.1%, % +(/, )",&/% " #,'" (%. / -!(/ (,( /. " # (% (#,% '#1%. #+. LEDs -!(/ ) #,'" 8*1%: //, ( - -" ( &% 8*1%), "'1!$/ ' $ (% '+(% '#1%. #+ -% #,'+" $ (% '+(% '#1% (& *%. -9, - / "#*. $ '#1%. #+ #+/ "% / -!(/ ) #,'", '' ($ (#9/ #$/ * " ( '(,+/!#"'$" $ "/ //1 ", # #,'% ',-% &'%. $ "/ ''" '(, LEDs ) '8(/ #,'" $# $/ '(,+/ #-, /-,% (%. $,* */ (/1*/ ( /.&/( #+, '#$% */ LED # / ''), / )/#". /-, 1, /,/ 1 #,'+" */$". '-/, LEDs!8(/ /./ # " 1 #* " "% -/ "% ( *$% (%, /& '#1% (* "%,/ )/. LEDs -#(/ &% #$".#$"!- " # (% '#1% (* "%. -'%, LEDs /9(/,1,. 3/% '$% "% LED (,!/ '1" -/ " *$% ' # ( ('-(. 1.9 %4&%"!$! +(/)!& LED

129 0,,/$% $ "!" #" " */ LEDs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nm #+/ / '- (/ '',1 (!&#% /#-/*/ '$,* ( /#-/( ( ## #+. LED / #&/ 9&% # ",1 *$%, $ / # /!" #". #,-% ( +/ ''"'% /% *$%. / -!(/ "/ (/$" 9% /"$ 9.#$, /. " # laser ( " $' " / "% )"% 0.2 #&/ 1 ',$. ($ 9-9.&/ # "!1 " &/ 1 ''*/ &/ ( (&/.! #,/1 /" (! *% LED #' (!&#% #+/ / (9+/ $ '%, /.&/ #

130 LED!(/ % 9 + */ LED: #,%, '.#", ( 1# * # "(4(.0%) LED ( / (*% single-die LED (!" #+/ *% %, #/8/ % %--: /!1% 2 mm 3 mm (1) 5 mm (T1³ B) 2'' #,-." / "%.- #, '' ',$ (!/.!1# -*/:,,('$, (1!1#.$'(,,('$, " (1.,&/, " (1 (( (!/ #/8/ LED / % bar,"#*/),*/$ 1,*/, " (1 /.('* " # "% / / 1 1 "#-/1, " 9'* " "% /. "% "%,*/%.- "%.!(/ % +% ",% #,&/ single-die LED: 4#"'$ +# - (/1.*% # 2 ma ( 2 V (( 4 mw /'* "). (/1."% - LED */ 20 ma ( 2 V (( 40 MW), $/, ', / /, 20 ma 4-5 V (( 100 MW), #', 9' '($. -(:"'1 $ " - 20 ma ( 2 V V,! #-/, 9'1 # "'$ *% Multi-color LED 3/ "bi-color LED" / "/,#$" + LED # * ". ' $ +!&# ( (/-/# (% (% +,*,+%, '' ",+/ /.% (.+/ %. 1 ( +#% % # #$/ +.(/ ",, -/!&#, " 1 ( +#% % "/ ''" +.(/ "

131 , ''!&#. /'' /% +!&# # 1 ' "/ #/ " /$% (!&#%. (!/$" 3/ "tri-color LED" / "% + LED # * ", '' + LED / (/#-/ )!* +%,*,+% - & + LED #+/ / '-,!/ /)" / /9(/ (!$/*%. RGB LED -!(/ $/, / #'!&#, #1,!" #&/%,/ +/ " */ '**/!8$#/ -/ /$ (/ 1.). 5 volt 12 volt LED ( / # LED ( '#9/(/ # / */, #+/ / (/.+/ (.% 5 V 1 12 V (/#$ %. Flashing LED ( LED '#(/ $/ (/-/ # 5 V 1 12 V. 4" #+/ *% %, / 1 (/ "/!1 $( /.(#"$, / (!. " '('$" */ )*&/ "'/&/ &/ (,$/!"2 LED.$/% LED /.- #% #1 7-#"#*/ starburst #1..$/% "% #1% */ 7-#"#*/!8/ $'(% (%.#+% -/ #-/ +/',##*/..$/% "% #1% Starburst #+/ / #/ (/ $',##. LED.$/% */ 7-#"#*/ 1/ (!1 " " ( 1970 ( 1980, '' " ()"#-/"!1 " */./&/ */ (,&/ ( ''*/, #!#"'$" /'* " /-,% #,'+" (') $/ "%, #* " "#$" */.#"&/ '.#"&/ LED./&/ ($4')!& LED #-/% $ % #,-% */ $*/ #1% *$% ( 8/ *. ( (-%, -% #,-%, -/( ",!/ 4 1, $*%, "' % VCR, (!/!" #+/ (-(. LED. Glowlights, *% 91, '' # #,'+" (/$" /!" #" "%'+ ", Glowsticks.."1% /" "%,,,# / / (', 1.."1% Nintendo Wii!" #+/ (-(.% LED. % -% /% Free Space Optics /*/%.!/.'" "

132 * #$% */1 '* >/(,. ( (-%.# (,$''" "%, " #-" " ( #+ )(,$/(. LED *., "/ #1,!" #&/% #' 1 $/ LED -!!. $ #&/ "#/ "/ #1 " #% #"/"% $(. #-/ *-%!" #+/ # $ $/, / #' LED $! "/ (1 :(!1. '#1*/. #+ *% ",1 *$%. 3!/% / /)" -',! */ &/!&# - / *1,,#1 " 9.#/$#" ", 91!&#%, / (! /,",.-#/ ". (% (', -%. #-/ (', -%!" #+/ * #$ LED, / 1 (/ "/!1 -/ (,#-/ ( $. 0'' ( -% "'/&/ (', &/!" #+/ LED, / /"#& (/!1 ", "/ */1 ". 3/,#. #+ / / Mac,!1 " $/ ($%. " «+/(» 91//% & LED. "/ * " ( /+ ''*/ ( &/,!" #&/% (&% *%.,' & '+#/ $ LED / ' # $,,(/ $ *% / watt $ ''% /''-% '+ % $ 1 #+/ / #$8/ (,#-/% (!/$"% )&/% - "!1 " (%. 0,# #,&/ / *: #1% * #+ / * #$% )*&/!&*/,'"% '#%.$/% video!/$% * #$% 0",1 *$%, ( 1#!/"1% $ "% ( +/ */$", ", #,-/./&% 9 $ * #$. & "'*/ &, #"!/, (#'#9/#-/*/ #-/*/ #/-'*/ ( /+/ #"!/. * #$%,!1# -"% /,"%

133 ($% * #$%, LCD.$/% "' %.. #$" */ LED (,#-/!&# (RGB) - # '1(% #% ",1 *$%, " (+/ # */!*#*/ ( 45%. & "/&/ (!" #+/ (!% LED, / / 1 (/ (% '#1% (* "%. LED,(/ ',$".#$", (/&% / +' / '(,+/ / #&/(/ "#/ / /(/ (,%.! (,// & 9 #-/ LED -!(/. $ 2002, '' & #$'%!8(/ / (/ "#$"!1,,/$% ( ' (:"'$!$ $ %,% +, " # & (* "%. $ %,% # / / $#" #,'+, #/!*#-% (!% LED &*/ # / 1 $,$#/!&#, $*% #9, 8 1 '($. /)" $ "/ (:"'$"!1 #1,%, (/'$ $ % " %,! (,// & LED. #+ /!#-/*% / / &" $ "/ TCO, $# & (* "% #-/( $ LED +/ '+ ',$"!+, / )!. $ *$% $*% # $# '# (& *%. LED -!(/!$/ $ " 8*1 / (#*#-/ / /!" #+/ /)$ % 8% $*%,/ # % / #% '#%. 3, # $ LED & /#-/ / 81, $ "#,!*% # (/1" ". % /% % # ' )' #+ / /% 0/% )$( 0/% "#&/ (& */ (/!% % * #$% (#&/ /'( 1*/ -% '-%.$/% #"/(#*/ $# "#+%.#+%,.$/% (!/(/ / #$, -/, '*,#$, # '#/. $/ 1 / LED!" # (% % % '.#"-%.$/% 9''/ $( - / "". " /(!/1 $ ":.'# (9-/" "% (%, (9(!*/,-(% '*/, /#, ""1,,.!. /(!/1 '+." " 8&*/ *. $/, /, / #' LED # /!" #"., #,-% "#&/,##&/ "/ )/$#" " /*/ */, "/ #/ "#"/(#*/

134 $,* "% #,'"% % 8*1% "%,1,"% /'',1%, LED -!(/!" #". (/", & -/*/ ( /."#-/ (:"' & -/*/ ",&/ '**/ /% &/ '' ''!1#!8(/ & /!" #+/ LED, +/' */.*/ #&/ *$%. $% $ $'% "% ) %, ($ -! #& '/1#, $ LED / / / "#(,1 (/!/$ *% $ & (& *% # 9'+% /' 1%. "#/1 9'* " (!$/( (,/ /: ( *% 0.5s!+ $ # '# (* "%) 9'&/ "/ ' //% $!$/ (% ",+%,/ / (/. % #-% $"% ",1 "% "'/ ('&#. & " "% % (/#+ (,,#, ( 1,7 V, -/ //$ $/ LED) # /!" #". / "% $( Zener!#"'1% "% (.# -%. Zener / /.- #% * $ " */ 3V. * #$% )*&/!&*/ * # )*&/!&*/ '#9/#-/*/ */ &/, */ $#*/, */!&*/.#( "%,.&% (% 8$#(%!" #+/ #,'" '# (' $ #-'' ',/*/ (MH) /( (:"'1% "% (HPS). / '$,*! (:"'1% /,1% $ "% ",-% *$% 1/!1 ", ''!$/. $ $ % )')% "/!/', */ LED -!(/ ",1 # /- ',1, / (. * #$, # '' '/1# -// */ (/"&/ MH HPS. '&%! #-/ LED )*+!&( #+/ / -!(/ "/ +#/" / * #+!" #&/% ',$" /-, 9'&//% "/ #,-/, +, " # HID. LED * # / -!(/ "#/ #,'+" 8*1% ( &% 1 $, +, " # *% &%) # "/ '+" 1" " "% */1% 1%. "% '' '/1# */ LED '#9/(/: / -!(/ (,(, #$'(9, 1 ''(%,/* +% /+/(%. "%. * #$% / # %!*%!/1.( -" ". 0-*, /&!/',% MH HPS (/!8(/ / 9'&//, "!/', */ LED / '+,1," $ "/ ' #$" ( *$%, "/ $"!&#%, / $! #$, "/.#1! ", $ %

135 0",-% * #+, ( 1#!/"1% $ "% < " 9#"!/ */ LED (/!8 / ()/, "!/', */ LED. #/8 (!/ #,-% (!8/ # "/ (/"9#"!/. 0'' /.* / (/"+/ $ (!/1 / "!1 " */ LED / $ # */ (/1*/ 1#. 9 1 $" # "/ # / /,/* -/ LED *% /,,/$% $ /9,#. /$ ($!" $ */ LED " '% ( (/1( & */ -/*/.!1 " */ LED & */ (/1*/ / ''"'$" $ (% +% '#1%, '( # - # */!$/*/!/(/ "/ */$" (%.!" $ ($,/ $ #/-% "/ 1," " $/ * $ +!1#, -/ / #-/ # & LED /& '' / /.,# /# # " ( /."$ LED '%. / (.#$% # / /9 91/ /.$%, " # +)" " ( (.#+ (+ ( /#-/(. % -' #, " #/ " ( '% / $.1, (% ",+%.,,+% #-''/, '$,* ( $ "!1 " */ LED '% & */ -/*/ 1/ ' #1, ( -% (/1*/ / / #$8(/ "/!/', LED $! #$/ * & (, '' (% 9'% (. $ -% ( 2008, -!(#! / 9'-(# (/" / / )' #-/ # 9'% LED (/1*/. $, (,/% 9'% LED./$/ / #"/ ()(/, +/#!/$ "# '$,* 9 &/ #&/ (#9$"%. LED ( 9'- /.!" #+/ -/ $ /' 1, ''. ( +/ '' +"%,/%. 1 #1 (,/+% LED 9'- (/1(. - / / 1 '1*% /!$ $ 9'-. LED 9'-%. '(, '+ $ / $( 9'- (/1*/. 0 (,#-/ 9'% "8/ "/ *1 //' 1 /, / /(.+/(/ *% (, $ / 9'- 9'9+. /. " '(, */ 9'-*/ LED / 9.#$ (, #" # "/ '(, */ '-8. #-/( $ LED #+/ / -#:(/ *% # (,#-/" +.(/ ", " '(, "% /' 1% $"% ( + 9'- / / '-/ "". $, -/% )*$% $% $% # / 9".1 "/ " ( *$% (, $ % '(!/% LED, # $ #-/" - #". #$" (, $ "/ #1 $*/ &*/. # # #,'" $" "%.#$"%. &% LED 9'-% (/1(./$. / *#& LED, # (:"'1.#!&#% (. '" 8 ( (% 6000 Kelvin. <*% "!/', )', / '+./$!/',% ( 9 8/ '( LED /!" #".+/ (% 9'% (/1*/. 9'% # LED. -(/ # '+ #,'+" 8*1%, (. )/ /" ( (/1(. % +(, LED 9'-% /. (/1" ",.&%..- #$/# -/ 9'"# %. 0,,/$% $ " ""!/', $ (!8/ /.- # 1#, * $ $ %, "/ (1 (% / / $ $ (% $(%, -% (/1*/. (1 " '',1. -'. +/#, + " 9#"!/ (/!&% ()/ $ % ()/ ' #. Chameleon LED (!" # * / ( (/1( -!!*1 "/,*,1 $ #- ( $'- --/ '% LED -!!" $ "/ '1 '(, ('*#*/ " (#'#9/ & 1#/ "%, & -" "%,.&% '%. % )!* -% -%

136 /-,% /!+/ "/ '(, */ * &*/. )*!(' -!(/ % /$"% "#*/ 1% /& *!(' '(,+/ *% % &/ -/*/. (/'1 #/ " '(,$" / $# # "/ 1" (!( # */ 2.5-inch LED, * &. /'*-% (.(#+/ / / 1 (/ 1" (!/ / # -/ LED #+/ / #$ (/ "/ )*1 #. )*1 #% (#/ "/ 1 / # /. #-! % 6 / %.,,/$% $ #- #-,.% */ ()1 */ / ( 0,25 / % - '(.#% '',-% "/ # ( (#// #)+ 1 6 / %..- #!&# '#9/(/ $/, / '.!&#!+(/, $'% % '(,% (#'#9/#-/*/ */ &*/ 1#/ "%, */ &*/ */ -/*/.&% */ &*/, 1# 1%. Lunar Design Corporation -! 1# % 1 % */ '&/, / #$ & LED, * / / $# # Chameleon LED. LED & 0,* "% &%,* "% */ &/ 9 (/1.*% "/!1 "% #+"% 1 */ &/ ( (%. *% )(" + 9 +% +%. *%,* "% */ &/ ()/ "/ $".&% ($ '" 8 / #, / -/ "#/$!" $, "/ '. 2'' ",.&% +,% '-,!( ( #( #+/ +' / /8(/ " (,,8(/ # "/ 91. */ &*/,* "%. '-/ "!1 " */ LED,/ / # 9".&/% # ($/ / $ / '$ "/ #,* "%. '(, */ &*/,* "% / "" "/ "%,* "%,* "%, /!" # " "% //1% 1 "%. (,#-/% & % (! /!$#/, '$% /!" # *% 1# '' ", " "% 1 "%. (1 " #-.% /*/% / # '1 #-.% (!" #, "/ /"#-* " "%. % (. (%. 3/ $ "#/ #/1# (!8/ # &,* "% / " ). $% *$% '#1% - / (#/ % (/.1%. ( % ' #,* " (/%. ($ -! *% -' #,.,* " "/ # " 1 (, "/ / " (. 3 ()/ #,1, (.#$ $ % (/1" "% &/. LED &,* "% /-!(/ (% #+% ( '+/ "/ #,* "% /. " # (% +% '#1%. '-/, LED *%,* "%-!*%!" $ "/ #,'" 8*1% -/ */ /1/!'*/ *&/. ($ -! *% -' # "/ )/$#" " */ $*/ "/ (/ (/1" "% */ &/. / " ( + '#1 # LED ", "/ "#(, ''&/ /-*/ (/1*/. 0 (,#-/ /- " &*/,* "%. -!(/ *%!" $ # (+",*/ - #"% ''"'", % % ( (#9/(/ $# %,. *8 -/ (+ # ( '#-/ ( (%. ($. (!. #!1 " "% '(,% ( 9 + *$%. 0$' ( / 8/

137 , "/,* ", " '(, 9 + *$%. - # #-., "/ +)" " "% $"% */ &/. $% $ (!", LED *%,* "% */ &/. - #." " # +/"% (% '$(%.,*,1 ( &( LED -!! 1" $ / +,( ( $*",*,1 -! - #/% % -!(/! #, (,#-/ " #/-'. ', " '# "%,*,1% -!.,, / #- / '+: "/ +)" " "% (#9$"% /$% (+( #% */ &/ 0/% LED!(/ + + LED /*/: (#9, #!1 " &/ LED, /% /% 9 "% ( (1% (surface mounted device - SMD). $% (.%.$/% #-%.$/% *+!&( / ( #-/% $ LED, "%,/* *% )#(#-/ LED. 3/ +#',# $ $/", /" #'!" #+/ $ /+, /!"# (/ -/ '1% -,!*# pixel, (/1.*%,*/!1#. ( pixel -!(/ /#". )!* #&/ $ -/ -/, $'(" /'( " */ pixel. #,'+".$/" LED / $ # / /* $ 457,2 #- 9 % -,% "% 9 ( '+ "/ Fremont Street Experience. $%.$/% *+!&( "/, / ( #-/% # "!1 " "%!/',% SMD - # " ( 1# -! )'*. "/,. 3/ SMD pixel ' $ $/", /" #'."#-/ -/, " (/-!. "/ '- ( (', 1. #-(% / #$% $ # '1 % /."#-/ '+ /. #-, " $ " -! #*. 25% $ " #-/".$/" $( # -' #. LED /% -(/ #$ +/' $ /'' LED / '+/ # #,'".$/". *1!1 ",/ #.$/" (. 9 8 "/!/', SMD -! '! " */$" 600 cd /,*/$ #- (cd / m², #-% -% /#8 ( nits). ($ / (/1.*% $ -%, -% '/-% #,-%, '' * $ >.- % (:"'1% */$"%,.-# $"%. #$ )% (/1*/ / +,# "/&/ (:"'1% */$"% ( #+/ / 1 (/ (:"'$" */$". /., $/ ".$/" # / #/ -/ '/, # "'1 #1, " " ". / (!/,!#"'$ */$"% #!#"'$%.# %!&#% (/-%.$/% -!(/ -/ '($ "# */ *%

138 9000, " / #' $ /$ * #$ #%,*,1% "'1% %). )*1!1 ", ('! / 2000 cd / m² +/, % $% & %, /& (:"'$ + */$"% -*% 5000 cd / m² #+/ / /)-'.(/ $#" '+ # # "'$ *% "/.$/" (" */$" */ LED /*/ # / #*., $ / ). ''"'%. %, #,'%.$/% 8/ $,/% $*% " 1 1, 1 %! #+ (/ ", " 8 /,/ "#- #$/#"), " $ 9 "!"#*/ (", ( #-(/ "/.$/", -/ ",$ # /"#-/%.$/%, 1,/), '&, +# 9/ ((.+/ $ % 1 % '%, $ "% (,%), "/!+, "/ ''"'$" ( (%, ".- " "%.$/"% (/ / (!(/ *'1/%,!+ %, 1', 1 1,,% ( # / #"/ /.- " / ( ")(/ 9- ),.&%,/ #$. % "' % LED &",/* 1,,##-/" " "'$ " LED /+!." $ / James P. Mitchell $(" '#+#/" $/ " /,1." $ MV50 LED $.- # TTL (transistor transistor logic) ('&# (.(/ $" "%. *$( ", ( "/ "/ 3. " "!/&/ Anaheim ( 1978, (,/&." $ "/ " "#&/ "/ ( /,/..$/" LED TV -'9 99 /,/& " $ " NASA, " General Motors Corporation / 1#, (#'#9/#-/( ( Robert M. Saunders ( / "#( Irvine "% '$/%, (.","1 -( (./+ IEEE '-/, "!/', $ *!1 */ $ % 0 $ $ )*$ '+." / " '(, "% #/!*#1%.$/"% LED TV. *$( #-/ "'(,%..$/" LCD ((,&/ ( ''*/) ( " "% (/($ "#/$ -,, *% #''/1 /''1 "'1.$/"!" #&/% -/ $# #/-' * "% )*/. *$(" " "'$ " LED 1/ $/" #/!*#1.!#"'+ $ (% ' #$ #' LED / #/ " #-! %!-% "% % ( 1990, ''"&//% "/.(#"1!*#*/ RGB (red-green-blue). :"'1% */$"%!&# #/ "/ " ( /% /-!-, (. # " %.$/% 9/, (% (.(% /% //& */,

139 ."1% 1% $ / LED #8/ #-/% 9 -% ( -% $"% # % *$(%, %!" #+/ p-n -% #! # 8*/&/ /-,% #1" +#% ( + *$%, #+/ "% /!" #".+/, "/ /!/( " *,&/. (-% $"% 1/,/* -% & $ $, '' $, /#8$#/ '1% +.(/ "% LED, -!(/. *% #-. /!/( "% 1%. 2003, Dietz, Yerazunis Leigh "# ( / -/ -,, (, "!1 " */ LED *%."1%. (1/ "/!1 ", LED / / /9(/ 91/(/,1,. LED / /##-/ *8(/ /* -/ (' /$%!1 " 1 #,. LED / 9" '(,+/ *% *, "/ /!/( " ( *$% $ (' 1 $ ",. " ( ' # / $ ($ # " (/-! / 9 $ -// #), 1, % #"/+ % (-% "% "% " (/-! %!" # (1 ''+. 0",-% /-,% LED -!(/ '+!#"'1 (/#1 / ",# & " "%, #,-." +#%. ' ($ '$, / #+/ / (/.+/ (.% # % $% ",-% /-,%!*% / +/. //!" # -/ ($ *# '-,!( ( +#%, ( (/1.*% / (/!+% +#%. LED % #,% LED (/1.*% ",+/!#"'1 " #- * #% / "% #+ +#%. 0 /1 / "!1 " +#% 2, ma. %!#"'+ +#% //( #$/, +# 2mA. - / ",+/ (:"'$ +#. +/ / "#(,".+/ % * $ ma / ",".+/ (*/ LED '+!#"'$ +#. $" / / #&/ # '+!#"'$ +#, '' % ( '(,+/ / 100 #A -!(/ 1 ). 0/*% $ % */ (*/&/ LED / (:"'$ $ ($ */ &/ LED ( '(,+/ 2 ma. LED -!(/ #-, (.#$!#"'$"% / "% "%, ( (#/ $ 2 #-! 5 V ($ # / '- 9'1# % #,-%. #-/ LED 9-9 -!(/ "/ " (+ ( (% 9'1# /.- # -/ 1 2!&#.!(/ % ",-%, "! " "% / 1% "%. % )(#-/% #,-%, $*% / ". # (-(." /9', LED ",+/ +# #,'+ $ 9'$#/, '&/% #,' (.#$ (!% -% 1)%. ' ($ '$, (!/1 (/1" ". LED * #+,*,+% (/". #-/ ($ *# / -/% (/*1% # # / ", '(.+#/ $ -//.*1 +#% #8 # # $ ''"'% #% LED.,##1 '! % &'%, /& ''"'% (!% #8 ()/(/ "/ ). "/ )"!" #+/ 3 (!% 1 /*

140 '(, ",-%,*/&/ "#/&/ (#*/, $*% / / %, ' #,'" / "!( "% / (/*1 "/ / ", ($ *# */ LED ( /! #-/,!1 " "#/1 +#, / / "," ''( (% +#. ( +# "% 8(/!$/ 8*1% */ LED, #$8/% #,' +# (. 3/ "/ -/%.*1% //(/ (-% % & %, '' (!(/ ''% '+ % ( //. LED * #+!#"'1 " LED (/1.*%!" #+/ -% $ (!%, # " (/'1 (% " ( / / + "%!$#/"% "%, # / " '-,!( "%,. (!. +# */ LED / /', # "/!$#/" " #&//% "/ (/'1 " */ (!&/. </ " ",1 +#% -! $ #, " " ( + # / '', '&/% '',-% +# "/ -) ( *$%. -% #,-%, -/% (.# 1% (/!+% +#% / #$% $ "/ / " '-,!(,, '-/ -(/ % (!% /!" #+/ #,'+ $ "% $ "/, -!/% *% -' # #,'+" $" )/$#" " /-,%.!" #+/ -/ 1 $ LED # #!#"'1% "% (/1.*% -!(/ ($ *# # / "

141 2-LASER 2.1!4(" &7(4µ 4 (-!4 Laser '-)" LASER -! $! */,,'&/ '-)*/ «Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation» ( "µ/(/ /!( " *$% µ )/, µ-/" µ1 /9'%. 3, / $ LASER //' µ% $'% */ &/ "% )/, µ-/"% µ1%, "/,*,1 "/ /!( " +µ*/( *$%. B '$, ($ µ+µ / +µ $ "!1 "% /()"% */ LASER -,/ 1917 $/ Albert Einstein -) $ - / (!" "% )/, µ-/"% µ1%. $ $, µ-/%.*"-% µ-% µ'-% % 0 "/ &"/ 91 3/* "!/ / -' µ "/ (1 ( &( LASER $ / µ/$ ( $ Theodore Maiman, '+," µ- ( LASER ($ ' $ µ µ1 9 (9( µ µ1% 5 cm "% % -!/ '/.,(*.. 9% (1!.". / )/ /$% '+% *'1/ "'1% -/* "% % µ+ / & */1 /9' µ µ,'"!+ µ µ1% +µ% "/!1 ( /(. </ " '1% (1 'µ *9'+ $ -/ "% 9( (9(, ( - µ1 1,,/$/ 'µ1 µ1 /9'% LASER µ µ1% +µ% "/!1 ( $/(. $µ/ 91µ -,/ ' µ $ (% Javan Bermett Herriott µ "/ )" ( &( LASER (, (He-Ne LASER) '' + LASER, &/ */,! / / µ'&/ / (8/ /& "/!1 -,/ " )" ( &( LASER "#,*,&/. 'µ&"% /()" */ LASER "µ ( µ '9" $ 1960 µ-! 1µ! / -' µ "/ /()" ''&/ /µ-/*/ - & LASER 1µ / '+/ -/ $ "#/$,' "% 1µ"%, "%!/',% "% 9#"!/%

142 2.2 %(0 &-& µ# *1"# "'/ (' µ+/ /.+/ % ",%: (% µ/*-%, (%,*,+%, (% "µ,*,+%. + µ% (!" µ, / - /(µ /µ (' ( / " 1 / ", µ µ/% cm. <*% / / 0/ 2.1, µ/*-% -!(/ -% / % µ,'+% $ 105 cm, /&,*, -!(/ -% / % µ$% $ 10 3 cm. B,µ, µ/, -/% $ (% '1% $"% µ/*-%, -! '+ µ,'" 1 / ", 1016 cm. /.,.$%!'$%, ( / -/% '$%,*,$%, -! µ 1 / " µ$/ 3 x 10 6 cm. "µ,*, '#9/(/ "/ '1" 'µ &/ / */ µ)+ */ */ */ µ/*&/ */,*,&/. '-/, " 1 / " (% µ / ',!. µ "/.1" $*/ $µ*/ " #)*/" / + '' ( "µ,*,

143 0 2.1 '1 )/$#" " */ &/ '&/ ' /*-% µ,*,,*, 1 / " (G cm) 5 10 < < < 10 3 < 10!&% "µ,*,!"#8/ $ -// '$ + $µ( ( 1'" IV ( + / */!*/, 0/ 2.2), /& +/. "µ,*, µ+/ /!"# +/ $ (/( #+% */!*/ $ % 1'% III V 1 $ % 1'% II VI. /$#/ (' /-/ (!/ / +/. "µ,*, -V 1 -V.!(/ "% (', $*% ''( ( (,+(-µ(, / (,''(-'(#/(, / (,''(- /(, * (,''(-/(

144 ,µ/ (Ge) 1/ -/% $ (% &(% "µ,*,+% (!" #1."/. 1, $µ*% /." $ ( (Si), ( 1µ / µ-/ "µ,*,$ ('$. ( -! µ,'+ /,$! µ (Eg) µ)+ */ 8*/&/, µ -' µ / µ /!" µ". µ,-% µ,'+"%.µ % $,µ/. "%, " )* "!"µ8 -/.$ µ/*$ ) /* (, //% ( "µ/ '/1µ ), % -// (,µ/( ", (1% ''"*#-/*/ ('*#*/. '-/ µ (, 1µ (//µ (!/ /+!,'' (GaAs) * ( /( ( n), $' (,µ/!" µ $µ µ-% µ-/% µ,-%. +/. "µ,*, (' /+!,'' * ( /( / "µ/ (', µ,-% "'/1%, ( 'µ9/(/ % $(% µ1% *$% (LED), laser, (% /!/(-% *$%. -% ( 0+ 0/, ( 'µ9/ "µ/ µ,&,µ!

145 /% 2.3 (. * µ%!/ " +, " */ "µ,&,µ*/('&/ µ 1 +, "% /,$! µ. $ / / / $ ( -! '!$/ /,$! µ $,µ/. 3!" µ ( -// (,µ/( + µ / /-) µ,'+%.µ % µ2) &%(%"2 +#µ G (ev) /.% 5.47 ( 1.12,µ/ 0.66 % /+!,'' 1.42 * ( /( *+! 9$ ( (( 3.00 '"/+! µ

146 2.2.2!4.*"') 72!/!%)!& laser /$-& "/ /$" (1. /.+µ ".* ( /,+! µ% µ "/ '(, laser "#,*,&/. /.+µ µ/-' "% /,1% 8&/"%, -// "µ,*,$, ( µ% -! µ!1 µ" /''1 :" "% % "µ(,% "'/(-1%, / -',! */ (,/& */ -*/ µ- * µ)*/. 9/µ"!/1 9'- $ " '+ 1 ( ''1 µ1 /$% "µ,*,+, -% 9/ µ-/% 'µ% $µ/*/ µ" $µ/*/ /,&/ */, "'$/ ( 9''(/ µ / + ''. $/ 2.1 / µ //',1 $/ (1% "% µ1% 8*/&/ / "µ,*,$. "/ $/,!-% (,/ 8&/",*,1% 8&/".-/(% / +/ $µ/% /,-% %, "'$/. /-, C /! "/ ( " "% 8&/"%.-/(%, / " µ-, " $µ/" /-,, -/ µ.-/(%. /-, /! * µ-% "% 8&/"%,*,µ$"%, / '!.- µ /,$ " 8&/",*,1%. 0$' ( 8&/% (-% // / (/!% "/ $/ 2.1, "/,µ$" '+/ $ -/ '+ µ,'.µ$, &/ /,&/ -*/. "'$/ / - / '9(/ µ-% /-,% ( 9 / µ)+ */ C V. µ)+ */ C V /µ8 /-,! µ% 8&/"%, Eg

147 $/ 2.1: /-' /,&/ 8*/&/, -/ "µ,*,$ µ! µ 8&/"% Eg. $/ 2.2: µ,*,$% (% 0o, µ '1" " 8&/".-/(% /1 " 8&/",*,µ$"%

148 µ */ /,&/ -*/ ' $ '+ (% 8&/%. (-% / " 8&/".-/(% V " 8&/",*,µ$"% C,!* µ-/% $ µ!1,(µ-/*/ /,&/ (8&/"! µ% Eg).. 8&/" ' $ -/ µ,'.µ$ '+ /."µ-/*/ /,&/ */. +µ*/ µ "/,(1!1 ( Pauli, µ / 9 / µ$/ + "'$/ (µ /. spin). /,1 ". (/-, "./$" '":"% f(e) µ-/"% "% /-,% / $ " 1 Fermi-Dirac $ " 1 Maxwell-Boltzmann. 3 : f (E) = {1+ exp[(e F) / kt]} 1 ).2.1 $( ".µ 9.µ+% Kelvin, F " /-, ( '+µ/( ( Fermi k ". Boltzmann. ($ -! "/ $'(." ( 1 "µ : $/ C 0 -!(µ, f=1 (, E<F) ).2.2 f=0 (, E>F) ) & ($ +/ µ)+ */ '1*% '"µµ-/*/ */ '*% /&/ -*/ =0. B µ" (' #-/(% "µ,*,+% Fermi 9 µ- " 8&/"! µ% ($/ 2.2). 3 '$/,, =0 " 8&/".-/(%. / '1*% '"##-/" " 8&/",*,µ$"% '*% /1. * $ (-% % (/.1%, "µ,*,$% /.,, µ-/*% / µ/*1%. 3!/% / $'% % /* "1 %, µ+µ /! (µ "/,1 */!&/ '(,% */ laser "#,*,&/..-(µ! $ "µ,*,$% 9 =0. ("/ $/ 2.3 ",µµ µ-/"!1 /! /'&% '1% /,-% %). ) 9) $/ 2.3:!1 '(,% /$% laser "µ,*,

149 .-(µ & $ "'$/,/ $ $ " 8&/".-/(% " 8&/",*,µ$"%. $ -/ '+ 9!+!$/ (10-10 ms) "'$/ " 8&/",*,µ$"%. -!(/ -!µ"'$ µ- " 8&/" "% "'$/ / "/ (1 "% 8&/"%.-/(%,. -!(/ -!µ"'$ µ" '"µµ-/, 1//% - "/ (1 "% 8&/"%.-/(%,µ" <<-%>>. ($ "µ/ $ (! / 1 '".( #&/ µ)+ */ 8*/&/.-/(%,*,µ$"% ($/ 2.39). "'$/ " 8&/",*,µ$"% -(/ * " 8&/".-/(% (/ (/-/ µ % -%) -#/% " -/ *$/ (/9' / +/ "%). µ-/"% µ% / 1% '".( #&/ µ)+ */ 8*/&/.-/(%,*,µ$"% $*% / "/ $/ 2.39, ", "% )/, µ-/"% µ1% "% /9'% / +/ "%., '/* " laser $/ "µ,*,$%.". -/ ''"' /"!. $ "/ $/ 2.39 / $ " (!/$" "% µ$µ/"% /9'% - / / " (/.1". Eg < hv < Fc Fu ).2.4 " "µ(, +%,µµ1% '91% ( "µ,*,+. / & >0 /$µ/ ' "/ $/ 2.29 "µ&/(µ $, / "µ,*,$% "/ '$" ( / /.µ1, $' (. (!. /$% µ% µ$/"% 8&/"% '+ 9!+!$/. +µ '$/ / µ'µ,./$"% '":"% fu fc, % 8&/%.-/(%,*,µ$"%!*, $( fu fc // $ %!- % : fu= {1+ exp[(e Fu ) / kt]} 1 fc= {1+ exp[(e Fc ) / kt]} 1 ).2.5 ).2.6 % / /-,% */ '+µ/*/ -*/ Fermi */ 8*/&/.-/(%,*,µ$"% /!. / /$ $ µ-% fu fc )&/ $ /.µ$ */ "'/*/ (,/ " 8&/",*,µ$"%. 3!/%, "/ -// */ :(-*/ Fermi µ+µ +' / 9+µ "/ /, (/.1", " laser 9''/% "/ " ".µ$% */,,/$*/ )/, µ-/"% µ1% /,/ µ,'+% $ /.µ$ */,,/$*/ $" "% (" / /,, / ) +/ &'% "% '$"%). + (-%, %, )/, µ-/" µ1 $" " / /',% %,/$µ/ (.µ+ */ */*/ ( ( / "/ '$" ( (/' 1, " µ* ". $ '' µ-%, (.µ$% )/, µ-/"% µ1%. / "% /',% %,/$µ/ "%./$"% '":"% ( (:"'$( -( µ "./$" µ" '":"% (!µ"'$( -(, /& (.µ$% $" "%. / /',% %,/$µ/ "%./$"% '":"% (!µ"'$( -( µ "./$" µ" '":"% ( (:"'$( -(. % +(,, / -!(µ )/, µ-/" µ1 - /!+: Bq[ fc (1 fu ) fu (1 fc )] > 0 ).2.7 (1 " / $" "µ/ $ fc > fu. 2 -!* $: Fc Fu > E2 E1 = hv )

150 $( 2 1 / /-,% ( (:"'$( (!µ"'$( -( /!. 3!(µ '$/ -, )/ µ $ % +!- % % ",(µ-/*% 9-."/ µ µ /1 -,, ", = 0O. (1 " $)" $µ*%,!/ $ "!- " (1!+,..µ ($ / " -// */ :(-*/ Fermi )'(. /!+). '-/ -!!. $ " /* ) * " Fc Fu > E2 E1 = hv, / µ (/- "% " "% $, % )/, µ-/"% µ1% - / )/+/ %, % )/, µ-/"% $" "% ("!/(!"#!& laser /$-& /'"-%, % -/ laser "µ,*,+ (,!// (/1.*% (8/% / "µ,*,$ ($ " µ1 µ% 1% 1% p-n µ (:"' (' µ-/% p-+( n-+(!-%, "'1 '+ µ'( µ-/% (,/& % &/ 1 &/ (µ,'+% $ 1018 µ / cm3). / / $ µ ($ / $ " / 1, "/!1 "% 1%. / &,µ /$% laser 1%..*1 (µ "/ * " $( (' p-+( n-+( / (.!. GaAs) / µ, /!"µ (/ "/ 1, " *% ++. /µ8 µ1 (homojunction).!-% '(,% /$% laser ( / ( µ-/ µ ($/ / $ // "/ $/ 2.4. $/ 2.4:!1 '(,% /$% laser "µ,*,+ 1% p-n µ a) "/1 $'* " b).1 $'* "

151 1 (' / µ'( µ-/, Fermi Fp ( "µ,*,+ p-+( - µ- " 8&/".-/(% Fermi F n ( "µ,*,+ n-+( - µ- " 8&/",*,µ$"%. /!. $,!*% "/ µ,1 "%, + Fermi 9 / "/ 8$/,µµ1 ($/ 2.4), "'1 -!(/ "/ /-,. </ µ$8 µ " V, +!*8/ µ $" ( / $ "/ * ) * ": F=eV ).2.9 3, / laser "µ,*,+ /. '*µ-/, /,. / $ $*% // "/ $/ 2.4b. '-(µ $ "/ $/ *% " / 1 '".( #&/ -!!. '+µ/ << &µ,+µ/* "%>> "% 1% p-n. ($ ( (!/ ".1 $'* " / 9 " -,!( " &µ,+µ/* "% "'/*/ $ " 8&/",*,µ$"% ( n-+( ('+ -% $ " 8&/".-/(% ( p-+( ('+. ' "µ&/(µ $ + F E Eg, (/, $ "/ ).2.9 $ V EEg/e. B GaAs ($ "µ/ $ V E 1.5V. $/ 2.5!/ -/!"µ$,µµ /$% laser 1% p-n, $( ",µµ µ-/"!1 / &µ,+µ/* "%. E$/ 2.5: )!"µ$,µµ /$% laser "µ,*,+ 9), /µ1 "% -/ "% *$%

152 / $ " % -! µ-% %.!% "%!1% ( &µ%,+µ/* "% / (/1.*% '+ µ$ (0,1µm). / +!(µ " laser, + µ-% /% (8/ / / ''"'%, (/1.*% µ 1 µ1% */ ( ''&/ -*/. ''% + 1// ), µ-/% /&µ', / )(*. " '/* " /.+µ"% (.+/ %. (!/ + /% / -!(/ /' -% & %. "/ )", 1 "%.' "% ( "µ,*,+ / '+ µ,'%, (! 1" '+ µ,'" /' $" (( 35%), "!* 1 / "µ,*,+--. /,$%!1 ' $ &µ!(% ( 1µm, "'1 *% '+ $ &µ,+µ/* "%. ) % "%.' "%,", " "% - µ"% / '+ µ,'+" (40µm) $ '% "% /,+%!1% ($/ 2.59). - µ" laser - / '+ µ- % p n!-%. <µ*%, 1, % % "% - µ"% / $µ" '+ µ-%, " - µ" )$( ( 8 ' *% µ,'" $' " (µ-% µ%). /8(µ $.µ *µ(, " (/$" +µ% *'(, -/ laser µ1% / (:"'1 (( 10 5 A/ cm2, GaAs). ($ ' % (:"'-% &'% ( (.µ+ '$"% 1 / '+ µ- % p n!-% ($(" $" " µ''/ " /!( " (!). (1 " (/$" +µ%, $µ*%, '&/,1, µ "/ '* " "%.µ % '(,% [( exp(t /To ), $( " µ1 ( To "!1!+% "% - "% µ9'' $ / -// "µ,*,$ / '']. ($ / -/ -' µ (,,/$% $,.&% ".µ '&/, fc (1 fu) ()/ fu (1 fc ) '&/. 3 " '91 [ " ) $ fc (1 fu ) - fu (1 fc ) ] ()/,1,. / $'(. (+, laser µ1% µ+/ / '(,+/ µ$/ (,/-%.µ %. ($ ' -/ 9$ µ$ */ laser (+ ( +(. "µ/1 /'(:" µ/ " 1970, $/ -(!/ ($!/ Alferov " * ( '.$/ " 91 3/* "), Hayashi Panish % /*µ-/% 0'%, "/ ()" (/!+% '(,% */ Laser "#,*,&/. laser "#,*,&/ ( /+!."/!"8/ $,,/$% $ µ* / ( "/ (/$" +µ% &*/ */ µ- * "% µ,1% µ% '1% µ1% (heterojunction) ( ' $ -/ GaAs /,$ &µ, µ '1 /, "/ /9' ( *$%, ( µ&!" µ)+ + *µ*/ AlGaAs. B / ) " /* ( ' ('(, laser µ$/ (,/%.µ %),!" #1."/ laser 1%!1µ 2.6!/ -/,µ laser GaAs '1% 1%

153 $/ 2.6:!"µ$,µµ /$% laser "µ,*,+ '1% 1%. /,$%!1 ' $ &µ GaAs(n), (,µµ µ-/"!1). (1/ " (!(/ + -% [Al0.3Ga0.7s(p) - GaAs GaAs - Al0.3Ga0.7s(n)] µ)+ &/ ('&/. /,$%!1 ' $ '$ &µ GaAs (0,1-0,3µm). µ -, " (/$" +µ% *'(,, '(,.µ *µ( µ / µ*. ( ( )% µ,-.(% ("'1 103 / cm2 ) (, µ " ( (1 µ1%. 3 " cw '(,.µ *µ(,/ (/1. µ* " "% (/$"% +µ% *'( ' (/( µ-/ -' µ &/ */: ) "%.' "% ( GaAs (n=3.6) / "µ/ µ,'+% $ // ( Al0.3Ga0.7s (n=3.4) -!/% µ µ1 + (µ",+. ($ "µ/ *% (.µ$% laser. / &,'*9 µ-/% &µ ( GaAs, "'1 "/!1 /!( "%, /. % "/ " " µ1%, +, "% /µ1% ( ( / // '-/ µ- % µ" /'+µ/% ( *% +( + %)!-% 9)! µ 8&/"% ( Al0.3Ga0.7s (( 1,8eV), / "µ/ µ,'+ $ (+ ( GaAs (( 1,5eV)

154 (/&%!"#8/ /,,µ % + -%,,'*98(/ ' µ %,!(µ-/% -% "'$/ /,$ &µ ($/ 2.7). $/ 2.7: /,$,µµ 8*/&/ /$% laser "µ,*,+ '1% µ1%. µ-/" (/$" +µ%, " (,-/* " &/ "'/*/ /,$ &µ ()/.,) /$" /'* "%.µ$"% "% $( -!." 9'*.. ($ -! (!. (,''&/% GaAs(p) ($ *µ, -/ '!'+ 1 -(, )% "% µ8% "%.µ1% (,*,µ$"%, /,*,-%.µ$"%

155 2.3 %(0 $2(./) LASER 2.3.1!"') % "4&&0%) $ "/ &" "µ- "% (!"µ-/"% '(,% ( laser! ". µ,1% ( % "'/*/%. /*/% µ laser / µ /-( * ", ''+% '$,(%. 0& / " µ,'" (.(/$" "% - µ"% laser / (,..!. µ "/ /!" */ µ&/ (,(/ µ(µ-% %. (.(/$" µ% - µ"% laser 8 $ /,µ "% ( / $ "/ : = 1.27 'L/DL () 3.1) $( 'L / µ1% +µ% "% - µ"% laser DL " µ% "% "/ -) "% $ laser. - " (1 "% / ( * 1, µ(µ-% % µ-( DM ( -µ(/ /9' µ1(% +µ% '. B / -! µ(µ$% µ$% /,µ - µ"% $*% µ$% laser - " µ% "% µ(µ1% % / / : ' DM = DL B 105 DL ' ().3.2) "' % µ,'+" $ " µ "% - µ"% laser. "'1 laser µ - µ" µ-( 1mm, (/µ µ µ(µ1 µ-( 100m, *% % "/ (.(/$". 3/% ''% '$,% ( / "/ - "% 1% /*/% '( 1 / " µ,'" (/$" "% µ$µ/" $" '"%. $ '"% ( µ / ' µ -/ "'µ,/"$ +µ / /', ( +(% 8&/"% ( -/% +µ%. 3 ",//% $ "/ µ(µ1!1 "/ 1!1, " (!/$" ( -/% ()/ -/,/ 104 "#(,&/% >.- % '+ µ,'( +(% 8&/"%. -/ $ µ,' +% 8&/"% /.*" (/$ / µ.+/ µ -,!*µ /' "'$ "% µ µ - µ" laser. / µ,' +% 8&/"% " (.(/$" "% - µ"% laser */ ( "µ*/ /*/% µ laser '+/ ( '+ "µ/ '/1µ, (!(/ ( (!&% µ µ/1µ. µ,' +% 8&/"%.!. "% - µ"% laser '+ + ' µ /!" µ".. "% "!" µ$" /*/&/ ( "µ*/ µ laser 8 $ ''(%,/% $*% *-% ( '%.-" "% "% '"% /* - µ% laser. / /*/$ + "µ µ laser!" µ / µ- "% "/ µ$ $ " $ " ( ( 1µ% /&%. "8 $ µ -%!-%, 9!1, µ!'"..'

156 ( '% (-% ( +(/ $ "/ " */ &/ (µ*/ "/ µ$ 1," (% (/"-% "/!1 " */ &/ (µ,*,&/, ( ",+/ "/ - µ" laser '-/ / +' /µ $ / (.+/ 1µ. % ($ /*/% µ/*' 1µ /-/ */ (/"&/.!1 " */ laser % /*/%,!*% µ- "% "/ 1 /, " /. + µ$/ µ,-%, % /*/% µ)+ ($*/ 1 ($(.µ+ (%,.&% /*/% µ&/ */, µ)+.µ&/ ( -!(/ µ)+ (% !"40 7µ4(.!') "µ ($. +µ (% $(% µ (% (% µ+µ /.1 (µ -/ 1µ 1 µ1%,.!. µ', 1µ video ', /* µ */1 - µ" led 1 laser..-" " (1 ( 1µ% /* "/ 1 (!/$" '-, µ$* " &/ (!/1*/. )" (. 1µ /* "/ */1 - µ" /µ8 µ*1%. / '(µ -/ 1µ µ µ */1 - µ" - / µ& (µ 1 / '')(µ!" "% - µ"% (1% µ $.!(/ -/!" ( µ+/ / µ9'".+/. / "!+%, " (!/$", " ", " $'* " " +.(/ " "% - µ"%. $ -/ (!" (/1.*% µ9''/ "!+% 1 " (!/$", /& " $'* "!" µ / /µ ( ''( +( µ$* "%. /. " " 1 " +.(/ " "% - µ"%!" µ+/ '+ ',$.!(/ % $ -µ9 "%!" "% */1% - µ"% ( /-µ. µ " -µ9 " 1 µ " µ$* " " -µµ " )*1 " -µµ " *1 µ$* " $( '-)% )*1 *1 /-/ $ µ*-% 9 / -)* 1 µ- $ /"! "% )"% laser (, "/ */1 /9' µ%/ 7µ2(./ "/ * " "% µ "% µ$* "% -!(µ ( -µ9 " / (.µ$ /'" "% ( laser $*% / "/ $/ 3.1, $( "!+% )$( ( laser µ/8 / (/" " ( +µ% ( - / *'1/ laser. To I0 / '! +µ (, / () "'1 -/* ", 1 / '! +µ (, / () -)% laser, 2 / +µ $(. µ+ µ '$/ /!" µ1 (µ $'" "/!1 1-2 / µ& (µ "/ -) ( laser µ)+ */ µ&/ '! ( µ, (. (/1.*% $µ*% " µ$* " 8 "/,µµ1!1 "% µ+'"%, - & / +,/ µ& % dp/di / /.$. / & +µ $( µ9'' "µ/&%,+* $ µ µ1 Iq $ "!+% )$( ( laser µ9'' "µ/&%,+* $ µ µ- " µ1 Pq. "µ (Iq, Pq) '-, "/ * " (1, "µ '(,% ( laser

157 $/ 3.1: µ,1 "% µ "% µ$* "% laser (. µ-.% (1 µ$* "% / / '+ '1 -! µ/-"µ $ / µ / µ. '' laser '"/ (&/ (,/ (./ $ "'-% /& % $*% laser */ 1 laser "#,*,&/. / /$"" "!1 " laser $*% 1% /'" "% 1!"µ µµ " )*1 µ$* " $ µ$* "% ( µ+/ /!" µ".+/ / " )*1 "'1 µ$* ", " )*1 µ,/"1 µ$* " " )*1 ( 1 µ$* ". 2.4 ',474 7µ2(./)!(/ µ-., ( µ /!" µ1 /%, / µ-: % '"% µ9'1 % µ-( ( -/% +µ%. µ-. ( µ+/ /!* +/ % µ,'% ",% : % /',-%, :"-% 'µ+%. "/ /',1 µ$* " " '" µ/8 µ "/ µ1 µ%!/ µ9''$µ/"% "'1% "% ( "8 µ ( -/% +µ%. µ-/*%.!/1,µ1 (! /! ( '(% (!+ 1µ% ( µ,-.(% "% µ-( ( -/%. % ''% + µ.$(% '% ( 1µ% )8!/ 1µ " '" µ/8 µ "/ µ1 'µ&/. "/ * " (1 +% ( 'µ+ µ9'' /', µ +µ/ 1µ 1 'µ (,µ-/( +(% µ/8/, µ-!/1, /', ' µ +µ/ 1µ. % (-% & % µ/8/ "/ $/

158 $/ 3.2: % -% µ-. µ$* "% µ% */1% - µ"%. $ % % µ.$(% µ$* "% ( /-µ ",(µ-/*%, ( (!/!" µ+µ/% / " /',1 " :" &14" 7µ2(./ 0 $!1/ '' µ ( -/% +µ%. µ+ / / µ*.+/ % -% (!/$"%, (! $9'"µ $ *-% /9'% // µ$/ µ9'-% "% -/ "% "% /9'% (./ (+%. "'$ ( -/% +µ%, / : Ec (t) = Ac cos (*c t + c) ().3.3) $( c, *c, c, / '%, ",*/1 (!/$" " " /! /&% $' µ+/ / µ*.+/. / 1µ ($ - /* / *1 /9'%, $ " -)% 0d ( *1, (( / µ$/ µ9'-% "% -/ "% /9'%),. / : 0d = RAc2 < cos2 (*c t + c) > ().3.4) 0d = RAc2 / 2 ().3.5) $( R / " (." ( *1, (responsivity), < > ("'&/(/ / µ- $, "% (/" "% µ- (-%,, µ '1". / /-% '$/ $ "/ (./ & ", (direct detection), µ$/ " -/ " "% /9'% µ / /!/(., " / /'," ( Ac2 µ-/*% µ$* " */ ''*/ µ-*/ / +/".!(/ $µ*% ''%!/-%

159 & "%, '"/ "% (./, % -(/ / )!. '"! µ ''% µ-(% $ 'µ9/$µ/ 1µ

160 "/ $(/" & ", (heterodyne detection), % /'( " 1µ /+ µ ($ /$% + '/*1, (local oscillator), (, / : Eo (t) = Ao cos (* + ) ().3.6) <( * 9 '+ / "/ µ1 *c. -)% ( *1 &. / 0d = R < [Ec(t) + Eo(t)] 2 > = R < Ec2(t) + Eo2(t) + 2 Ec(t) Eo(t) 1 0d = R [Ac2 / 2 + Ao2/ 2 + 2Ac Ao <cos (*c t + c) cos (*o t + )>]!+ $µ*% : <cos (*c t + ) cos (*o t + )> = 1/2 < cos [(*c t + *o) t + (c + )] + + cos [(*c *o) t + (c - )]> 1 $µ*% * *c -!(/ ( "/ µ1 $% cos [(*c *o) t + (c - )] '/+ '+, ''% $% µ /.*". / µ., "/ µ1 (!$/( / 'µ9/ µ- % $%.!1 " /$% "'+ '( + "/ 8&/",+* $ (*c - *) "/ -) ( *1. "/ -) ( *1 : 0d = R Ac Ao cos [(*c *o) t + (c - )] ().3.7) $( /&% d ) $ '% ( -/%, "/,*/1 (!/$" ". µ-/*%. µ $ (-% % µ-(% µ /!" µ"., / µ- '". "/ µ$(/" & ", $% '/*1%, '(, "/ (!/$" ( -/%. 3!+ : 0d = R [Ac2 / 2 + Ao2/ 2 + Ac Ao cos (c - ) + Ac Ao < cos (2*c t + (c + ))>] ().3.8) "!1 " & /$% "'+ '( + %!µ"'-% (!/$"% / - "/ -'( " (% + '( $ ( )+ µ-(% "% '(% - "% / '-/ >> C $ -!(µ : 0d = R Ac Ao cos (c - ) ().3.9) µ-/*% "/ µ$(/" & " " µ$* " '(% " µ$* " " / (/-%

161 2.5 ("!/(!"# 7µ2(./) ', ( 1µ /*/% µ *+µ!" µ+/ % + µ$* "% : " ASK ( Amplitude Shift Keying ), " FSK (Frequency Shift Keying) " PSK (Phase Shift Keying). (/1.*%, µ& % ASK PSK./ '(, $ )*+% µ*-% (!" µ+/ "/ "'1 ". $ "/ ''" µ, " FSK µ$* " µ +' / (!. µ µ ' µ$* " ( +µ% 1," "% ( laser. '$, ($, "!1 " "% FSK µ$* "% / $ µ-/". )% (+ (,,/$%,. /& (µ /-/ µ% FM!" */ "#,*,&/ lasers. +µ*/ µ.*"-% µ-% -(/% µ FM!" */ "#,*,&/ lasers (!+/ $ + + /$µ/. -/ / /$µ/ "% -( % (/$"% µ$* "%. ($ µ"!/ µ$ " µ$* " (!µ-/( +µ% ' µ$* " " -( (/$" ( ('+ ( laser " '( µ " "% ' µ$* " ( ".' "% ( /,+ &µ% '',1 "% (!/$"% '/* "%. /$µ/ "% -( % (/$"% µ$* "%, µ1% +µ% ( laser ''8 µ$ µ1(% +µ ()//% +µ, '-, µ' µ$ " (blue shift). '' /$µ/ / " '',1 "%.µ %. (1 ' )% "%.-µ/ "% ( /,+ &µ% $!$µ/ +µ. /$µ/ ($ / (! %!-%!µ"'1% (!/$"% '$,* "%!!µ"'1%!+"% / "%. "/ * " (1 µ1% +µ% ( laser µ,'&/ ()//% +µ ($ '-, $/" µ$ " (red shift).,µ FM!" */ "#,*,&/ lasers (!+/ 9 $ + /$µ/ (,:µ /*. FM!" "/!1!µ"'&/ (!/1*/ / -' µ ( /µ-/( "% '',1%.µ %, /& ( "/!1 */ (:"'&/ (!/1*/ '+/ $ " -( (/$" µ$* "%. $/ 3.3!/ %,µ-% µ1 % */ FM!" &/ /$% DFB laser [1]. "/ $/ 3.3 "+µ µ!1,+* 100 khz $( " $ " */ FM /!!µ"'1. -!1 ' µ:" $ "% (efficiency dip) ( "µ,*,+ laser, " /! "µ $( (&// /$µ/ "% '',1%.µ % "% -( % (/$"% µ$* "%

162 $/ 3.3: FM!" /$% DFB laser. $ ( +(% 8&/"% µ$* "% /$% "µ,*,+ laser "/!1 (:"'1% (!/$"% -! (*% $ "/ '/* " "µ% (relaxation oscillation) *% -' µ "% ''"' "% µ)+ (.µ+ */ */*/ "'/*/ ( laser. $ (% (', µ+%, µ /!. $ " (!/$" '/* "% "µ% /, -,, ", /'," µ "/,*/1 8 "%!+% )$( ( laser "% µ "/,*/1 8 ( / (!$/( 8*1% */ */*/. µ-/*%,, " µ$* " (:"'1% (!/$"%, / µ$ / ",1 (µ -/ laser µ µ,'"!+ )$(. 4" (// µ+ 1 (!/$" */ "#,*,&/ lasers µ / (// ''8/%!$µ/ +µ "/.µ */ lasers. (, µ '',1 "/ 1 (!/$" $, (, 1 3 GHz µ / (!. ''8/% +µ 1," "% 1 ma, µ '',1 $ ( GHz µ / (!. µ "/ '',1 "%.µ % 1 0C "/!1 ( µ1(% +µ% µm. ', ( 1µ /*/% µ *+µ!" (!/$"% (// µ+ */ "#,*,&/ lasers -!(/ µ,1 (// µ$ ( 1µ% ( /µ$" (% +% '/*-%. $, " (/$" (// µ+ */ (µ9&/ laser "#,*,&/ / / " 1%, µ-/% µ,-%, $*%,,,µ, ( 1µ FDM (Frequency -Division Multiplexing)

163 2.6 *"1-µ! 47//) laser ('&µ 1," "% */ led ( ) µ /* µ µ µ-% µ$/ 1 % /!" µ".+/, "/ 1," " */ laser. ($ 9-9,/, *%,/* $ laser ( 8(/ -/ &' µ1%,µ ( / (µ9/ % $(% led. (1 9&% " 8 µ1 $' " */ 1 */ $ / +µ 1," "% */ + +*/ *",&/. µ$* " -/ "%!1 "/ 9 8 " µ$* " -/ "% " )*1 µ$* " -/ $ "'/*/$ + "µ /+ "/ $/ 3.8. <*% 9'-(µ " -/ " ( *$% $ "/ ",1 laser µ&/ µ 1 )* $ '"$ 1µ (/',$ 1 :"$ "'$ 1µ) µ9'' /', µ " µ1 ( '"+ 1µ%. 'µ9/$µ/ -" 1µ /!/+ µ (direct detection) $ / */!/(1. $/ 3.8 / Ith / +µ *'( "% ",1% laser, Ib +µ $'* "% "% $( I0 +µ $'* "% - & / µ"/ -!(µ µ$* " 1µ% (I0>Ith), "/ $/ 3.9 / " * " $( Ib<Ith

164 $/ 3.9 <*% 9'-(µ, -!(µ µ$* " ( % µ " /',+ 1µ%, '$, ($. - Ib /. "/ µ1 I0 "/ * " (1. /., " " ( / "/ $/ 3.10 (/, :"1 µ ", '$,(% ( -!(/ / /(/ µ "/ $ " ( -" (*!$ extinction ratio)

165

166 $/ "µ "% $/% !(µ " µ " ( /',+ 1µ% */1%, " -/ " ( *$% / *+ (.-*% '% ( 1µ% */1%. $/ 3.11 / +!(µ )$ " /,*,1 ( 1µ% '"% "/ /',1 µ ", $' $ + "µ. - /.- *!" : ).- (:"'$ 9.µ$,µµ$"% : ($, µ/ "/ 1 ",1 "µ/ $ "!- " µ)+ ( ",+/% +µ% (1% "% -/ "% *$%. - / /,µµ1. >$. " (1!+, "/ ",1 led.&%.- µ!$/,µµ1!" 1 ( "/. ''"'", /',1 µ ".!+% µ1% $µ*% "% led /! µ1 ($µ µ$" / ' " 1!+% ( (8(,/+ "/ 1 /) µ -' µ " $'" µ " / "8 $ /.$(9. /.,, µ ",1 laser, /.-'(µ / '(,1,µµ$ µ1µ "%!" 1% "% /* $,$/,. - /!" µ1 (µ

167 ('&µ." "% ( 8(/ +%!1 "% */ laser "/ /',1 µ ". &, $ / "/ 1 /, (1 µ /.*". $ ( 8,µµ1 (µ. -'%, / 1 " +)" &/ /!/(&/ µ!$/,µµ1 (µ $( " '+µ/" µ$* " / µ$" ( 1%. 9) $ " ( $'( ( 1µ% ( (!$/(, */ (!/1*/ )8$µ/"). - / µ / / /! (µ91 µ '" 1µ ( $ / µ.+/.,) $' + "µ. - / µ/8!µ"'$.+9(, "/ ()" (:"'&/ µ&/ Signal-to-Noise (S/N). " " (1 µ% (!&/ /!" µ1 (µ % ",-% led µ$/, µ " µ-% %

168 2.7 47"2 laser "/ /$" (1.!'".+µ µ " laser!" "%. µ *$% /! <<'>> -/ + "µ 1% /%. )"µ ($ µ- "'$ 1µ -/ /! */$ 1µ µ / µ- $ µ /. µ$% *$% / -/ "µ/$! $ / (!/ /"$! + "µ!" ( (!/ "8(/ ' $ "% "% /$% (/- µ(. $/: laser µ-(/ -/ "'$ 1µ *%

169 laser / '+' "µ,*, µ-(/ "'$ +µ *%. µ1% / 1 $, µ$ $.µ$"% (,/$µ/ µ 'µ$ *%. 0-/ -% $"% /(/ laser '(,!1 " "/ 1µ" */ &/ /&/. '#9/(/ µ$!& 3!(/ (:"'1 /9' (-µ(/ '+ *% µ1!1)!1 µ1% (% / µ1, (,/$µ/" µ % % */ &/ /&/ 3!(/ µ,'" 8*1%, -/% (:"'1 ). +/ / µ*.+/ (:"'-%!+"%. * /% µ,1," +, " µ&/ $!" */ laser */ led.!" (. /'(.+/ 'µ- *. ("!/(!"# LEDs Lasers +8) %3274* µµ /'," % +µ *'( +µ *'(: ma µµ /'," % /'," ( +µ% /* $ &' +µ *'(: 5-40 ma %8µ *<%*µ'&/ +8) - :"'1 +8!/!,$" ",$" 8 4) %3274* :"'$" $" 8(4) <-&/) - :"'$,'µ µ"/ "8µ!4) µm µm µ!"2 %8(4) 0/% 4.2 (+ ( nm FWHM) /$ ( nm - 10 nm FWHM)

170 laser (/1.*% (8/ $ GaAlAs ('' '(µ/ /), ( (-% µ&/ µ"&/ +µ%. ( (-% µ,'*/ µ"&/ +µ%,/ / *µ&// InGaAsP (5/ '' / * ) ("!/(!"# % 074/) 727& laser..µ'&"!".8(/ "!" µ$" µ,1. ( /: µ 1% +µ% (1%: / µ1% +µ% " ",1 -µ "/ µ-, "!+. - / 8 µ1" +µ% -µ/ µ "/ '! " ).-/" " µ- ( "% 1% /%. /-% (-% µ"&/ +µ% / 1310, nm. µ1!1: *", $' *% -µ $ -/ laser. 1.' / / "/ (1 ( µ1(% +µ%. 0 $µ*% *% -µ µ!1 $ µ1" +µ% /*µ-/ ( µ1% +µ%.!1 (1 /µ8 µ$ +% "% ",1%.,µµ µ1%:,µµ ( µ$µ/( *$% "8 "/ $" ( *$% / µ- µ 1 /. µ-,.% "%!1% µ1%. - / / $µ µ " µ ( (1/ "% /%. $/ 4.27!/!- µ1% /$% laser. $/ 4.27:!- µ1% laser!+%: '+ '- µ (,!// (/1.*% //% 8+)" $ (/$/ $"%!+% $ "/ ",1 µ- µ 1 /. 9 1 " " / $ "!+% )$( "% ",1% - / /!(1 & / ) ' 1!+ / /!/(1 'µ9//% (H $:/ "/ ).-/ " "% /%, "/ &' "% +8()"% ''(% µ+% ( ( 1µ%. B/ laser /!($ $ led.!+": ",1. - / /, / '/,1, & / /-) $ +(% ( ( 1µ%.!+" +µ*/ µ!$/ /$( (rise time) 1!$/.$( (fall time) "% ",1% % /!$/% ( "/!+ / /-9 $ 10 % 90 %. laser -!(/ µ,'+!$/(% /$(.$( $ $ led. µµ$":,µµ$" / '' -/!" $ */ ",&/ /-,%, µ-% µ,-%.,µµ$" / *+ 9.µ$ / " 1 -)% / µ /'," "/,*,1 ( "'+ +µ%

171 $% ",-% *$% /(/ µ1 -*%.$'(!1 ",µµ$", //% %!1 µ% µ$/, :"-% µ,-%. /',-% µ,-% +/ /1!1 ",µµ$". µ",µµ$" laser ' µ/1 µ$* " -/ /',$ 1µ -µ /* -/ +/ µ 1% /%. laser / (." ".µ. &' */ laser ''8 µ ".µ. $/ 4.28!/ µ (1 (µ /$% + laser..&% ".µ '(,% ''8, (#9/(/ '- µ.!, +µ *'( ''8. +µ *'( / /!µ"'$ %!µ"'$%.µ % /. +" '',1 " / "µ/1 / " ' " "% $"%. ' " "% $"% /.µ$% */ mw 1 */ µw "% )$( *$% / ma ( ()/$µ/( +µ% 1," "% /* $ &'. $ laser!/(/ µ & " "/ ' " "% $"% "/ +)" " "%.µ %. 3, laser +/ µ µ-.." "% ( *'( & / (!. " µ-, " $ ". (!/ µ *%!" µ, "/ '+." " "% )$( ( *$% "/ * $:" ( laser. +µ $ µ * ''8 µ ' % "/ -) ( *$% -! / " & / (.µ +µ 1," "% ( laser

172 $/ 4.28: % "%.µ % "/!+ "% )$( ( + laser. $/ 4.29: 4" -% µ&/, a) Led b) Laser

173 $/ 4.29a!/ " (µ /$% led " $/ 4b!/ " (µ /$% + laser.,-% %!/(/!$ $ "% )$( ( *$% -// ( "'+ +µ% 1," "%. -) *$% ( led / (,µµ-% µ +µ 1," "%.!$/ $' led ( 8(/ µ +* " "/ µ+'" $*% / "/ $/ 4.29b. µ",µµ$" ( led 8 "!" µ$" ( /',-% µ,-%. +* " µ / '". $ -//.µ$,$/*/ " ( 1 */ led "#,*,&/ '' (!/, -/ µ,' 9.µ$ ' "/ (.-µ/ " ( ''"*µ-/( ('&µ% ( led. $" $'*/ */ led µ&/.&% ()/ ".µ " '(, (%. 3,.&% led ", (:"'$ +µ ''"*µ-/ +'*µ ( 8 / '&/% & " "/ $" ( " /µ/1 +* " "% $/% 4.29a. led ( '(,+/ +µ µ (1 100mA. /! -% ( (-% '(,+/ (:"'$ +µ% (µ4')!& laser /$-&. µ$" */ laser "#,*,&/ µ/+ $( '(,%, (:"'1% ' µ$"% ) %, -! 9'& '+ "/ ((µ-/"!1 " (% % -% /*/% $ ', ( 1µ $ ( 1µ µ$* "% -/ "%, (:"'+ (.µ+ µ "% bit µ "% /!/( "% (Intensity Modulation Direct Detection). µ,1 ', ( 1µ µ/$% $% '(,% µ µ-/ +%,µµ1% µ% (:"'1% (/$"% (// µ+ laser ( ( 8(/ µ,' /-/,!1 " '(/' ( 1µ, $*% ( 1µ CATV, LAN MAN. IM-DD ( 1µ (:"'+ (.µ+ µ "% bit "!- " /µ laser µ "% µ$* "% " (!/$" µ1% - / /µ*. " (,µ-/" * " " $' " "% (!/$"% (!8 µ +µ µ$* "%, ( 8 laser µ/1% '(,% *% /.+µ" 9 µ (1 *% (/µ1 +(/ ",µµ1%), "8/% - "/ $ " ( ( 1µ%. $% (+ ( µ- / / -!.µ'&% ($9. 9 (!" */ "#,*,&/ laser (!" µ+/ ( 1µ /*/%

174 2.8 LASER 3) #1/% # "/ /'(:" ( Ruby Laser $ / T.H.Maiman,.Javan (/,% (, -(!/,*,1 /9'% Laser $ #,# */ He-Ne. -'% ( 1962 % /)",8$#/% #% */ M.I.Nathan, R.N.Hall T.M.Quist -(!/ #1 /9'% Laser $ "#,*,$. $ $ " -(/!&" # '# '' '' (' # "/.&."/ / /, #- ( "#*/ Laser./ /, ('!" #+/ 1# # 1 / #-/ -, "#,*,, (/. + '' # #)%, '+#!* &/ '. #-,.% " #1 */ Laser ' "%. / / # / % #-% #/+% */ Laser ( ')+/ / '- (/ "/ */ &/ ''"*#-/*/ ('*#*/ (% #''/+% "'1 (/$(% */ "'/&/ ''"*#-/*/ ('*#*/. / / #( #,-.(% # #1% + /"!( ( 30cm, # $#*% /. (/ #,'% % "% )"% */ 10m #1(%. #+ # ($ "# / )(# Laser ",% +#*/ # % ( /,+ (% ('+, "/!1 #1% (% 1 "/!+ "% - #"% (%. (/". #-/% $#*% 1%!* #$% / ($% ( 9 8 % ( /,+ (% ('+.&% + "# /'" "% +!" #+/. 0* )/#+# Laser /', # % ( /,+ (% ('+!1# 1: O + */ Laser

175 2.8.1!%(%#)!#!/) / Laser / 9 */ $/*/ ( ''*/ */ #'( #-/*/ # neodymium,('&/ ( ''*/. % "% 9( #&// + ''"'% /% ( '+/ # # #" #''1 / $/ "%. % "% Laser -(/ "/,*,1 (:"'$"% +/#"%. 4" #+/ (/1.*% # -/ ''$#/ $, /,(/ # -")" *$% "/ /$% +/#(!$/(. 1)% $ +/#% $*% sec -!(/ (!.,!1 #% "/ #'-" ( &/ /#-/*/ '+ (/1% %. /'" " (,!/ # *% $ (% *'1/% '#:"% )-/(, (% '#1% $)*/, 1 (% '#1% #-''-#+. # (!/$"% -!. $ (-(. (IR) "/ (&" / (UV) # / ''' #$ "%!1% (!/$"% Laser # + '' $*% (,$/ '(- * $ '%, #1" +#% */ /*/ X -!(/ (!.!+/% # /% Laser -/ yttrium $!. "/ ", (1 /1(/ Laser (9(. -/ laser (9(, '($ *% $ " '(!/ )-/( ( /9 91/ *8 (9 () (,'(), "#(, " ',$#/" "1 /'" "",,/% - #$ " 9 (9( & / -#:(/ -/ 9.+ $/ '#$. /# ( (9( (!(/ + ( /"!- -/ "#$ '' /' $' *%), /# '/&/ *% -*% $( /!(. #-! /$% "#( -'% *% )+, $ "/ '$" /!(#-/. $/ 4: Laser (9( %(04* Laser,+ #+/ /,(/ #,'8 /*/ #"&/ +#% *$%. 4" #+/ "/ :(!,*, (# Laser) -!(/ ''-% -%!1 %, $*% "/!(,1 -#9 " #&/ "/ '1(/ "- 1)" */, #*/ */ /&/.! -%!" #+/ ($ Laser, /,(/ % ',-% $/%. #-%! # (-% /-/ /$" ( '(.. #- Laser /$% Laser ( #/ / -/.$ -, -/#,# */ 1 $# #$% #''*/ '#9/ (/1.*% -// ('/$ *'1/,('+ 1!'8. +.-% 9 / -)* $ % % ( *'1/, / #& (/ "/ '$" Laser. Laser ( /'+/ $ (&% *%, % - #% "'/*/, "'$ +#, 1 %!"#-% / %. Laser "'(- /-( /,/* $, ".$" (:"'1% (!/$"%, "/,/$"!&#% "/ '! " / (. Laser )( ( /. / '+, (/&% /!($ Laser (/!&/ (#*/ (CW)

176 2.8.3 $-& (#,1% /9' Laser / (1 */ Laser "#,*,&/ ( ' (/1.*% $ # +/ " #)+ */ *#*/ */ "#,*,&/ # % -% "'-% $"% (%. /,''( / /$% "#,*,$%!" #"#-/%, (. Laser "#,*,&/ /'+/ $ "/ # " #,1 ( "'+ +#% - $ " +/ ", #+/ /!" #".+/ / Laser (/!&/ (#*/ # '+" $ 50% $". #-.% ( - $#" $"!1 " "% /-,% -! /". '#9/ # Laser. ('&#, # (/$" $ $ /$% ##(( /,*/$ $#. Laser "#,*,&/!" #+/ (*% CD players.&% (*-% Laser. " ( 90 1#/% /-()/ #' &" Laser. 1 ( Laser -#(/ *% # # #1" +#%, #+/ / -:(/ -/ CD /!*- (/ $% '"% / /(/ (% (*-% Laser / (&/(/.. "%. #+ / /!" #".+/, / /(/ / $ * #$ / «)/#» /-, (# LASER / (, #- Laser / /$,/%!* -% ( % ( '#9// 9'1#,('+ ( /'+/ $ (% -//(% '#1%'#:"%#-// $ (,#+ 1 $ -/ Laser ( # $ (/!&/ (#*/. $/ 5: /,$ ('$ / -/ '(#!* 1% #1% +#% #1% ( Laser / #9'"$ #- $ Laser (!" #+/ "'$/ +/ #, /'+/ "/ /$" $ # #,/"&/, /+!."/! 1997,// & "#/ (/" $,/. / $# # Laser!* &/ ( &/.*", -/% #$%.#$%. #+ / '+: '$'" # $ % (-(.% /% % /% X. Laser '+.*/ "'/*/ - "% /,/(/ / /,(/ '+ (:"'1%!+% /9' ( / (1/ "/ '+ 91,/!

177 2.8.6 FEMTO - LASER 3/ femto- second "' sec / -/ ( #$!/$ "#. 4", /& *% -,+* $ "," $% $ -% #- -/ ($', /+ #1% ',$ $ -/ $ (!(% #%!% #- -/ femto- second (fs). Laser (,(/ '#+% # # femto- second -!(/ /(!.! $. ( Laser (/ $' $.!+% (% *$% ( -# "/ (&/ */ +/#*/ '#&/ )/ "/!+ 100 ("/&/.#&/ (,!/$ "# LASER!") =&) (1 &/ /.&/ Laser / / '1 ($. ". < #,'"% -/ "% / -/ Laser, $ ''1.#$" - #(/.. / " #(/ ".#$"% /,/ *, $ "#(,+/ % #- /,$ ('$ ( "8(/ "/ $" "% /% Laser #+/ / '- (/ "/ 1 ( ('+ ( Laser. Laser &/ /&/ '+/ # '+ #:1 '+ " (+ ( 9'1#%, $' ( /,+ ('+ (/' " 1 /, " ($!/ /!+ ", *%. #,'" / "% /,1% 1% /% -! #$#" 1 :+)". $. " 1 / ", *% # $ " 9, & Laser / -! '1% $"% - #". $/ 6: Laser &/ /&/

178 2.9 72!/!%)!/) "!&46410)!& LASER 4 /-( *% $" */ Laser / " #/!*#$" "% /9'% (%. / # ",1 *$% / # / & $'( #/!*#$ *%, Laser /(/ "/ '+" (1 -,, " % /$ #/!*#$ *%. 1, "/ (.(/$" "% - #"% / ',$#/ "/,#" "%, ( "/ )" / ' "%,*/% (!"#8 " )*1 / "% - #"% # "/ /1 /. (/".8 / 8 mrads. -/ ' $ #$ Laser /,# "% - #"% ( / ( 1mrad,,# ( /! +)" " "% #-( "% - #"% ( Laser 1mm / #- #1%. 0 Laser / ",-% #,'"% '#$"% -/ "% /9'%. 4" /- $ " '#$" "% - #"% /$% Laser He-Ne, ( -!!+ 1mWatt, / '+ #,'+" $ " '#$" ( 1'( (('! / 100 -% #,'+"). Laser 9 (# / (:"'$ (/$ 9.#$ (#*/% $ 1 ''" */1 ",1. / # ",1 *$% / '*% +#*/"!& /!$/, (! $'(".1 (!- " #)+ */ #9'&/ ( "'+ ( "% */1% /9'% ' -/ "# (!&( #' (-%. '' "# (. / " #9'1 (1 ( "'+ ( #". ( ( "#, # / /% # #,'" 99$". $#/"!/1,#1 / "'$ ' -/ + "#, '&% #$/ #&/% & "#. 0 LASER *% */ "'&/ '#1*/, */ '#1*/. #+, ( 1'( */ ''&/ ''*/ */&/ ",&/ (#-,/ / "#" '*#-/" 1 "(! '*#-/ ". /., '' Laser,(/ '*#-/ *%. #+ # '$/ / +#, $ " /9' (% -! (1 "/ $" /!" $ "%. "/ )" " $'* " "% - #"% ( Laser (,!/ # "/!1 " /$% + '*+!( (. #- $ /"!. (/". #-/! $ ( / -% /%,*/% Brewster, (( (/1.*% /#8/ ".( Brewster"), #,,# /' "%, '*-% '

179

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aser 9 µ-/ :"1 /*/ µ-/*/ :"1 /*/ µ "µ,*,$ laser -!µ"'$ $ %, /$ +% '1% (-(." /*/ µ-/*/, µ " µ-/*/ (', 1 "'µ%. ( (1 (1 µ /,. +'!$µ/ µ$ 9!-*% '"% -"% µ / /'". /1. + "µ ' $ + µ/*/ -", µ+/ / -µ:(/ 10 kbps (kilobytes per second) :"1% '"% +% 1.5!'µ-(. $/

181

182 . µ$% -µ (-(.(% 'µ+% % 200 nsec µ!+ (1% 4 W. ( -", 'µ *$% (,/&// " * µ " 91. ''"'*/ &/ µ- */ (% µ-(/ "'+% 'µ+%. 'µ ( ),8/ '-/, +/ " µ / "'/$ (', 1. µ-/ /'' / +!*% / µ9'' '&. $,* "% µ/1% $"% "% '+ µ1% $' "% "% - µ"% laser, + "µ - '1 /*/ µ-/*/ (,/$µ/" µ " /*/. 4" : :"'1 ' µ( $" "% /*/%! +'", " 4µ"'1 /'* "!+% /*/ "µ( % "µ +/ µ% µ1% '1:"% -, +%. $ 1.5!'$µ '+. $ EM/RF µ9'-% /!8!1 "% (.(,µµ " */ µ/*/ µ "' $ ( (1 (1!" µ, '1 /*/ µ-/*/ µ(/-% (."%!-%, $µ, /*/ µ)+ */ -// $µ*/,* "% */ &/,, "/ "'µ µ-/*/, "'! µ$. (www.barc.ernet.in/webpages/technologies/laser_digi.html) µ,1 ( Laser % "'/*/% (/, /&/ & */ µ"!/&/ % "'/*/%, /-() -/ + "µ laser µ 1 / *. "/ " $9 $ % $/ /. $ +% µ+% laser ( '(')% "% (µµ1% (Wavelength Division Multiplexing - WDM). µ " /-() "/ µ,1 (1, + $ ($ / & laser <</'" "%>> "'µ,/"1% /9'% 1% /% /+!." *% "'/*/$% µ$%.

183 $/ 5.9: -)% ( laser Yb (! -9) */ 977 nm /-µ & )!* /µ"µ-/ laser / "% µ 1 /,,(/ -// $µ9 */ 50 Hz $ (!/$"% WDM. µ$% -/ + "µ WDM / -/ $ $ µ )1µ, $ / "/ " '' $ % ( ( 1µ%. laser "#,*,&/ '(,+/ /µ"µ-/" / ", (/1.*% '+(/ / $' ($, '' /µ"µ-/"% / "% laser 1% /% / (/ /,*/ -%, "/, (1. ( '( / ( (-% (:"'1%!+% µ!µ"'1 &' µ9'1%, /1 /, µ/1 (!/$" '*µ-/"% )$( µ (:"'+% '$,(% 1µ% %.$(9 (Signal to Noise Ratio - SNR). $ µ/-"µ */ µ&/ laser 1% /% 1/ $ +/ -/ 9$ (*."µ-/ laser "µ,*,+, /'" " (&/. & $µ*% (/( µ$% ( 8 "/ /'" " */ µ&/ laser 1% /% µ -/."/$ laser 1% /%. " µ$* " ( /+( ( 1µ%, " -)% */ 977 nm $ -/ laser 1% /% (9( (Yb) '&/ & µ+% laser 1% /% WDM $*% / "/ /* $/ ($/ 5.9).. /µ"µ-/% µ$% / "% laser 1% /%!*8 $,/$ ( µ (!/$" 50 GHz, & + "µ /, -// ($ $µ9 WDM */ 50 GHz. laser /'" "% */ 977 nm ($.($ '+ µ µ."/1, (-*% µ% laser, µ1% +µ% 915 nm. 0( 1 Watt "% /9'% */ 977 nm + $ laser, '' &'% */ 8(&/ &/ /&/ */ 3dB "% '* "% µ&/(/ "/!+ /%. /µ"µ-/ laser / "% 1% /%!+ 90 mw. $ (-% % (/.1%. -/ $ & laser, ( 21 mw!+. 3 $ µ &/, µ"!/ +,// "/ " ( /µ"µ-/( laser / "% 1% /%, µ $ laser /'" "% /9'%. -." $ " ' " */ 1*/ (slope efficiencies) ( /µ"µ-/( laser / "% 1/ % / " ",1 /'" "% 1/ laser

184 1% /% 1 $ laser $ "!1 -/ ".+9( 1/ /)"" $ "/ ",1 /'" "%. µ +" */ & /µ"µ-/*/ laser / "% 1/ ) "µ* µ,'+ $/ /'+// $ -/ laser 1% /%. +)" " ( +(%, +(/ µ"!/, -!(/ *% -' µ "/ ' "%!+% ( laser /'" "% µ 1 /, '' +(/ $ / / 9'9-% "/ " ( ( 1µ% $ $ -// µ$ WDM. 4" µ&/% µ$/ -/."/$ laser 1% /% / & 9 laser, / /'1 (/ & /µ"µ-/ laser / "% µ 1 /, µ µ+/ / µ& (/ (/'$ $ % ( -( ( µ+. /()" (1 / /µ"µ-/ laser 1% /% $ /,*/ µ laser "#,*,&/,!1 " *% µ WDM. 6"1 µ " µ- * laser 1," " laser, :"1 µ " µ-/*/ / µ $µ" 9'* ". * + ('&µ ",+/ laser, :"-% µ,-%. $, (! µ ( ' ''"*#-/*/ ('*/$/ '$,* */ (:"'&/ 1 */, :"+% ",+% laser. -% µ& % ( ('&µ%!/(/ % $ /&%!" µ+µ/%!-% µ ''"*µ-/ ('&µ ",&/ laser. $/ " ('&µ 1," "% laser

185 !1µ 6.8a!/ -/ '$ +'*µ ) (!/$"% µ&/ /*/ MHz. «Digital data in», "'1 " :"1 % µ-/*/ '(. -/! '$ $µ. (/*1% C2, "/ L1 (/*1% C1 '(,+/, / (/ "!µ"'1 (!/$", (/&% / (/ % '(,%!µ"'+ (.µ+ µ-/*/. // -/ +'*µ 1," "% laser. - /!8 (!/$"% $!µ"'-% $ -/ $ ( (.µ+ µ-/*/ "% )"%. +µ - $ /8 Q3.8 $ ( +µ% µ$* "% ''8.- " laser / " µ :" µ µ$* "% $ (''-" ( /8 Q3 '/+ µ)+ ( + "%,µµ1% ( +( ($ /8 Q1) laser D1 ($ /8 Q2) $ -) ( /!(1 U2 ''8(/ µ *. B / +,(µ / -! +'*µ,1 $ ", +'*µ (!" µ :"$ laser - / +, / -. / $. B '$, ($ -/% ",$% laser! µ-/% /!8 -// (.µ$ µ-/*/ */ 622Mb/s. - "% /!8 (!/$"% $!µ"'-% $ 6.22MHz. $ '+' +'*µ / ($ (!1µ% 6.8b, -!+"% "% )"% */ Gb (109Byte). (www.fiberoptics.info). 4 % 9#"!/-% #,-%, $% $ %,/* -%, $*% " 1, " (,$''" ", " '/ ", " " ", 1 " $/( " ('&/, '#9// '+ '+'% $*% " "#(, "# &/" "/,*,1 #('*#*/ 1 " (1 *'1/*/ #1% #-( #"!/ /.&/ )*!"# /.&/ *. "/ 9#"!/1,*,1 #,'"% '#% Laser /(/,1, /# '- #, # '+ '+ -',! "/ ), */ =$/*/. $, Laser # #$ #1% +#% #1% #(/.#$" #-'' 1 "' '+ $ Laser #,'(#1(% +#% #-/*% /(/ # (,#-/" (',1,. +/ "%,#+// /(/ '-%, % 1 -!(/ #1 # #-/"% - #"%, " ( # #1% +#% "% /9'% (%. ( (!&% $#*% Laser #+ #1(% +#% -!(/ #$" "'1 $ ". 4 - Laser 8(/ ( $' "!"# % *!"#-% / %. / ''"',', " #'-" "% #1% */ #*/, " #'-"!"#&/ / */. +/ "% / )/1 (/ # (,#-/"!"#1 / " #- ' -/ #,# / (/-% ''-% -% / %. Laser!" #+/ & " #'-" #*/ /&/ */, #*/ /*/,&/.&% (.-/(%!"#&/ #&/

186 !1 " */ /&/ Laser / #- "% 1%: " #',!" #+/ (*% Laser CO2 Ag. Laser CO2 (-(." /9' o $ # # #1% +#% 1600 nm. Laser Ag,'8 / *% $ # # #1% +#% nm!+ 1-2,5 mw. ( #,1 (% "/."1 #', " ' 1!(,1 ' $ -!(/ % )1% $"%: ()/(/ "/,*,1 */&/, '',$/( ' /"% ( / 9 ( ( -#%. 0*.+/ "/ (,-// ". (#9''(/ "/!+"!-( " "% '-#(. 0'+/ 9'* " ( $/( ( -#%. '(/ " */ #&/ (*/. '(/ " */ $ */,*/ ( 1.%, ', #"). '* " "% (%. #(/ " */ )/&/. 0&." " ( #9' #+ */ '(*/. )/ " (# )-* ") */ '*/ */ "'*/ */ (8..( (% '- # / / #, '' #/8/ + $ &% 1 "#-% # "/.. / Laser # /!" #". ".- " */ 9'/&/ /, /', "# ( 9'/ #+. / / '/ #$, #&/ soft Laser $ / '+*% /(/, '- # (% / '1*% / -:# / $ ''"', / ( "8(/ "/ ( ',1 "$" (,/ #+. (*%!" # )1% +% Laser / 9'/ #$: Laser Ca - As / Laser "#,*,&/ ()% 3). /(/ $" /9' (-(." # #1% +#% 910 nm 0'' (/+/ $ # 9"."1 / )( (,'( (l) / (#/ 1 $ /!*#( (Cr) % (/ $/!&#.!(/!+ -5mW. ((/1.*% 3,6mW). (,+/ (/!&% '#+%. 9.% "% (1% (% /$"% /-! 5 cm ( ( ) $ % */ &/). / (% ', $ "/ # /" /$. #-/ -!(/ ''-% (!/$"%. /(/ # ".(1 /" " $ Laser He-Ne / ' # )% &(/% %

187 .(1 /" " (/1.*% ( 8 # 2-3 (/% /!8/ $% $ 8-12 (/% (/'. / / (! -' # 4-5 (/% '$/ / / #"/ #-/(#. & % $/( # " '(, '#+% # 73 Hz 20" '#% Gerd Meyer-Schwickerather //* "/ &" -#9 " "% $''" "% ( #9'" 1 )&/% *% ( 1'( *% ",1 *$%-/-,% )-') "!(,1 ( (1 (!" #&/%!(1 '(!/ -( )-/(. 1# "." " "% $''" "% ( #9'" 1 / # $ % (-% #,-% ( Laser "/.'#',. #+ % / /*"., 9$ Laser /- " % '+ %."/$% )% # (#9$ *%. /" " 9,,/$% $ " /9' Laser -! '+ #,'+" (/$"!+%.. "% $''" "% ( #9'" 1 -, «)(,/$''" "» "% #-( "% 9 "% "% ''"#-/"%!1% # «"'%,+#%» ( '!(,$% # /9'. ''"#-/" / / /-!, '' + / /. / " (/$"!+% "% /9'% /! #1,,. -,(# $!$/% ",$#/".#$" '9/ /!(. %,+*!-%, '&/% 9'9%,/+% +% $/ /./1. $% #9 % # Laser /.'#$ &//,1, )* #!1," " '+ "# +..'#$% 1/ & $,/ ( #'1." # # Laser 1 / /1% "/ (+) '-/ $% (.'#+ 9". "/ " "%!$#/"% - #"% /* / #9'" 1!&/. + " ( #9'" 1 ( ($'(.'#+ / -, & $ *% / / #,' $ ($/ /!&/ / $ ($/. $ *% Laser ( /.'#$, # / -! #1 (/$"!+%, ". /!(. # "/ " / 1 $ (.'#+. 1 " #-, " #1 9&% /* / #9'" 1.,'+*# (()"#-/" /.'# " )% «,(#-/(» (&(% &#%) ' /(/" " $ /+.+ # " 91. /( Laser r, # /,/ -%, " (,1 "% % ( (,+. "/ 9"1 #9'". ( ", +'* ", " -#9 " # / Laser r - "/ /(/" '".& #$*/,,*/ ( "#(,,/ #$% *% / " 9'1# ( ('+ ( $#*% ( 8(/ 1-#,. /#& " ( " (.$'* " ( + (.'#+),/ # " 91. (1!*/ (.(##8(/ $. ## +/ # $

188 "$,*,$. ".- " ( ( +.'#+. ' $%, / 1 "/.1 $ " (+" ", 9"."1 "% &"% ( ' / 1). <#*% 25% ( */ & */, # $ -'( " #"/$% «,//&/».'-%!-%,+* $ / ' $ $, #8/% "/ $ ".!(,$%.'#%!" # $ Laser # )#8 /!'" ##&#, ('## */ */ +/ (%,+* +%!*%/ "#(,1 (/ '' 9'1#. (&% *% $ excimer Laser!" #, " $.* " "% "% (.'#+. #,'+ #-% (+ ( -,( /.'#$ &/ 1%!&/%. )% "% % ( ".' "% ( - ($ $( -! " ) # / /! ( 1!&/, */-% /%.'&/!$#/% /.'#$. 1% - / -! * 1 #('$" & ''"'" ( - #" / / #9'" 1!&/ *#-% (.'#+ (#1 $.* " "% % ' $ $ (.'#+). / 1% / -! "/ ''"'" #('$" " $ " /.'1. &%.& % "% )+"% "% $ "%,/// # #-% #-% / 1 (/1 #1). (&% *% "% ( (1% -#9 "% ) ''1( / -! /.'#$. (, *% $ /( - # $:" $ #/. 0", 1 /.". +" #-.%, ' # *% $ Laser excimer " 91. (', #&/ # (/#-/ (', 1, / " " '$( &#% ( 1, # " #-. ( ' *-.' 1 #1, '&/% '',1 "% #('$"%, $ " 9&% * "../1% + '-/ /!8.*+% +%. ", /$" #-.%, / " #'( ", "/ $ #! ( #$#%) 1# ( ( / $) & '$ &# ( 1. '+.*% excimer Laser #'+ "/ (1 ( 1 & / #*. " #('" ( $. «$» '/ " +'* " ',% #-%. $/ 8: (&% *% $ excimer Laser!" #, " $.* " "% "% (.'#

189 /. % #-. / $'%, "/ «$.* "» #(*%, "!"8 $ #,'+" ( ( ',+ #('$" ( 1. $.* " (#% (1% # #$" ( ( ',+ #('$") # Laser,/# /', $. $.* " "% #(*% # Laser / # / #. $'% % & % +%./%, # "/ -#9 ", // ".*. $/ 9: 41 " Laser, "/ $.* " "% #(*%. soft Laser!" #+/ 1# "/ / #', # '+ ' '- #. /)% (% /: 0/%, '(', '!1/%, '/*1 ('"%, ('"%,/,.%, /(', +#(, + %, +/#,/.1%.& *%, #$% )"$ /,!'% -"%, '"% " *+, '', #-'' '. / #- ($ /#*8/ # Laser Co2 ",,/"1 "/, '+% */"&/!&/, #(,'#1,!$/ (1 (,,. Laser #+/ / /+/!1 # ". &/, '9 &/ ((,,&/. / #- ($ /#*8/ # Laser Co2 ",,/"1 "/, '+% */"&/!&/, #(,'#1,!$/ (1 (,,. 0 /#*8/ /9,! $, '1.% 1 1.% # Laser Ag, Nb - YAG 1 CO

190 %, -', '1.% 1 /, '%, '+%, #%, #+/ / /#*.+/ # Laser Ag 1 YAG. / #- "%,(/',%!" #+/ Laser CO2, He-Ne Nb-YAG. /)%: /#"* ",!"'%,!"'-% /."'-% /' %, #!(,1 (/('&#, '+%, ' $" ", ( $" "), $'% /-% % $'( (. X "% "/!(,1! $ " #,1 (%, " 8 "/ 1.',&/ &/, / #& %,,*/ /)% "&/. X $,,'( /*( #('+, "'9-% #%,,!1 %,,*/,// & # "/!1 " Laser Nb-YAG, CO2, Ag. 0!+" /* " $,#, (# #,.%, ( #:% '. (/:8/%, /-(# ($ Laser (!" #+/ 1 % $"% (%. "/ Laser CO2 ()( ( /.%). 1% +#% 1600 nm.!(/ + +: '$% +% / (:"'1% /-,% #!+ #-! 100w!" #, )-* " / /( -. /% /$% +% -! #$"!+ /,.#$" - & / ' Cold (+) Laser!" # 1 / /( -, 1, 1)". #1% +#% ( CO2 / "/ $" '( ((-(.) ( #%, ($!8 # ''"'" 1 / (, $ # +" ( (1 Laser. /% CO2 / #+/ / #.+/ # -% /%, ($!8/ ( 1# $*/ #*/, / +/ " 9'9". +/ $ $'(% (% +%, $% $ '$,* "% "$"$% (% $ /$ - #+/ /! #".+/ $'(% (% +%, '' $! (,$ 9''/. +/ # " 8- " )# " ( +% */ &/. $!&# */ &/ / -! "# $ / "/ $" " /-,% ($ #1% +#%. 1 /% (% &/ -// $ /$," % 9.% ( 1 (% / #1 " #1 */ &/ #,'+"

191 Laser Nb-YAG (Neodymium-Ytrium, Aluminium, Garnet = /"%).!(/ #1% +#% nm "/ (-(."!1 ( #%.!(/ #,'+" (1 /$" (% +%,(/ #,'+" % $ *!( ", (, # Laser CO2 Ag # -' # //$" 1)" */&/ $ $ Laser Ag. &/ $ $ +% # /!&#. /% /-% +% YAG */ 1320 nm / $#" +!" "/ 1. /!(. #- $ -% /%,.- #$% ( (-%, $ $ /$ (10 nm) ' '+" 1 1)"!-% ( )+/. Laser Ag (,$/). / & (!" "#1."/ (-*% "/ 1,!, (" %,,*/ ( #9'" +%.!(/ #1% +#% nm -#(/,'8 / *%. " (% ) $!&# ( +. &/ '+ $ +% ( -!(/ (#'"*#!&#,.!. $/, "'1 #9.%!-%. 0'+/ #,'+" )# " #$" % $ * $ Laser Nb- YAG. $,* ( #+ #1(% +#$% (%, #+/ / #.+/ +' #- (', % -% /% '(,+/ ' (,$ 9''/. Laser KTP 532 / $ /$ Laser # #1% +#% 532 nm, (/ / *%. 8(/ # Laser Ag '' ( 8(/ #,'+" $" " $ "/ # /". Laser excimer 3!(/ #$ #1% +#% 193 nm (&% # '+/ " */ #&/ #&/ (photo dissociation) # '+ #,'" 9. &/ -// $ /$ ($!/ '' "/ 1 $ / -!(/.#/1 " /& -!(/ #,'" 9. Laser #!* 1 (Dye).!(/ #$ #1% +#% 63 nm -#(/ $/ *%.!(/ #,'" (1 /$"!" #+/ "/ *(/#1.. 4" #&/% ''%!* -% #+/ /!.+/ Laser # #1" +#% 0 ('+.( () '+ #,'"!+" #$* "% */ Laser $*/ - "/ # " ' #1 /*/ # '+. +#

192 +% #,-% (1% "% (/$"% /: () /*/ #)+ ($*/ "# (1010 bits / ($') (9) /*/ *$!&(% ( / (!(/.$'( (#-% $/ 10:!+" "% */ Laser $*/. LASER 4 H 0",-% Laser #+/ / & (/ /(* -% -% %. </ " - #" Laser!*!1 # -//" (, 1 /$, 8 % $'% % (.+/ % "#(,&/% */+% $,(%. Laser $/*/ Ar Kr -#(/ $ #' $ $ -/ #1" +#% (,!$/*%. # '-,#!*8/!&# +/. '/+#/(%.-%.",+#/(% # (', 1, (,!/,1," /" " "% - #"% Laser. / (/1 " "#(, /+#/*/ -,!*#*/ $/*/. */1 - #" / $ -/ "#., ''.&% " 1 /+* " #-/!/$ "# /.'#$ ($*% / /"#,), ""1% '$'"" "/ $/.!/', -!. "# / #+/ '-/ / "#(,+/ (# Laser) /+#/,'( &/ */!&. (+ ( (% %, / (/( +/ # ',## #+/ / & (/ '+ '+.-#. ',## 9 (/ #,1.-# -,*/ -!/"% 1 /*/ /#-/*/ #( */. 0'+#.-# */ */ " $" / '1% # "/ ( ( /+, /. / # ',##. '1% $"% '$,## - $'% % '"% ( (./+ $((

193 0IN.&% (# #$% (! $' $ "/."#/1 #% 8*1, (1) $ -%, "/ * " ( ( 1#% "% ($#"% (" "% /'*&/ =$/*/.. =$/ «,8» # " 1 ( *1,## ", ( 98 # * " $ - #" *$% Laser. /'&#/ *% (''-, $ $ + "#."#-/ ' "/ ",1 "% - #"%. $/ 12:- #" *$% Laser 98 "/ *1,## " =$/%. *1,## " / # $ #+%,##-% $/, (*#-/" (/1.*% ($''"" /--. ($% $% *" "% / #% "% 9 8 +% */ #+*/ ( '(&/) 8*/&/ "%,## "%. *% Laser. + "# '(,$,.$ / /'&#/ *% / $ #$/ ( #-/ / $.% 9"."-% #/%. /'&#/ *% # $ *$(%, $( $ 1# - "'+% '#+%, #- (', 1 #8.#+%, " */ */, (,#-/ =$/. #/!*#$" ( *$% Laser 9". & # ''"' ' / #8 " % % % *$(%. + #1(% +#% $ /' ",/-% /%. *1% Laser # / -! " #1 ('$ 1 / / ' " " /$% +,*,+ 1 / / / *#*#-/% /-,, #.( ( ( - / " ($''"" - ( =$/%. + "#!" # '-/ $ '' / # '/-%. </./1% /,*,1 (&/ $ ($''"% -%, $( "#/! ( -!(/ *". # + "#,## "%. -%. ''".+/,# #%, +*/ 1 ( &/ #*/ /,%. 1# /!1 " + "#,## "% $( " '"."+ * + %. # - (+ ( ( 1#% # / (#(!.+/ '"%, =$/, - "% #% '$'""% '%

194 0 LASER "% +* "%!*8 + : '1:" "% '"% % +* " «# 1» "% $/ # "% '"% $ " ( (1 "#(,% "%! + -// (*1 Laser / $# # ( *(+ #"!/1#%. <#*% *($, &, &/ # -// #-/ /+#/ *% #/.!1 ( 9'' / *,&,# +'/. /! / (*1 Laser #/ #- / +'/ / (, '' '+,1,!" *% Laser ( &/ / +'/. / (*1 Laser (! / *#*#-/% /)"% ), 1% ( '-,! "/ *1 #/1#" ( (*1. #,'+ #-% "% ), % "% '"%, $ (% "'/+% '#+% ( -'/ (', 1%, #-! (*#-/!, ' #- / (*1 Laser. ($ / $, (', 1% &!/ - */ '"&/ % / (*1 '(.&/ #, -#%/ /'9 /-.1/. 0*,*/ 1% / (*1 ($*% *($ #"!/"#) / $#/% +'/% $ #''$,&,# ('$, '(##-/ # '$ #/*1 (." *% (*,&,#,.!. # '1/.+! #). '$ #-/ / '$ #/*1, #,'!/$ "#, $ 9. "# ( ('/( (.. *%,/,&,#!/ "'$ (. + "% % "% +* "%,/# 591#: #,/1% $ " ( *(."( ('/( #.$ "'$ # */ #-/*/ / +'/ # '$ * #$, #- * '1% - #"% *$% Laser, ( 8 / +'/ (,#-/ "# " '( ( ('/( ( (9' #-/, / '+ / $ /,#!( # $/",1% () :(,+(-toner) /##,#-/"% # $/" #,/"+ ('+ '(##-/( # '(#-%. 1!/1 (( ' /', # / + ( (*1) 8 "' " $/",1%, # /. $ ($ ( ('/(. $/" -'"' % #-/%!-% ( ('/(, "#(,&/% "/ "' 1 $/ (!+ #-/(! / '+ / / +'/, -!/% * ( $' '+ (:"'+ "'+ (/#+. ' " $/",1%,' / +'/ /! «,##-/»! / +/ */ 9.#&/ ' (, $( " '" «&/» #/#. '(. -. #+ "% /% ( ('/( $ /#//!/" "% $/"%,1%

195 $/ 13: 0 $#/% +'/% / (* () ( (-% (-% -!(/ #,' '/-"# "% */1%,,1%. ('$ "% #,/"1%,,1% -! # (,#-/" #1.# % ( "# Curie) $(!/"#,/1 ".,,1 " ( (1,/ : () "!1.#/ # - #" Laser.,/"$ /'8 $ bits "/ +.(/ " ( /! :" 0 (9) " - #" Laser &/ "/!1, +" / - "/ '$"-+.(/ " */ bits ( /!+/ " :" 1 (,) -/ - # 99&/ $ ",,1 -,/ *. </ "!/', -: / (/ ($!/ % '-%,. # (+.(/", -/, $. #*.! #,'%!$/% $ 9 "%, % ( (-%. 0 CD (COMPACT DISC) 9#"!/1,*,1 */ */ CDs - '+ $ / $ # /!///,/* #% */, 9/('(. "'1, & " "#(, #% #''1% #1%, " " (/-! ('$ ( ( (&/ #-/. ('$ */ CDs,. (*.+/ #-/ ' $ -// '(9/+ ( &#% #-( 120 mm (( 4.75 / %)!(% #$'% 1.2 mm (',$ $ 1/20 "% / %)

196 $/ 14: / /$% + ( (CD-ROM) #,-.(/ " 1:6000 & 91# '$/ "% 9#"!/1%,*,1%, / " "#(, "% #1% (glass master) $ :" #-/. $ ($,!" # -/%,('/% %, *#-/% # # 1 *(."" & ". $/ 15: "#(, "% #1% :" #-/!8/ /* /,!" #&/% #! (:"'1%!+% / laser (!(1 $ (1 (!" #+# #"!/ #$ /,/* "% ( CD-player), '-,! $ -/ "'/$ (', 1, ( # " ( /8, " * 1 '1 */ :"&/ #-/*/. /, '$, () '# " "% "#(,% "% #1%, $ (#*% $ ",,1. -% "% %, -!(/ (*. " #1 :" #-/, ($ " #1 */,/* &/ # &/ /" */ '1*/ "/ '( " /'&//,, /,/ /.1 " / " ( #%. "/,#$", "!1 (1 #1!" # (.% # */ //&/ */ CDs, $, /', # / $, "%,*,1% (! $9% " #1 /.. 3 $ "/!1 (8/ ''% (+( % #1%,, (.%!1 " " 9#"!/1,*,

197 $/ 16:,,1% */ #-/*/ "/ / "% #1% /, CDs CD-ROMs,/ #, # "% #1% '(9/$ ('$ ( (&/ % '$"% % /" % " * 1 (%.- " /*., #, '(9/, ( / /1, &/ # -/ '$ &# '(#/(,, / / "/ /,(' 1, & / # / /' " - #" ( laser / 98/ #-/. $#/, / # 91 '% /* $ '(#/, "/ ( #''( $./1 9* " " (. -'%, (&/ / " - 1!" $!- # % ' -% #.$(% #)(% '.,%. $% $ #% / (/" $ " '( ( ( # #-/ / ",#$" " /*. &# ( ( # #-/ 9 9&% * $ "/ - #"!/ #$% /,/* "% 98 $ * #-%, # / 8 laser #- ( ( ( &#%!(% 1,2 mm. ($% / '$,%, ( * #-% ( ( # / -! #-%, (/-%,!*% / "#(, 9'1# "!1 " ( (, '+/ 9-9 #$ "/ ( laser, '' / "(#8(/" "/ / # % '"%. $ "/ ''" '(,, (/-% "/ /* '( ( ( #+/ / - (/ '*% $ "/ (1 / ( '(#/(, 1//%.#-/" "/ / # % '"%,!" +/% (#*% /. CDs *% '$ =$/ / /.,!*% $#*% ($ / "#/ $ / -/. -, '$/, / # # / $ (!8$# (' (# (% (%. CDs - "/ /# CD-ROM,## "RO" ("'&/(/ $ -/% ($% ",$% CD-ROM / # ( (1 ( # #$/ / 9 (RO: Read Only) $ -/ CD-ROM / -! " (/$" /,:. $, /-% $ % */ ",&/ CD-ROM (", CD-R, ", CD-RW) -!(/ " (/$", "/,,1 #-/*/. '1 /,/* "% / -/ % + (#-% -% /#8 pickup), ( #/ #1% #% % (!8 $ -/ ( ( CD-ROM )(', % )*

198 #-" "% /% (. 0*,, / (/# $% '(,% /$% (+ ",+ CD-ROM: / *$% "#(, $ #.1 laser (.+/ % -/ /' $.-". /' $%.-"% / / *#*#-/% /* "/ '1 /,/* "%.,$#/" / /' $ /.-" # "/ 91. /$% + + (.+/ (,#-/ "# /* "/ / ( (. /, + + /* "/ / ( ( CD-ROM /' / #-. $" "% /-,% ( /' * ) $ "# $ ( "% "% #$#/"% /% /* "/ / ( ( CD-ROM. '+9 (pits-'$") "/ / ( ( CD-ROM ("'&/ -/ #"/$ "0", /& " ( '+9% (land-/" ) #1% "% % ("'&/-/ "1". $ (''-%,.-% +% +% ( *+(/ (.+/(/ "/ /'&#/" / -// /!/(1 */1% - #"% (photodetector). /!/(1% */1% - #"% #- "/ $" "% */1% /-,% "'1 /-,. $" "%,$#/"% "'1% /-,% ) $ "/ $" "% */1% /-,%, ( - " /'&#/" / "'1 /-, #- # "/ 91. &/ ('*#*/ :"$ 1# ('(. */ #"/&/). $/ 17: /' " "% /% laser <' #"!/ #-" /$% (+ ",+ CD-ROM /., $% $ / /' $.-" "/ '1 /,/* "%. "%, + ( CD-ROM -!(/ #$/ # /,,1% #-/*/, (! #$/ # '

199 /,/* "%, /. " # $ (#9/ (% '"+% (%. $ "/,#1 ( " '1 /,/* "% / $ #-, '' $ 9'1# ( -!(/!- " # % #,/"-% '-% +,/. 1 " '1 /,/* "% / -! 1 # "/ / ( ( CD-ROM / (!., /. " # $ (#9/ (% +#(% (%. / "#/$, $ ",#1 (!" # # / *$%, #/ ( ) */ #-/*/,/ $'" " / ( ( CD-ROM / / ".1" $ 1 % "9*#%". $/ 18: /,/* "% $ -// $ 0 0. ('$ -! ( # $" "% #1%. '1 -, "!" #&/% #1" +#%, / (/1 " (" " ('&/ # "#/1 99$", $#" $/ $, '+ #1 $" ( ('+. #!" # "/ -(/ ( #$,,/% # 1 /9'. / -/ $ 9,' "/ -(/ "% #1% "% +'"%. *% Laser //(, " #, )% ( ',!$#/( #1(% +#%. #1 % # *% Laser -!(/ '+ '1 1 /$". < (,#-/ (,/* $) / #1% +#% "% /9'%, $ 9- " / " " */ &/ ('&/ -/ #$ ## +'"%. # / (,,/$% '% "% *-!"#%, "% 1#"% */!"#&/ #9'&/ ( '/ *%. 0,# /: () #+ # ( -#% $/. / 1' (9)" * +/. " ( (,) " "% $ "% $ + ( #9'" 1!&/ () '"$%. #$%, # (."" #-.%, "/ (,!/ '1 -, " &/ #*/. #-/ /,

200 . #-.% (1!" # (!/ "/ 1, "/ /!/( " (" " /#//*/!/&/-#*/. 4 H7 %,/* &/, (! "!- " (( / /) (/#% #8%-/-,%:. / " "% % =$/ -!(/ ',$" #8 $ /$/, '(.&/ /-,, $" +/#" "% % " #8. / #/ #8%, " $" "% /-,% ( '(.&/ "/ ("/1 +/")" / ##+ -% #,'+" $ "/ /-, ( '(.&/,/% -' 1 9(/. 9$#9 (,$/( /,# «,*,1%» /-,% $ +/")", ( / / ',!$#/". 1#/%.+/ $#" / 9(/ $(% #''( "% (1% "% % $"% /-,%. 0("/1 +/")" ('% (1/% (//&// -// 9+) (#9/ # ( $ $ / 1' '' -. / '(,1 -/% / 1% ("/1% +/")"%. - / (/-!(/ #-/% (/.1%:.- #% +' ),&,#% &% +'% / 9 8 ("/1 / " # #,'"./$" /,#". / '(.&/ #,'" $" /-,% / / " / # / ) '. ( 9&/ /+/*/ " $'" / / '1 % 9''/,/1 #" " / *% -/% -% / 1%. #+ / '+ $9'"#!1% /-,% % "/ /.*$", ($ /+/ #,'!"# ($/ / #-. 0$, «.1» /-, " &" +'" (.!. (- (D) $ ( (,$/( ( (! /+ (*% /$) # +' /!. /1 $". + $ % / % ("/1% +/")"%. #+ / /: () (9) / (,(.+/ + (1/% (#$. #-/) - / )(*.+/ #)+ (% * -% (/#%. 3/% $% / "!1 "!(/1.!(/1% $#*%, 9 #-/ *# #,' /-,%, / '(,1 " $ 1 ( / #

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asers 3! 9.-(',. $, / "". -/ ' #, $% "% (:"'1%.# %, / / 1 Lawson ( '- $,/$#/ «(/$"!$/» - / / #,'+ #% #1%. ()//% "/ (/$" "% &"% +'"%. #+ / "%!$/% 1" "% ( ' #% (,#-/!&. $/ 18: 41 " Lasers, / #$ ( ' #%. 1,1 "% % -! *% )1%: () «+ #». *$ + -'((%-:('% (9) " 1 /.#/!+ '+ (:"'1.# (,) " 1 / )!/&/ /&/,1, % -)* () / / ", "#(, #,'" " % -/ "% % () " (# " ()/ ".# ( + #(.(#"$ (1 /-, "% )"% */ 1014 Joule!$/ 10-9sec. ($ / $ # Laser (! # " Laser C2, # (/!8/ # Laser Nd-('(),, (9), «9#98(/» )* ('' #8) " 1 :('

202 0 0 / (/"1. "#(,% '#&/ Lasers % ( ('-(. #,-% (%. 9".1 (/ + (*% #%: () " #'-" '+,1,*/ &/ (. #+/ / *8/ / /"#,+/ (9) "/ 1 /*/,.$ /. #+/ / '+/ $ '# / ($', "'1 (/$" '" 67 <' # /+/, -!(/.#1 /-, $/ ".# / #,'+" $ $'( #"-/ ( ).!#"'-%.# %, / (/$/ / /"".+/ # # " 91. "% 1% */*/ /9'% Laser. </ " - #" */*/ (.(/. /. % - #" $#*/, *$/ #. ''"' (/ # $ & # / 1 (/ *$/, " /-, */ */*/ (( ) $ " (!/$" (%) / / " # "/ (/,1) /,&/ -*/ */ $#*/. </ # /, '$,* ( /#-/( Doppler, «9'-» ', 1 " (!/$" ( */( ( '" 8. 4" #&/% $% - #% */*/ # /.% (.+/ %, / $ *$/ / /"1 (/ #. (!/$" "% - #"% Laser '-, - & / 9 '+ / " (!/$" ( #, '' $! $'( ".. ( # )/ # +.(/ " # - #" Laser, /$#/ Doppler ' "/ $" " "% /9'% $ #, $ # - "/!1 (.- ". 0 ''"' # "/ +'" # +% +% #"!/ #+%. #'-" */ #"!/ #&/ (&/ / '' (!$#/ (/"$,.-# 1% ($ "% ( Laser # +% $ "/,/1 #"!/1),.&% ), % ('&/ " 9#"!/. ",/1 #"!/1 $!% / / #9'".+/ ',!$#/ $"% */,/*/ # -#9 " #$ ( DNA, #- / (1/ */ 9',&/ (*/. LASER

203 0 LASER 0 (/"$, 1 "% 0'#1% % ( -( )$ ( " " #/ PHASR (Personnel Halting and Stimulation Response = / " /"" "% -, "% 0 *+), " # / ('& # - #" laser. #/ #8 $ / #/$ $, *% #"./"$ $', # $ "!1 " #' $#*/, /& + *$( -!(/ ', #-% 9 % ( -)% "% 8/. 0./$ " - #" '-8 ( -# PHASR -!!#"'$"!+ & / #"/ ' #$/#" +'* ", / /%!#"'1%!+% # / / /-% / 9':(/ / #9'" 1 /!" #".+/ $ #1 $ " 1, ''1 &. % '! % '"% ( -!(/ '(., 0/,*/ / '$,, -/ $#, $ "!+% ( $'( *% (.#8 ($# /', # "/ $ " $ $!. ( (1!" # '-8 + #1" +#%, & / / $# (,(' ( /! #-/ / +/ # (,#-/" (!/$"., 1 "% %! /+) / $ # $' Sabre 203, # ( (1 (. * $ # //1 #/ #+ / 8' /!.$ # # - #" '-8 $ $ " 300 #-*/. Sabre 203!" #1." $ % #/-% (/#% " #' 1995, ' $#*%,'." '$,* /" (!&/, "/ ' '' "/ ' #$" (. #:% ( '-#( <0 LASER & «$' (.(/$#/"% /-,%» */ 0!" # 1" "% #!"%, "/ )(-* " 9#9&/, /& '' #(/. $' '-8 (:"'$"%!+% 9 / "% /()"%, 1. & Laser (!" # $ / #/$ $ /# " % % #1/ (.+ ( )$/8 (/+%. O % / &/ ''!" # (*%, / ' "/ -")" 9#9&/ ( / -!(/ $ '1 $ " 300 #-*/. $/ -/ - $' 9 1#!1 " $% */ 0 / -! '+: #!"% 9. / $#*%! (!"#-/. '(.1 (/ # $# #- -/!$/. #/1 Raytheon /+ #)+ -/ +/. + "#: Laser ( #+/ / -:(/ / -!$#/% 9'-% (9'+ #&/ (+'*/, % /8/ -, # /."1% (+.*/

204 $' LADS (Laser Area Defence System, + "# -8 0 % 0!1%) '/!- " # (#9$ + "# Phalanx "% % %, / "/ ('!" #&/% 9'1# ( #' '').!1 " '''&/ 9'"#*/ /98 (9' $ %, /& * " #8!$#/*/ (&/ + "# (/ / /)-'.. 3/ /! + "# /*/ Laser. 1/."/$ ' #$ ( / #"/ (! 1 +#%). 3/ /', $' /+ " Boeing, ', #$ */ #/&/ /$'*/ (/#*/. 0''"', " " " "#1% 0(('1% 2#(/% */ 0 '8 / -! -# 2009 Joint High Power Solid State Laser (/$ Laser % "% :"'1% /-,%,! ", "/ 1 (+'*/. <#*% '$) $' Laser / #$#/ -8 (ABL), ( /+ # /) #/&/ &/ (Boeing, Lockheed Martin, Northrop Grumman). $' / '(, # "' #$ ($*%.!. LADS), '' /' "/ /-,, "/!(1 / $!"#-% / %. </ $'.". " #+" /$% #*#-/( Boeing 747, " /. # / -!$#/(% (+'(% ', # "/ $)( 1 (%, $ $ " &/ /*/!'#-*/. &% #-% -!(/,/ - )$ ' ( 2008,##8 / '(.1 " &" ''"*#-/" #1 :"% (+'( (. )(. $ /! "% '$/. $% $#*% $ #(/, /+ /. $' '-8. '-/ )',#-/.* #$#/ ATL (Advanced Tactical Laser, 0",#-/ $ Laser), -/ $#!"#$ '-8 ( /+ " */ 0 (/, # " Boeing. /! #-// '1,(% $!(% (!1#,.#+% "'/*/&/..) $ (:$# &/!'#-*/,./&% / )/&/!. #. Laser, ' #, #+#: $' (.(/$#/"% /-,% /+ #/$ 0/,*/ &" Laser ( '+(/ (% '+% #+% /& 1/(/ "/ (% /+#/% / '(,+/, $' #(#*/ ( «8#8(/» (%!.+% - #% ' #% ( /"+/!1# '#9// #$ ' ( 0/,&/(. #+% #1/% $ 1#, 0 '- /, "% HSV Technologies, # - / -,,.!+ -/ $ '-8 # $(' (../ #-#/ '(9 (%. / $' / +#*/ #!-, "'$ (. "#(,". $ " - #". '+ $ (%, /& ' #+% "% % */ /(#$/*/, ( '(,+/ 1 (!/$",. #/(/ /"-. 3/ $# $' «(.(/$#/"% /-,%», #-,.% #/%, /+, #/$ /($ $ "/ Xtreme Alternative Defense Systems. "#(,

205 "'$ $ $ ", $! # '-8, '' # # - #" / #-/( (, 1 ' #%. $' -! '''-%!1 %: / '+ (%!.+%, $*% Laser ( '- /,, 1 / #1 " '(, */ "'/&/ ( "#*/ /+#/!1#. "% / (1 $ $ " "+% #"!/ #+%. «'#, " (/$" / -//8(# "/ '/$" */ (!-*/ "&/ (!" #+/ 1#»!'8 $% "% Xtreme Alternative Defense Systems 0. + "# /,+ 2/" "% (/"$, 1 "% #/1% % - )$, " Raytheon (" (##-! " /- "#1 /(('1 */ 0, NMD) /-() «+ "# /,+ /" "%» (Active Denial System, ADS), -/ $' #(#*/. ADS, ($ #"./"$, *. (%!.+% 8 //% #$ /+ -# (%, / +/ #(#*/. 0$' ( #+# / '+/ #$/#% 9'9%, $/% / $ -//% & /% / /-! / #/ "/ / "% ( $'(. «&.% / / / * -# (»!'8 *$% %, -/% $ (% /% (''1'(% ( + ( -!." /,/ #$8*, ADS. <' ADS / *#*#-/!1# Humvee.! (/ / #8/ $'% % *-% (" % */ 0. #"./"$ $' (.(/$#/"% /-,% *% // #$ $./"$ (#9 $'.!1 " (% /./ /,( $./% (#*/%. (1 1 # "#+.#+ / '-/,#$". /-,, " '(, ( # "'+% (''-%. / (/1 " (1 $#" #,'+*/ "'&/ (''&/ "# # $! "/ '1 /-,% % ",". "'$% (''-"% #- "/ "'1 /-, "' #$. "'1 /-, # / -'/ "," # " #1 "'#,/"&/ (#*/ Laser. "'$% (''-"% "# # / -! '+ #,'" /. -% (/.1% /. "8(/ " '(, (. "# / (! + #$% "% /'',1% #--/+!. 4*% "/ #9'1 ( &#% "% #$ %, " $ " ( "'+ (''-" "#. / '+ '+". 9 " "% /9'% Laser "/ #$ / ('$" $.!. #+#, 1 " - #" / (,/*#-/", "'1 " #1." #1, $#" '+ #,'% %. $" " "% Laser

206 "/ #$ # / #*. «"#/» /,/ * 1 ',1 ( «+» #1(% +#%. 0 LASER,( $ / -/ $,/ ( 9". / /' #$ "#.,( $ -!(/ #"!/ $#/(% +'(% "!1 '(,% (% / " 1" " "%,*/1% 1%. $% "% ( -! /.1 +.(/ ", $ / - ($' &# (,( $(. #"!/$,( $ /,&%!18 (/1" "%.,( $ '(,+/ # 9 " /$#/ $, $/ -/ "'#,/"$ +# / ' 1 #1 ( 9'' (,#-/"!1, "8 $ ",*/1!+" ( ( 1#% ( #-! (1/ "/! #% Laser /+/ # /.% (.+/ % "/ ('1 #1. 1 '',1 / /' #$ ( ( 1#%. '- #1% % + - #%. (#9'$# / (/1 " /!/( " $#" /."*/ #9'&/, "'1,( $ Laser / '+ (." $,/.,( $ Laser # / -! ('1 '$" 1 / '(, -' 1% /%. - - A )+ */ (#9&/ #,&/ ( Laser / " '+,1," *," ". "!1 " /$% '#+ Laser Ruby #+# / (# '#&/ % nsecs ( -!(/ #)+ (% ##secs. 3 % ( )+(/ #!+" 200m/sec -!(/ *,"., #,1 "% - #"% ( Laser Ruby ( /' $ ". " *," " #- $ # $ Laser - '+ #,'+" #,-.(/ ".1 $/!*%!*# '#,,# '+!1 #, "/ * " *," "% 9',+ ('+ $( " 1/ "% $/% / #,' $9'"#

207 $/ 19:/ Laser- *," "! # "/ ', &, - / +# $ (1 /'+." '+ / LASER, 1948 $ / D. Gabor (1 99 Nobel ( 1% 1972,' (1 ( "/ /'(:"). $/ # "/ /'(:" ( Laser $#*%, /+!." '+,, $ #$/ " /,",!1 " ",1% #/!*#+ *$% 91 "/ '1" '+ " "%. 1#, " ', # /!". / # $ % /-( %!-% #,1% */ LASER, $! #$/, #+# / "9'-(#" *,% &/ */, '' '+ $, #% / " (/$" "#(,% #% 1% #/1#"% 1 " (/$" '-,!( $*/ ('&/ 1 (&/!*% "/ /," 1% (%. *!1# / -/% $ (% $(% (1% /$% ',1#%. *% "% - #"% Laser *8 /#/$ #%, # " - 1 ( - /* # *,1 '. -% "% - #"% ( Laser!" # / / /% - "/ *,1 ' ' (./. ( */ ( +# (#9''(/ "#(,+/ # '+'" $/ (#9'1% (, " *,1 '. $ '+'". / " $/ (#9'1% ) $ $ '+' / /#/$ #%. / /#/ / # " /, ',"#. ' $ # ''1'*/ &/. / /#/$ #% / # "' $ ',"#. / / # $ ('(%. / # " *,1, "% '% ( -!,: (% +% (#9'1%, " * (# #' -/ Laser $# #' ($ ( "#+," ',"#, $./(# "/ "/ (1" "% $/% ( /#/( #%.. ""1%. 9'- $ # '1", " $/ ( /#/( ( (. # / % $:% # '1 '',1 ( "#( 1" "%. '+ "#/1 $" ( ',1#% / $ "!1 # " #/" '" -! '*. ' '$'"" "/ / (. 3 / $# (# " *,1 ' + ## #+# / / ( (# /#/$ #%!" #&/% 1 $ + ## (. 2''" "#/1 $" ( ',1#% / $ -'% "% /% ( / "#(,+/ /-/ $9'"# "/ / (1 (

208 /#-/(, 1 /#/ /!"#, "/ "/ (1" ( /* ',"#, $*% (#9/ " (#91 *,. $/ 20: / Laser- ',"# $/.!(/ '' ( /(/ "/ ', '+ /-(,!/',-% 1 #"!/',-% #,-%,.!. " (/$",1% ''&/ ',"#*/, /* # #/1 '. ($,/ # / ''8. " +.(/ " "% - #"% /%!- " # "/ ' ( ',1#%. "/ "/ (1",. +.(/ " "% - #"% Laser. /! $ -/ $ ',"#. 3 / " ' ( -! ',1# - # #.1 - #" LASER, -/%.$% ""1%. 9'- ''-% / (-%, " # $#*% # "/ ''". - (1 / " (/$",1% #,'( + '"% # #$/ *,1 '. % /-( % #,-% "% ',% '#9/ " 1" " #&/ #& */ 1 '&/ /$% /#-/( 1 #% (1%. '( 8 '+ -% "!1 " "% '#1% ',% 9% "% 1%. "/ * " "% '#1% ',%!" #+/ Laser (:"'1%!+% ( "/ )",&/(/ "/ /" " /$% /#-/( -(/ " *," 1 (

209 2.11 LASER - Lasers / /+.!$/."#/!$# / # #,'*/ #&/ "#*/ 1 + #, $( *-% Laser «98(/» =$/ /+/ " #1 ( "/ $)". % Laser «('+(/»."#/.( % '% (/*/. «(##-/%» - #% Laser,8/ (*&% (*-% (*% ( (-% /,*,1% :"&/ #-/*/ #( 1% (CD).!($ Laser (//#, 1 ( 1% #"!/1#. 0$( '% /-#(/ % ( (-% Laser #% /', # % $"% "% /9'% (%: #1% +#%!+% )$( '#&/ '. ( $( / #$8/. ',!$/,.&%,/& %, #% /-% #,-% ''' 8/. Laser #1%!+% " + 9'9", ( (! /(/% / (#9, / /.'#$. 4 LASER *% Laser / "'#,/"1 /9' " ( # /$ *% /: "#/!*#$" ( "#,'" (/$"!+% (-/ " / #/."% /%) " (# $" ( (, "/ $#*% / (!(/,/* -% 9',-% %) " " ( *$% Laser, $*%, /$ *%,!+(/: " #,/-% #- / (.+,##" $/ - / + #- (,. (#9: /' ": ' 1 ($ * " ' /,,*/ $ * "% " #,*/ /' "% " - #" #-/ (,/*#-/")!-( ($ * " 1 / " - #" /', '' 8).' " (" - #"!* + #- /, '' ''8 " +.(/ 1 "% (/$#% ( Snell). ".' " ' " (,'/( 1 '/( (# */ &/ ( ") */ #*/

210 LASER *% Laser / "'#,/"1 /9', '' #" /8(. $// /% 4, / "'#,/"-% /8( %, 1 -!(/ '+ #$ #1% +#%.,/-%,##-% " 9',$ $ # % +% #"!/ #+%: /' " 9 " $" " $ (##!1% "%. % '$ «-' #» ) $ % $"% "% % ( +. +% #"!/ #$% $'" "% 9'9"% / $ / " $" ". Laser ( # / '- :.#1 " [.- '/* "-$/" " #$ ( 9',+ +,.#$". 9'9" (#/ $ #( * " "% '(*#/"% #-! -,(# ()# ")].#-( 1 " ( $/ " Laser -! " #1!(&/ +/#*/ -#$*/ ( ms- '#&/. /.-#/" #,'" /-, ' '+ (:"'1 1 +)" " "%.# %, # -' # "/! )# " ( +% "/ -")" ( (() *!"#1 " ( (#9/ $/ #1% +#% "% Laser 8 # "/ +#/" /-,--/( #!"#1% / "% #)+ (,#-/*/,/&/ #*/) '(!$/ /'+."/ /)% #" / &/ #9'&/ 9',$ $ # $ #-/" -. 1 ( Laser!#"'1%!+% # #1" +#% ( #-! $.* *% / '+/ %. LASER.'#$% / «( #-/%» - & / -! *%. #-/*% / /1% $,,+% (-(. #1# ( #%. /.&/%.'#$% -! #"!/ #$ "% ( /% *$% /* + ( #9'" 1!&/.!+% "% # $ "!- " #)+ #-( "% % #-( "%!"#8$#/"% */1% "'% / #9'" 1. '1 #% / % )% #,-.(% #$", "'1 #9$/ #&/ 6 )% #,-.(% 1 " (/$"!+% "% # / ()".,/ 106. ($ "#/ *% Laser!+% milli-watt 8 / #9'" 1 "!+% ( - /%!'% watts / mm2, "'1 /$( -,(#. (/1.*% " 9'9" /,/."1 / '+ #1% /%, / $#*% ( *(1..'#% &/ -,(# #.'# $

211 $/ 21: * #$% ( #9'" &/ $ # #1 '#, $ / 1' $ -/ Laser. 4 LASER (+.(/% - / )", / /"#&/, (% /+/(% (.!.!': (%.","-% (% #."-%). <' - / +,(/ / )(/ (.% " */1 - #". - #" Laser - / /9 #$// $ / -! #(/. $ "/ "%. /'& / (. #+ / "/ ",1 % /.+#"% (.+/ %.!1 " 1% 1#/ "% ()/ "/ (/." " ( /+/( (% $/%. 0- / +,. -#9 "-$ (1% "% ( (1% Laser, $! #$/ $ / '(,, '' $ / (/#-/" # "'$ +#. 0 LASER./$ 5(# 0+*/ "% #1% (ANSI) Laser - % ",% /', # / /(/ ( #-!(/ "!1 " (%.. $#/" ", ($ "/ "/ V) +/ $. #- '-,!( % (!1 " */ $/*/. #$#/" /9' ($ " ( (1 Laser) ( # / '- 8"#-9'9".8 $ + #-(%: /,#-.( )$( "% - #"% "/ $ " $ " ( (1 "/,# "#-" " ()

212 .8(/ " #-, " $" /9'% "/ # /.*% /. # '. 8 J/cm2 1 W/cm2 ) $: #1% +#% "% " -. "% " (!/$" */ #$#/*/ '#&/ " + " "% -. "% ( (,/*#-/" - #" 1!(") '-/,, "/ 1, ", /.'#$, (',8 $ "/ '1 /-, 1!+ ( # / #- $ "/ '1" '1 ( # #-/" ), "'1 #-( 7 mm ($ /,#%). /. (/"$% /(/% - / (',. " #-, " /-, 1!+% ( # / -'. $ $ /,#. "/ (-(." 1 (&" $ /,#%.* 1 mm. </!" # $ + "# (.!. (') $ /,#% '#9/ *% 50 mm.!(/ + $#" # ( +/ "/ '1!1 " */ Laser: ".*"1 «$ " 1% 9'9"%»,. + Laser " 1 (/$" ('+ (, "/ (.'#+ 0-! $' Laser, * $ ( ',-% (/.1%, %, / #+/ / -#:(/ /9' /1 / '- 9'9". "/ )" ( Laser '+/ «Laser '1, /.'#$» 9'(/ /, $#" / ) (.% " - #", 8 &% /)" $ #1% +#%.,#, " #-, "!+% Laser He Ne ( /1 "/ ", 0,4 #W. / T Laser (1% "% ",% / #+/ / -#:(/ /9' ( / )/ $ "% 0-! $' Laser!#"'1%!+% (,(/ /' $ "% % / '/, / -: /.'#$.!$/% "% /' 1% / "% / 0,25 ( ('-(. Laser "% ",% -#(/ #,'+"!+, '' $ "% /-,% ( -! /.'#$ 8 $ ' # "% %. #-, "!+% (/!+% + Laser "% ",% / ''"', # ( 1% #."-%. / 1mW. ( Laser / #1% +#% /1 #" $ " Laser )/ $ "% ",%, $ (.% "/ ",

213 9 "/ ", /1(/ $' Laser ( -#(/ /9' ( / 9' / /.* # ( ',1 '(,.'#+ (/' 1 / " "% %). ", -! $' Laser #- "%!+% # -) #) %!($" "% ",%, /', # " "% -. "%. /!" #+/ ( 1# ($*% ('),, "/ 1" " "% - #"% Laser, #/ '". 9'9" /.'#$. Laser He Ne Laser $*/ $, "#-, " $#/"!+% / 5 mwatts. ", 9 -! $' Laser ( / /1(/ % ",% 1 -!(/ #1% +#% ($ 1 #") /$ / '- 9'9" /.'#$ ( ""1, $#"!*% "!1 " &/ 9"."&/ )"#*/. #-, "!+% */ Laser "% ",% 9 / 0,5 Watt (/+/ / & (/ $ $ 125 mj 0,25 ($'. IV 0-! $' Laser ( / /1(/ % ",+#/% ",%. *+/ Laser #,'"%!+%. /9' (% # / '- : 9'9" /.'#$ $#" $ #-/" - #" 9'9" -# (, 1 Laser #!+ )$( #,'+" ( 0,5 Watt /1 "/ ", IV. 4 LASER $'(/ " "% #$ % (!&( $: 0=$/ ( ( 1#% */ ( laser (/,$ -, + "# :+)"%,,*,..) /+%!$#/(% $ "/ /.* " 1 "/ $#" " ()# ") &/, + %!(,-% #,-% /(/ $ "' ( 1# ( laser ' $,,+#,./%( (:"'1%!+%, ( *(-%, "'- ( 1#, #*-%.'..) /(/ $ (% (,/+% :+% */ )*/ laser ((,$ 8*,(,$ 1' / " '+/ + /) /(/ (,% ( + "# (/*&/, -")" +'*/ */ 1 '(&/, $% "' #$% ' +% *'1/%, ( 1# 1% /'" "%,.'..),

214

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c/f $( c / "!+" ( *$% f " (!/$". *% -! (:"'$" (!/$" #$ #1% +#% $ (/". #-/ AM FM +#. $ *% -! -/ +% $ 380 //$# (nm), $ 9.+ 9', #-! 750 //$# (nm), #-! 9.+ $/. (&"% /9' -! #,'+ #1% +#% $ $ *%. $ ( 1# &/ /&/ ('+(/ #(-(. *%, ##1" +#% /# nm. *% $% $ +# # /.*". / +/' *#*/, # )!* 1 #/ /-,%, ''!*% #8, *$/. $ /-,% ( -! -/ *$/ ) $ "/ (!/$" (. < #,'+" / " (!/$" $

216 #,'+" " /-,. /-,,, joules, ( -! -/ *$/ / $ "/!- ": E = h*f $( f / " (!/$" z h ". ( Plank, ( / 6.63 x joule-seconds.!1 " */ + 1*/ ( *$% % -% /% / '+ "#/1.,#, ''-% $"% "% 1% ''8(/ /', # #1% +#%, #-/*%!" # ".&" " ( +#%. (." */ &/ /!/(&/ )", '+ # ".* */ *#*/ ( *$% !4(" &7(4$,(', " &" +'" "% 1% /% #/ ", &" ( +#*/ # $,/*8(# 1#),+* ;" $ " *#=1!1,!/%!/ "/ -!/" ), % (,('+ $ ' & / (8(/ /% $ ($ ('$! #-/*%,.*"&% ('! /, "!/1 (#1, % -% /% (1! $ /*%... /% $#*% -" (% &/% ( '+." / /!" #1 ($ ('$, # " ( *$%, $ 1" $ -'" ( 18( &/,,///.% # "% ( *$% #,'% %, # $ "/ /*/. 0.%, (, $#*%, / $" / # (/- / #/(/, % '$'"% " /*/ ( //( (1) #(% #% *1% )"% ( -,/ "#$ $ / $ '$ John Tyndall. Tyndall,!" #&/% # (/" '-9, ( - $ -/! % -/ '' # - #" *$%, -) $ *% /'&// *,, / '(.1 "/ (,#-/" #1 "% (/"% '-9%..&% /$ - $ *'1/ ( &(!(, Tyndall "+.(/ # - #" *$% "/ "% (/"% '-9%. *% $*% #+ / /$, '(.+ #.' #-/" *$ "% (/"% '-9%. ($ '$ #, ( /8!1# 1, 1/ & 91# "% -(/%, "/ (.(/$#/" #1 *$%. William Wheeling." - $ # ( Tyndall, $/ 1880!+* # #-. #% *$%, "/ /$# "piping light" (*% #- ( *'1/*/). Wheeling ( $!" #&/% *'1/% #.-%, (. )/+ / $ # '1 ",1 *$%,.!. "'$ /.1,. '8// "/ ),. #+ / ' *% +%!&(%, # / $ ( /$ #- #- ( */ ( *'1/*/. ) % $#*% "% ( '%,#" "% "% -% (,, "% ($!/"% /'(:"% ( '#1 (* "% $ / Edison, " #-.% "% #% ( *$% #- ( *'1/*/ / ('1." -. 0''-% /*% */-% % )'(.+/ / /+(/ /-/, "/ - ( (/!8(/ %.%, "/ ('" 1 "%, "8$#/% "/ )-')" "%!/',% /$%, -!/% / $! "/ )/$#" " /-,% -(

217 4 %0($!4* John Tyndall /!$/ Alexander Graham Bell /-() -/ $ + "# # "% */1%, /$# *$*/. % / $ / $ (, *$*/!" #" $ *%, / #- "/ /.&/" */1 200 #- #.."#-/.-% /'+ / "'$ *% -/,#, 1/ # #-/ $# ( *$*/(. '', (/#-/" # -/ 9'$, (1! # \ */ " '"/(. */ " 1/ (/#-/" # # #, " # " "% (/$/ # -// "'*/$ -". / % #'+ *$*/, $ * #-/,# '/*/$/, -'//% % $"% *$% "/ */ ". #9''$#/" -/ " ( *$% #-9' "/ #1 "% / "% " # "/ "% - i '+ #9'1 "% -/ "% ( +#% ( /+ $ / -", ) % "/ (/-! #- *% */1.!/',, "/ ( 1)" "% + "% /. 1/.- #",!$/, '' Bell ( $ " + " ( 1/ ($" $ "/ + " ( "'&/(, 1 / +//,*, +/ "% #)+ #+ -". "/,#$" 1/ " &" / $ # 1 8+)" # #$* " '% (- AMPLITUDE MODULATION).!/', */ &/ /&/,/&, /()" + # $ ( 20( &/. (! 1. "/ ( 1950, #8 # "/ /()" ( / (. (1 " ( (1 #1% $/%, "!" #+ "/ &" 1 / ( #-/" ) ''1( $,(', /1." $ /+ $ (% Brian O'Brien "% % American Optical Company,, $ / Narrinder Kapany (% (/,% ( (,8// Imperial College ofscience and Technology ( //(. (0,#, Narrinder Kapany &% /$" / $ "fiber optics" 1956). / $,1, 91 #,1 / -',! (,''1 */ *$ */ )#/&/ */ / 1*/ (%.'#(% + "% */ #"!/&/ */

218 '/*/.&% -% #,-%.!/', ( / $( )'!." #!$/,, / / " ' $" " -/ $ #,' +,# ( 200( &/. /()" "%!/',% laser 1/ $#/ "#/$ 91# "/,.( " "% 9#"!/% */ &/ /&/. $/ " % laser 1, "!#"'1% (!+% *-#( % (LED),! " (/$" /, - #" ( *$% - ( / /!1 #", % -% /%. 1957, Gordon Gould "# " "/ - "%!1 "% laser, $/ / #(!$% ( 1% / 1# COLUMBIA -,: laser / -//" ",1 *$%. 0'+ +/# Charles Townes Arthur Schawlow */, "*/ Bell ( 1)/ laser (% "#/+% +'(%. laser - / $, (#'#9/$#/"% "% /()"% ( laser (#/( ( laser '( - -( -% laser "#,*,&/ ( "/, &" 1962, "#&/% "/ -/)" "% (%!1 "% (% % -% /*/%. -% /% (1)/ # / 1 /'(:", / )')% +/#. % ) (/, / / -!(/ / 1".!$% (%,. / /% */&/ ( ''*/ (1 */-% /%), ( ($!/ #* " ( $ (%!/1 (!1 8"1#. ', )8 *% / /-(# $.","1% ( MIT ( * # / 3''"/%,.. *//$('%! #74/!4*.!2) ( ' ( (// *% " " (.8 $ ".' "% ( ('+ #-. "%.' "% /#8 '$,% "%!+"% ( *$% /$, ( / " #,'+" (/1!+" "% "'#,/"1% /9'%, % "/!+" #- "%.!+" ( *$% ('$ / / #$" $ (1 /$ /! (/' 1%.' "% */ $*/ ('&/ / #,'+% $ ($/ ( /+. "/ )" " #-" ",/ # 9 " ".' "% ( *$% / - $! /$.*&/% $ + / # 1. " ( *$% (', $ /$# ( Snell ( 8 %,*/% /' "%.' "% 9 //%!1 " ( '$,( */ &/.' "%. /$#% ( Snell!/ $ $/ *% % -/ ('$ # #$ ".' "% ",*/ $ * "%,/ #,'" /.,#"..' " '' '1 /' ".!" 1,*/, "/ (#9/ ($ /$#/ /#8 1,*/. ($ /$#/, ( -! / -' # " (/!$#/" " ( *$% ('$, ' "/!1 '(,% */ &/ /&/, #- % % *% '$,* */ (/!&/ /' */ ( (#9/(/ *$ (%. 1,*/, "/ (#9/ '1 /' " "!* 1 / #)+ + ('&/.8 $ ".' "% */ + (&/ ('&/

219 "/ * " */ &/ /&/ " 1,*/ /! -// &/ %.8 $.#"$ /,# () "% /%. () / "#/ "% #-, "%,*/% $( #% /% *$% & (1 /. #- "/ 1 / # '1 /' ".,*/!1% #% /% / " # 1,*/ ( &/( *$% ( # / - /* "/ 1 / / /' '..#"$ /,# #% /%,*/%!1%!" #+/, /!"8(/ "/ $" */ #&/ */ /!/(&/. </ )*$%!&% / -%, $ n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

220 %4&%"!$! %4&%"!$! -% /% / / / 1# " '+" '+ " #- # "% ($, '/1#, ( ( 8(/,!- " # '' #- / "#/. -% /%.-(/ '+ #,' +% 8&/"% (!/1*/, # -' # / (,!// (:"'-%!+"% # "% ("% )"% */ Gbps). (/1.%!+"% # "% / (-% */ 2 10 Gbps, /& -!(/ "% /(!. ( 1# */ 20,40 50 Gbps. * " '(')% # " #1(% +#%,!+"%./(/ # Tbps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

221 '! ".+/ &'%. <#*%, " $% "%!/',%, ( -! "#*. '(!$/ "/!1 */ &/ /&/, /#& # (! "/ /* ( ', # -' # / / (/1 "!1 " (%, (/- % "#( % '' "#. 0$' (, "!1 " (% -% (/- % / -! $#" (-*% )'*., '$,* ( ()"#-/( $ (%, ( ( 8(/ - ( 1#. (# # '$/: 0'/1#,'"!*"$" "% )"% */ Gbps /1# ( ' " +/ ", # (/- "/ /," +)"% -)*/, &/ /-%!/-% '(')% # " #1(% +#% (Wave ( ' +/ "% ''&/ division Multiplexing)!" &/ /* -/ '& (,!//!+"% "% )"% */ Tbps. $ #-,.% 9% 9-%, #-% % 4#"'1 ).-/" " - $ 9'"" 9''/',-% #9'-% - :"'1 ' - ( ' ('-% % -,'%, % #&/(/ $ %

222 1.2 (+') %!4*(0)!"-& &-& "/ /$" " */ '**/ &/ /&/, ( -% (%!/ -// "#/$ $!: / #"/ (! 1 *$% )*$ /$% '*(, (.! *% -' # "/ &' #-/*/ '' $#" 9'1#. '$, ($ - / 9. -/% $% & $'" " */1 /-, / #-/ *$ ( '*( / /!*% ).-/ " / #$ "%.!1 '(,% /$% + '*( / " '1 *1 //' " (TIR - Total Internal Reflection) 9 8,,/$% $ $/ *% //' )''1( -// ' $ *$!&, # / )+ #,'% %,!*% / #*. " -/ 1 (. % +(, -/ $ '&, " # */ &/ /&/ ' $ ('$ ( //' * $' *%, ) '8/% - +,#: 1) "/ '1 *1 //' ", (. -: "/ '" /. /''*" #,'% % 2) "/ (,1 1% *$% )*$ ( '*( / '$, ($, *%!+ *$ "% 1% /% ($ (,#-/",*/,& / (!. " ''"'" //' " (. -: "/ 1 */1% /-,%. -! /. / #$ "%, " */1 - #" (/1.*%,#!'% 1 ##+ //' % *$ "% 1% /%. 0/*% &'%!+% "% */1% /-,% /. * " /$(%, $#" "/ '1 *1 //' " ( *$% "+/ (*% " # " */ #-/*/ % ''&/!'#-*/. ($ ' #-% -'% ( #- ( #%, ( / / '' $,('..$" ( '(( /./ - 100%, # -' # "!+% ( *$% / )./. /', #!% ( '*(, &'% #+/ /. (/ $#" 20% /!'$#, * $ # +,!/ '&, -!(/#*. 5-10%. +! ( 1#% #% 8+)"% #-/*/ 1% /% / #$%, -"% /% " " 1 /..! 8 "#/$ $' "/ $" "% # "%. 0- / '".+/ 9-% %, 9 #-/% '(,-% #-(%,,.! ( ( 1#% / - / (!. (:"'1% $"% # ". 8"1# "% $ "%, "% $"% "%!+"%.8(/ (% 9 +% #+% #,1%. ',1 */,&/ "%. 9.#% -! # "!- " # ($' #-" ( ( 1#%.,#, " ',1 ( /!/(1. " "/ (." ( -", (. " # " "% "/ ""!+ )$( ( #+. $, "!+% )$( "8 / + ( #+ ( -# *%, %. " / + "% /% / + ( (/1 (.!" #".+/. 0/&%,! #$% #% 8+)"% 1% /% / / 1#/%, (!(/, * $, ',-% #-. ( '(.+/. 3/% $% / / /'(. & (', #$% "%!+% "% 8+)"% "% 1% /%, ( /#8 "%(', #$% "% &'% "% 1% 8+)"%

223 0'',/% "8(/ $ # # / #& % #- * /%. "#/$,/% /: 1!+% )$( ( #+. #1% +#% '(,%. ).-/" " "% /%. +% 8&/"% "% /%. 1 (." ( -" $2)!4* +(2&4* &274* (', #$% &'% 1% 8+)"% /'+ " 8+)", / ) ' $ /.- #" 1!+%, - & / // % /,% #% #-/"% #,1%. <#*%, (1 "!+% / -/ #$/ #-% */ >.- */ "% 8+)"%. '' #-% / +% 8&/"% 1!$/% /$(.! "% 8+)"% - / -!(/,1," $ " " "% /% - / /!#"'1& / '"+/ >.- % ( +(% 8&/"% "% #,1%. / +' / 9'. +% 8&/"% ''-% #,-% 1% /%, '' / (#9/ / ($. / ) ' ''"' +% 8&/"%, -/ + "# # " "#(, /$% (', #+ (!$/( /$(. /, #"!/ # -!(/ -/ #-/!$/ / "% % $(%. )1# / /,(/ '/(/.!$/ /$(.$(.8(/ (/'$!$/ $ "% +% 8&/"%. </ / +% 8&/"% /$% )1#%, 10% -90% (!$/('(,%#/ +: $: tr =0.35/Bw $(: tr =!$/% /$( Bw = +% 8&/"%. (1 " ) * " )", "/ '+" "/ /. (', #$% (!$/( /$( - "% / '#9/ (%!$/(% /$( ( #+ ( -". / -", '$,% (!$/( /$( % +% 8&/"% # / 8 $!$/ /$( */!*/ $ +% 8&/"% "%.%!$/( RC. 1 (/1%, (8+% /& % / "8(/ "/!+" ( ( 1#%, /!8 / )",".+/ / (', #$ (!$/( /$( &#1*/!/) %*,/0)

224 /'( " "% (." %.8 "/ '! " 1!+ ( - / (! -", - & / (!.+/ $ "% ( +/, -/ #-/ + "#.,/% (. " (/ (1/ "/ /'( " /: -/ " "% ",1%.+9(. /-.$(9 ( "#(, $ LED 1 laser (!(/ $(9% "%, " % % + &/ (# &/ (!*8/!/ -!(/ $ $ +#. </ # +, " */ + &/!/ #.1 "%, +# / +#*/..1% "%,/ ",1.+9(..$(9% '(% ' $ " #1% laser.!+% (.+9( ()/ # "/ ()/$#/" 1!+, / -/ /& $ ( *'( " (/-!./ (:"'$!+%..$(9% "% /%.!8 #.$(9 ( $( /#1%. -/ '+ '-8, $' #1% (.# '+"% "% 9 / (/,*/ #$, '&/% "/!/ )"#-/" #1 /#1 $! "/ //1 /#1 #- (!$/(. 1. # $ (+% (% (/,*/8$#/(% (.#+% /! -/!&#, "!*#1 "% /%!*8 1 /-# (+% (% (.#+%, '&/% #* " ( +(% 8&/"% ( ( 1#% ()"#-/.$(9. (1 " " / (! # #/$" /, $' ( -/ '' /$#/, /#8.$(9% ( $( "% # / "#(,1 $#% ( '%, $/ laser!" #+/ ##/$% /%..$(9% ( -". *%, / "% #1% /!(1% (#9''(/.$(9 ( -"..$(9% 9'1% / +% +%.+9( ( -"..$(9% 9'1% -!!- " # " 1 )" */ */*/ / /!/(1 ' $ (!% (#/ % ( +#% ( +(/ $ " 1 + " */ "'/*/..$(9% ( -" / (.-*% /',% # +% 8&/"% ( -". $ / " 1 "'/*/ / # (!, # /!" #". # '1 ) * " (', 1% 1%, / (', #$ ( -( (.+9(..+9( /!$/ # "/,*/1 8 (.#+ */ "'/*/ ( -(/ / #/!$/(. $ / -/ "'$/ -! l,6xl0~19cb, 1 #- +#% / " 1 6,25!1018 "'/*/ / ($'..$(9% ( (!8 # (1/ " 1 / 2,5xl09 "'$/ / ($' 1 0,4. -,, " # /!" #"., / (', #$ '.(% (!,#, $*% (,##1 % "% /1%,/&#"%. / (##-!(/ # (,##-" " 625 #,.& '.(% / 25 # 1 4% ( (/$'(.!/1 '/* " (#9'1 0#9'1.!/1 '/* " / # 9!($. #" #9'1 1. " /$%. #-/( 1#%. (#9'1 #9'1 / -' # ''*/ (&/ :"*/ ( #9''/ ($ :" ( #% /-. <(.$(9% ( -" / /',% % +% 8&/"%, " (#9'1 #9'1 / / $*% /'," % +% 8&/"%.,## (.'#+ / -/% '$% $%, / +# % % "%!/1% '/* "% "% (#9'1% #9'1%

225 (.#$% 1% /. #-/*/ bits. (.#$% 1% '/. #-/*/ bits (BER) / + 1 $"%, -/ :"$ + "# # "%. 1 $ (%,/% ( (!(/ "/ /'( " "% (." % # / '- '/. #-/ bits ) $!4) (4),2(*64 '$,% 1#% %.$(9 / -/% /$% $% #/ "% "% $"% ( 1#% /$% ( 1#%. / '$,% #% #- "%!+% 1#% ( (/'+.+9( # /, *% )1%: SNR = S/N ' ($/ '$,, 1# (S) / *+ "/ '" (. #., /&.$(9% () / +/' $'*/ */ (/' &/.+9( #- * ( (/'+ +(% 8&/"% ( ( 1#%. #-/" / #-', " ) * " # /, *%: SNR(dB)=10log10(S/N) (.#$% 1% '.&/ (&/ :"*/ (BER) '$,% 1#% %.$(9 (SNR) ''"'!8/, -/% '+% SNR / -// '+ BER. 1 /-, ( / "", / (!. -/% #-/% SNR, #-/*% -/% #-/% BER, /#8 (." ( -".,#, -/% '$,% 1#% %.$(9 11 db. -/ -/ BER ( 9. '&//% / SNR ',$ $ 1dB 11,75dB, 9'&/ BER % %!- " #)+ ( SNR ( BER ' /', # " #-. *" "% */ #-/*/. (1 "!- " ''"')" "%, / (1, NRZ #-/ (( / /#"/8/)

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o FM, "%, / "8 $ % #9'-% '(% ( '+/ $ "/ 1 &', ( / # $ % (/#% "% /%. ( FM #*1 -,+* $ # -( (:"'1% (!/$"%. /, '$/, / '') '% "% -( %, ''8 " (!/$" "% -( % +#*/ # % -% '% ( 1#%. 3/ '/-"# */ FM ( "#*/ 9 % #."#-% /'+ % (!/(/ $ '$,% 1#% %.$(9 / -" # / 9'*. ()//% " +#/ " "% -( %.,#, % (.- (# $ $ / #. -/ 1# video $ -! +% 8&/"% 5MHz. /!" #1 (# # -( (!/$" 708 '- (# # +#/ " 58 #$8/% 1# video, $ -!(# # +)" "!$/ 5dB '$, 1#% %.$(9 ( -"!- " # -/ AM + "#. / ()1 (# " +#/ " "% -( % (!/$"% 10MHz, $ ()/ " 9'* " 15,6dB. ($ / -/ $ " "#/! */ FM. 3/ $# "#/$ '/-"# */ FM / $ )' "/ /,", (:"',##! ( +/, AM ( 1#. (!/, ( 1# (!" #+/ FM *" " /-/ "/!/1 *% '#1 #$* " (!/$"% (PFM). ($ "#/ ' $ FM 1# 8 (#- :" 0 1) / #. #- * "% /%. -' # /. /, #*1%!8 - & "

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db #)+ ( #+ ( -", -"%. (/+ $ ".#" ( 1#% / 10%. 4*% '' #-, -"% / # / / % #9'-% "%.#"% ( 1#% $ % #9'-% "% 1% &'%. / ' AM # " #- ( 1% /% "#(, #!/1, "/ /.# " "% &'% ( (/- # "/ /. ($ $9'"# # / '(. # + $(%: # "/ #''( " % (,#-/"% $"% "% (##1% $( (, video, '#$% (,!/ #+ / #.1 ( # /!" #"., " " "% 1% &'% $ " #9'1 ( -( 1#%) 1 # "!1 " #%!/1% ( - / #"/(. ".#" ( 1#% /)" $ "/ 1 &'. 3/% $%, / (!. ($ / / ' -/% ",$% $/% (:"'1 (!/$" ( / /* 1 * $ " (!/$" */ '"&/ ( *+/. /," (:"',##&/ (/ * &/ # / )': '' $ '/1# */ AM -// ''*/!/&/ )% ( $ (% (, "/ ()" (:"',##&/ LED. 0$'% % ( '% ( /-."/

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

229 # / # /',1 / "#/$, "/ "'/1 /*/. 3/% '#$% -! -/ +!" '% / +:% ( '#+.!$/% /$( (/+!$/ (, / )/1 '#$% / (!$/% (, / )/1 '#$% / (!$/% (, / ()". '% $ 10% 90%.!$/% /$( / "#/$%,.- /& $!+"% ( ( 1#%.!+" "/ #+/ )/+/ '#.8 /,1, (.#$ / #+/ /!"# +/ '#.!$/% & "% / /. (!$/( /$( / *+!$/ (, / #1 '#$%. +% ( '#+ / +%, 8$#/!$/, ( '#+ 50% ( '(% (. /$% bit /!$/% (, /,: '#$% -// '1" +'. $ :" ( 1# / (,!/ #-/, '# - /!"#8/!$/ ( 8 $ + "#, /$% bit. '$ / # #9'"" '#&/ ( - (,!/ #$ 8/% % $(% */ bit $ " +("!/(!"#!"-& &-& 1 / ' $ % 9 -%!-%. 0(1/% (Core) $( 9 -/ "% /%. (1 "!1 "/,#$" #- *%. #% ( (#/ $ 9 #$# -*% 100 #$# % /% (!" #+/ $. 09'"# (cladding) /#8 ('$ $( 9'' / (1/. ($ #-% "% /% /' *% * / (1/. 9'"# ( -! # 125 #$# #$#. 3/! $!" $, ', $'*/

230 */ &/ /&/ / $ "%.' "% ( (1/ / (:"'$% $ / ".' "% ( 9'1#%. (, (1/% 9'"#, / #,# ('&/,('+, 1 ' + ((:"'1%.$"%). /!( " 1 #/*1% (coating) ' " )*1!1 "% /%. #/*1%, ( / -/ ' $ ('$, ( -! " "/ /!1 (,('+ "% /%. ( #, / #/*1 / 250, 500, 900 #$# "# 4!") 0&) 1 / (8 $ % +(% ('&/: (' 0' $ 2'' 0 $ $ 99% $ $'% % -% /% (!" #+/, '"-% /*/% / $ #!// $,(' 1 ' $. ", "2''" '#9/ )* (' $*% ( 1 GaAs,!" #+/, -% #,-% #(-(. 1 (&% *%.,(' -! /&% -% $"% (, # ' $, '' / 9$, ( '$ / -% (/- % (. /,('+ (/1.*%!" #, " '"&/ (:"'1% (!/$"% #,'"% $ "%, -% #,-% 1 # / *. #-/ /"- $ *# (,. #$(% (.#+% # "% '"&/ % #$% $ 100 #-, ' -% -% /% / "/-%, +'% / # #$ / +/,'

231 1.3.2 (2 4 %" 4$ ) " $%!#74/)!) 4!"') 0&%) #1 ( + 1#% 1 /,/ $ ",1 LED (light Emmiting Diode) 1 LASER (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission off Radiation), #1" +#% ( *$%, ( " 1 / /! #-/" / #-, '(/ $ 800nm #-! 1500nm. -% /% +/, '!1/, $ / $ # "% ( 1#% (-%. &" 9 1 " / #)+ */ '+*/ #/$*/ &/ /&/..0'+% -% /% (Multimode fiber optics) $% /% */ #,.&/, % -% /% / / /-(# & " # ( (1/ (,('+) " (/-! " # "% * "% (cladding). #1 % */ /* #,.&/,// 10-6 #-. '+% -% /% -!(/ ( #,-." 50#m/ 125#m, 62,5/125, 85/ /140. (/".- % +%, % (', / 62,5/125. '1 #% "% 1% /% (#'#9/#-/*/ */ /!(&/ (/.&/ /&/ ( )*+ 9'1#% / 900#m.!1 # "% '+" 1 / / $ % /% ( + 1#% /', # "/ (% "/ 1 / )+(/ /'&#/% ($ -%,*/%, $*% /!1# 2,3. ($% $% # "% /#8 '+% (multimode), 1 -!(# ''+% $#(% # "%, ( /!+/ % -%,*/% /' "%. '+% -% /% // ( ",%: % + 91#% (step index) % 9.#( 91#% (graded index). 1 / + " (step index) % /% (-% (#9/ $#" #9'1 ( ".' "% #)+ "% /1% /% ( ('+ * "%. "/ * " (1, " */ /*/ #/8!1# 2. 1 / 9.#( " (graded index) /% (-%!"8/ $ 9.# #9'1 ( ".' "% ( ('+ "% /1% /%. (#9/ 9.# #* " $ #(/$# $ -/ % "/ )*1 / (,('+. */ /&/ # - / / (1, ( /!1#

232 ./$% -% /% (single mode fiber optics). % #/$% -% /% " #% "% /1% /% / '+ #1 '" 8 ( ( #1(% +#% ( #$#/( 1#%. "/ * " (1, -!(# -// #$/ (/$ $ # "% ( + 1#%, / )/$. */ /&/ # - 1 / /!1# 4. /1 / % #/$% -% /% -! # $ 5#m -*% 10#m # (/".- " #1 8,3 #m

233 1.4!"%* 4!"-& &-&!(/ + 9 -%!/-% (!" #+/, "/ (1 &/ /&/: 1) /% #+/ / -'.(/ # $ '*#-/ #-'' (( 2))* " "% #+. '1 #-.%!/&/ (Double crucible method) '1 #-.%!/&/ # /!" #"., / "#(,".+/ /%,('+ (( ',$/*/.!/1 / '1. 9%,('+,/ $ % $/% ((, / (1/ #, "/ -/( ". 9!" #+/ - *% -!"#1% 9#"!/%,. # $ % + #$/%!/%. *1 -! '*#-/ (1/, /& " )*1 -! "/ -/( ". # (/!1, " / -! $ '*#-/. #/-"# (1% "% #.$( / $ # / '- #'+/ % " "% 1)"% #-.% / $'(.!1#. )* " "% #+ (Vapor phase oxidation) # ", / + ' / "#(,".+/.-% #,/% /% #-/*% (1 " #-.% /!" # (/1.*%. % )* "% "% #+ -!(/!. '+%. (-% %,// (/1.*% + 91#:

234 1)0# (!"# #+. 2)! #$% "% /%. 0# (!"# #+!"# #$% / -/% +'/% (( # 10 -*% 25!' # ( 60 -*% 120 #%. ($%!"# #$% ' $ -// (1/ ( 9'' $ # -/( " # -/.(#"$!,##, # (,#-/ ".' "% ''!". '' '$,, ($ / #.(#"1 1 /, '' '+ #,'+" '#. +% '$,% ( -/%!"# #$% #8 /, / -!(# -/ ('$ ( /.$,!#"'$ " (,-/* " OH,!#"'$ (% #''+%- /+% #'( #+%,/%,."/$. 0''-%!/-% -!(/ /(!., / # (/ (+% (%!"# #+%. -% /-% #!" #"#-/% #-. /: Outside Vapor-Deposition Modified Chemical Vapor Deposition Vapor Phase Axial Deposition Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition!"# #$%,/ $ "/ " )* "% #+, "/ + -, SiCl4 2, /#,/+/ (:"'1.#, /,,(/ ) (( (SiO2) ) ((, 1.$ (, '#9/ (/1.*% ($ #1 #&/ #*/ (( 0.1 #) '+#/ " soot"(.'"). (1 ".'". " 9 1 *'1/.. " "%.'"% ((, &# /* &#, #&/ -/ #,/-% /-% ('$ -/( "%. / '') "%.' "% "% -/" "%!" #+/ #-/ ('. 0,#%!/,.$ (f)!" #, / #& ".' "%..'", ('$ (1/*/,/ # " #)" &/ */: SiCl4, GeCl4, 2 ( ", -/ #,# SiO2 GeO2. 9.#$% $ #)"% '-,! # ' / '') $ ( GeCl4 (. #,#.!1!" #, " $ #)" ''*/ ('&/. $ ",#1 ( " $. ",/ $ "/ #,1 */ *#*/ (( -/ /* '', ( 1% # / '-,) 9-% $ ('&/ $ #)"% (.. &#, '-,!/% (/- ".' "%. Outside Vapor-Deposition )*1 $. " #+ (OVD), '+#/ "% " soot process", /+!."! $ Corning Incorporated. (1 " / 1/ " &" # &' ',$ - 20dB/km. + 91# ( '#9// / laydown, consolidation drawing. " laydown, (' $*% SiCl4, GeCl4, BCl3 2 /+/ # (1 '$,, /,(/.'"

235 .'". " (/-! # $#/" #1 9,/* 1 *% mandrel.! ('$ ( (1/., '(.+#/ $ "/ -/( "..'" /!+ " 9, &# # &#, -/% ('/$%!"# #$% "#(,. "/ # (!"# #+, ''!" $*% " +/. " (,('+, "%.' "%, % ( (1/ "% -/( "% #+/ / ',!.+/. 3,.#-/%!"# #$% $ " 9. -// +/." "%. ($% (:"'1%.# % +/% 1 (#$ ( # / (! /!"# #$. +/ =$/ / -/ $, (/$, /$,('. $'(.!1# / $'" ". )/1 $. " "% #+ (Vapor phase axial deposition) ''" $# #-.% ( 1%!"# #+ / )/1 $. " "% #+ (VAD). " VAD, SiO2 #$ #&// # / $ $*% "/ OVD. #$./ /* # 9,('+, " / " (/-! (/#-/" $..- " # # #"!/1. 3/% &"%!"# #$% "#(, )/&% #-/( $ # #"!/1 - " 9 9&/% "/ % /*.!"# #$%,/ - # 9% # 1)".!"# #$% / -#% / (. # /. (1 " #-.%,/ /'&% #- # ' 1.( $. "%. #-/*% -! '/-"# /$%.+ 9''/%. "%, / (! # /1 + ( "#(,, $*% (#9/, OVD. -'%, " VAD -!!. /#&% 1 1!"# #$% # /,/ (/!1 #1". #-.% ( 8 $#/!1#

236 "#-/" $. "!"#+ #+ (Modified Chemical Vapor Deposition) "#-/" $. "!"#+ #+, 1 MCVD, / # ( /+!." $ "/ AT&T Bell Laboratories ;/ $ (!-% ( " AT&T!" #", /,, #8 -% /% ! # ' #- (:"'1% $"% -% /%. MCVD - $ "/ OVD #-/( $ " $. " #/8 #- -// *'1/ use-quartz / )*$, *% +( $% ""#-/"". '(, *% )1%: /$/ (2 SiCl4+),/ $ " # '( /$% $#/( *'1/ /& # )# " 9 '' -'%. 3/% ( 1% ( 9/ - &. #1% ( #1(% ( *'1/ (#(/&/.#-/ SiO2 #$ -/ &#,('+. </.(#"$!% (,!/, # 9'9 '/, / #1 " 1 */ /&/*/. -'%, ".# ( ( 1 ()/ - & " 9% / - / "#(, -/% $%!"# #$%. 3/ '/-"# (1% "% #.$( / $ / #,,/&%.1 #-/( $ " / " #/8 #- *'1/. +#*/ # $!/',% Lightwave, (1 " #-.%, (:"'$ $ =$/ ($ (% $(%, */. 2'' '/-"# ( (1 " #-.% -! / " (/$" /!. #8 " /,1,!-!" #&/% / )' #$. #-.% ( 8 $#/!1#

237 $. "!"#+ #+ ' #% (Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition) 1#/% "/ Phillips Research /'(:/ "/ $. "!"#+ #+ ' #%, 1 PCVD..$,(' / "%.'"%. "% #- -// *'1/ (( $*%,/ " MCVD. #"- $.# ' # # (!/$"% #(#*/ (2.45GHz)!" # / /$% /+ 1 #% '$,%. ' # / "/ / " /!*1 ( C. ($ ", '+ ' &# /./ #- *'1/. / (1 " #-.% #% - / ()/(# &#!!#"'-%.# %, $ $. "% /,$ +, " # ''% #.$(%. #-.% (1 ( 8 $#/!1#.!"#1 / " #%!" 1% %! #+!"# #$%. +/, $( " &" ".#/ #-! / 1)". ($ '*#-/ ##!8 / -, #&//% # / # 125#" )*1 #. ',$% )' #$% "% #-( '-,! "/,#1 # */ /&/. '/1% &#% #$8 -/ *# - $ "/ -/( ". *# /!1# ( $ (% (&% '#1% 1 ''" ",1.#$"%. ( 8 $#/!1#

238

239 1.5 (#4&!%)!/& % 14 $) 4!") 0&) 0'',/% - / '".+/ ($:" "/ ',1 #% 1% /%, # #-/" #,1. ( /: -,.% (1/ /% / 9'1#% (.!. 50/ 125 #m) '$ /% (1 (.!.,('/% (1/% /,('/ 9'"#) ).-/" " /% #"#-/" db/km /$#/ $ "- +% 8&/"% #"#-/ MHz.km 09''/,/% (.!..# ) &'% /% / -/% "#/$%,/%, "/ ',1 #% 1% /%. &'% )&/ $ #1% +#% '(,%. -% /% -!(/ % #$% &'% 1550nm % #,'+% nm. (#$/ 4 #1" +#% / "#/ : 780,850, nm). +% 8&/"% #% /% / # ''" #" #%..8 / #-, (.#$ # / #-/ #+/ / #.+/ !"-& &-& '& '+/ $ # 1 $% -% /% 1 '(:" ( /8, " "/ /!1 "%,('/"% 1% /% $ % 9''/-% '',-%, #"!/-% % *,#-%. $,* */ 1*/ (&/ #-*/ ( - /.+/, $ % */ &/ '**/ / (!/ #,'+ $ ($ */!'/*/. 1 % % /!1% /$% + '*(.8/ $: /!1 - " '"$" 9''/1 /!1 8*1% (#:!1# #-,.% 9% ',1 ( ''"'(. '*( ) $ "/ #,1 + /-/ '& / / ( #-/, / /1 % 1 % $'*/ */!1 */. + #1# "% #1% /$% + '*( /: 0*+( '(:" (buffer) 5/% 9' 1 #"% (Kevlar fibers) 2# #1#(Strength member) (+( '(:" (buffer) )*$ 9'"# (jacket) *-% '+:%!" #+/, / -:(/. / 1 +/' (% $ #. # #1#, / ()1 "/ /!1 (

240 '*( "/.-" " (. )*$ #1# -! $ /$, )- "/ (, # / ' $ $ ( /$% &#. #1(/ " "% 1% /% / '+ #1.&% " )*1 "% #% / #1. / #. # " (9",#), #,'!/$ "# $#, * ( (.+ "% "% /%, " /./ # #$/#" #$* " # (/- "/ +)" " */ *'&/ ( 1#%. </ '$/!8(# (8(# -/ '& - / '#9// $'% (')% ( +/, / (')(/ "/ / $ #$/#% #& % ( / -' # -!(/ # "% /% $ ##:% $(. -!(# +)" " */ *'&/. '& &/ /&/ -!(/ $ 1 -*% 36 -% /%. (/". #-/ / '& # 8(,$.#$ &/ /&/, "/ /*/ */ full-duplex ('*#*/. )!* (# ( +(% &/ /&/ *% % "/ (1 (%. "/ &" * ", -!(#. 1 / )* $ "/ * " (/.-% /% )*$ #/*$ 9'"#. - '& (!(/ ''-% -% /%, $( ". / ' -/ )!* $ '&. - '& -!/ $% $ '& &/ /&/ '&,!" #+(/, /!( ",,('" " ( $'(!1#%. <' ( '&, -'%, '/ $ )*$ 9'"#. (1 " (1 /,/* 1 / Tight Buffer.!1# 5 #/8 /'," (1 '*( &/ /&/. 0$#% (1% '/ +# '&, (!" #+#, " +/ " # / /,$ )' #$ (Optical patch cords). ( '+/ $ ( '& /*#-/ )*$ (%,. -/ $ -! 1 / $ ' $.!1# 6 #/8 -/ $ '& +/ "%

241 "/ +" * ", -!(# % -% /% # "/ * " (% / /."#-/% '+. #- '& '/ $ )*$ 9'"#, + &.". #- '& * " $ (/.-% /%, "/ /.$" ( '*(. (1 " (1 /,/* 1 / Loose Buffer.!1# 7 #/8 /'," (1 '*( &/ /&/

242 1.5.2 /$4*(0 "1704* #/ -% /% / "#(,+/ $,(',. - / / $#*% $,(' ($ / # / (,., *% % "/.$" (, # /$,(' ( (//# /#/,+* #%. + " */ #-/*/ ( #/,.&% #,'% % ( '+(/ '& (, +/ ('$ (1% (% / / '+*% /-%. ( ($ / / $ $ 100% ($% / '$,%, / "!+% ( */+ 1#% #&/. "#(, #% 1% /%,# 91#, ( /!"# #$% /$%!+ ('/( ('/(, " #1 */ /&/ $ / +'/ ($,.&% " #1, "/ /!1 (%, '', "/ * 1 '(, (%. &,,// $'% "%!"#-% %, /!"# #$ (.+,('+, /& $% )' #$% /'#9/ / #+/ $ / ('/ +'/ $' )-/ &#, (.!/ *% -' # " #* " "% $ "% "% 1% /%. <*% /'#9/ +' /%, $, ($ 91#, " "#(, */ &/ /&/. + "#(,".!$% +'/%, " (/-!. # ( (1 " -!!1# +,( /'#9/ " "#(, */ # &/ /&/. +,% ($% '&/,('.# ( #&/ ' ( " (/-! ($ - $( $ #-% -%, $ :+!, & / "/ '1 #1 1% /%. #"!/ # '-,!(/ / * $ "%!"# #$, /& ) '8(/ $ " #$% "% /. ) ( ',$ $. * #-% ( +,(, (//# #!' ( /'#9/ "/ -')" "% 1% /% ('/(%. '$, " 1 / / $ -/ +/' '-,!*/ ( ) '8(/ $ /.- " /. %!1 ",!*% / )/".+/ (!$/ 9'1# "!1 " "%. ( '#9/ -',!% /!1% /!$#/"%.+ "%, * $ "%!1# '' " #-" " "% /%,.&% $ (1 ) " * 1 # " ( */+ 1#%., "% " #-, "!+" # "% #-/*/, " (# "% 1% /% #1" +#% (!&#) ( *$% ( #,.&%.# % 9''/% % % +/ (1 / '(,1 *. </ $' ( -',! ''"*.+/ (!&%, " 1 / '-/. #$,!1 " $ % %!1% "'/*/&/ (" &/

243 1.5.3!/4(0%) '& &/ /&/ // % )1% ",%: "' '&. / '& +/ #'' #-". ($ '& -! "'#,/"-% % - # /!" #". ' '& /-,% 1 */+%.#+% 1!-% ( '1/ $ (/+% 1 (1 ''+ (!!($ "'#,/"$. '& *'"/& */. / '&.+/ #- *'1/% '+/ $ /$ -'!%,% /% #"%, " #"!/1 /!1 ( '*( -'% $ -/ #/+ '(#/(, "/ $ (, $ # )*1 ' 1 -/( ". '& ' #-/. / '& (.+/ (./ #- -%. $ '& *'"/& */ / $./ + /% $ #'$!'(9, "/ #"!/1 /!1 */ '**/. 9+! '&. (9+! '& (,/$#/ # /* '& -! % )1% -%: (/1.*% -/ #,' / #1%. 1# "!/', - " (1 (9(!*/ '**/!*% /,//"1 #-! 600Km. 3! # ()"#-/" #"!/1 /!1 & / /-! #,'+% (/#% '( #+ (,!/ # ' #$ " +#% /(#-/ # ' 1 -/( ", /1, - / /-! #,'% ( -% - % ( ) '8/ # -/ #/+ $ #'+9 1!'$ 1 '(#/. (1 ( (9(!( '*( - /', # "!1 " (, / "'1!" #, "! 1, 9. /. "! - / -! # #"!/1 & / /-! $!(1# /#-/*/ ( -(/ 9(.$ /$% -( / /-! % /1 % ( '+/ +#. ($ '$, (9+! '& "# */,'& */ -/ 9.%.' "% ( 15m.9/ 9(.$ 9.% ( 1.5 m. 9. / (9+! '& - / /-! # /( " ( ' $ " &" " ( #1" 5-8Km "% - / /-! % ( -% - % ( (!(/ 9.% 5-8 Km. -% /% 1 $*% /-." / ($/ "'#,/"-% %,!" #+/ "/ (1 +/.*/ '**/ $( (/(!(/ '& /-,% # % -% /%. (1 +/.*/ '**/ ", #* " (!&(, *% ( '*( " ", " (/'1 #* " "% #1% ( '*(. ''" #,1 */ +/.*/ '**/ / /,*,$,& *% */ /-*/,##&/

244 1.5.4 "!#!/ "170& 4!"-& &-& %, % '**/ &/ /&/ - / / #,'"!1 & / +,/ #$/#% #& % "% /% ( ",+/ # (1% "% / +,/ #'+:% % ()/(/ "% &'% # "% ( 1#%. "/ (,1 */ #$/#*/ #& */ - " +/#" ( 9# '& / / - & " #1(/ " ( '*(" / #"/ (9/ 0.2%. ' ($ $(!" #+/ #"!/ #-, 9",# ( '*(. - /.+/!'% ('.&% (/#$#, / '-,! " +/#" -')"% ( '*(. "% " " $ "/ 9- '& / / #-/" # - $ & " +/#" / " -! /$ -'!% 1 ' #$% ( (!. "/ (,1 */ #'+:*/ - / / #,'"!1 "/ /% #('$"%, % - / / 20 -% "/ )*1 # ( '*( "/, " (, 10 -% "/ )*1 # ( '*( $/ '& /, "#-/. 1.6.($4')!&!"-& &-& -% /% 9 (/ ''-% #,-%. -% /% #,'"% #-( #1%.$"% ( (/1.*% ' -%)!" #+/ "/ (1 */&/,&/, "/ $ #" " * #$ */ /*/. 3 - /(/% "''")%. - #" &/ /&/ (# # #$/ '#) *8 ''-%.1% "#*/ 1 ''+% /% 8*,1% %,', & / )/#+# "'1 /-,. "/ 91. */ &/ /&/ #+# / "1 (# /#/ $ # " 1" ". 3 ( " / $, $,/ (!" # "/ 1,, / / -% #-/% *-%!-% ( &#$% #%. 0$# ( 1#!" #+/ $ (% #"!/+%, / / (/ 9'9% *$ */ #"!/&/. "#/1 #,1 */ &/ /&/ % "'/*/%. 5 *% $' #% -!(# +, "/!1 " */ &/ /&/ % :"-% (digital) "'/*/%.!1 " (% - "/ / "!& ($, (% '$,(% ( /-(# *: "/ 91. #% /% #+# / #-(# ($!/!*% #9'-%!'% "'*/1#, % #-% "'&/ /'&/ #,'.#$ #-/*/ (', &/. % */ '**/ */ &/ /&/ 9% (% / '+ #$ $ /! (!'+. $,(!", -/ '& &/ /&/ # / / 1!'/ '& ' %, (, #-( /' (, (, 9(%. " # */ '"&/ / -!(#. / '+ + '" " ('1 (.-" " &/ ) 1 " (/$ "

245 /!8/,* ". +/ /!.+/ $.!& # (/- "/ )" 1 "% $!&% (,(/!'$. 3 (,!/!/',1!( ". "/ '' (!(/,,*,1% &/ /&/, "'1 ), % ( )( ( ((, # &" +'" "/ ##. "/ '' -! / 1 #-! 1# -/ #,' #-% ( '+ +( ( # ( &/ /&/. /-(# "% $ -% /%!" #+/ +,!/ "#/ $,/ /!/( "% #& */, "%,.# % (" */ ("/&/ / 1*/),.&% ''*/ #,.&/. ''/ /(", /'8/ "/ (1 &/, /, #''$ 9'"#,. -!(/ 9'"# $ -% /% '(#1. 3 #- * */ &/ /&/ '$%. /"#&/ (/!&%, "/ " ( (% (,, "/ " ( -!, ".#. "# (,,./1 #$* " '. ( +/ "'1 " # -# (./. 1.7 %114&!"') #%) $9':" ( #-''/% (1) / # $'" " (/1.*% -/,!"#!*% (!. 0& % )(# % +% % ( "8(/ "/ 9#"!/ */ &/ /&/: - " #8-%,-% * " $ (% '+" ( " */ / (/#!" &/ 1 (1 /,*/ -%!/',% ( (-% #81%,*,1% 0$( - (' '-(/ "!/',% -!/', +% *.1 % "/ 9#"!/ &/ /&/ 1# '+/ $ & -.-# *% -9# )&/ $ =$/ "/, ( ( /-/. $ (!'+/ #,/*, #-''/ 8(/ % -:% (% /.#$ -, % /-%!/',%. '1. / $.+# "% "#/1% -(/%, (/", 1 / #+/ ( / " (/ "/ 9#"!/ &/ /&/, # ('! /..-# -/ + ",/(/ #8. #-%. #+ / / /!#"'-% /,#+// #,' $, (=$/*/), '' #,' $, / #+/ /,#".+/ #-! /!#"'& (/ #-%.,#, '+ #,'%, '!"#+#/% % &/ /&/!$" / %!-% (

246 (9+/% "/ #,1 */ &/ /&/ "/ (FTTH: Fiber-to-thehome) ( $ / /(:*..,#1. <#*% ($ / (/-9", #-! & / -! (#9. % )(#. -/ $ - "# ( ( 8/ # '#- & / '9(# # '+" $/ ( (#9/ /./$ / (#9. - " #8-%,-%. * $% (/( #$% */ /,&/ 1 */ 1 */ "%,%, (" % (. #+ / / 9'.+/, "!/',!"#1 % / -!(/ $#" 9.. '1 '+ " ( 9'1#% # / '#9/ 1 $! % -% /% ( '#. -% /% -!(/ 9, $' (, #,-%, #8-%,-% ''+% ''(% #%. "'*/1 9#"!/ #,'*/ */ / -/% #-% ( -! '!&%,' % -% /%. 0$% # / / -// - #/&/ */ / (!- $ " (!" # "/!/1 */!'/*/ '**/, +% '$,(%. -% /% "/ -( (% 9#"!/ / / '-/ -/ '/-"# */ *'1 */ '' " /,$". 9#"!/ CATV!" #" -% /% #-/ "/ (1 + "# /#1% "% '*1% /. + (,#, " /" " % % -% /% 1/ # " ( 1." # (!. -% /% $ / "/."/$" '+ ", "% "/ '+" '+ ". "#*. $ / '-# ' $ -% /% 1/."/$% '+%, '' '-# $ 1/ "."/$" " '+" '+ ". /#1 / '+ '1, '' / -/ '' "# ( -! '/ ''+% #''/'$,(%. 2''% 9#"!/%, $*% " 9#"!/ */&/ #&/, -!(/! & / '(/ % -% /% '' '/1# / / $ #/1. # " /',&/ "#*/ video #&/ /*/ &/ ( / -!(/ "/ $" studio / -/ +' -,, /!'$. 0$, " 1 / / # / (/,*/ $ % #' -/ ## 1 -&/ #)/$!'/ '&. 9*%, -% /% -(/ '+" $" 1#%, #$ 9%, /"- % $ EMI '', '' /!'$% ', 1110 ( $ (% */ &/ /&/,!'$%. '- "/ ',1. 9#"!/ */&/ "'&/ #&/ -! % '',-% / # 8/ (. #+ / / #9''(/ "/. &" '',1 / " /" " % "/ HDTV, ". 1 '+ #,'+ +% 8&/"%. +" / " /" " % :""#-/ video, /, $ $ + ' / #. #- ( #,'*/#"&/!'/( #)/+ '*(!- "# /',$ video. ( (-% % "/ 9#"!/ #1% "#/(/ $ "!1 */ &/ /&/. ()"..&% " '',1 % % /-%!/',% -!,/ 1. -% /%. '- (/ -// '+ #,',/ /()"% "% #1% $ studio, '' $'% (% "/ #81 /#1 ( video "/ / / $,(%. :"1 (# " */ "#*/ video / ($%,/% ( - ''%!/',%, $#"!'/ '&, / (/,*/ ' # ' (1/ "/,. 2''% #,-% $*% " '-,!(!/ 9'. / /-%, % -% /%, ' (1/ "/, $#" #$'% ( -!(/!*1 -%

247 /%. ; $ ', " /,",/% $ (% 1," /!'/ '&. $ "/ ''" '(, /-%,-% $*% " $ $ " ( ", ( + (1! / #!$/, #/8/ / 8(/ '+ ' % -% /%. $ "/ '( */ :"&/, -% /% '#9/(/ # +)( "# % /*/% # (', -%. 0$( $*% /' 1% /% -!(/. ' (1 "/ /()". ($%!1 % ( - / /.+/ / /*/% (', &/ (:"'-%!+"%. '' (', -% -!(/,/ $!% ( " &" ($" #,1 */ &/ /&/ #- / (', 1 #/ " "/,. /-% ((' 1% rtn */ (/"&/, "*/ Cray!" # (:"'1% $ "% (/- % &/ /&/ /+!." $ "/ Force Incorporated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laser, LED (% /!/(-% - # 1 (.#$ 5 *% 20 %. 1 / $ #$/" "% -! '').#",# ( ' # -'':" /$"%, '' / -/ #$ #-% ( $ (% /$% '1(% ( 1#%. (/1% &/ /&/ (/!8(/ / /(/ #,' '# "/ #* " ( $ (% ( ' /# '"#-/!- "/,*,1 /-*/ ('&/. " (1 #''/. (/! $#/!$/. #* " ( $ (% / '+"% (. -: % -% /% / /".+/ #-/%,-%. '+" ( " */ / (/#!" &/. <*% (#9/ # $'% % /-%!/',%, ''!1 % 9+/ % '',-%.! /!(1 " */ $./ / "".!+/. &%. -% /% 9+/, + (*% '$,(%. $!1 % - / + '(% +% & ( /

248 !.+/ $ # / $,(' / 1/ +.( ", $ (/1% */ &/ /&/ 1/ '+ "(#-/ + ' /!'". /% # (+%. /& #-% $ (-% % -:% 1,8/ / " '1. $ % &% #-% #/ "% */ /&/, /.*+/ '-/ / '-%. $#", '' / (/#!1 % /&/ #,' #-% (% / / )*#-/ # % /% '/1# (%. 1 (1. 3/ /$.-# ''-% #,-% &/ /&/ / /,/(/ $' )1# #$. " (1. (/!, #!$/, ' $' (, '' =$/ $ '* "%-! 1",,.,/% '* "% / #-,.% */ (/1*/ */ &/ /&/. ( (!&%, $ / (-, +, " # /! "' )1#. 0$ % /,//1 % ( '*( /% (/1*/ '")"% #8%#/' '- (/ " '+ ", '' "! #'"- (# " $#*/ =$/*/!$/ / $ # #% ", "/ (.-" " #% "% ( (% % #-/(#, / +#. #,'+ #-% "% # 1% (1% -! 1" (!. #- ( "%!" #" "% $,/ $ ''"*#-/*/ ('*#*/. ($. (/!, ', $#"!$/, '' "# '* "% -!!$/,,. 9#"!/ */ &/ /&/ -! $ " ' # $ '' =$/ ( # / #"/ ' /#1 '+ " " /()" #% "''"*#-/"% 8+)"% /* -/ chip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video /* $ 1!'$# /$% '*(. # ( $#/ 8+,%,*,&/. 1#, ($ # /,/, ($ -! #+/ ''-% $ % (% */ &/ /&/. 2''% 9'& % % /,*/ -%!/',%. (/! (/ /,// #-''/, '' +#( '/1# "% /%. (/! (/ / "/ /(/ # ( 1!/',

249 ( (-% #81%,*,1%. #,'+ #-% "% #* "% $ (% + -! (!. )1# ( 1# &/ /&/, ' "/ #81 (1 )"#*/. $'% 15!$/ /, -/ '1% $"% laser, -% /%. $ 8 10,000 '. 1#, -# laser #+#1(% +#% $*% ( (!" #+/ CD players 8(/ ( $ "% /* #1%. / / $ '+ "!/', $ $,% (,*,1%). laser */ 10,000 '*/,/$/ $,(% */ - ##&/ #1/. CD */ 50 '*/ ( "/ $,(% ( 1 ##+ ## #1/. 9 $ chip ( laser "/,#$" # /',, ',$ $ 1 '. $. $ % ' / $ "/ 9 "% (.(,## "% (, / # " ( (1 /%. "'*/1 9#"!/ 1/ (+.(/", "/ (1 */ &*/ )"#*/ &/ /&/ -#*/,!1 ". < $ )1# &/ /&/,/ #8, #-%. - (/ #. * -, ($ (!." $ )1# */ 1300 nm 8(/ $ $ )1# */850 nm )1# */ 1550 nm 8(/ $#" $. #,'+ $ #" #% ' (% $,(% ( (/-/ # )1# (. / )1# */ 1550 nm!/!. (% (% $,(% $*% )1# */ 850 nm, #-% /. 1/ '+ -%. 0$(. $(!/ / -// )-!/ $' "/ 9#"!/ */ &/ /&/. -!$/ /, " 9#"!/ (- $,,/$% $ (1!/ $ ', $(. 1#, ## "% 9#"!/% (- $ '' $( 1 ''!*#-/ "#'1 $(. (#91 /- $ "!/',.,/ 1 #$/ " 9 " "% #81%,*,1% $/ $(..+/ (+. /, #-! &, -! /(!. "#/!*% +/' */ +*/ / / /"#-/ #-/ ( '#. ($ (#9/ / #- 1 -% /% / -/ '+ "#/$ ', $ ''-% -%,-% ( /-/ $( /. #+ / '8 $. #. 0'' $( ( / & (-*% #-/, $*% 62.5/125 #s '+% /% /,/*8/ */,#*/ / $( ( -!/ &!$/ $ /$ (!/ $ /,*/ #$ /!& "%,%. 1# / (!(/ '' /.* ( /.(#+/ $ / $!$/ " # *.+, '+ $( / 85/125 µm /& " ''" *.+ / #-,.% /% 62.5/125 µm. '( - " / #,-.(% 85/125 µm / / # #(1 #/1#". $( / "% + ' / '"& (/ % (!& % (% # 9#"!/ ( / $,1, $ " 9#"!/ */ &/ /&/. & FDDI $( (',1." "/!1 ( -,/,*,1 (. / )/"# "% %, "/ /()" ( +( FDDI, 125 Mb/s /$/ / -/% '$% (.#$% #-/*/ # /"1 (:"'1!+". "/!1 ( # " $(, #!$/,$, 125 Mb /s 1/ $, ( '+ /,-'. $( / "#/, #-''/ */ &/ /&/, '' ''-% $ % #8-% #,-%./$/ / (#9+/ # 1!*% (

250 - ('. % &% "#-% */ &/ /&/, )1#!/ "/ " /!" #+/ 9 )* ('. (/1% */ &/ /&/!!" #+ / #''$ :(' $ /)*!'(9 1 $#" # 9 ("#-/ #/, / (!. " (.(,## ".,$, $ (/1% '')/ -,// #. 1#, (/1% &/ /&/ # ' -% :('% #/8/, -/ #" /"$ $.*# #$'% # /. 2'' )1# &/ /&/ -!(/ /(!. #- $ '%.* #-/% (/- % laser, #"$ $, #-/!#"'$ $ %, #", #-/. '& % "/ 9''/1 /!1 */ 9 &/ )"#*/ -!(/ & ( "/ (/$" / :"+/! # '! "% " "%. <'% (-% '',-% -!(/ & "/ (/$" #&/ '#*/ "/ '! " " ( $ (%. (-%.*1 % / '$ / (/! +/. (!1 " */ ' &/ )1# &/ /&/ (/1*/. (/!. ) -)/ (/(*#-/ 9'-## '' ( 1# &/ /&/. 1#, 9'& % ) -// / /''-% '+ %.* #-/% (/- % laser % #,-%. '-(/ "!/',%. </ #!/', '" 8 ".#" "% *#$"% ( " 9#"!/ &/ /&/ -! '", 9'& % "/!/', /(/ /,/(/#''/ /() /. ($ "#/ $ #-% ()"-% '',-% 9'& %.,// =$/.,/%,# $ ( #8 '+ "/ 9#"!/ (/1*/.!$/ # $ *% $ (/##-/!- laser -!/ +,(/. #1% ( $#(!#!- Fabry-Perot, '! #-/!-,!- DFB ''. 1/ ' -% -% (,1, 9* / $ -'':" 1% "/ /1,. ("#-" /!"# / "/ 9 ", 9'*#-/!-. 1# / "!1 */ MQW ('(9/&/ */) 1asers. / # $ % #-% 9'& % "/!/', */ 1aser ( ( "/ "/ '(. '/1# (% / $!( (!$/. ( 1% / $ # /' " % ( ',$ $ -/!$/. <! #$/ $ % (% / '+%, ''!8/ % (:"'-%.# % '+, ( 8(/ (:"'$%,*,-% - /."/$. MQW /# 91".,/(/#$//-/ "# "% $#, $#" '+%! %. <',# '1."/ ($:", (1 " / 1 )" / '1, "/ 9#"!/ &/ /&/.&%, (% '% (%.,# /.' '')(/ $,1, ( ( -% / #" #+/ / - (/ $ % "% /()"% 1 '% / #+/ / )'(.1 (/ / /(/ # "/!/',. 0/* $ 90% */ ( "#*/ &/ /&/ (. /(!.+/ "/ $#/". 9 "/!/', ( / 1" 1# "%,*,1%. 3/ #,' $ */,#&/ /#&/.,/(/ ( 1#%, $!, "/ (- "!/', )"#*/. ) CD p1ayers. 1asers (1!/,!$/ $*% -!(/!/-%, :""#-/ 1!, ''.-/% $' (! #8, " "#(, ( CD p1ayer 1/ /.. (#9 "/ 9#"!/ &/ /&/

251 -!/',. /- # #( & "%!/',% / #$/ ( '#9/(/ #1/(# (/,8/ # #/( #-/(% /(-% (/#+% '%. "/,#$",./$/ #$/ 10% 1 ',$ */ "/* #&/" 9,/(/ - -)* $, 1. / -/% /* #$% / - '+% $ %!#"'$ $ %,../. %!-% "% % ( 1980."1% &/ /&/ -,// /#/ (/",( / # '+ " #" 9'1# ( $ #(. ' &, ($% ( -8" 1/ -/% '+ 9(%, #$%, / "% EMI."1%. $9'"# 1/ $ $ /.* ( /-( / -(%."1% /!/ # -, #+ / / /(/ 1" (!( %!/',% /& " 9#"!/."1*/ &/ /&/,*/8$/ /,#1 -//."1 "% (. #+ / +! # 9 1 %,!-%.# % $ O C *% 40 C, ',$ $ 1,000 ',.-/% #+ /', -//."1 "% # 1!/1, 200 ' (,,($/ % $ -20 C *% +700C.! # "/ 1 */ #,'*/ #"&/ +#%, ".* "'&/ $ / #% /.- % '(, # / #1% +#% */ 3 #m *% 4 #m, #''/ 1.3 #m #m #1" +#% (!" #+/ ' 1#, &'% "% /%. #+ / / - (/ O.OO1dB/km. ($ "#/ $ " '1 (/!1% / ( / #1% ( "#/+. -! # &' #$/ 40 db, ( # /,#".!*% "/!1 " */ /#&/.!(/ / +% 9 9'1#.,(', -% /% / # 9 ".( #''/ # 9 " ((. ( (!&% /$. "/ / (1 / )+, " "#(, (/- */ / //(. $ #.&/, (/"-% / #$ / / '" (/ "/.*"1 &' */ db/m ( (:&/ 9-% #9'%, "/ (/$" $.* 1% (%. '' $9'"# / $ laser, LEDs, /!/(-% #''/. - /'(,+/.# % (,+ 8&(. 2''" #!/', # (/#1 / ( 1# '(')% (/+ #1(% +#%. $ $ $ ( 8/ '"-% /-%, -), & 1 $#" #1" +#% ( -'// "/,#1 #- ( #% '1% /%, ()//% "/ /$" "% $ / ($,/..* / 9 / 1, '' / (!(/ ( 1#. +% #$% / ", lasers */ -), & 1 /&/ #"&/ +#%. +)" "% */ lasers / / $ 91%. 9*%, #/ '!.+/ #- ( $ lasers / 9.+/ -) # #1" +#% (!8/, -/ + "#, '' %. 1/.- " / '1 '' 94 laser. 0$. /*, "&/% #1% +#% "% $#/"% /!1%.$"% (&/ */ #"&/ +#% 1 nm #,'+"%!/1% % $ $.# % / + '!*% / -! 9.+.+'. 5 *%.&% " /()"% */ lasers,/ $ 91%, ( 1# ( #+//,/(/. +#*/% /*/% -!(/ 1" /". / #-''/ */ &/ /&/. + "# ($, #$% ( laser -# *% # (!/$" ( / #*#-/"!" #&/% #$* " '(% (!/$"% 1 "%, $ 1#. 1# ( '#9/ -'%, *% / /##,#-/ # *%

252 $ -/ + laser, " /# " (!/$" /!/+ #- -/ 1# )$(. )" +,.$(9 ( (// # # " /!/( ", //% -" (."./1 1#, # " (% ()/(/ "/ 1 1 &' #)+ ( #+ ( -". #,'+" (." +#*/% /*/%. - '+ #,'+(% (.#+% #-/*/ $ % #" +#*/% /*/% (!" #+/ 1#. ()"#-/" (." "#/ $ -"% ',$ *$/ *$%, "/ /!/( " ( + 1#%. 3/ $9'"# ( ( 8 "/ )" (+ ( (% # "% / $ " "#/1 "'/1 / # / -),1,, / '9 '1% '/-"# "%!/1%. / * #)+, / µ",+/ #"- +#*/% /*/%. (/! / /+!$/ #!$/ '#9//% # '/1# */ 9'& */ "'/ )1# '' #-" "%!/',%. / -' #, $#/ $ */ +#*/*/ /*/&/.#*..!/1 ( -!.,!$/ / " $#/" #,'" $% / " )*1 #$* ". 3/% )*$% #*1% / / -/% "'/$% '-% ( # /!" #". " #$* " ( *$% ( / /. $ ( 1# gigabit ( 1#!" #+/ # " #$* " laser. )* #*-% / (. /& $ )'(/ ( 9'1# */ laser $*% # */ laser (+/ #. $#", -/% #$% &/ /&/ (!" # )*1 #$* " -/ laser, - /. 8 $ / "#(,". $ -/ # #*#-/ + "#. </ )* #*-% 1!." /, &", # # "% #$* "% 1/ #''/ #-/. / / (!+ (/ "/, # /.(''&" $, )* #*-% "#+," / /,*/ #$ ( 1," / ( 1# # "% #$* "% / 9'*.+/. &, )* #*-%!" #+/ ' (% #+% laser '+ (:"'1%!+%, " -(/ (/!8. ''"*#-/ ( 1#, #+/ (-*% /.+/ +!/',%,,(. )(/ -/ "#/$ #-% #-''/ */ &/ /&/. &"!/', / " ''1* " */ #&/ *$% /!/(-% /* ($ *# ( # 1 $' ('&# ), % 1#%. ($ -! *.". / $%, #-''/,!$/ # '' - $#" 1 % "%,%. / $ " " / / :"' *% ( # / (!. # (!/ )1#. -! "% - 9'1# ( -!(/ ",1 :"' $ %, $ % /()"% / (:"'$. 5 *% ( #$. (/".+/ #-''/, '' (1 "!/', - /("1 "/./( #+'" #1% ( & '(. $ #-/ "'/!-. + % */ ''"*#-/*/ &/ ( "#*/ / " "#(, &/!* &/ WDM's '$ ($ *#. ($ - "#/ $ % -%!/-% ( &( "% (!" #+/ % $% ( (-%. ', "!/', (1 # 8 $ "/ " 9'1#,*,1%. / +%,.&% ( '%,*,1% (/+/, ( IOC's.,/(/, (, (:"'1%!+"% ( (!/(/ "/ '", (/"$# #,'"%!+"%

253 #-''/ */ &/ /&/. /,( '"$. "#/1 /-!/',. / #''/ #-% 1 % "% (!( %!/',%, '' (-%!/',% ( / $#", 1 #+/ $#" / )"1 (/ / /-%,#1 #% #,-%. /% %. "#(,1 (/,#-% '',-% " 9#"!/ # 99$" / /% %. -(/ '+% $ %!#"'$ $ % $ % (!( % /,*/ -%!/',%. <*% % $% & %,!$/%. )

254 2-2.1 DSS /-% #,-% '(#- */, //-%."#/-% %!*/ #-/*/.+/ % /-% 1 % ( 1#.1( "% ( '(#- /-/ "/ -/)" ( #-/(, ( 1!(, $# */ $/*/, ( 9/, */,&/ # +'!1 #" :"1 )"). ($ %,,*/ 10 -*% % " #,'1"!*"$" (1 ( $ (#9 -,,.,## '(#- */ &/ -/ #,' $ (!&(.1( "%.. ($' "% '1(% /" "%, '1% 9/.$/"% 30 ' */ "'&/ '"&/ $!$/ /$% #,# (MB) */!*/ (', &/ / '. ($ / ( 30 */ '"&/ / ($', gigabyte (GB) / '$. ($ $ / /,/ -.- #, " ( 1#, / $ '$% #-% (1/ "/ 9#"!/ # $ "/ " % " #," " (% (#,- (% (', -%. -! &, ".1( " '(#- */ -! (!.!" #&/% "/!/1 '+#/" «(# "», " ' $ "/ *" " */!*/ ',$ ## ( //!8/,, /!&.1( "% 1!$/ # "%. )(#-/ ', #$ ($# (#-8 (#-8!. /+% ', "/ (:"'1% $"% /,*,1 1!( '(#- */ / " (/!1% (.#$ " ( (/!1% #) */ '"&/. 4*% ($, '!// " "% +''":"% "% /,*,1% 1!(. -' # / 1 $",*,1% ($ #1 blips,!#-/*/ ' */ #(' #% (Barr, 1993). ($/ ''(% '$,(%,,*, (+.(/, "/ /()" '(#- */ -!(/ #. / /+ (/ -// (,1 9 #$ "/!/',.1( "% (', &/..1( " / $ ''+% " 9#"!/ *% " #"!/',, / -: ''-% /-% #,-% '(#- */ / ) (/,1, ()/$#/% 1 % "% / ', / - % (81" " (1/ "/ /-!/',. (1/ "/, (1 ".1( " -! $ % #,/"-% -%!/',%, % / -% $(% (-% %!/',%, ( # (/'+/ " #-/" '1:" */!*/ % (#9-% (#"!/-%) $#/% ( (-%. 0,#%!/, " 9 #-/" /.1( "!" # /+#/ #-" ( ),(/ '" # # #-/"!+", " -* $% "/!/', CD-Rom /#*8 -/.#'&% $: '&# ( *+/ % '"%, "/ / /$% Compact-Disk #+/ / / $! #$ $ #1% +#% "% /% '-8 (!" #, /

255 0/&%, $#/,,/ '# " #,'"!*"$"!*/ (', &/. - / -'. $ ''+. "/,#$", " ()/$#/" " ", "#/ $"!*"$" ( (/- # "/ /()" "% (% '% */ #,&/ -! ',1 " (/$" (&/ */ ( "#*/.1( "%. /& ($! # #8 */ "/ #/ " */ '(#- */, (! #,1, ()/$#/" ", -!/',. :" ''&/ ",&/ 9#"!/% / $,!/', & # '+ " -!/ $9'"# #,'"%!*"$"%. )( "/,.1( "% '"&/ ( #-''/%. (/# ( 1# '(#- */ +/ (:"'1% (/$"%, /' #-, "/ ':" */ #&/ (%. (-% #,-% ''(/ $ "/!1 $* " ( ', #+, % ( % '(#- */, "/ '1 ( 1)" */!*/ ( 9 / " ( (1.,/!" */ ( (&/.1( "%, 9''/ =$/*/ '(#- */ /: a..1( " '"&/ # #1 ( # /! +' $ "/ "'/1. b. /(/".1( " */ &/ */ '"&/,!", $ $!' gigabits - & / #+/ / (/"".+/ $ *%!. c. 1 #-% */."(#-/*/ '"&/ # / 9 1 / '') 1,#1 # "/ $ +/#"./1.( -" " (,, / /#! ( #/8/ "/ ),, / /!" 1 msec 1 ',$%. d. 4#"'1%!+% /'* " (#- % $% 1 Watt) e. 4#"'$ $ % / #,# "% #/1#"% (',$ $ -/ ' / ) /- 1!/',, '+#/" «',1.1( "» # / - % (/ -% (/$"%, "/ ($! " "% +)"% "% /#$"% '+ "% % 1 %.1( "% */ '(#- */ (',8/% $ 1 (!( 1 9''$#/"!/',. /-!/1 - "/.1( " */ :"&/ '"&/ &% ( ) ',##..1( " " /" " */!*/ *%!- ( *$%, 1 */ '*/, -// $# ( *(."( ( ''(, -!(/ " 9 ", "/ ',1!/',.1( "%.,/&//%! '% / */ ##/*#-/*/ ##&/ (bits), "!1 " */ '-8, -! " $ 9 "!+"% #,-." #,'1 $ % $#/% ( (-% ( 1# ( ( (-% #81%.1( "% -!(/!" #1 #,/" #- ( / ($ -',! /$% '(,+ ( 1#% */). 0,#%!/,",$%#,/"$% %.- #% 1#!8 /* $ 5 &% / #- $, # ',1 ( (1.1( "%. #+.*" / #- 1 ($'. ($ "#/ $ # +' /! "/ " " ( computing # % $/%, 1 '(#-. (1 "!/', / 9 #-/" "/!/-% *-.' 1% (!1 " /% / "% "'1% /-,% $*% % -% /%) ',1%.1( "% $,( (PVHS) /./ ),1, #/+#/ #-. ',-% ( (-%.1( "% / # '1 ',1, ( 1# ( - / -!(/ "

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utenberg(, ( + ( 1#% Dewey ', " ',1!/',, "%.1( "% '"&/ / '+"%, $' $ +/.!/',, "#/ /*/ ( 1#. +,!/" 1#" / ' (/#-/" "/ ), '"&/ # "/ (! # #1 (#9* "%. "#/-% $ -!(/ -: "/.1( ", "/ /" " "/ ), / $*/ '"&/, % " (/-!, 91." / /,,(/ % -% ( 1."/, % -* $(%. $ -" -!(/ 99& # "#/1 +)" " "/ "'/1! " */ '"&/. (,,#-/ '' + '"&/ (.*1."/ /',, $*% $/% 1!%, (9''/ ), &!" #+/ # :"1 #1. (1 " $% -!

257 # % (% '1 %, '" ( 1# (, / '+:(/ '+ % /,% */!" &/ '"&/ - /! +/ % '"% '(#- */ $ ( $ ' #$. 0''-% 9#"!/%, #)+ */ */ (1 */ '(#- */, :!/(/ /($#/, % /-% /''-% '+ % -!/ ( 1#.1( 1% (%,.&% % 9 % #-/*/ (%, /& 1 %.1( "%,// #,'+% #,'+% %3'13/!/) 4,"%*/) * 414!-& $#" / $ (% &(% #+% "'/+% (', -% #/ " 1951 (# UNIVAC) " #81.1( ", / #$" $ "#/ $(, 1/ # /,". $ #- (1800», % 1 */!" #1."/, / -!(/ "/,*,1 (% $*(% (', -% ''% #"!/-%. - " ( '40!" #1."/ / *'1/%, "/.1( " #-! ', ", /&/ ( "1 $ 9 ")! / / /. +/ % % 1 */ %!-% "% % ( '50. -",$, #,/" +#/ #/ "/, 1957, &% '"$% % 1!." *% ( $ ( Ramac 350 "% IBM. & '" ((! -' ") 1/,&% 9 "/ (% /+% (', -% %, % #/(', &/. / " ( *+ / %!-% "% % ( '80 '') $' (, /,,-''/% "/,*,1 */ #$*/ '"&/ */,.*% "% -% #,/"-% /%!" #" / #,-% (', &/ -% (!" #1."/ ( 1# video-!/&/. "/ /()" ( *+ (', 1 $#*% "/ #/ " */ '(#- */, 1." #,'+".1( " '"&/. CD-Rom 1!." 8/% "/ -/" "#$", "/ /$" ( (#-! 650 ), ", "/ $" (#,-% #-,.%. #- #/"#$/( "%, " #81.1( " '#9/(/ (% '"+% (%, % -%, " flash memory, (% +% (%, (% #,/"-+% (%, " #,/"1 /, " #/1#" (#/*/, "/ ("#-/" # "1 #"!/1 / ( (/1.*% +%) "/ ',1 #/1#" (#1)

258 2.2.2 % &#!/!& 41*$'& / / '+, / (/"1 /% $ (-% -//% / *+(/ '1.% */ ''"' */ /.&(-(', 1 ( $ /$#% /1 % -!(/ /(!.,!$/, #$/ ( &!8(/ / / + ". (-% -//% / *#&// % '+% /-% #,-% (', &/, %. 1 (/ #1 " "/, $'*/ */,,'#&/ /*/% " ( '90. / (1/ (1% "% / "% */ '(#- */ / "!(//1 #$ " $ ('1% '"% #- - (#'#9/#-/( (,,(, "% *,1% /%, */ ( &/ &/ "% #,/"/%- % 9 #-/% (', 1 #& % /*/ */ #- */. ($ ''"&/ #- * ($ ( /#8(# :"" " (:"1 /',1 #'',1), " ' $ #!"# #$ $'*/ */ &/ '"&/ -/ #$# + "# 9 #-/ + $(%, ( :" 0 1, % % (/$"% */ (/ #&/ (%. (1 "!/1 -! - # #$ ",#% " 9#"!/ "'/1%, #-/( $ - "./1 " (#9$" */ &/ &/ '"%. 1!%, 9/, #/,/ # :"1 #1, -'// - #- * */ :"&/ #-*/ /*/%, /,/*8(/ - #"/+# *% ## "% '"% % (% ( -% -% #-%. "/, "/ :"1 +,' " $#*%,,## '(#- */ &/ /* -/ #,' $!$(.1( "%: 0( 10 -*% % " #,'"!*"$" ( $ '' (#9 -,,.. ($' "% '1(% /" "%, '1% :""#-/, "/.$/" 9/,,#%!/, 30 ' */ "'&/ '"&/,. ' -/ #,# "%.1( "% (', &/. ($ #8 ( 30 #,# '"% / ($', gigabyte / '$ ( '-%!/-% (# "% #+/ / -(/ 12 M-byte / '$ ( 9/). "/,#$", '(#- " $'(." '"##+ */ #-/*/ -!(/ ()1 #-% /" (!%, "/.1( " (', &/, $ (.+/ =$/ "'/1% '"%. (1/ "/ (1 ".1( " -! $ + 9 +% +(%."+ "%:,/"$% %.1( "% $% %.1( "%

259 2.2.4 &/!"2) 70"4) 4,"%*/) (+ #-/" ( (1 (+( %.1( "% / 1# #,/"$% %. ($ '#9/ (% '"+% (% % #/+#/% -%. ",$% '"&/ */: ", '"&/ */ / $ /$% +% ( (1%.1( "%!!#"'$ $ %, "/ (:"'1!+" "! #,'"!*"$" (%. '"."+(/ /+/ :"! #,:# "% '"% *% #,/"&/ (#/ */, -// # ( /+/ # -/ #,/" )/, $ ('$. 3/% #,/"$% % *% %/'$. /& # '1 /,/* "%-,1% ',$ $ 100 nm /* $ #,/"$ &# ( (. '1,! $ / # "/ ',1 /$% #,/"+ ( (,, 98! # "/ /'":" */ '&/ '',&/ #,/"$. '"%."+/ #$/!(' 1 % #-%. $ " /$% '"+ ( #- $ +! 1: 1. /!$/ $ 9 ", % / "#/$ ( $ (!$/( ( /,/ -! (! -' " # #/ */!*/ #-/*/, 2. $ #%, /.#$% :"'-)*/(bytes) ( / ($' # / 9 $ 1 /, # #/ (.!$/% $ 9 "% ) $ "/!+" /81" "% ( #"!/ #+ /" "% "% '1% "/ 1!+" ( (. O!" $%!/$% $ -' "% / #)+ % 10 20ms. $ #% #-/*/ ) -/ #,' #-% $ "/ /- (/$", /.#$ ##&/ ( '#9// / / */ #- */, "/ 1!+" ( (.!" #% #-/*/ / 4 -*% 16 MB/s.,# #&/ #/% ( / $ 25 / 1 / #,#, /', # "/ /$", #-,.% / ( 1. ( 1#.1( "% '"&/ */ ( +/, % #,-% '(#- */ /.- #, -(/ % (:"'-% /$"%,!" /* $ 1 G (#$%, 1993). -%: -% -!/ # + +!1#, 5.25 (% (% 3.5 / &/ !." / $ "/ Shugart Associates 1976 (!" /,1, #/+#/-+#/ #-, / *$ /, -*% 1981 $/ 1,, " Sony!1#% 3.5 / &/ ( 1/, /* -!$/ $ / #/+#/ #- #/"#$/( "%, *+% / #+/ / 1 (/ 2.88 */!*/. 0'/1#: #,/" -(/ # " $ 9 "! (#/1#" (!% -' "%). ($ (% /,",$(% $ (% ",+% /&/,,#%!/, % -!(/ % #/1#%!1% 1 "1% $ -' "%. (1 "!+" - "/ /()" */ (.% +/#-/*/ ( "#*/ '"&/. -(/ "% % ''"')1 % #)+ */ #-/*/ (!8/!.1( "%. - # / / #,1-/"#* "!*/ (update) / '') ''! (,!$/*%. % $(% "/!/',

260 '(!$/, $ #,'% ( gigabytes) ',$ 9-% ( (-% / &.- #%. /1#: / ('* 9''/ #,/"-% #9'-%. /& / #$ /+ 1 /.&/ #'' # / '- (/ 9 8"# "/ '1 /,/* "%-,1%. +/ -/.$.$ 9''/ !"2) 70"4) 4,"%*/) 3/ '-8!" #, / : # '&# (% (%. ( '&#!" #+/, /."+ (/ % #,'% $"% */!*/ (#'#9/#-/*/ */ $/*/, ( 1!( */ '1*/ /1 */ 9/.! / $ #!#"'1%!+% / '-8. (/".-,/* -% -% ( (-% -%.1( "% / CD- Rom, #,/"-, DVD % Blu-ray. CD-Rom: CD-Rom / #$/ /,/* "% ( #+/ / 1 (/ ( '% ( #-/( 1 ( #-/*/,!$/ 300 -% (1 #% -% (:"'1% (/$"%. /.- # #$/, /,/* " #/1#"(ROM) (,8,,#-/" /.! #+/ #$/ / /".+/ '' / #"/.+/ 1 / #"/.+/. / "%.- # Write Once Read Many (WORM) ( -!" #"#-/"!!*/,/ 9 ''-% -% #-''/. #- "%% ( '90, # /) ( &/ /-() " +",/ ( + (, DVD. $% % "%,/% /+!." , & -, /"#,( 9,1/ (% blu-ray / +/ ( blu-/ " ' -// (:('1% (/% $'# )*/ &/ */ -// -/ /,*/ $!1#, HD DVD. 3/% ("#-/% % blu-ray # / 1 ( 25 G */!*/, -/ DVD, 4.7 G, CD ( 700.,/"-1.1( ": 3/ #,/"-$ + "# #8 # # '1 /" " / %, '' /!+ /-."/ *% «-%» ( /. $.$ '"$, #+/ /.+/. #,/"- ( 1# (/(8(/ +!/',%: " #,/"1 "/ 1. #,/"."+(/ % '"%, 98/ $ -/ '*#-/ '-8 ( /!/+ #,/" #$. M.O. -(/ (:"'1 /$" ), '' / /"$ $ (% ",+% '"&/ */ 1 ( 1# % */. 0-!(/ "% ",1," $ 9 " #" (.% +/ "!*/ / -/ '/-"# (%!1 % '(#- */ ( #/ - / #-(/! $ -/ + "# -/ '' 1 /!" #1 (/ #,'!

261 0'/1#: $% % -! " (/$" /."+ % #,'% $"% */!*/ -/ #$ "#. - $#! / #-/ +' ''%.- % -/% "% (:"'1% $"%.1( " ( 1!( ( 9/. /1#: /,/* "% #$/!" $,/& # ( CD-Rom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

262 2.2.6 /."2) 21%$4) *5/1) %*"(0&) #-.1( "%!*/ / # #1 (!"#-/" * "..!$/ *'+/ ##+,,:# /,,:# $' / $ #!$/.,-/ (!-/%(', 1% # -// ",$ CD-ROM 1 CD-R. "# "#-/!- "% 9#"!/;!/(/ #''/ =$/ DVD /,,8(/ % /$"% '" / 100 G -/ #%!*/ / (9/(/ 300 Mb/s. -% (:"'-% /$"% (,!// # "!" #" " '+ (:"'+.#"+ /,#% (numerical aperture-na) 1%,%,! /,/* "%!,,1% /* / $. #' '-8 (,!/(/ #,-." "'*/ #&/ /*/ #$#*/, ( -!(/ "/ /$" /."+/ ( 25 G #-/*/ / &#. (,##-/ - &#, +. '(, ()/ " (/$".1( "%!$/ 100 G /. / 9'& (/ -*!*"$"% #%, % ',-% /.- #% (#'#9/#-/*/ "% +)" "% ( NA - $ 0,85, "% #* "% ( #1(% +#% * $ 400 NM, 1 "%.1"% $*/ *#*/ /. <' /* $#*% ( 8(/ "#/ #$. $.% 9'& % NA +/ /"$ '$ ( 1#, -/ $. -% 40-50% NA, ( ", ' #$ "%!*"$"%. /+ '-8 #1(% +#% / / #.- # +/ (' ( / /1 * $ 400 NM. +)" " (.#+ *#*/ /+ "% + '", '(% '$,(%, "#/$% ( / " '('$" "% #,1%, #-, "/ 1,,!$ #"!/$ + "#, "/ /#1 "/ ". 9#"!/, #-/*%, -! (/1 % /-% #.$(%, "/ /()" */ &/ #- */.1( "% #-/*/, /* $ 100 G /. + '$ (:1%!/',% /,1 //+-#- " ',.%,, % "%,1% //+-#-, NA "% 1%,%,/ #,'+ $ -/, # (/- " '+ #1 "' / )/# % % -,, "% ',$ $ 100 NM. /,#". ($. - " 1 '1 / 9 '+ / /,#. + '" "/ (') */ #- */. "# "% / / / $ $, ( " /1,,+" #)+ "% 1% '1% ( (, (. removability */ #- */ ( '$, #-/( $ #,/% ''* "% ( #- ( #+/ / '- (/ % #9'-% #)+ */ +. '/1# "%,1% //+- #- / " (/$" ()"% ) (:"'&/ &/ (/1*/, '' % 9% "% #"!/1% '('$"% # #$" (/$" '',1% "%,,##-/"% '"% #)+ */ ''*/. 0% &/, / 9-9 /. '!. $ "/ 1 9#"!/.1( "% ",1 //+-#- 1 " ',.&%

263 !/',% '+/ -// /-/. +#*/ # "/ " ', #,-% all-solid-state #/1#"% -! ) +/#(%!$/(% $ 9 "%, /(8/% ' # #,'! # I/O ( (! #)+ "% solidstate memory */ '"&/ */, '+,$" $ " #*/ "/ $ " */ ( "#*/.3 ',-% #/1#%. #+/ / /,*/ +/ % 1" (!( % ( (% #,/"1%.1( "%. ',-% #/1#%. #+ / "% /!" #".+/ % #,'% 9 % #-/*/ / ('+/(/ "/ $"! " */ 9 */ */ "% /#)"% #-/*/ $ ''+%!1 %. ', '$/ $ $ / / # '( 1 -,, ", #''/ ( 1#.1( "%

264 2.3 ; $ '' -" -(/% /()"%, " ',1.1( " ( "%,/* 1 *% $,%-',$%-.1( ") / ' $.( /,/ #,#$". -% $ % *1 %, "/ ', ( -!/ / #%!'1 (/ #- *% /!" #+ (/ *% # '1 " /: / -/ '$,##; &% " ', '(,; $ ',## " ', '."/ $ Dennis Gabor (-/%,//"#-/% "/ (,, ( $% /"1% 99( $#', "%,/* $% *% -% "% ',%) '-)% «'%» ''"/, «+/', '$'"» «,##» "#/,:#! "%,1% (#$8). "/! '', /+%,,##!" #1." "% *%.#$% 1 + "#, " #-" " */ &/ /$ */, $*% " '-)" «!'$,##», " / "#/ # 9% '' "/ /$" ( #&/ $!'%,##. 3 / «,##» (/+ "/ /$" «holos», +/', " '-)" «'$,##» "#/ "/ /$" ( (/$'(.&% "% "/ '"$" "% /$"%. +# '$/ / +# $% «',» /- "/,1 '$'""% "% '"% H 414(.0 Dennis Gabor 1/ &% ( 1( "/ ', 1948.&/% / 9'& "/ $" */ $/*/ "'/&/ # */. "/ ',, + (/% /%, # ' / /% ''" / / '+#/*/ "#*/ (( 8 $ /#/),, / #&!- -#9 "%. +*/!- -#9 "% -! +% % '"% "% ( /#-/(. -/ " (!( -#9 "% # /, # "/.-" " /$% ''"'( *(."( #- ( ("'., *,$ lm 1 photorefractive + '') "/!1 "% -#9 "%. ($,##-/!- 1,'*#.*( /- *% '$,##.,##-/ '$,## $/ *8 $ "/ / /% #.' *% "/ +.(/ " "% /% /#-/(..'#-/" / -! % + '"% "% +(% "%!1% /% /#-/(. & "% ',%, #$/ # /!" #1.", / * /#/ '#.($% +% ',##% '1.",/ Gabor +% 1 (.+,## '$,##. 3/ #/-"# ( ',##% Gabor-+*/ 1/ $,# / #1# $/% /"#(,1."/ ($!/ #1% "% % +.(/ "% # " 99. /

265 /%. ', ( Gabor " % /% '# (!" #+/ -// '#1 $)*/ (,+( *% ",1 *$% ',##!/ % 9'& % # )-/" (#" $/. 9&% $*% "/ * " NLO, 1/ #$/ # $ "/ + " ( '-8 $ "% ',% )'1!. Leith Upatnieks 1962 $// -/!-, / /.# (/ "/ +.(/ " "% * "% "% /% /% #-/( /!* +/!&.- % */ /"#(,"#-/*/ $/*/. "/ 4" #" " "% $% )/!/1%, " $" */ /"#(,"#-/*/ $/*/ /$% ( /#-/( 9'&." (. *1, (% 1," "/ (" " */ )' #&/ (!" #1."/, / /(/ ',##. ''" "#/1 $% "/ ', )"% #/ " 1968 $/ Stephen. Benton -"( "/ "-' ', # "% /& (/+ "/ ',1 "'$ " (/", 1 Polaroid. '($ '+ '$,##. #+ / /#*.!" #&/% # (/". #-/" (*#-/" '# *$%. " "#/$" "% + "% Benton 1/ "!/1 +* "% /,'( ( 1," " #81,*,1 */ ',##*/. (*#-/ /,'( ',##!" #+/ & $ " 1# ", "/ - ", % 8-% 9#"!/%, (% '-,!(% '%.' (.0!2$4* ( 2"4*) '$,## (."+" % '-% *,-% /% 1/ (! + ( #/1#. '!%, '$'"" " (!"# #+ ',##*/ " $#/" /()" 1/!/9$%, - /. #+ /!" #". 1 #,1,#+!$/(.-(, " + " #"!/&/ '/ #% ( ',##% (," " '1 / / ( 1) ",*/1 '$"..* "% 1%.1( "% '"&/, # $ V/1 3 (/$"%, -." #$% / van Heerden 1963, % -. *% "# $ ",1 (!( #9 */ #- $ #- # /!" #". *% #-, "/.1( " '"&/ "/ /" ". -% 1968, Chen ''. $// " (/$"!" #" "% ( LiNbO3 *% #- #/"#$/( "%. $#/ -", " ',1,1 /,/* "!." "% '' *.' ('. /. $ *,$ '#, "-#(" '$" Bragg "/ ', $,(, - "/.1( " "/ /" " */ ''' */ ',##*/. (/-, " #,'"!*"$" '"&/ # / ()". '+ $ "/ ', $,(. $ "/ /$" " #&/!" &/ "% ',% /. ",!8 " 1" " #&/ $ % ''% 9 -% -% #)+ "% ',% "% *,%.!1/, - / '9(# $, / '1 # " *,, '$,## / / # $/ " ', / / & #!/1 (1% $/%. 3/ '$,## / ( "8 "/,*,1 #% $/%. ($ ( /,# / 9&% / ' " '(, /$% +, #$/ / )/.' " *% # -//

266 $. $ (1 "/ :", ',## /!, $! $/%. '+/ % -% (/1 % / -!(/ # $/, / / % */ *,&/ '' -/% /-% $% "%,1%, (."+ ( / % -% '"% ('"% ( -/ $ */ +#). *, / 9 ",1 */ &/ / */ ( *$% ( /' $ /#/ /8 $ -// $. *% / (/", #-/*%, (!(/ '' #1" +#% ( *$% ( /' " #1 ( /#/( $#" *% ( ( #1(% +#% / 1% "%.,'*#. / "/ */1 $/ ( 8 $ $ "!"#1 '',1 */ #*/ ( "#-/( ',$/(. ",1 " #" " ( 9#9 #+ */*/.! -/ "#, / ) "/ ''"', #)+ ( /#-/( (,'&#%. 1 /#/ (, # /.*". *%. # */ ##(*/ */ "#*/ /#/, /'&/% '' ',$ 1 '' $ *%. $% "% #% 8. "# /#-/( -/ /! "# "/ /( '#).- -/ /', $ "#-/( ',/(. (/-, ",1 / */ &/ -/ "% /#/. "/ ',, */ +#,'*# "#-/*/ ',/*/!" #+/, '' - $ ($, " +, " +, #-/( $ " ',!" # # /'$% 1 ",1 *$%: "/ / '-8. / '-8 - $ $'% % ''% ",-% *$%, '+#/% $ / /.* ( -%, # -// 9 $ $ ( ", #!". / '-8 # / / (/1% / *$%. / ($ "#/ $ *% ( -# $ '-8 / ( ( #1(% +#% / "% % "%..* ( Gabor "! / ()1 "/! 1 /$" */ "'/&/# */. 999#-/% # $#' ( $% -) ".* ( $! # # - #" "'/*/ '' # # ' (#" (/1) / *$%. -' # 1/ & '$,## ( -,/ -. $* ',## 1/ (/,/* '' #'+/."/ # ''-% -'% 1 Gabor /! " * 1 ",1 *$%, / /., 1 ',## $*% #+# 1#. ($ / -/% $ (% '$,(% ( " /'(:1 ( / #1." '1*% #-! " ( '60 $/ 1!." & '-8, #-/( $ ',## #$ / /,#".+/ #$/!" #&/% (# $ *%. $ $, " ', -!,/ # $ % /&% /-( % ''-%!/-% # % % "!/', -!!- ", ''&/ " :" / &./1 /,/ )!1 #" ''-% /.&/%.%, / /) -// (+ /- 8/, #-''/. '+ ",1 "% ',% / ",1 # '-8. '' '$,, " ', / "!/', "%,1% */ '"&/ (##1% (*/$ +#),*,1 */ /"#(,"#-/*/ (##&/ $ /% %,-%.! */ '"&/

267 (##1% ' '$,##. 1 /$#/ "% (##1% $*% #+# 1 ( +# / (:1, "/ #,1 */!&/ "% ',%. /,: -/ '$,##, # / '-8 /!* #-/" + /%,. # -'/ #1% #%!* 1% % $.-%. /, " / /#-/(, *8 /#//" "/1 (,. +" /, " / /%, (.+/,*/*%, /! % % / (,( # *% ( /8$#/( /#/( $ "/ / /#-/(. / $ / * (# ' /#/$ #% # " / '-8 / (# # *,, $#.,# #$/ % -% / % *$% ( /#-/( /.!# (''9 1 '", " " */ */&/ (#*/ # $ "/ /1" " $ /#/. $ " / /% #/ " #- ". ",1 /%. #% -: /,:(# " "% ( */+ +#% / (''9(# - % '"% ( -!(/ % 8*1% "# % % 9.% ( /#-/(. #1 #- (,1%, $*% " /, -/ *-.' $ '(#-% &# 1 -/ + '', # 9/#. $ "# "% -#9 "%.!- -#9 "%,. <*% /-." /, * #$% - / ''"*. # *% /$% #$/ #1(% +#%, $*% '-8,, / "#(,1 -/ 9-%!- -#9 "%. /. # $/ ",!' ( #,-.(% ( -(/ # 1#" '#/", -'//%. -/ #$/ +#. <( +# '+(/, (! -#9 ". $ +# (8(/ -/ '' ()", '' (&/(/ -/ '' -)*. ($ /$ *%!-.*( */!" &/ -#9 "% ( /#-/(,. *%, ( -! -/ #,# #"&/ +#% (!' + #,-.(%), / (! /-/ 9-%!-.*( ( "#(, $/ #9/(/ /%. </ / /(,#-/, "/ * " "% /%,!- -#9 "% /,, # " & " ( # # / '-8, ( /"#(, " "/1 1 /#/. / "#(,".+/ ',## ( #/8/ / /+/, $*% / (!" #+/ " 1# ",.-#. # 1 ' ( -.&%.-# ",/ '$'"% % /1 % (. $/% (''#9// *% -8% -%,, ''"*#-/ =$/, /-% 8&/% ( ',##% ( 8/.1,. -/% #.-# # '&% 1.- ". 1#, #+# / +# ',##, % % $/%, % *-% %, "#$ -,,, '+:% &/,.- % -!/"%. $# $#*% (1 " #/1 #-.%,1% "% '"% # '-8 - " 1#" "% ',% - -! ''-% $% #,-% 9#"!/$ $ # / $.( / '') 8 "/!/',.1( "%!*/ #-/*/ ' $ "/ )-(#

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ompact- Disk (CD) :"$% ( # % % (DVD) -!(/.& #-! & / )("1 (/ % "% 1 % /". /+%, # /''1 -,, " 9 #-/" "/!/',.1( "% $,( # / )("1 '+, % #''/-% /,% ) % "% '+ #,'"% (/$"%.1( "%!*/ "% (>1 Tbits/cm3) */ ),1,*/ &/ #% #-/*/ (>1 Gbits/s). -(/ "/ ',1.1( "!*/! -'" % ( '60!-% "% % ( '70. $ "/ 1 1, " /()" ( ',+ ( 1#%.1( "%!*/ / / '+ */1. 3/ #,' #-% (+ # /. "/ -'':" ($'(/ "% */!/',&/ (.!., ''"'" ",1 '-8,1% ('1, #/!*#1 # "/ /"1 +/#", 2 $% (/.-"% '*/, -% /!/(&/) "/!1 ". $/ # $ "/ #/ " "% "'/1% */ 9#"!/&/ - "%, " /'*1,, (,-% )% ( ''(!*#-/% (/#-/% ( (-% -,// +'.- #%. '(% - % % ',!/% '+(/ (%!-% "% -(/% ( ),/ "/ ',1.1( "!*/. "#/-% (/ -% '#9/(/ -,,, ".*"1 /'( ", /-%!/-%, ( #!- ( "#*/, /-% '''-%!/-%, #,1 ( /'+ & #$* "%, /()" */ /-*/ ('&/.1( "% + "# " 1 #$* " *+(

269 (1/ "/ /-!/',,!,.' + '' *% ',##. 1 $' ',## -!(/ "/ /'":", % % $/%, /./&% " / )",". 9&% "#/ % (% $(%.1( "%!*/. ($!, *% / 1 */ «"#» % % '%, # % '% ( *(#-/% " # /* "/ ''" #- -/ *(." + ''. " ( &( " */ '*/ "#(, "/ " "..1( " */!*/ $' / $, ( #- (,1% / #$/ "/ / / -/ $ +!" '/1# "% ',1%!/',%.1( "% #-/*/. + '' #%!"#1% -/* "% '+#/"% $/-9-niobate!" #+/ (!/$ *% #-,1% 1 (/(8(/ "/ (:"'1 (." # " (:"'1!+". "'/!- /&/ ( "#(,+/ $ "/ -#9 " + /*/ '-8!" #+/,/ "#(,1 (/ ',##. ""! «!». + * #%!. $ 9 ( 1#, *% $ # ",1 '-8 / #- * /$%.+ " /*/ ( "/ / /!*/ / -#9 "%. / /%.!" #". ', / "#(,1!- -#9 "%. (.+/ # ( '#9/ -// - $'* "% -/ + "# 1% '-)- "% (li, 1994). (.+/ # ( '#9/ -// - $'* "% -/ + "# 1% '- (.(/ $" "%. /!*/, ' -(, / #- -/ $ + "# ( / "/ / (+ ( ' «(/.-"% '*/»(page composer), #$8 *%!*$%-*$%-#*1% (spatial-light-modulator)slm. :"$! 9'' "/. /!" #&/% SLM. $/% #/8/ *% / 1 ' "# /', # "/ ) */ :"&/!*/. $ (/.-" '*/, " /!*/ #-!" #&/% "/ 1 #!"# #+ (-. $, 8 " #1 ( ''" (. 1 '$,##. ($ "# " /!*/ " / /% /&// ', # +/!- -#9 "% *-.' $ ('$. ($ " (/-!, % -% $"% ( ('+ ( ( ''( # -/ "'/$

270 !- /&/. 0''' ',##."+/ -/ / + '' # "/ '',1 "%,*/% "/ /% -!/ + ''. / +' /,/* "%, /' (+, " /!*/ '/, -/% #$/ "/ / /% / + ''..- " "% /% /%.8 $ % (,"#-/% '% % /,/* ". / *8,'*# 1!- -#9 "% ( /."(#-/ (1/ "/.- ", # (/- "/ /"#(, (!+ */(-- /+!( "#*/.!- 98 $ # charge-coupled ( (1 ( #- / */ "# )/ :" "'/!. ',1!/', (, /*-*,.* $ ''+% " 9#"!/ *% /1, "/ #,1.1( "% (', &/, $*%, "!1 " "/ :"1 high definition TV, 9/, / 1!. /## '/"#*/ "% ',1%.1( "% / ) +/#!$/ $ 9 "%, ',$ $ 50, ),1,,*,1% ),*,1%, ( (9/(/ 10 Gb/s,.&% "% % % /$"% /81" "%, "/ + " "% unindexed '"% % 9 % #-/*/ ( (9/(/ 100 Gb/s, '+,1, $ -!/ ( 1#.1( "% #,/"&/ */. ( '/1# +(/ $ "/.1( " */!*/ #.- " ($ #1 '*/!*/ ( -!(/ % /%!'% */ bits. all-solid-state #/1#"%. #+ / -! gigabytes '"% 1 #($', / - /8"1 % */!" &/,/* #*/ "/ /,/& "% $/%!*%. '' '/1# "% ',1%.1( "% -!(/ (/1 % -(/% /()"% (1% "%!/',%. < '' ',##!" #+/, #- - / -!(/ ",#1.$",!#"'1, (:"'1 (.", "/,1 - / / +' "/ (1 (%. 9 ( $*% (/.-"% '*/ (composer) " /!/(&/ /,/* "% - / / (:"'1% $ "%, "'1 / -!(/ #,'.#$ $ pixels / -!(/,1, ' */ ( frame rates).#$ ( /!'% frames / ($', % '% ( -!(/ /%!'% bits. (." ( /!/(1. - / / (:"'1, #-/( $ " /$. " */ ',##*/ #&/ "/ -/ " */.'&#/*/ '*/!*/ $/ $' $% '%."+/ "/.- ". < ()/ "!*"$", $ #/ 1# /,/* "% & (! # $'" ", "/ 9' " " "% $ "% */ ( "#*/

271 /## '/"#*/ "% ',1%.1( "% / ) +/#!$/ $ 9 "%, ',$ $ 50, ),1,,*,1% ),*,1%, ( (9/(/ 10 Gb/s,.&% "% % % /$"% /81" "%, "/ + " "% unindexed '"% % 9 % #-/*/ ( (9/(/ 100 Gb/s, '+,1, $ -!/ ( 1#.1( "% #,/"&/ */. ( '/1# +(/ $ "/.1( " */!*/ #.- " ($ #1 '*/!*/ ( -!(/ % /%!'% */ bits %4&%"!$!!& 414(."-& $&/$-& 418 *5/1!+8!/! &#&/)-(.)!+8!/!: /' #-/" % " ' + " */ ',&/ #/"#&/ -!, /,/ 1 /&/ ''"', "'., # '$'"" '!*/ ( '#9/ - $ ##+ bit # /, 1 / 9 ($!/. ($ / " (/$" #% #-/*/ / / '+ (:"' $*% 1 Gb/s. /., " 1 (##- ) /,/* ",1!*/ / % % % (#9-%#/1#%/ / '+ $,-%. (4(4) +(2&4) (26/): ",#-/% ',-% #/1#%. "8/ " #/" " "% '% /%!" #&/% '+,1,% ( (-% $*% deflectors 1,'9/$# ( 1%. (-% ( (-% -!(/ / '+ +/#!$/ $ 9 "% " 10 #s 1 ms. '-/, ",*/ #% /% /% # / (.# #, / 9 -/ (,#-/ '$,## $ -// *$!'*/ ',##*/!*% "/ /," #% '(.%. (#9 ( 1# #/"#&/,!$/% $ 9 "% '! $ "/ / ( ' $ " ( 1 /" " "% '1% /,/* "%-,1%. 5/1 *"&2!/!: ',1.1( " # /,: #-! '%!*/ / $#.. " '!*/ # / -! # /$" - $ -/ ##+ # / '. 9''$#/" (/$"!*/ "%.1( "% $,( / $ (:"'1 $*% 100 # #s 2, (9/ # "/ (/$" (#9 (.!., 2.5 ##s 2 DVDs) #- #/"#$/( "%. *10 %&#&!!4,2(*64: % (#9-% ( (-%.1( "% $*% '"$% % floppy, CD 1 DVD,. ##!*/ -! # #/1.- " "/ / ( #- (

272 - ##!*/ # / / *(. $ # 1 '',1 % *#1% $"% ( #- (. 1 8"# #- # / '- -/ #'"" &'!( $ (-% %.- %. % ',-% #/1#%, / (! -/ % -/ /! #)+ ( ##+!*/ "%.- "%.1( "% #-.,,/1% + " ( ',##% - % '"%,. ##!*/, / /#".+/ $' / $,,1% ( #- (. 1 -' #- # / '- " #1 #* " ( 1#% "/ /', '' '"% #+/ $# / /".+/. *&%($" &#"!//: / (/$ / # +/ #-%!(-% /-% /$"% /81" "% 9 #-/% % -%!/-% (! #+ % ',-% #/1#%. / ',## '('-/ -/ #-, $/ " $".' "% /$% /"#(,"#-/( ',##% ) $ "/ #$" #)+ "% /% /,/* "% */!&/ /*/,1%. " (/#1 /" ",-/% *$% */ ',##*/ *8 $ # / /,/* "% ( -/ $( /81" "%. 3/!- 1 $( /81" "% '#9/ # #1 # "%!1% $/% ( $ / /8"". #)+ */ ',##*/.. '$,## )/.' " $ ( *$% "/ +.(/ " "%!1% /% /%. +/#". #% /"#(,"#-/"% /% / /'," % 9.#$ (! #+ #)+ (!( /81" "% (!#-/( "% '%..' #-/*/ /*/ # 8 / /8 /* / /!/(1 CCD, "/ -* ),. / (:"'$"% -/ "% /!!+"# /81" "%. #-/( $ (! #$% ', " ''"'" '(, /81" "%,/ ),1,".!" $,/& # / #/$ % ',-% #/1#% / -! /-/ /', (/". #-/ + "#.1( "%!*/. all-solid-state #/1#"%. #+ / -! gigabytes '"% 1 #($', / - /8"1 % */!" &/,/* #*/ "/ /,/& "% $/%!*%. '' '/1# "% ',1%.1( "% -!(/ (/1 % -(/% /()"% (1% "%!/',%. < '' ',##!" #+/, #- - / -!(/ ",#1.$",!#"'1, (:"'1 (.", "/,1 - / / +' "/ (1 (%. 9 ( $*% (/.-"% '*/ (composer) " /!/(&/ /,/* "% - / / (:"'1% $ "%, "'1 / -!(/ #,'.#$ $ pixels / -!(/,1, ' */ ( frame rates).#$ ( /!'% frames / ($', % '% ( -!(/ /%!'% bits. (." ( /!/(1. - / / (:"'1, #-/( $ " /$. " */ ',##*/ #&/ "/ -/ " */.'&#/*/ '*/!*/ $/ $' $% '%."+/ "/.- ". < ()/ "!*"$", $ #/ 1# /,/* "% & (! # $'" ", "/ 9' " " "% $ "% */ ( "#*/

273 . 2 #$# * &! ( 90 ), #% # " #%

274 2.6 (+!%"!4&"') 14(.") 4,"%*/)!/1 */ ',&/ ( "#*/.1( "%.8 -/ #,' #-% $ / + #- (,1%. /$, ', ('.1( "%!*/ +/ + ",%, ( 1# 9 #-/ ' (#-% /% #$#!(%) *(.",/ #-! (#!' -*% ), /$,/ *.' + ''.! + '' */ *.' &/ (photorefractive) #- */ / /, ",*#,1% "/ # / /% /#-/( / ( #-., $*% /!- 2.!" $ photorefractive + '' (!" #, / (/1 (1/ "/ #$* " / iron-doped niobate '.(. / '-8 /!* #-/" + /%, # / /% # / /#-/(.! (&// "/ / /#-/( #- * /$% (/.-" '*/ 1 SLM. /% /% /#-/( (,/&// (/(8/ #-,1%. #- / *(." -/ '$,## "%,..3 ## *!! # "!. "/ '',1 "%,*/% "% /% /%, /% ',## #+//.+/ # (,#-/".- " ( #- (. "/ * " */ + /*/ /* #- ) (/'$% $,%,1%. *8/% ## / / /%, " /!" '!*/ / " /!/(&/. - ( 1# (-!(/-!/% '+!#"'+%!$/(% $ 9 "% -!$/ #&/ */ #('-*/- ),1,*/ &/ /" "%!*/ ( (9/(/ 10 Gb/s,.&% "% all-solid-state #,-%!*% /+#/ #-". #- / /,:# '"% #+/ / #/(/ #9'"%, %!$/, / $!, &/%. 9 " %.#'&% #1 %, " /$".1( "% / / % gigabytes,!$/,,1% / $, $ (%!$/(% /,/* "% # -*% + -%. 0'1" ( 1# )"% -!(/! $ / 1# ( //, CA, Siros, "/

275 Rockwell, Thousand Oaks,CA, *% #1# */ photorefractive ('&/.1( "% '"&/ (PRISM) */,##*/ */ ',&/ ( "#*/.1( "%!*/ (HDSS) /& (/"-% (# '$/%!/',%, 0 /-/ (Caltech, Lucent ''%,/& % $' / $ # -!(/ / "% )% ( "#*/. $, ''1, -! '. Caltech /* % -%!/-% 9 #-/% LiNbO 3. $, " # ( Psaltis Caltech " # Northrop -!(/ ) /',-%,-% #,'*/.#&/ ',##*/. ( 1# 9 #-/ '(#1 #8(/ # (#9 ( 1# DVD, ( -!(/ # 1, -// #/+#/!+ (0,5-1!'.) ',$ '(#1, # '1 1 '1, $*% /!- 3.,&#/" / /#-/( / /% / (/1% #-,1%. #- / -/ *(." '(#-% &#, ( #&!/ #)+ + ''"'*/ *,&/ '&/ #!% #&/ /*/ ##-*/. 4 #% ""! (a) (b)

276 %$%1-7%) '&&4%) !(. 414($$#!&: ',##,/!" #&/% # / /% # / "#*/ '#9//%!. <*% /!- 4 ()," / /% R "/ / "#*/ S (,+/, / "#o(,". -/!-.*(, #- #-. HDSSs,,##-/ '$,## '#9/!" " #1 /$% " 1 /$%,'&#% "%. <*% /!- 4 (9), " /,/* " ''"&/ # " & " ( ',##% $ "/!1 / /%, " )/.' " (,##-/( ',##%, /!. # / "#*/ )$(. +% "'&/ */ ( +#% /% "% / *+ *%: R 0 / +/. +%, ( /+ #% (#*/ "%!*1% "%. +% "'&/ */ ( +#% "#*/ "% / *+ #*% (1) + S0 / +/. +% / /( # (#*/. #9// /+ # (#*/ "#*/ /%,(/ -/,'*# # -/ /( # (#*/,'*#*/ ( / *: (2) (3) (1 "!- " / (/ #-/"! % "$ $! "$ #") +/ '$,## / $ $'(.,'*# &/:

277 "/ $ y / ", +.(/ " "% "% 7n / -/% +/.% (/' 1% ( / $ : (4) (5) ( n 1 / ". /',$"% ( (',8 "/ / " ( ('+ * #$ I 0 / (/'$% * #$%. $".' "% : $".' "% /$%,##-/( ',##% / $: ( L /!% ( #- (, / (/' 1% $" "% ( ('+, e R e S / '& % */ /*/ /% "#*/, /!. 0- / "#*. $ " $".' "% # / '" 100%,!!( ',##.! +/ ',##, # "/ #'"- $" ", " $".' "% # / / *(. *% : (6) (7)

278 E 1%"!"2!/! Bragg: ',## (,*/ -/('$ ( -! ( $!% /+(/ # $" " /#8 '$" Bragg. '$" Bragg "#/ $ ',## (,"/ # -/,,#%!/, /( # +#% /%!/ "/!($" $".' "% "/ /,/* " # "/ / /%.!1 / /% '$,##.*+/ /!" "% Bragg. </ /( # (#% "% /% /% /,/* "% / ( $, " $".' "% / "#/ ',$". /( # +#% "% /% /% # / '') $ "/ '',1 "%,*/% "% $ * "% 1 ( #1(% +#% "% /% /%, 1 */ +. '$" Bragg, #-/*%, - ''' ',## /,+/ -/ HDSS / $, ( #- (, 1 #$/ '$,## /!" "% Bragg "/ / /,/* "% /"#(, # "/ ( 1 $".' "%. <' '' #&// (. '$" Bragg / (/ #-/"! ( # Bragg "$! /( # (#*/ /*/ 1#% /( # (#*/ /*/ /% ( i,(/ -/,'*# ',##*/ ( -! /( # (#*/ K. -/ $ #-, /+ # (#*/ ( i -!(/ /.#$ (#*/, #-/*%, /-# " Ewald. 1!$ /( # (#*/ 1#% /% / /! "% Bragg, /( #$ $ 9 " Ewald. (8) +" / /% # /( # +#% ( j )/.' " /$%,'&#% # /( # +#% K, +/ /( #$. # - $ 1#,*,1% K

279 +" / /% / /, #-/*%, Bragg /!" "%,'*#, #-/*%, )./ (. (9) </ #1% +#% / ",*/ "% /% /% ''8, $*% (#9/, "/,*/1 '('), " '$" Bragg,,8 *% + / 9'1 / )/ sin(x) = sin( x) / x. (/-, " '$" Bragg # /!" $ -// '!!* #$ */ /( #*/,'*#*/ #1% ( )/, ( / $ (10) &% #"/$% "% (/" "% sinc '#9/ ($ /( #!* #+. #-/" '(1 - " ( #- ( 98 -// $# #$ / '!!* #$ */ /( #*/,'*#*/ / + y / )/, - & /! '! /+ #!* #+ // /! $, #- +:% H '% W, /!. </ ''','&# ',##*/,/, / ()1 (/ "/ /$" /$% #- (.1( "%, " '$" Bragg ", " "#/1 ',#! #)+ */ ',##*/. <*%. ( $#/ #1#, ',-%!/-%.1( "%!*/ -!(/ *% $,/ / '! 1 (/ (1/ "/ ',#! '$,* ( #-/( #,-.(% ( #- (

280 +. 7 $& #$ Bragg ',#! #)+ */,'*#*/ /,/,*# )&#/", - / ) (# "/ -// */ (' #-/*/,'*#*/, '+#/" (!/ degeneracies Bragg.!. 7 )", &% + 8(, */ /*/ 1#% /% ( i,( i ) ( j,( j ) #+/ /,:(/,'&# ( -!(/ 9&% /( # (#*/. (1/ "/ * ", 1 '"% (."+/!" #&/% ($ /( # (#*/ 9''/, ",&/% "/,( (:"'1 ',#!. '+ " ($ $9'"# / /! #!/1, /! "/ '(:",'*#*/. ',# '#9/(/,*/1 '(') 9 #-/" -/ +/' /*/ /% ( -!(/ (/ /+ # (#*/ '(') #1(% +#% # # / /% /' #-/" #.1 +.(/ ". (. (8"".+/ '#&% $#/ #1#. '$%!/-% -!(/., +/' /*/ /%.&% "% % *"#-/%, nonplanar /% /%. (/#1!1 : </ ''' ',##,/ -/ ('$, " (/#1!1 (,'&#% &/ #)+ */ ',##*/. (1 " (/#1!1!"8 $ -/ M#, 8 *% : (11) $( N / (/'$%.#$% ',##*/ n i / " $".' "% ( i ',##%. -/ /$ ('$, M# / /)" $ N, -// #,'.#$ '''&/ ',##*/. (1/ "/ * ", M# / $ "!- " :

281 .' ". ',##% / -/ + "# '(',#-/*/ ',##*/, #-/*%, / $: (12) (13) *,/0 *1"48 " 7%$#!&: 3/ '' "#/$!" $ */ ('&/ (!" #+/ HDSSs / " (.",1%. ('1 (.", ( #-!" '" / t ~ 0, # /.!" #&/%: (14) ('1 (." ) $ % ('-% #-(% " #$* ",1% /-,/ $# / 8('. (.",#*/ # /.!" #&/% (15) + t /!$/% -. "%. (.",#*/ ) $ ('$!% /-,/,*/ $# / 8('. ( +% (." % #.% # / +:,/ $ % #/% /$#/%.) /$,/ photorefractive (' $*% niobate '.( -!(/ "/ (.",#*/ ( (#/ $ *% 0.1 cm^2/j M# ( 1-10, 1.-!,#. Polaroid ulsh-500 photopolymers -! "/ (.",#*/ ( (#/ $ 20 cm^2/j M# $ (:"'$ &% 10, 0.5!'

282 !(%,#. /()" */!($*/, $ (."*/,.$*/ ',&/ ('&/.1( "% / -/% /,$% #-% "% -(/% $2(./ $%!+/$!$48 "!# 4*(' $ Fourier # % &. (a) -!, (b) SLM (#-( #$* ", "/ ',1.1( "!*/!" # % $"% #!"# #+ Fourier /$% + +. " #$* " #!"# #+ Fourier, ( ( 8!- 8, " "#*/ '#9/ # ' "#*/ (, $ -/ SLM (. # /$ $ /$% +. ',$ ('$,1% /."#-/ /. $ ( +.!- 8 ()!/ $ " ",1 "#( i,/ -/ +# #- * ( +. /$,!- 8 (9) ( 8 -/ SLM ( -! #!*1 /#1 j (r),, /( #.- "% r, " #!"#8 -/ # */ /( #*/ (#% +#*/ # "!- ": (/-, (1/ "/ #$* ",. pixel /! -/ +# ',$ ('$.1( "%.,##-/" $/ "% '% "#*/ /8 /* # /!/(&/ (!" #+/ -// ''"' $. " #$* " #!"# #+ (-, " ' "#*/ /-# $' ',$ ('$.1( "% /, #-/*%,,1 // % -% -'% ('$. (1 " #$* " /!$/.1% % # % ( ',+ #- ( #/"#$/( "%, ($ / $ $ #-/ / /' #$. (16)

283 &8$! ""17$#!& ) "&#1!4+%0&. 9 # " #" -) /$"!*/ # / (',!" #&/% -/ $( 9.#+-'(.% 9 #-/ '+ # /+ #,'*#*/. #-/" - " /$% ',+ #- ( #/"#$/( "% 8,/ "/ /'( " */ /( #*/,'*#*/.!. 9 /8 " /'( " */ /( #*/,'*#*/,##. "/ +.(/ " "% "% "#*/," /( #1 /'( ",'*#*/ / $ :, "/. +.(/ " "% +.(/ "% "% "#*/, /+ #,'*#*/ // $:. & L, W H #1%, '%, +:%, ( #- ( /!. -/ $ #-, #-, /( #$ #1% (#*/ / $.8 # / #% /( #1% %,'*#*/ (. "# */ $#/*/ /( #*/,'*#*/. $,% (+ ( 1#% / $: (17)

284 .8/% -/ /'!*/ *% '+ # /( #,'*#*/, (/'$%.#$% */ &/ /'&/!*/ / $ Q = V k /( + y z )- & (18) $( V / $,% ( ',+ #- (,1%. (1 " $" - + /'!*/ /,*/ #$,. /' #$,'*#*/, %,/ " (/1 #$* ", /!* /'!*/. -/ /'!*/. +.(/ ",'*#*/, (/'$%.#$% */ &/ /'&/!*/ / $ [26] [28] (19) ) * " (19)!/ $ -/ ('$ # -// " "%.' "% 2.5, $*% niobate '.(, -! # (/$" /'&/ 2*10 15 '+ # /+ #,'*#*/. # 1 #,1,.#$% 9.#+ '(.% #&/ $ -//,/ '$#/% #-/ NA #% /% 1#% #% #-/"%,*/1% )$#" "% "% /% /%. -/ HDSS, 9 # /'!*/ Q / =$/ (.#+ '*/ N (.#+ /!*/ / ' P..-(# & $ & / -/, 1, # '' '$,, $ / (! /-/ $. overhead ( (/- # "/.1" */ bits.& */ '.(% */ bits /'&/ *" "%. "/ )" ($ /!+, $ & / #$ $ -/,!" ( $'%. (# /.#$ /'&/!*/, #+#-/ (', (# " (/'1 /$" #- * ( /$#( ( Shannon, "'1, # / ''' #$ ( (/'+.#+ */ /'&/ # "/ /$" /$% /( /'+ ( N /.#$% '*/ P /.#$% /!*/ / ', SNR!/ "/ /', 1#% %.$(9. -/,( /$ $(.+9(, '#9//% ($:" / #$ "%.1% +/#"% '-8,, ".1 (/'1 $".' "%, SNR #&/ # / ()/$#/.#$ /!*/ / ' (SNR ~ 1/P). (,!$/*%, '$,* #% #-/"% (/#1%!1%, " (/'1 $".' "% #&/ 1/N 2, ",&/% # /!" (# ( SNR (SNR ~ 1/N 2 ). (/-, (! # /'',1 #)+ ( SNR (.#+ '*/ ( #+/ / 9'".+/. (20)

285 (/-, '#9//% ($:" % #-(% ( ( 1#% (+/#" '-8, 1 $ ", "'/$%.$(9% /!/( "%, #- M# $!*/), (! -/% 9-' %.#$% '*/ ( - /,+/ # /.- " ( $#( "% ',1% #/1#"%, "/ " /$" C total #, (!. 10). % ' -% #-(% "%.1( "% niobate '.( 90,*#% + "# ( P = 10 6, M# = 1, +/#" '-8 1 W).*"$ /& $ 9-'.#$ '*/ (',8, / / ~2500, # " (/'1 -, " /$" /.- ".1( "% ~ 2.5 * 10 9 b. )8 / "#*. $ " /$" ( (',8 /*-* / #$/ /*,# "%.*% "% '"% / )8 '- # "% #* "% ( SNR '$,* "% #" /1% $/ "% 1 "% interpixel "% interpage ',#!%. )" "% $( "% :"1%,1% ',##*/ ",*# 90 niobate '.( #,#" # /$" */ 10 9 /(*/ /.- ".1( "% ("'., 1000 ',## */ 1 megapixel $/*/). +( -, " (/$" /'&/ */ ~350b/$m 2 ((', #-/" *% /', "% /$"% "%!1% ( '#9/ $ ',## $ * $*/ ( ( ''(.1( "%) / *+, /+%, #$/ ~1.08% $.*"$,#$ $ (/$"% 1/ ! &$ #!"! (.. Neifeld, '). "!! & #!" $ & #

286 * 1%"!"')!%+&"') 1) : "/,*/1 '+')" ',##. +# /% ' $ -/ +# ( (,,/$% #1(% +#% # 1,*/. / /% '-, $ +/' (#*/ /% (!" #+/, / '('-) ',## -%,*/% / $: $( l / "% "% /% /%, ( l / /( # (#*/, ( l / ) $ l, w / ",*/1 (!/$", t /!$/%, A l / +% ( ( +#%. (21). 11. ## *!!!- 11 ( 8 -/,##,*/1% '+')"%.! *+/ # / "#*/!" #&/% -/ 1# '(% SLM ( 1# ALSM). ''"'!-!*/ &/ /* 1# ALSM #- * #% ''"'"% "'/1% 1% -// (', 1 1 -/ $ + "#. 1# ALSM /."#-/ # /$ $ #-% /$% +, #*#-/ 1# ',$ #- # #$* " #!"# #+ (-.. /( # /%. -// $ * "% (. - & /% /% -/ (#'#9/$#/ /( # (#*/ "/ / "#*/ / 9 / / $, $*% /! /!* $ '$,##, #. +# /%, # (/- % '(',#-/% ',-% '%!*/. '!*/ 98 # " & " ( ',+ #- ( # # $ % /% /%. ' #-/*/ )$( 8 / /!/(1 )$( #&/ - $ ''"' "'/ #

287 . pixel (."+ $ / /% # /.*". -/!* $ /'!*/.,*/1 '$" #,, 1# /+ # (#*/ /% ( (/. % /% ( ',+ #- ( #/"#$/( "%. '(#-% 1# % /% /% " $".' "% 8/ &%: + ( / " #- ",*/ "% &"% +"% /% /% "% $ * "% "% /% "#*/. '! ",*/!* #+ 8 *% " &" )':" "% '(,% sinc, " #/8 &%: (22) (1/ "/ - ", ",*/!* #+ /! ",*/ #- ('$, ".' " "/ / */ ('&/ ( -!(/ (:"'$ ".' "%. ()1." "/ '! ",*/!* #+. ',## # "%, /% "#*/ /% (/ "/ '( ( ('+, ",*/ #)+ */ /*/ "#*/ /% /! #1, #- ( /+(/ -// (:"'$ " "%.' "% ",*/1 '$" / #- -*% ',1.,*/1 '$" / " (:"'$" "/.",*#, "/ /% "#*/ /% (/. "/ / /$% ',+ #- ( #/"#$/( "%. )" " "%,*/%!* #+!- " # %,*/% */ /*/ "#*/ /% ( 8!- 12. "/.",*#," '! ",*/!* #+-)* $ ',$ ('$ / $ : (23) (24) -/ ',$ ('$.1( "% $*% niobate '.( ( -!!% 1., ",*/1 '$" / 50 #rad '+. "#, #1" +#%,1%//,/* "% 500 nm, "/.",*#. (/-, ',## #+/ /,, +/ # #,*/1 "% /% /% ( 30. #" (-. (non overlapping),*/ # */ /*/ "#*/ /%, #+# /,,(# # '1 - ", / (', (# /'!*/. 3/ +# /% ( *8 (+/ $ * ( ( ''(, #-/*%, -!-//#-,.#$ 9.#+ '(.%,

288 .#$ /( #*/,'*#*/ (!*8/ $ '! /+ #!* #+: 3/ +# "#*/ ( *8 # '( -! -// #-,.#$ 9.#o+ '(.%: " x ": "/ z ". (1/ "/,*#,.#$% &/ /'&/!*/ (',8 -* '#9//% ($:",*/ +" 8&/"% "% /% ( 1#% /% (, (25) $( NA /.#"$,# (/,#) /$% // */ 1#% "/ / / ",*/1 9'1 "% /% /%, + '+. "# -)* $ ('$. -/ #1% +#% 500 nm, /$% 1#% NA 0,25, "%,*/1% 9'1% /*/ /% 30 4,.#$% /'&/!*/ / ( cm #!'! $! *$!, % # # & niobate #!& % 1., "! "&# 2,5 $ / 500 NM

289 (!): 3/ $ HDSS /+,/ "/ $' " $ (% /( #+% /$/%!* #+,'*#*/ ( 8/ /*-*. -' # / # &$ # #)+ */ '(',#-/*/ ',##*/. / '9(# / /( "% &$ #,!" #+# -/ #9( 1#%, 1-1#%, #' #$. / "#*/ '+#/" $ # ' #-/*/ # / /%,(/ -/ '$,## ( -! # */ /( #*/ (#*/ */,'*#*/. ($ # ( 8 #-/ $)!- 13, /8 -/,&/ #1# - 1#%. /, # */ /( #*/ */,'*#*/ '#9/ -/ $,&/ #1# #% %. '(',#-/ ',##,/ ''8/% "/ (,*/ "% /% /% - & /( # (#*/ / -. -' # / # /( #&/ #*/,'*#*/ ( (/+/! ! Ewald ' % *$ "$, "$ #") "$ " " ) ## *!

290 "#/1 1" "!- 14 / $ /( #$%!* #$%,'*#*/ z #)+ */ #*/ + ',##*/ / /.$% % %.- % #, - & 9-' % /( #$%!* #$%,'*#*/ /$% ''' ( ( (z)min / / %, $' /+ #,'*#*/ #. (/-, #"/ #$% "% '$"% Bragg "% (/" "% sinc / # / (//". '$'" # "#*/, # (/- "/ &$ #. (1 " -'( " "% &$ # (/8 # -// $ $! / + /( # (#*/ "#*/ ( -/ + /( # (#*/ /% ( i (/ "/.",*#. + /( # (#*/, -/%,*/$%!* #$%, '-,, / /! "/ '! " /( #1 9'1,'*#*/!* #+ z / )/ z " ## : ()! " () # ". (/-, " #-, ",*/ /,/* "%. ',##% 9 % #"/-%,*/%. -/ $ '' '(',#-/ ',##. -/ '' /( # (#*/ "#*/ q, /+%, " #-, ",*/ /,/* "% / /."#-/" % #"/-%,*/%. -/ $ '' '(',#-/ ',##, # (/- "/ &$ #!. &$ #! '! $/ /% "#*/ /% (/ %.% /% ( #- (,, " /', #)+ "% /.+#""% #9'1% ( 1#%, "/ #-/" /.+#"" #9'1 SNR, / $: (26) $( N /.#$% ',##*/ NA /.#"$ /,# "% /% "#*/. </ )!* pixel."+/ # +.# " #!"# #+ (- "!1 &$ # '#9/ " #1:

291 (27) $( Py /.#$% "'&/ */ pixel. 2) 418 1%3/ $"4*) "8$!4): '(') #1(% +#% ' $!"# #$ ',##*/ /. +# /% ' $ -/ +# /$% +,,/$% #1(% +#% "/,*/, - & : (28) $( & ( i " /!",*/1 (!/$" w i ' '' /' #$% "% ( i / %, $'% % /% /%. $/ +# /%,1% / Bragg 1matched, 1 '' ",+/ "/ bragg-#"- (/( #-/" /"#(,.!. 16 ( 8 -/,##, "/ '(') #1(% +#%..16 ## *! $ <*% # " * ",*/1% '(')%,!" # # #$* " #!"# #+ (-. /% 1#% /% / (/% % /.% '(-% ( ',+ #- (,,/* -% *% #$* " //' "%. '$" #1(% +#% #,, (#'#9/$#/ /+ # (#*/ 1#% /% ( /!+/ (.+/ % ',$ #- #/"#$/( "%

292 . 17. /#!'! $ #!! *$!, % # % LiNbO % % 1., "! "&# 2.5, ) $ 500 NM.!. 17 ( 8 ",*# "/ " / /% / (/1% // "/ / /$% #- ( " / 1#% / (/1% (,*/, $ / "/ / /%. % (#'*#-/% (copolarized) /% 1#% /%, " $".' "% 8 &%: <( v / (!/$"% #)+ "%,1% /,/* "% /% /%, c / "!+" ( *$% '+.!&,, / ",*/ #)+ /$% ( 1#% /$% +#% /% #-. ',## //' "%, " '! " (!/$"!* #+ 8 *% " &" )':" "% (/" "% sinc, " #/8 &%: (29) (30) ',## //' "%, ",*/ #)+ ( 1#% "% /% /% /,/ "#/1. '$" (!/$"% / (:"'$", " /$#/" (counterpropagating),*#, "/ " / "#*/ /% / (/1% % /.% /% /$%

293 ',+ #- (.1( "% % /.% (.+/ %. )" " "% (!/$"%!* #+ *% (/" " "%,*/% #)+ */ /*/ 1#% /% ( 8! 17. /. $#/% /% 1#% /%, " '! " (!/$"!* #+ /: (31) -/ ',$ ('$.1( "% $*% niobate '.( ( -!!% 1. " "%.' "% 2.5, " '$" (!/$"% / 6 Ghz, 500 NM #1" +#%,1%//,/* "%. (/-, /* $ ',## #+/ /,, +/ # # #1(% +#% "% /% /% $ 500 -*% 560 NM. '(') #1(% +#% /+,/ " ',#! #)+ */ '(',#-/*/ ',##*/, '$,* */ ' */ $ (% /$/% '$"% #1(% +#% ( 8/ /*-*. /( #&/ #*/,'*#*/, '(',#-/ #1% +#% ',## (/+ $ / #-/ $),##&/! 18. <*% # ",*/1 '('), /( #$%!* #$%,'*#*/ z #)+ */ #*/ + ',##*/ / /.$% % %.- % #, - & 9-' % /( #$%!* #$%,'*#*/ /$% ''' ( ( (z)min / / %, $' /+ #,'*#*/ #. (/-, #"/$% "% '$"% Bragg "% (/" "% sinc / #/ (!. $ '$'" # "#*/,# (/- " ',#! ## *! $ ',#! '! $/ /% 1#% /% / /$#/%,, % % " /', #)+ "% ',#!% ( 1#% ( #-/ SNR), / $:

294 (32) NA /.#"$ /,# "% /% "#*/. "#& $, (1/ "/ #$* ", #-/ ',#! SNR / ) $ /.#$ ''' #-/*/ ',##*/, ) % "% +.# "% #9 "#. ( 1#, " ',#! / / $%,/%. ''/, "/ '(') #1(% +#% 8 $ /.$ (// #$ ",&/ '-8 "/!(1. ', #-. /$#/" -,, ", / /#* 81"# "%. % / /!" #". #.",*#, ( -! "/ '$" #1(% +#% (, #" # " counterpropagating,*#, $*% /!. 17, % #-% /$"%, "',#! / / -/%,/%. 3) 7"4 4/$'&/).#/) 418 1%3/ ( "%-*"#-/" '(')!" # -/ SLM "%, / '-,) "/ / /% / 91 -',! "% #$* "% "% "% 1% ('',1% */!*/ "%, / '! 1 " ',#!.!/1,#%, *"#-/" "% '(') ( 8!- 19. &, -/% #!"# #$% Fourier!" #, % % */ /*/ "#*/ /%. - *"#-/" / /% '#9/ -/!- "% (.&/ $ -/ SLM. ($,#, -/ #/ (1-D) SLM /."#-/ # /$ $ #1# ( +, - & +( % /% /% ( (/ ('$ -!(/ -/ /( #$ # (#*/ # ". "!" #" " /$% (/$'(.//&/ (/1 */-'(,&/ #% ''"'"% 1% #$* "%, '(',#-/ ',## #+/ /.".+/!*% #,'" /.+#"" ',#!

295 . 19. HDSS ) -" % ## *!. ''' ',##,/ # # ' *&/ "% "% /% /%.. '$,##, -' # / /( #$ #,'*#*/ ( (/+ $ " #-/"!1!- 20. /. " # "/,*/1 '+')", /( # #,'*#*/. ',1 '(:" ($ ( /. '$,## /!- % "% #)+ */,##-/*/ ',##*/. Krile ##.&% Morozov -!(/,: /)" (1/ "/, ' ',##,, / (! # '$" Bragg. $,* "% '$"% "%, )8(# (1/ "/, / )",1 (# % 9 -% $"% "% *" "% "%. </ '- # $,( '#9// ($:", " '$" Bragg #&/ " /.+#"" ',#! ) -"! ## *!. ",/1 * ", -/ (2-D)!- "% # /!" #".. # " ( #- ( # #,##1 $ " / $ : (33) $(!/(/ % #-% Fourier ( 1#% "% *"#-/"% /% /!, / $ ( SLM, /. /',$"% )&#/" # 9 " '$,##. /* * #$ # "/ / /% r c,.'$#/(.'$#/o?) $ '$,## *% / $: : (34)

296 + / " / /% /,/* "%. / -/ 8(, /% "#*/ r i s i!" #, "/,1 ( i ',##%, $/ "/ /,/* "# r c -!(#: (35) &. # / /"#(,"#-/ +# /-/%. / -/ '$,##."+, ".' #-/" / ( / #- * ( #!"# #+ Fourier,/,, / / $ /!/(&/, $( ' -% * +!/(/ (! #$ " (/-')", /! / #. /',$"%.!#"1!#1 ( (!- "% #-/( / /"#(,". 1# s1. '' 8(, /#-/( (1 " - ",/+ (36) /,&/% (! #$% #)+ (% + &% /% r i r j / )$',%, $/ -!(# " "#/1 /.+#"" ',#! #)+ + $/*/ (."+/ # (+% (% &%. 3!!. $ ($% $!% # / ''"*. ' #!" #&/% (% &% Gold Carter ( /+ /, % #,-% /*/% #% "% $!#"'$ $, #-/" /.+#"" #9'1 SNR, ',## ( ''' 8/ '#- / $: (37) (38)

297 SNR # / 9'*.!" #&/% %!/-% (,/, (#'#9/#-/( ( * #+ /$%!( "% # # 1 / /%. "/ * " ( (/8!- 19, +# /%. '+/ / $ % ",-% "#( ( /!+/ -/ pixel ( SLM "%. ",*# #!"# #+ (- ( (/8 &,. ",1 "#( /! ( +# # $ $ #!"# #+ (-, - & : (39) </ # / /% #&/ " " # ", $*% /!- 19, ' $ /+ # (#*/ ( // -/ -/. '-,(# -/ "# */ #"#*/ */ (#*/ - & # */ /( #*/ (#*/ (( j ) /! /+ # (#*/ ( 9' +/,,*/1 '+')". "/ ''"'" ',1 "%,*#%, $% (/( #$% Bragg # / #'".. (1/ "/ * ", Krasnov -! ) $ )/"#-/.' #-/ 1# / $ (40) ". /',$"% ) $ % $"% ( ',+ ('+. (1/ "/ 1 * ",.8 *$ =$/ #)+ R i R j. / '! 1 (# "/ /.+#"" ',#!, +# $ +# /% /.,&/. # 1 #,1 "% *" "% "%,. -!(#!" # #$* " "/ $% (/( #$% Bragg / # / #'". /'&%, # $ '#1% /'( ", '' #+# /!" #1 (# % % ( '#9//, d c, /.+/ $ "% /#/$#/" (#% ( ( 1#%. (/', /#-/(# #-/ SNR &$ # /$%.,&/( -*"#-/(

298 '('+ ( 1#% / / (, # # "/ * " "%,*/1% '(')% *% (:"'$ $/ '/(# $ 91.,/$". # ( " (2-D) / /%, " ( "% '$"% Bragg #&/ " ',#! '$,* ( + (/( #+ Bragg, '' " /.+#"" ',#! '$,* ( (' #+ Bragg / # / 9'".. /,.(#+# -/ +/' *&/ /% r i - & " (/" " ( (!- "% / /,, #" # (/" " -' ( /. #"-/, $. 8(, */ **/ -!-//,&/ (! #$ ( /. #$% / #"-/. $/ /"#(,"#-/ 1#. -! "/ '! " /.+#"" ',#!. </ -/ SLM 1 -/% 1% "% (, "/ / /% ",*# #!"# #+ (- / + %, " "#/1 /.+#"" #9'1 #/8 '$,* */ (' */ Bragg. /, " " # / (. $ 1/ (!,. pixel, 1 " /( #1 +.(/ " (#*/ ",*# Fourier, $( # (! " '' #$# $ 0 -*% 2, (% 2-D (!(% &% "%, " &$ #! (',8*%: (41) + Mz /.#$% '+ #*/ /( #*/ (#*/ /*/ /% " " z (42) ". /!( #1#% */ (#*/ /*/ /%.8!*. "/!/1!- 19 -!/% -/ 2-D SLM /*/ /%,. pixel /! -/ ( /( # (#*/ /*/ /%. ( ( /+ # (#*/ /*/ /% #+/ / /.+/ *% 9.# '(.%.!" #1 # SNR #, #-/*%, / '". # "/!1 $*/ 9.#&/ '(.% "/ / /% $ /.#$ ',##*/. 0,#%!/, / -/!-,#%.8 # " & " /$% ( "% # /$ $ #-% /$% +, SNR 9'&/,/.&%.#$% ()/, #-!-/ $ #

299 3/ "#/$!" $,/& # "% "%-*" "% '+')"% ( / - ''% '('-%,, % / " (," " */,##-/*/!*/ (!" #+/ "/ *" " "%. /, " /$" "% *" "% "% '+')"% / (, #" # (1/ "%,*/1%/ '(')%. )% -% #,-%, /+%, -!(/ $ "/ ''"'$" */.- #*/ SLMs "%-*" "%. : "/ ',1,*# */, " '('$" #$ "% / " ''"'$" ( 1 '+ ", #-/( $ / 1 1," " /*/ 1 '',1 #1(% +#% (,!/ ' /&/% #-!- " % /% /% /#-/(, $*% (/+!- 2. '(')% #$ "% # / # # "!" #" " /$% + +#% 1, /'', /$% (!( 1 :((!(!(,#% *% / /%. '('$" #$ "% " 1 * " /*/ /% "8,,/$% $ # 1 / +*/ -! ''',*/ (, #-/*%, # #$ " */ #- */ 1 */ /*/ /% ", (#9$ $ (/( #$ Bragg. '(')% # # /,#% / 9 #-/" "/!*1 '(, ( (!- "% "% /% (!" #, "/,1. - * ", " $".' "% ( ',##%.8 $ 9.#$ (! #+ #)+ "% /%,#% (!" #, "/,1 "% "% (speckled) /% ( ( 8 "/ /,/* " (.!., # # #-/"!& - " "%!1% /%). # (! "' (Gaussian speckle), " '$" #$ "% ',##*/.8 $ "/ (/" " ( (!- "% /*/ (43) + 7 / $ #$ "% k = 2 /1, NA /.#"$ /,# "% /% /%, j 1 / " &( 9.#+ (/" " Bessel ( &( (%. '$",#% / ) $ "/ +.(/ " "% #$ "% #- */ (Bragg '$ 1 Bragg (' #-/) / /)"" $!% #- */, / " (,-/* " /.+#""% #9'1% / (/1.*% '+,",$" "/ (' #-/" Bragg +.(/ " (Bragg-degenerate) +.(/ " ( '#- ). ' (' (Thin-film-based) / /!" ''"',,*/1 '+')" '$,* "% ( '% "/ ()" "%."%,*#%. 0, " '+')",#% # / #*.!" #&/% #' #$ ( /+, "/ '+')" *" "% "% (, /*.!-,#%.,, -/ # */ (#*/ ( /. -!,/ % 9-' % $"% '$"% Bragg. ''/, " +* " (!- "% / -/ '+ $(, /,: "

300 ,,/ # #1 -,, ", / /+) # '1" 1 /'( ". /, " '$" "% '('1% #$ "% / " # #1% ( (!- "% ( #-,#%, % / 1.21 / "/ + "/ y +.(/ ". '#-% "% /.+#""% #9'1%. )".+/ $ % '#-% (!(,#% "/!/1 HDSS..&% " /.+#"" #9'1 #&/.#$% 9.#&/ '(.% ( (/-/ #!-,#% z ()/. (1/ "/,*#,.#$% &/ /'&/!*/ # / / ( (', #-/%&% $( NA /.#"$ /,# /$%,,/$% "#*/ "/ / %,*/%,1,2 / '! % #-, % (/%,*/% ( /( #+ #% (#*/ ( #-,#% "% /% /% '+. "# -)* $ ('$. (! (!(,#% ",,/ /'!*/ "#/ ',$ $ /& $. (44) /& '#-% % '+')"% (! #+ / $ +/.% $ (! *" "% "% '(')% (,/ /*, /!1 # / (,.+/ +, / '9(# % % "% /.+#""% #9'1% "/ '+')" (! #+. /, '#-% "% /.+#""% #9'1%. )".+/ $ % '#-% (!(,#% "/!/1 ( HDSS. +# / /.+# "!- " (41), / (', (# /& $ ( SNR. $, "!- " (41)!/ $ " /.+#"" #9'1 #&/.&%.#$% '+ #*/ /( #*/ (#*/ /*/ /% " z " ( (/- #!-,#% Mz ()/.,*#, "/ '+')",#% Mz / $ (45)

301 $ "/ # #-/" #"!/1 #-,.% " (/" " (! #+ "% # % "%, " $ " (! #+. % (/$"% #+/ / (!.+/ # (1/ "/ #-., $*% /! $ #%! ## 200-m - $ "! Polaroid photopolymer 500. "/ (! # "% "/ / /%, 100 ',## 9'1."/ # '1 $".' "%, $*% /!- 22. ( '- #!/(/ $ (/$"% /* $ 60 b/#m2 #+/ / (!.+/ # (1/ "/!/ & 100 # 0( 8!- 23 -/,# "% '+')"% '''&/ ',##*/ #- ( / $, ( #- (!" #&/% (1/ "/!/

302 . 23 -& # ) #$# *. 1 #!" 0,2. - #$ 200 m. ',$ + "# */ HDSS ( //, # #-!% 200$m, " '$" #$ "% ',##*/ / ( 1.0$m /! NA "% /% /% / ~ &#&/ 8<%*3/) -.#/) "#/1 -,, ", "/ /,/* " */ ',&/!*/ / /!" #". -/ (8(,#-/ "% +# /%. 3/ '$,##, $!" $, $*% /!. 24 (). # (8(,#-/" " #$* " /,/* "%, # /. $#/" (8(,#-/" " / /% / (/1% ('$, $*% /!. 24 (9). (1 " / /%, # +8()" "% "% /% "#*/, " / - % 9'& % ('$. ',#! #)+ */ '(',#-/*/ ',##*/ (.+9( ( '+/ $ %!(-% 9'& % -/ ',$ ('$.1( "% # / #*. $ "/ /,/* " # -/ (8(,#-/ " +# /%. 3/ -!- -!. $ (% (/% -! # '-% )% $)"%--//&/, (' ( /+(/ "/!(

303 . 24. #% ""! : () () -' % (8(,#-/"%- "% /,/* ", / (! # ) #:1!/1 1 # /-) (, 98 ( "+% #+% "/ $ " ( ( 1#% $ "/ :" "% )'$," "% */ /1*/ */ #- */ */ /'&/, #-/( $ " # " $/ " (!*%,:# /$% ',##%) / / (/1. +/, "!/1 +8()"%- "% ( % $% & %) "/ /$" "%,*,1% /$% - (8(,#-/( (1 "% pseudophase-' "%) /,( "% /% /% / ( " "% /,/* "%, " / #''/ ( /"", / # #,*# '(')% #$ "% (!" # # "' 1 *"#-/" " / /%. /''1 -,, " (. "/.1( " /$% (8(,#-/( " /,( "% % "% /% /%!" #&/% -/ /# '$,## [53]. 2.8 $#% HDSSs # /!" #"., / '-,1,% /8"1 %!*/ %."(#-/% '%!*/. 1 " /,/* ". ',##% ''' D #-% Fourier (" #1 (!1#% /81" "% 2-D #!"# #$% (- */."(#-/*/ $/*/), ''' 2-D (! # (',8/. </ '(',#-/ ',## $#( ( 8/ * $ SLM # /#/ /81" "% / /,,/ /"#(,"#-/% /% /%, # /! +" (% ( / /', % " +/#" (! #+ #)+ (!1#% /81" "% */."(#-/*/ '*/!*/.!+" /81" "%, / 9 #-/" $ "/ (/$",1%!*/, + "# (, *, # / $ 10 -*%100 Gb/s.,# ',##.-(/ "/ ( 1 '$" Bragg $ / % #-%,*/-% '',-% */ /*/ /,/* "% "/ Bragg-selective +.(/ ". (/-, /!- /81" "% (!"# /81" "%) #8 $ / ".- " ( # $ %."(#-/% $/%, /"#(,"#-/ 1# (! #+ /%. #*. ( '$,* ( + (/( #+ Bragg (Bragg mismatch). "/ Bragg-degenerate +.(/ ", " '$" Bragg / '+ /1, '' /"#(,"#-/ 1# /%. (,*/1 #$ " "/ Bragg-degenerate +.(/ " $ -/ $ /', % "!1 #$ " #)+ ( /#-/( /81" "% "%.- "% ( " #-/"."(#-/" $/. # #-/% /"#(,"#-/% /% /% #+// ' +/, $ /+ (! #+ CCD, / $ "/ /!/( " */ "#*/ (! #+ #-/( / ()". " ( (!- " "/ /', (!- "%

304 $,* "% -'':"%.$"% #$ "%, ', (! -% (correlators) $,( /,#-/, % /8"1 %! 1% 9 "% #-/*/ % %. ##/*#-/% #-%!*/ -! #.1 #-/".- " #-,##-/ '$,##. ',1 (/#1 #1 /81" "% ( /+ // -! "/ /$" /,: / /1 '(',#-/ ',## (,/ -/ LinBo3 + '' #,*/1 '+')", $*% /!- 25. (! #$% #% #% ',##*/ # -/ (. ' /81" "% # / /!/(. # " *,1 #"!/1 (! #+ CCD. ', #$ '-,!( - / '!. '$,## ( /! % //$%!#-% (! # " #$ "! " '. diode-pumped #%' YAG (DPSS 532), / " /,* #. #%' HeNe! &. ''' ',##,/ LinBo3 + ''!" #&/%,*# 90 # "/ 1 /$%.-",'9/#-*/ "/ /*/ /%. ",1 *$% (!" #+/! 1/ # % '-8 (/!&/ (#*/ (CW) # +/#" 400 mw #1% +#% 1 = 532nm. 3/ ##-/ nematic liquid-crystal SLM (1024*1024 pixels, #-,.% pixel 15.6*15.6 #m, video frame rate), ( /+!." $ "/, $,## HDSS!" #1." *% (/.-"% '*/. CCD *,1 #"!/1 /,/* "%!*/ ( " $ (% Dalsa, Waterloo, ON, Canada (1024*1024 pixels, pixel size 12*12 #m). -/ % -/ $/ " ''"&/ # -// (:"'1% $"% $ $/ "% ( ( " $ "/ ( Rochester Photonics Corporation, Rochester, NY,, "/ /) HDSS. / 9 "/ -/ " #-*/ (! #+ (,!" # # *,1 #"!/1 Kodak Megaplus CCD, -!/% 1008 (H) * (pixels (1018(V)pixels, 9 * 9 #,-.(% pixels, /$% center-to-center 1#% 9nm (20% fill ratio). 4" #1." -/ 8(, &/ /!/( "% F-theta, F =

305 100mm, #,*/ /!/( "% +-25, # "#*/ 12#m (!- 25). / '! ". " /.+#"" #9'1 / 9' ". ",/1 $ " */ ( "#*/, "# #)+ */ "#*/ (! #+ ()/!" # " #* " (.#+ */,##-/*/ ',##*/ 334- # "/!" #" " &/ pixel / (! # " % $ ## Kodak CCD100 #.!- 26 ( 8 -/,# ( #- (! #+ # "' $ /*/ /% &/ /!/( "% (100 ',##,"/). #$ + "#!" #1.", / ) %,1,% ''"'% /8"1 % #! 1 9 " #-/*/.! 1 9 " #-/*/ -! -,/*1 #1!*/ - & (,#-/! / 9 -/ (,#-/ #-% "%."(#-/"% ',1% '%, 9''/% (/- % ( '% ( (/-/ # "/ ',1.$" #$ "%. + "# ( Stanford, " 9 " #-/*/ )"% / #! 1 9 " #-/*/ ( -! % *-% '"%, (% /.&(%.!" 1 *"#-/" '!*/ (!" # "/ ( 8! " bitmap " "%!" *. ( bitmap! " &! SLM %.. % &! #!. & % " "% % & &% bitmap. ( # % % #! ) & $ " "%

306 /!. " ''"'" (/$" /81" "% #% ',1% (/#1% #/1#"%, 200 ',##."+"/,*# 90 Fe : LiNbO3.. '$,## / *+ -/! $ " 9 " #-/*/ )"%.,*/% /*/ /% '-!"/ - $ &. / /% " # #/1 # "% *,1% #"!/1% (! #+. 3/ # ',#-/ $,## -. "%!" #1.", / +! # #$#" /#1 $"%.' "% #)+ */ '(',#-/*/ ',##*/. ', #$ ), % #- % $(% */!" &/ -/ 9 $ bitmap! /81" "% # "!" #" " "% ''"'"% *" "% #$* "% "/ *" " "% # %.!- 27 ( 8 -/,# /81" "%!( bitmap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hardware -/,1, SLM [$*% # #& #" ( (1.&/ 1000-ft/s Texas Instruments (DMD), #+/ / 9'.+/!+"% /81" "% /*."(#-/*/ pages/s. "/ IBM -,/ # -(/ (!1# 30) +#*/ # "/ (/"-% -'")/ $ # /81" " +, " '"% 8 $

307 $ readout */ '"&/ */ (( / 25 MB/s). 0,#%!/, # /81" " /* $ 1 ##+ 1- B!. -/ ( 40s. " +, ", # "/ off-the-shelf, video-rate!/', SLM CCD, -/ ''"'! #-/ ',$ + "#. #+ / :)! #- ( 30s. +/ /,/(/ $% ''"'% /8"1 % / ($' / ). 80%! % &!

308 ) # "! ), ) "!. * % %# # '. 0 )

309 . 30. "$ ) "! # &! #!", ) #! " $& #!" # & % #!" ) % # "! ' input $. ( " $& #!" $! "* ). 2.9 / -% #,-% +/ (' '*/ 1*/, -/ /$ ('$.! #,1,"!/1 $ " (#($'),. 1/ $ $ (." $ " *,1 / (8(' /,*/$ $#),. "+ % '"% " #,'*/ $*/ (.! - -"),.! #,'( #+ +% (." % (. /$/ "/ (-(."!1 ( #%,. 1/.- #% #,'% $"% #,-." #(:"'1 1 $". $ 8 ',. 3/ - ('$,1% / (! 1#. /, (." (' -!(/ " #1 photorefractive $ " /. 0,#%!/, LiNBo3 + '' /.- # #,' #-,.%, (:"'1% 1% $"%, #!!#"'$ $ % -! #,'" '',1 &/ / "#-/ *$/.!$/% $ 1% (, /+%, / #''/,$%, "% )"% */!' &/ ( ('-( 1 #+%, /', # "/ -/ " ( *$%,1%..#$%. #$% - " #" 1 /,/* ", % $(% &/, '' (1 "!".# % ('! / 100 c, /. #$. (' Photopolymer -!(/ (/1.*% '+ (:"'$" (." '$,* */!"#&/ ' #*/ /!( "% #% (:"'1% (/#1%!1%, '' / #''/ #-/ $ "/ :" (!(% (1!'. 1 ',$). "% '(#1 &#-!(/ ()"#-/ % -// */ #/( ''&/ photorefractive ('&/,#1 -/* " /* / *'(# #$ (photopolymerization). '( " # / / *% # #-/" #- * */ #/#&/ (:"'+ #+ 9(% "% ''"'"% ',1% "% ('1%!"#%. -/* " " 8(/.- #!" #1 #!% */ photopolymers.!" -% '! % ('-% #, " 9' "#-/" ',1 $ "./ *. 0!%: L>0.5 mm (." : S>500 cm/j (SL>20cm 2 /J) (/#1!1: (M#) planeware >5.0 ((M#) image >2.0) -/* ": <0.05% (, 50#m) : <10-5 srad -1 $ " #1(% +#%: ( 532 nm 1/ */: 0,5 mrad )": 120 nm # (

310 (/'$ '.% (##1% /* */ 2 mm spot: < '/10 "#( ( (#'#9/#-/( ( ( &#%): < 10-5 srad $ " /$% HDSS ) '+ $ "/ $" % $"% ( #- (,1%. /) DARPA PRISM -! /+) -// ',1 9% "/ IBM, "/ #-" " "% $ "% &/ ',&/ #- */!" #&/% # /1 '$#. $ 1996 '' ",#-/ ', (',1% )',1."/ (,."/!" #&/% -/ /$ ' +, "%. "#/$% # '#9/(/ "/ $" $/% (9.#$% -9'* "% $/%), "/ (.", " (/#1!1, "/ 9 (!*1 /'( "), ".$", " -/* ".- #!%. 9 " '- # ( "# +/ #-! &, (!$#/ photorefractive + '' #-/(/ Fe-doped niobate '.(, /& (' Polaroid CROP / " '+" ',1 "/,-/ photopolymer.!. 31, *, ( 8 " '":" */!( &/ ',&/ 1*/ ('&/.1( "%. PRISM #-'" #% HDSS -!(/ (/1 % $"% ''&/.- #*/ ('&/ / ',1 PRISM "% IBM. '- # /+/! 32 BER #1."/, -/ #-/ ('$ *% (/" " "% % (9.(, $*%.8/ /*-*. / ) "#* $ LiNbo3 + '' / $# '+ ('$ $ "/ :" "% 1% $"% #-/ BER $' #,-." '*/. ($ $#*% / - / #% '1, #-/( $ '(#1 (' 8(/ $ *% ( ' $ "/ '',1 " "%.' "% */ ( &/ ( '+/ '(#-% &#. ( (, $*% +/ #%, #/#-% '(#-% &# +/, / "#(,1 (/ -/ '$,## #-/*%, # /'',1 #)+ "% (." % "% $"%.' "% "% %. /$,/ (' $*% LiNbo3 "% "%.' "% ' $ -//!*$ #- /&/ (space charge field) " (.&% "% " (." ) /!#"'$". (1/ "/ Aprilis InPhase 9' +/ (' (%, " '+" $ ". $ (1/ "/,1 " "% "#&/(# $ #-,.% '*/ -! # " " +)# BER. # ' ( -! 1024 KB, +)# BER / -) -%!$ ' $,, # ' 256 KB, #&//% #$/ -/ - "/ /$" / '. / 9' ". " (/'1 /$" ( 1#%, # (/'',1 #)+ ( #,-.(% '*/ ( '(',#-/(.#+ '*/. 0,#%!/, # /. #$ #% )% &*/ */, '! BER #+# /. (# " 9-' " /$", # "/ )- " (.#+ '*/ ( # / 9'".,!" #&/% -// #-/ &.& */ '.(% (ECC) $*%, #1# en/deconding

311 .31. -! #) " #) 2.10!47,1!"# *1"# *.' (Photorefractive) (',(/ ',## # "/ #- * ( *$% (!( ", ' ", *9'=1 ") //#1 #% /&/ #)+ */ 9.&/,*/ "/ $#" " /$% *+ "#+ #- /&/ (space charge fields). +( /#1 &/, '$,* "% "'1% "% (Pockels) (!- 34) / " ' */,(#-/*/ ##&/ / (/1, (#'#9/#-/*/ */ "'/*/ */ (&/. 4", "'$/ /,(#-/ -/. &/ " 8&/" ),*,1%. 4" #&/%,# (!( 4, #/$#/% 1#% /% /%,(/ -/!- -#9 "% # %!-% "% (:"'1% -/ "% "%!#"'1% -/ "%, " -! " '(,1 #1: $( m /,/% #$* "% ( ', "/ /. " (!( -#9 "%. <*% /!- 33, *$/,(/ "'$/ " 8&/" ),*,1% (:"'$% (,/& % #- %!-% "% #"1% -#9 "% $, #- %!-% "% 1% -#9 "%. '$/!+// #- * "% +.(/ " "% ' "% (,-/* "% %!-% "% 1% -#9 "%, $( "#+/ / #-"! # (46)

312 */ /,&/ 8*/&/. " /!+ # "/ ( /$% *9'=+ +#% ( 9 (', $*% niobate '.(,.,1 $/ " */!&/ ( &/ 1*/ ( (/-/ # " photorefractive " ( 8! '',1 -/ "% I + $ "/ -#9 " */ /*/ "#*/ /%. ($!-.&/ # (/$" /&/ p photorefractive ('$ (,!- -/ "% $/!/ ".1 /" #'!/ "/ /"1 /"..$ #-%, # 1 (/$" U (/- # "!( " &/ (/$"% /&/.!* #$% */ "'/*/ $.,. $/.&/ -/ "'$ E, '+#/!" space-charge #-*/, ( /, " '(,1 #1 (!( -#9 "%,#-!-//,/ "% (47) (1 " - " / 91% #$/, # 9." #$* "%, : %1 / #'"#-/% space-charge #-%, ( / *+ % $"% #&/ ( #- (. (' ( /+(/ "/,##1 "'1 " (Pockels),,#%!/, space-charge #-%, -/ $ )+ # &/ 7n /', % "'$, - & : $( n / "% "%.' "% r / ' #$% (/' 1% Pockels, %,/ ) $ Pockels tensor, "/ ' $'* " / /' #$ ( ( ''(. #-/*%, +/,'*# &/ replicates!$!- -#9 "% #-! # #$ " "%, (, -/ '$,## $,(. (48)

313 -/ ',$ #- ( / /+ " #",##1 +8()" /*/, " $".' "% / (49) To Niobate '.( / $ /$ photorefractive ('$ (!" # % )% HDSS. 2'' /$,/ (' '#9/(/ niobate 9( /( titanate 9(.,/ (' '#9/(/ / -:# photorefractive '(#1 &# ( #+/ ' / / (:1, ', ( 1#.1( "%. '(#1 Photorefractive (', /+%, +/ #,' # #-/"' " '1 (.".&% "% " #$. #".$" */,##-/*/ ',##*/ / -!(/!. $# # #) #) & ( %... Shelby, %. Almaden "

314 Photoexcitation("% ) #!! " % /!" Photorefractive *% # " *$ 1/($!"# ""17-$!!4& ",4($2 414($$#!& -/ '$ photorefractive ('$ # # -, "% (photoexcitation) -/ %,(#-/"% /"%, &% (!" #, /,: '$,##. 91!" '$,## /* "/ /,/* ". (/-,, " #$/#".1( " ''' 9 #!*% (9.# "!*/, photorefractive (' +/ #.8(.. #$% ',##*/ # / (!. # (% $(%. #-.%!" # (#'"*#,'&# /&/ /-#/%!* ( ( 1# "% #% /&/ ( / / (." *% /,/* "%.,'&# / (#'"*# ($ "/ -// $ -!(/ /." '$" #+/ / '+:(/ -/ ''.!. 35 )", #,/1 (!" # (#'"*#,'&#, /.&. ',##

315 . 35. ( *%#* # ) #", *! #!" ") $, ) #!" $, & #!", : () #!", () # #"), () & % #!" ! #$ &$ % & & % #!. ( + "# A '#9/ -/ *(-. (photoexcitable) % /&/, $*% -/,(#-/ "'$/, $*% / 35 (). 3/ coulombic,'*# (/$"% /&/ (A, ( + "# #- * "% photorefractive "%. 3/ +,'*# (/$"% /&/ (.&/ ( + "#!" #&/% # 1 # / ''"*. # "/ '',1 #% ('1% #-( 9''/% $*% ".#, "'$, 1 +% * #+, $*% / 35 (9)

316 , ',, ( "#,/%.-(/ #+% "!1 " */ (#'"*#&/,'*#*/, "/ #9'"" /,/* ". % -( % /% $/%, -/ "#/$ 81"# / " '1 ( ( ''( ".-#/ ". / ',##,/ # /(:*#-/".# 8/ -, $% Bragg. "., ",*/ "% /% /% #1% +#$% "% / ".+/, / '9(/ " #-, " $".' "%. (1 " " 98 ' $ / #- $/% ( # / /"#(,". # "/ 1 9.,, "/ $." ',#! 1 / # '$'" 1# / / Bragg /! "% ($!/ %!#"'$%.# %. / -/ 81"# ( 1#% $( ($!/%!"# #$% */ ',##*/ (:"'1.#,!"# #$% #!#"'1.# "!1 /," " */ /"&/ $/*/ (:"'1.#, / " 9-' " $ " # Arrhenius $ $& # (unscreened) : () -* % $## (, &! ") () () "! #, " Fe-doped &! " (, #!&) (") - Fe-doped "% $##. Niobate '.(,,#%!/, ( + "# # /.& #!1 "'/1 (/$" /&/ #- * "% photorefractive "% ( + "#.&/ *% (#'"*#1 (/$" /&/ #- * "% /"1% /1% #% "/ /(:*#-/".# (!. 36). /1,*,#$" (/1.*%(!# )" " arrhenius-+( ".# $( / /-, /," "% (( 1.2eV, "/. (,$/( ~1.4eV, " # " #/ ( " '.(), ni / " (/$" "% +.(/ "% */ $/*/, e / " /" "'/*/, $0!/ " $" '+.(!&( "b /. Boltzmann. /" $/ /,+/.# /+/, / '+:(/ -)* "'/$ (50)

317 ,'*#. +/ '$,##,/ '(##-/. /+%, %!#"'$%.# %, $/ -!(/!#"'$" /"$" " 8*1%,'*#*/ # / / $ #!$/ $ $, -/ "'/$,'*#. (/-,!#"'$".#, /$,'*#. / *+ # /('1 1'" (.+ ',##% /&, /* / '+ * #$, "'/$,'*#. //#"., '+/% #&%.$ /$,'*#. /$,'*# "% ' (/. -/ '+ $,$ $ ($ +% #1/% $ $ - -") /', # "/ ($'",*,#$" ".#.1( "% 9.#$ "'/1% 9'1%. + /''-%,, % (!(/, " "#(, */.&/ /&/,'*#*/ niobate '.(. "/ &" * ", "'/,'&# #&// ".# *#(.!1 -. " % /% 1#% /%, -/ "'/$,'*# ( '(. $ "/ /1 /'1* " (:"'$%.# %!*% * #$. % /(:*#-/%.# % (/* $ ( 100 C LiNbO3 + ''), $/,// /,,(/ -/ (#'"*#$,'*# ',1% ( /.#8 "!1 /" ( + $ "'/$,'*#. ( )/#"#-/ 8+,% "'/ /,'&# '+/ (#'"*#,'&# -!/ $!- /&/ # "/ /." '$". "/ :+)" ".# *#(, $/ / "#/ ',$ /" / *+(/ "/ /1 /('1 1'" (.+,'&#%. $#/" -. " &% '+.$,'*# //-#/% #&% % "'/-% /%. 0( "% -. "% &%, /$,'*# / #&% '(##-/, '' "/ * " ( LiNbO3!( *9'= +# #&/(/ "#/ " ',1.,#$% 9.#$% ',1% ) -/ #,' #-% $ "#,'*#*/, % photorefractive (,/& %. &/ (.!. Fe^2+,), "/ " "% ( ('+. " +" -,, " "'/ /,'&# #&// ($!/ # /(:*#-/".#. ($!/%!"# #$% */ "'/&/ /&/,'*#*/ ",!"!($ (#'"*#,'&# '$,* "% #9% ',1% " (!"# #+, / #,-." */ +,'*#*/ #+/ / / "#/, '' " (% #-/! #1..# % (!" #+/, (1/ "/ / ('! / 500 ',## #+/ /."(+/!" #&/% /,'&#, $"%.' "% " 2-25% -!(/ /.. % #1# "% /)% PRISM,!/',% Siros -)/!. /,'&#,/% /* $ 500 '% */ :"&/!*/ LiNbO3. " (/-!, " # Psaltis -) /. #$!'*/ ',##*/

318 ',,'&# 9 #-/ "/ //#1 /&/ (/./ /$( '$,* "% /1% "'/1%,*,#$"%. 8*1% */.&/ /&/ ',##*/ 8 $ "/ #-/" /1,*,#$" "!#"'1 ("'., *#).# (!. 37). /,'&# '+/ #&% $,(#-/ "'$/ /* "/ /,/* " (!. 36), ( #&/ "/ +( $".' "%, '' /', ()/ " 8*1%,'*#*/. "#/1 +)" " ".1 /1 8*1% ',##*/,# niobate '.( # "!#"'1 $". % (,$/(..1 8*1% ',##*/ ( + &/ ".# *#(! (*#-/ niobate '.( + ''. $,* "% #1% "'/1% 8"#* "%, ",#1 8*1% ',##*/ / '' % 9% "% $"% /"#(,%. #-/",1 "/ /(:*#-/".# ( doped niobate '.() (/1.*% ",!$/ '1*% ) "#-/,'&# # '! " 1 # "'1 (#9'1, '' # #!(1!1 &/ ( + $ " *!*#1 " '$,* "% ( 1% #$* "% % (,/& % ('+ $ #)"%. -,'&# -!(/ #-/" 8*1% (/* $ 50 -" 1 $) / +/ *%, "/ /()" !(. 84-.!4&0& $ % ( '% #.# 9"."#-/ /$. #$, "/ :"1,1 ',##*/ / $ ",1 #/8 % /(:*#-/%.# % # "/ /,/* " ".# *#(.! #-, " $".' "%, #-/*%, #&/ '$,* ( + (/( #+ Bragg. ($ $9'"#!-% '-% "%,1% % /(:*#-/%.# % #+/ / ) +/ # "/!" #" " #% #.$(,1% +-*/*/ ( % "$-!! gating! "$! IR. ",! IR! $. ( light-induced &! IR!! 100 %, # ',! gating!, "! %. #-/%!/-%,1% +-*/*/ (!- 38) -!(/ (/". $ "/!1 */ "#&/ "% -(/%, % ',-% #/1#%, $ Bell Laboratories "/ /) PRISM. / "#*/

319 /% / (/1% -/ (!" $ //$ IR) #1% +#%, / '+ #,', " *-, " "'/*/, # #$#" / -/ $ #$ #1% +#% -! " *-, " "'/*/ "/ $" " $ #,'+ #1% +#% '$,* */ 9!+9*/ "!&/,*/.,'&# #+/ - / ) +/ #"!" #&/% & #1% +#%. (1 " -! /#.1 Fe-doped, Cu-doped LiNbO3[ 80 ] KtaxNb1-xO LiTaO3.(1 " / #",##1 # "/ -/ ", 9-' '- # & # "!"1 $" "% +-*/*/.,'&# Nonresonant +/ % /,-% -% 8(' /,*/$ $# */ #-, */ / */ (,#+ */ gigawatts /,*/$ $#, /& "!",'&# +/ % % /,-% -% '' % #-, % / % (,#&/ #$/ 10MW/cm^2[ 80 ].2''", -! "/,1!" #&/% / doped ferroelectrics,* "%[ 81 ]. ( ' # "/ $*", 1/ "!#"'1 (." ( #- ( " (:"'1 +/#" */ '-8 ( 1."/, /,+/! LiNbO3. 0% -'% "% % ( '90, -! (/". ($ $9'"# # "/ " " "% +/. "% LiNbO3 # / 1 (# $!#$,.-/% Fe '' (' $ #)"%, ( (/(8/ # % 9' "#-/% ), % )* "% #* "% "% #-/()"% (postgrowth. (/-, -! /'(. # 9'* " "% (." % */ #,.&/ - $ ",+#/ '- #, (. +/ #- ( ) ( (." $ Fe-doped LiNbO3 /.!" -% '',-% (." % &/ *%'(, "%!#% ( 8/!- 39. / /-/ / "#*. $ " (.".- # (# &*/ */ / 49,5 mol% Li2O + ''. # Li2O (,-/* " 49,9%, " (/'1 ( *(#-/" +/#" (M# 1 $ */ '". &/ '',&/.' &/ &/ $'*/ */ ',##*/) ($ ('$ / '+ (:"'1, -! #". #-% */ M#~10. ($ / '+ "#/$, % #,-%.1( "%!*/, #-/( $ -! # #,'" (/#1!1, "/. " (superimposing) */ ',##*/

320 . 39. /&! "$-! ## " ) #!! undoped 9 $% ( $% #"!/ #$% "% #-/"%,1% +-*/*/ LiNbO3 ( 8!- 40.!$#/ (gating) *%, "'$/ $ % 9.-%,% (,,/% 1 )*,/%) ( / */,(#-/ "! (!" # polarons 1 "! )*,/1 (' $ #)"%). "'$/ $ "! #+/ /,.+/ $ $/ *% 1 *% "% //1% IR,1%, #&//% (/- -/ ',$,'*#. </!$#/ *% 91/, "'/$% '".( #$% "! #- * % 9.-%,%, % / +/ #,'( #1(% +#% *%,1%,. &/% (/- #- /.", -/% " #" 1 /,/* ". ' "/ ()" "% 1%,1% / "/!1 #,'"% % 8*1% ( >100ms) "'$/ "!. ($ (,!/ # "!" #" " //+-!#+ ' #*#-/( niobate '.( # "!#"'1 (,-/* " */ 9.&/,*/. 2''%,, % "8/ )*,/1 (' $ #)"% (.!., -/ 8(, Fe, ) 9-' "% (,-/* "%, / -!(/ 8(, 9.+ "!+ -( #-,(#-/! # niobate '.(. / (." */*/ //$ IR / '+ #1, -!/% (/- % (/$"%, "/ #-/" /,/* ", $*% /!- 41. </ " gating / /, ' " "% /,/* "%, '"% 91// % niobate #!&

321 % "$-!,, *#, gating! niobate #!&.. 42., $ #$ & "$-!. :!" L: RS: ". # ( Stanford -! #$ -/ + "# :"1%,1%!" #&/% * #$ +-*/*/, $*% /!- 42.3/ 1-W Ti : '-8 ( ( /'1." $ -/ '''&/,##&/ '-8,+!" #1.", / * # #!*#(-,('+ (chrome-on-glass ) ( -! :"!.!$#/ *% $ -/ '' '-8,+ 476 NM + '' $ # 1 /.!- # &/! 512*512, 18*18#m,*/ (! bis!*/ (,/,# #% 100%) (.(,## " crosshairs, '' / -'9 &% #$* "% 1 ECCs. 3/% off-the-shelf ''&/!*/ $% ( 9' 1.", "/ -/ % -/ $/ "!," pixels # &/ /* CCD pixels. 18*18#m SLM pixels / /."#-/ / 9*9#m,*/ CCD pixels, / #& (/ "/ /.+#"" #9'1 /!'& (/ % /!-% #" (.(,## "%. 9''/ #" /, CCD pixels /,+/ *%!1 (% ( / +/#" # -// #$,/./%, /-/ /!" #, postprocessing. crosshairs!" #1."/ " "%!*/1% (.(,## "%, "/ 91 +.# " "% ' "% "% /!( "%. -',!% ' &/ 9$,!*/ "% *,1% #"!/1% CCD!- y ".- "! " '1 (.(,## " (~1!'.) */ crosshairs / $ "/ /,/* ". 3/ (." 1-!'.-!+ #&% #*#-/ + '' LiNbO3 +-*/*/ "% near-stoichiometric ([Li2O] = mol%) +/. "%!" #1." #. :" ',## "% # %,"/ #1" +#% ",*# # "% #- * */ ) '*#-/*/ /*/ $ -/ (/#/ '-8 100mW/cm^2 gating ( *$% (!-42). '1% ''"' #$% ( ( ''( ' % 9'& % -/ CCD pixel - $ " ', % /.# "/ $ "/ (#"#-/" /(.(,## " "% *,1% #"!/1% crosshairs /& '$,## /!/+." "/ /,/* ". -/."(#-/ '$,## 256-kb, '

322 #" " BER 9, / / 8*10^-5 (!-), / -%, /,,(". -/ BER!" &/ 10^-12 $/ #$8/.*#-/ &% #$* "% ECCs % bits! # % # 256-KB #$ crosshairs. ( # % " ) #-% &! % #!. ( #, #!' %! )! BER. C. # $ ! %. (/" '- # /(/ $.,'&# ',##*/ #+/ "% / (!.+/!" #&/% + '' #

323 + ", /.& (/ / '+:(/ -/ (#'"*#$,'*# # 8*1% $ #!$/ $ -/!$ +,'*#, #$'%.*. -/ #$9 (#'"*#$,'*#, #$"% % 8*1%,'&# -/ + #+/ /.+/ / 91 (/!*% "#/1 )':" ( (#'"*#+,'&#%. (1 "!/1 -!!" #".,,#+!$/( '1%--. "% #9''# "/ " $/%. " "#/ #!$/ -. ", /+%, (#'"*#$,'*#. (/., '' #/-!# 8*1% */ #,.&/ $ #!$/ $ +,'*#. 0$#% #,-% -!(/!., "##$/# *!*#,'&#. o Ta(1-x)NbxO3 -! (, /!.+/. ',##,,'&# (.&// "/ / (##1 "'1 (paraelectric) " # /(:*#-/".# ( 8/ - #- * "% #9 "% "% # ""'1 ". ( #+/ / '/ " (##!1 + photoactive &/ " (!"# #+,'*#*/ "/ /," " ( /$% # $ " #9 " "%. 3/% ''% #"!/ #$%, /.&.,'&# ',##*/! # (#'"*#,'&# "8 % $"% */ #9 */ "% "' (ferroelectrics). /,*,1 "% photorefractive space-charge (/$"% (,!/ #- * "% (.$#""% #$* "% $'* "% niobate 9( /( (SBN: 75) titanate 9( (BaTiO3). (/-,,'*# ',##*/ (! % '',-% "/ 1 (.$#"" $'* " /$% #" / (#+ (noncentrosymmetic) ( ''( ($ #1 #!&/ (microdomains) */ */ # ((/$" #- #1%) (!8/ # "/!1 "'/1!*1 /". (1 " -,, " / ' #1 (/1.*%, (' " */ */ ""'1.# (( / / ".# *#( (.!. Ba0.25Sr0.75NbO6, BaTiO3). 4" #&/% (1/ "/!/1, 1000 $/% $#/*/ (''#":"&/) ',#*/ '('-!"/,*/. "/ CE-doped SBN: 75. ''" #1% +#%-)&#/" #" 1!/1 /,/* "% "8 " #1 /" " /$% photorefractive #- (. ' ',## */ (#*/ (,/ -/#1% +#% #+// 9 +/ $ Bragg-/! "% *% /$% ''( #1(% +#%, / #- / / photoactive #1% +#% /,/* "%, " /'#9/$#/" #" 1 /,/* " / (/1. -/ ',## $/%, /+%, *% #1% +#% /,/* "% / # / /,/ Bragg /! "% $' ( ( 1#%. /"#(, # % -% (##-% -! ( 9'*#-/ '- #, -!(/ /(!. ",-%, /. (/ " 9-' " /"#(, */ (##&/. $% $ %!/-%. #+ ( "8/ % $"% */ ('&/, (!(/!/-% /$" "% ( /8*,/+/ "+/ ',## " "%!1 "% (%. 4" #&/% #!/1, ',## /,/ $/ #&/ " $".' 1% (% * $ -/ #-/. ',## #+/ "% / ('1 (/ #)+ + photorefractive ( ''*/ # " # */

324 !*/ $ / -/ / '' + / 9".+/ ',## / & " "% /,/* "%, - / 1 */ $'*/ */ ( ''*/. (,!/8-'*#-/" (," " # / (!. # "/,*,1 #% +8()"% */ /*/ 1#% /% " "% /,/* "%, /8*,/&/% # ($/ / $ '$,## $*% 98. $ # ''"!/1, # '*# "%, ',## #+/ (/# /,+/, / 9 +/, / /"#*.+/, / /8*,/".+/!" #&/% "'/1 # $'-1 /$" " 9$!(,!*1.-" " (thresholding) $ /+ # -/ photorefractive + '', $*% -!!. #- LiNbO3 BaTiO3. -'%, " #-/" /,/* " # / (!. # " & " /$% ('+.1( "% # # / /%,!#"'1%--/ "%, " "% /,/* "% "% /!( "% ( 1#%,*,1%!" #&/% -// $ /!( (*64) % Photorefractive " 911 ' $% 4 " #&!// / LiNbO3 '' photorefractive #-.-(/!#"'!".+9(, $*% / / / +, "%!- 31, '': "% "#/1% '% -. "%,.$(9% /!+ '$,* "% (/!+% (." % #-.-/% # 1 /" ",.&% "% % *,-% /% photopolymers. & (8"# "/ * ", LiNbO3 #-/( $ -! #'". '. 0,#%!/ LiNbO3 $/ $' $ ',##,/ "/.- ",##/ ( " */ /&/ "/ +.(/ " ( *9'=+ +#% /!+ % -% (,/& % /&/ ( ",+/ -% 9'& % */ &/ #-. ' % "/ /,/* " % /%!*/ ",+/ - '/. #-/ bit. $( 9''/ #-% /% ',##, (1 " " +#%-.+9( # /,/ "#/1 8 "/ -*.1" */ ',##*/ "/.- ", # ($/ / $ 8 " (/$".1( "%. (1 " " /- (!/ *% 1 1 *9'=1 8"#. -% $"%.+9( ( 8/!- 44, $( " (." " '',1 &/!8/ *% '(, ( /+ #%,'*#*/, "'., "'(,#%. "/ :"1 ',1.1( ", "!" #1 #" (/#1!1 ( Fe: LiNbO3 $*% 8 $ "/ 1 8"# / (M#) usable = '+ " " #* " (1% "% '+#/"% *9'=1% 8"#% / / #*. " (/!1% /" " ( #- (. ' #1 #-.% LiNbO3 / " 1 $'* " */ ""'&/!&/. 0,#%!/, % #8-% LiNbO3 /% /!+/ % ( ( ''( $/ *8 $ #,( /1 /, $*% /!- 45 ($ ' % 9'& % ( $!( #1% (."+ + '' ( (1/ "/ * " -/!($ '$,##,, ' $# '- # $*% "/. " ''&/ +/*/ ',##*/)

325 "/ /'',1 "% +.(/ "% */ *#*/ */ ""'&/!&/, " " (/!+% 8"#% #&/ "#/, $*% /!- 46. ' #, " '(, #% -! #1 ), %!#"'-%!*-% (!/$"%, #-/( $ /. /' #-/%!-% -(/ "/!(1 (,-/* " */.&/ /&/ ( #4!" ## LiNbO3 # % ") % '! " #) & %! " # LiNbO3 ) #4 '!

326 2.11 $* *'(#1 8$#/, % ',-% #,-% /+!."/ &, "/ )" */ /*/ $/*/ 1/ / -/ (+ # ' */. % #,-%.1( "%!*/, /+%, &/ ( "-% 1 %. (.", " -/* " ',##*/ " ('1.$" / $ # 8"1# ( /#*8/ HDSSs 9 #-/ *'(#1 #-. -/* " / "#/1 1 9'&/,'&# Bragg (."+(/ ',!. 1 $% *'(#-% % / / / -:#%, *'(#1 ( 1# / ''"'$, % WORM #,-% / *'(#1 #- #/"#$/( "% / +/. ( 1# ( '#9/(/ ( -!(/ )1%!" : #/#1 1/ ',#1 (oligomers), -/ ( + "# / "% (photoinitiation) -/!"# //,$ ( $. ( + "# photoinitiation # -* / '9 -/ photosensitizer ( '-, (,#-/, / (."1 '(#-% &# -/ (,#-/ '+ #. "/ -. " ( *$%, ( + "# photoinitiation '#9/ *$/ ' # / " ( #- #/#1 1/ ',#1 '(#1 &#. '(# #$% ",,/ -% '',-% " ( 1 (/$"!"# //,$ ( $, '+#/ (!/ +/ #, # /!(. /', # % '',-% "/ (/$". (!/, +/ #% -! (,#-/% -% $"% ( 8(/ $' "/,*,1 "%!1% &/, #$%, '$,##,,#%!/, +/ #% # / -! $ " "%.' "% $ #/#-%. *'(#1 #- #/"#$/( "% #+/ "% / '9(/ -/ *$ '(#-% *# (!" #+,/ /!+ "/.$" /#& "/ -/* " /$% ('+. 8(# & -/ (,#-/,# /$% *'(#+%, / )",1 (# % 9 -% >.- %, "/ ',1.1( "!*/. Polaroid -! /+) -/ + "# *'(#+%, ULSH-500, -! '-% $"% -/* "%. ($ + "#!" # (,#-/ #/#1 ( '(#8(/,!" #&/% -/ /+ #"!/ #+!('-/,#% (ring-opening). ( + "# / "% (photoinitiation) '#9/ photosensitizer # $)/",//1. Photosensitizer '#9/ *% (!" #, /,: -/ '$,## #- "/ /-, # $)/",//1. +/ *$/ ' " '(# #+, "!* $/ -/ #/#-% / # )+,/ /) -/#$!(' -// #$ -/,/$ '(#-% &#, (, -/ $. *$/. (1 " / "!* -*% $(./ #. '1)"%. 3/ '/-"# (+ ( *'(#+% ( 1#% / $ /,# /$%!('+ #/#&/ /.#8 #&% " -/* " ( #/8 " "% % '(# #

327 . 47 *%#* ) # ) #", "! # $ #") p p, #!" "% p B, "n "! "&# " "%,1% ',##*/, #/#1 / '(# #-/ %!-% "% (:"'1% -/ "%, # (/- % ' % #/#&/ #)+ */!&/ "% (:"'1% "%!#"'1% -/ "%. ($ / (/ #-/!- 47, ( 8 " /#1 -/ "% +/,'*# '(#+% (/$"% ( p. #/#1 -!+// %!-% "% (:"'1% -/ "%, -!/% $. #-, / '(# #$, # (/- -/,'*# (/$"% (/- #*/ ( B. +( '(#1% #1 /+ # ' " " "%.' "%'$,* &/,$/*/: # '',1 "/ "'/1 #1 ( #/#+% /* / '(# #$, '+#/" #1 '',1.' "%, '',-% (/$"% *% -' # "%!( "% #/#&/ %!-% "% (:"'1% -/ "% # % '',-% */.' &/ &/ '$,* ( #+!* #+ ( #/#+% ( (/- #( ( -!(/ "#/ +% %.' "%. $'%.*. -/,'*# &/, 1 ($' #/#-% / '(# #-/, / ) ' $ #/#-% +/ #%. #-/(/!* #-/. #,1 ( ULSH-500 -/ HDSS ''"&/,/!" #&/% "/ $'(.". *'(#1 #-./ #)+ + */ /&/,!" + ( &#,('+,!*8/ $ / 1#.!% */ *'(#&/ / ( $m ( (:"'$!" #+/ / (!.+/ '',/ +/ #* " "/ (,-/* " (."&/ ( &/ #-/*% "/!+",1%,, / "1 (/ "!" #1 #" 1 (/$"). 0/ $ / '(# #$, #- / -/ #- ( $ )&(%.!1 preexposure, #-/*%,, /.& # #1 photopolymer, 1 *#,, / -! "/ "" ('1.$" / $ "/,1. / "/ -. " # / ''"*. #.#-% ), %

328 $ "/ -. " *%. ('$ #- -/ ''-% ('$ #+/ /,+/ ',##. $(, '$ '$,##, # postexposure # / #, / '(# 1 ($' #/#-%, 9'&//% - "/.$" ( ('+. /% $"%.' "% ',##*/ #+/ / '" (/ 100%,$*% # /$,/ (' '#9/ "#/ ',$" $".' "% / '$,##, '(',#-/ ',##. (." %,1% #+// / ( 3 cm/mj, *% #1% +#% 514,5 nm /- % -. "% ( 50 mj/cm2 #+/ / ",1 (/ $"%.' "% /(-',##% ( 80%, 100$m! *'(#1 #-. (:"'1 (." "% CROP photopolymer / #$/ '$,* "% '( *1% "% "% ($*% /!1# 48 49).&% "%! :"'$ #$ 9% */ #/#&/ # $!" "" #!"!" Polaroid CROP photopolymer # Polaroid CROP

329 3/ # $9'"#!$ # *'(#1 #- / " -/* ". </ #-. *% ''8 $ # ''1 ( -/ $ ' $. (/-, " (/$" */ #- */ ()/$/ volume #/. -' #, "#,'*#*/ */ ",(#-/*/,,##-/*/!*/ ''8 $/./ $ ',##. ($ ", / $ (/( #$ Bragg,.&% /( # (#*/,'*#*/ ()/ '$,* "% -/* "%. (/-, " / /,/* "% - / '') #-/( / /". $% Bragg, "/ 1 /,/* ". "/ )", #1% +#% /,/* "% ",*/ /*/ /,/* "% - / '')(/ (, # "/ /% /% (!" #, "/,1. (/1.*% ''8(/ +. /+% / #+/ (/1.*% / / ($!/ Bragg matched $' /+ #,'*#*/ (/-/ 98 #$/ # # "% '%!*/. ($, (, ", /!#-/*% #,' '."!*/ - / (!.. "/ )", ($ # / (!. # " 9' " " ( ( 1#%, -/ #-/ $ /1% -/* "% #-. "/ /'',1 "% (." %,1% # #- /,/ /$, " -/* " #&/, '' #&/ "% ".- #" (/#1!1 - #!#"'$" (." $' ',$ ',## #+/ /,+/ - &/ $ #!$/!$/ -. "% (:"'$% (/#%,1%. #-/( $ (' CROP.-(/ "!#"'$" -/* " / $, #/*/, # #-/" (." $ free-radical #-, -!(/!. ( '+ #-, "/ ',1.1( "!*/. -% $"-% (% 9' +/, -/ ',$ + "#.1( "% $ "/ '" +/. " */ ( &/ */ *'(#&/ #"#*/.,/1 $ " ( "#*/ 9' # "/ 1 )- " $'( ( ( 1#% */!" &/ */ #- */.&% "% /. #$ "% 9-' "% /$"% -/ #-/ $ #%!*/. 3/ HDSS 9 #-/ *'(#1 #$8!"!" #&/% -// $#/,.&% ($ -! -/ ''"'!1#, "!" #" " */ #"!/&/ ( "#*/ ( /+ /, ''(% +(% &/ #- */.1( "%. '('-%!/-% #$8/ '+ #!/1 9 #-/" (disk-based architecture) '#9/#-/( "% 1% '+')"% (rotational multiplexing ( / $# # "/ shift multiplexing), ( / 9 #-/ # / /% # (-% (##-%, "/ speckle multiplexing, " / 9 #-/" # / /% # -/!-,#%. 0 -/% #-!8 "/ / /%!- " #,##-/ '$,##, -/% (/- / '('!. ' -/% /. ($% +% *'(#+% ( 1#% -! # HDSSs (, '#- *-*. 0' '' *'(#1 ( 1# / ($ /()", (:1 HDSSs ('.,# -!(/ /+) -/ free-radical *'(#-% + "# (!" # + /)" '(# # (#9!"# ( ( 1#. 3/ ( + "#.8 -/ *# '(#&/ #"&/!" #&/%! (% '(#% precursors!#"'&/ &/. '' ( + "#

330 , ',##!" #&/% #/#1 (:"'&/-&/, #-/(/. # $ / '(# #$ ( &( ( ( 1#%. '(#-% *# /!+ ".$" ( ('+ ( - / #*. '!!1#. # Lucent -!.- "/ #,1 (+ ( +( *'(#+% ( 1#% # shiftmultiplexing!/1, /,: ( 4000 ',## # #$* " ( -! # (/$" ( 1 Gb!*/, / +/# ( 50 gigabytes "% /$"%!" &/ -// /.-(/ $#*% #-% BER -. +/ "/ )'$," " "% /$"%.1( "% (&/ */ #*/ *% + '". 2.12!- HDSSs -! #'". $ ''+% (/%, $!-% "% % ( '70 #-! $. &# -,,,#%!/, ) "/ '- # */ &/ #&/ " #,'"!*"$" '"&/,/*#-/ block, 9 #-/*/ '% ( "#*/ #/1#"%. / -'9 ($:" "/ ''(') */!*/ #-/( / ". SNR (:"'$ -) $ " (/$" ( ( % 8 $ (%,*#+% #+% Fourier "% 1% $/ "%. 1 (/$" '"&/ D (-, "),, "/ ',1.1( ", # /,, *% =$/ */ ##/*#-/*/!$/*/ (/$"% ',##*/ /.#$ ',##*/ N (51) + D / #-,.% ( SLM, 1 / #1% +#% ( *$%, F / $ #1% "% 1% $/ "%, < / # " #% (,#$ #-,.% ',##*/ $ Nyquist (!" -% #-% (!" #+/ ', ( 1#.1( "% / #- " $ 1.1 -*% 1.6, /', # % -% 1 % $/%)..#$% ',##*/ ( # / 9'". 8 $ '% #-(% $*% " $ #% ("'., >', #$% */*/), " ('1 (/#1!1 ("'.,M#), ", " ',#! */ '"&/. 0#-/( / (!. (:"'1 (/$".1( "%, /, #-/*%, "#/$ / (!. " (:"'1 (/$"!*/ / '$,##, +#*/ # (51) -/ (:"'$ NA, "/ 1 $/ ". $ / * + #+# / (', (# #-,.#$ '*/ /,/& #*/ # -/ #-/ SNR: (52)

331 + M# / # #9'"1 9 #-/" + "# % #-(% ('&/, q /.#$% */*/ / Watt / ($', QE / " 9/1 $" "% % /!/(&/, n(opt) / " 1 $" ( ( 1#% /,/* "%, n(fix) / ".8( $", t(read) / 9 #-/%!$/% */ (/.(# #-/*/!*/, PxPy /.#$% /(*/ " '!*/, pmin!/ /.#$ *"'/*/ ( +/, / (/ -/ 20-dB SNR, P / " +/#" "% /% /,/* "%.. $,# bit / "#-/ (/ ($ / / " / (#9) #-/% # $ /+ # ' ON # OFF. $ (1/ "/ ) * ", " /'',1 #)+ "% /$"% ( =$/ (."(#-/(.#+ '*/, ( + &, (.#+ bits / ') ( + #% #-/*/ (.#$% bits /!$/(% '*/ $ & ( #-!!$/ /,/* "%).8 -/ + "# #-/*/ */*/. # 8"#% ',#!% / )8/. "/ )", /+%, " 1 8"# / (!/ / "/ /$".1( "%, '' # / #*. "#/ $ "/,1 /(:*#-/%.# % 1 # "!" #" " '*#-/*/ #- */. ) * " (52) -! -/ /* $ ## *$ $ %!.! "! MO 2 Gb/in^2 40 Mb/s. $ %! $!" * /Siros Gb/s, ) $# (! %# ) "! % # "!" * HDSS. VI. - -/ + "#.1( "%!*/, $!% "% *" "%.& */ '.(%, "% #$* "%!*/ "% ), % 1#% / /#*.+/ BER -/!#"'$ (,!//% -(% "#/+%.#+% )% $*% (:"'1 (/$" (:"'$ $!*/.!" $,/& # "% :"1% ',1%.1( "%!*/ / $ (1 "!/', #!8. ##/*#-/ /+ ( ',##% *% /'!*/ '$'"" "/ $/ / -/ +/' /'&/!*/. ($ - %!/-% *" "% #$* "% ), % 1#% / 9'& (/ "/ $ " ( ( 1#% - & / (!-/!#"'$ $ $ '.(%

332 *" " " ), 1#% #+/ / '9(/ (!. +'% */!*/!" &/ $ "/,*,1 "/,*,1 # / '9 "/ *" ".& */ '.(%, #9'1 '(&/ '*/, *" " #$* "%, ), "#*/,.1( "!*/ ',$ + "#, /" " ',##*/, /!/( " /',&/ "#*/ " (1 :"1 /',1 #'',1 (!" #&/% -% /!/(&/ CCD 1 CMOS), *" " /'&/ ECC *" " */ (&/!*/..51.:0! 3/ '$,# #% % "#*/ -/ HDSS ( 8!- 51. #-/ $( (9''/ ),, /,,(/ (%,#+%!*/ # "/ *" ".& */ '.(%.! #9''/ # '(-% '% #)+ */,#&/, / /#(/ '." -")"% #)+ */ ''' */,#&/. 3 ($/ -// & #$* "% ( #- (! (,#-/!1# #$* "%, /,+/ -/ ',$ ('$. ',$.#%.& */ '.(% #$8, /.& 1 $# / '.%, (,(/ #-/ )$(. $% "% *" "% #$* "% / / '". " /!/( " */ #&/ /',&/ "#*/ $ " /!/(&/. &% #$* "% 8(/,/.- #!-, " #" " */!*/ -/ ( +/' ( / ',$./$ / ''*.+/ " "%,1%, "%.1( "% "% /,/* "%. ($% #$% (,!/!"!" #&/% +(%!*/!*/ ( #+/ / #/ +/. 3/% "#-/% #$% /#*8 81"# "% '',1% "#*/ # '!*/. -/ + "# # ( /', ($ 81"# /#*8 # "/ ) ' " $ -/%.$%.#$% $ OFF ON pixels (#"-/ -/, /!) #/8 -//,#$ /$% #-/( #,-.(%

333 '+!- /!/( "% / " 1 /!/( " &*/ */, "/ '-, # (,#-/" ) &*/ */: 1 CCD pixel # -/ " /* $ & $ "'&/ *% -/, /& ($' "'&/ *% #"-/. / $' ',## -!(/ " $".' "%, # -/ " &*/ */ # / '!, / / ON pixels $ OFF pixels. "#& (# *%!" #+# ON OFF $/ /$# SLM 1 CCD pixels «#"-/» 0 «-/» $/ /$# ## '"&/ (bits). 0,#%!/, "./$" /$% '.(% #-/( $ -/ #"-/ 998 -/ + "# /!/( "% &*/ */ / $ / * + (.-/% -/ $( ( $.( (.+9( ( / /)"% $ pixel pixel (53) $( L / #- +% */ OFF pixels " CCD, / ".1 $' " (.+9(, / " ) &*/ */ (. *% $!%, "/ " " */ ON OFF #&/, 1,,/$" * " */ &/ &/, (% (% #"/. 0( "% '',1% " +/#" "#*/ # '!*/, ($ '$!- / /" 1 " 9-' " ) ( &( (,/ )&#/" $ ".- " #- " '. 3/% &% #$* "% ( 8 *% $*" /''1 '+ " "/ -,, " &*/ */ HDSSs / -/% "#-/% #$%,/* $% *% 1 *" " "/. #"-/ -/ $! *+/ # #1 #% #% + #/*/ pixels a b, -/ -/ OFF. "/ /!/( " "/ #$* ", / " -/ " ( /(( / "!#"'$", ##!*/ "'&/ *% #"-/ / " -/ " ( /(( 9 / "!#"'$", ##!*/ "'&/ *% -/. '-/% # # ''" # # 0-1 '(. / *+ -/ #"/$ bit (0) # 1-0 '(. / *+-/#/ bit (1)

334 ./$" /$% '.(% -/ $ + "# /!/( "% # / $..$(9 / $: (54) $( H / *+ #- +% */ ON pixels. $, $ '.(% / /)" $ "/ ',1 "% )% &*/ */,. &/% (/- " 1 *" " '+,1 '+ +'" / #.. 3/ '' '/-"# " 1!/1 *" "% / $ # /!" #". $/ /"#(,+/ '% nonuniformly (# #",##1 #9'1). (1 ",##1 #9'1 # / +: $ " *!1 '(:" */ /*/ "#*/ /% + '', $ / /#$# * #$ ( SLM, 1 $ "/,*,1 */.**/ -#9 "% '$,* */ ''' */ //' */ $ + "#. 3/ "#/$ #/-"# (1% "% -,, "% / "! (:"'1 *" " ( ',,/$% ( #+ "%!1 "% + pixels / *1 -/ / ##!*/. $ & # / 9'*. # "/ +)" " ( #,-.(% % "/ (.-" " $ #."#1% :"% #% '$"% ",1% *" "% *" "%. $ ",#-/ "#-/ &% #$* "% -!(/ 1 thresholding /$"! (:"' & (75% (:"'$). 3/,# / 6: 8 &%, / '%!*/ +/ 2 * 4 -%, ( ". # -! 9&% - ON - OFF pixels. "/ * " */ **/,#&/, " /!/( " / 9 #-/" #!/1 )/$#" "% 1 (! #+, "/ /!/(#-/%,#$% */ pixels (,/ # +/' */ -,(*/ '-)*/ & "'&/, / / # (,#-/" '-)" & 9 #-/" 1 #-, "% #$"%. $ ",#-/ &% /'&/ # #,' *"#-/ #,-." % -!(/ "% "/ /$".& */ '.(% '$,* "% 1% *" "%, " - " $.* " /$% #-/(.#+ pixels # " ( 91#% *" "% */ /'&/. 3/,# /$% & # -/ #,' *"#-/ #-,.% % / o 8: 12 &%

335 $ misregistration # / /!" #&/% (% '(% ',.#(% #9'1% 9 #-/(% % '#9/$#/% '%!*/ 1 # #"#-%!/-% ), %.& */. 2''%!/-%, / #*.+/ /"-% & % */ (#9$'*/ -#9 "% "/ /!/( " '*/ '#9/(/ (% ',.#(% Vitterbi "/ (/-')" $/% "/ /!/( " / ' # " "%,1%. ''" -,, " / /!" #".+/ passband &% ( 9''(/ #-/!-!*/ ( (.+//, "/ (:"'1 (!/$" ( '.(%!*/ '$,* */ (#9$'*/ -#9 "%. To ECC.- -// '/ #$! #-/( /!. " $ % % ",-%.+9(. ECC-*"#-/! #9''/ '(-% '% - #-/ % -// *"1 #$* "%, $/,/ SLM."+/ #-,1%. $ "/ '( /" "%, CCD - :(/',-% :"-% #-%!*/, % (9''/ - -/ 91# #), % (.!., (/-')") #-/( / /.# '-*# */ &/ "#*/ '$,* "% -9'* "% $/% "% '(,%.' "%. */ ), #-/*/ :"&/!*/ / #- / *"1 #$* "%, % ' "/ / " '(, $ "/ *" " #$* "% ' / *"1 ECC. $% "% #9'1% '(&/ '*/!*/ / " #* " */.*#-/*/ BER ("'., # $ "/ *" " ECC) # / 1 $ '.(% */ :"&/!*/ / $ *" " ECC #$#. $#" # / "#-/ & #$* "%, BER #+/ / #"/ / #$# "/ '. (/-, # "/ ''* " */ &/ #&/ ( ( (,#+ ECC % -%.- % " ', " #$#" /#1 BER #)+ */ &/ ECC,#&/ # / (!., '! &/% (/' BER # $ " ECC *" "..&% " -(/ HDSSs!*, $' $ '+%,, % #+/ / / *#*.+/ 9 #-/% % $(% %.1( "%!*/ % 9#"!/% /*/&/

336 .52.:HDSS (#! # ) 2.13 $% "% )(#-/"% "'/1% ), % / /!. " ',1 *" " /'&/, ECC decoding,,/$% (,!/ #$% ( "#*/, $' (:"'!*/ (1 Gb/s). ($ / # / ''"*. (# (% (!/% (', -%) ', #$ '$,* */ #&/ "%!+"% ( (,!/ #+ ), %. '(, (1,/ # 9 " ( &( / # #-/( ( 1#% hardware ( /+ $ Siros Technologies //, "/ /) HDSS. "'/1 HDSS / 9 #-/" "/ field-programmable!/', % ('&/ (FPGA) # / /,##!" #&/% #- software hardware. HDSS *" "- /'+ ' $ % +(%,#+% ), %: (% ',+% *"-% /'&/, -// '('-" -// ECC Reed-Solomon /. 9 91# ), % ( 8/!- 52. (/-')" ( pixel ' % -, % #-% 8-b ( pixel. 3*3 (1/% (',8/ ', #$ -!(/ %.& % pixel, / #& (/ % 9'& % ( ( 1#% $/ "%, ()//% (/- SNR "% $/%,*,1%. /% *"&/ -!(/ 6:8 *" ". 3/% '$% 6:8 &% ("'., 8 pixel /!+/ 6 b */!*/, (#'#9/#-/*/ ECC bits) '-!", ',$ + "# */ HDSS 1 -! -/ (:"'$ (75%) $ & -!!#"'1 '('$",

337 / / '- #" ('$. $ ",#-/ &% (.!., 8 : 12 strip code) -!(/ *% '+" $ " $ / to BER "/ /$".1( "%, '' / '+ $ '+', #,1 hardware. $% "% #9'1% '(&/ '*/!*/ /, "/ #* " */.*#-/*/ ("'., # $ ECC) BER. SNR */ $/*/ ",1% / / (/1.*% #$# #1# "% $/%. " /#1 */!*/ #1# "% $/% *"#-/!, # / +! #$# BERs $'% % ECC '(.% / $ " '(,.& */ '.(%, #&//% (/- $ '.(% */!*/.!-% # (:"'$ BER (SNR<~2.0) '/ (/1.*% $ " '. '(, masking ' "% $ "/ "'/1 '('&/. deinterleaving '($#/ (masking) /%,/ $ ', #$, 9 #-/ " /#1 ',##*/ SNR ($*% (1 ( ( 8!- 53 #&// " ( 91#% -/)"%"'/1%. " "%,1% "% /,/* "% ',##*/, " "'/1 (,!/ #+ -! (%!/#"#-/(% (,#+% SLM, "/ CCD camera, '-8 +#*/ # / / (.+/ */, % #&/ / $!1 "% '(,% #,'%!+"%. "'/1 *" "% HDSS ' ($# $ " CCD camera # $. -. " "% #%..53. SNR

338 3-3.1 LCD (LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY) *%!, $ '#1%. #+ ( 9 / * $ "/.$/" (.+/ % (% (,+% ( ''(%. '(!$/! ". " "/, "' */ LCD (!" #+/ *-#( % $(% (LED), /, '#1%. #+ *% ",-% *$%,.&% -(/ "#/ '/1#, $*% ()"#-/!*#$ +%, #,'" 8*1% 9.+ #+. (, + '' '(,+/ *% *%.8(/ $ ( *$% (. #- ( "%.$/"% % /.1. '. (-! (subpixel) /(/ 9!&# (/( #$% (% "#(, /!*# #$ ( /!( (pixel). (8/ % %, # /1,# $ 10 / % -*% 70, /& #-/". " 1 *% 1 %!/',% (!(/ ( (-% ( )/+/ % 100 / %. 4"8/ $ #,'" */$", ) '1 (1 '! " /9' (2) (8!114) (, + '' (liquid crystals, ) / # % #)+ ( ''&/ &/ &/ (,&/. #/8/ ( 1# #*/ ( 8(/ (##. (1 " (## /-!1# (% "/ (.(/$" "/ #/8(/ $ / % #-% ''"' % % % (##-!(/. (## *% %!1# #/8(/,,# 9$# (rod-like) 1 $# (disc-like) #$

339 '$,% #)+ ( #1(% % " # '$,% #)+ "% #-( (!(% /! / ( % # 5 1 #,'+%. (, + '' / #-/*% ( ( 8(/ / - " % ( -% $"% (% /& #/8(/ ) $ :" #1% )"%, ('! / # $ % % % (!&( )", #&/ /' #&/ 1.- */, ('! / # +.(/ " #%) (,( '' ( 1# /', # "/ 91 + " (% #/8(/ + 1 $% $ % * -% %. $" " / $# # (1 /$% '+ (,+, / (! "'1 # (!- " #)+ */ #*/ $ / / /' #$ (% %.- % ( " /"#1 " (nematic phase) #$ #/8(/ )" *% % / /' #$ (% # (.(,## " */ +*/ #&/ )$/*/ #1% #% )!( % +.(/ "% '' ) *% % %.- % (%. +.(/ " (1 /#8 (.(/1% (director). "# # -// (.(/1 $( / (/".- /#8/ #/)/ $'%.% # ($/ (.+/ %.*+/ +/#% #)+ (%. /: # $. " #"1 " (smectic-a phase, sma phase) #$ $% $ )"

340 *% % / /' #$ #/8(/ #1 )" *% % %.- % (% # - $ & /!"#8(/ &#. " +.(/ " ( (.(/1. #$ #+/ / /".+/ #- / $,. &#% $*% -/ (,$. "/ * " ( (.(/1%!"#8,*/ " */ 90 #&/ # */ *#*/ /$# " #"1 " C (smectic-c phase, smc phase). /: # sma /: # smc " ( ''1 1 " #-%.- % # /' # /. #-/.. "/ /1 " (columnar phase) #$!"#8(/ (.+,##% 1'% /& 1'% (-% / (/ $! # ( "$ $). */ $/*/,!"#8/% # " #1. #$ #+/ / /+/!*% #+% #1% "% +.(/ "% */ $/*/. / "#9 "#)+ */ (,( ''&/ */ % % #$'%,:#,/ # " " "%.# %, (,$% + ''% /#8.#$% (thermotropic). $" (1 - (% (,+% ( ''(% /!" #+/ $#" *% '.#$#. +" ", (,&/ ( ''*/ / '( (lyotropic). "#(,+/ $ /#)"

341 &/ 1 $*/ ( &/. #1 #)+ */ */,/ $ &/% " (,-/* " */ ( &/ ( '+#%. (+% (,+% ( ''(% (/1.*% '+/ #' #$ ''"' '+" ($4') $,/* -%!/',-% #,-% */ (,&/ ( ''*/ +/ %.$/% "'/&/ (', &/, "'&/ &/, ( (&/ /"1% "'*/% '.&% "8(/ %!$#/% H ( */-% /%. #1 (-,/* " $( #/8(/ '-/ (,( '' ( 1# ) "/ (1 +/.*/ ('&/ # /% $( (:"'&/ /' #$% "% /!(1% "% (,,# "/ * " */ #&/ /&/, kevlar) 1 *%#1%, "/ /()" ''*/ // &/ #&/. -'%, $% $!/',$ /-/, /$#/ (- (/#'$," "% (,&/ ( ''*/ /-(/, "/ /$" " $*/ 9',&/ ( "#*/ $*%,,# " ' #1##9/"" / % (,+ ( ''(. /: 5 $## (liquid crystal) () () ()

342 / ()()(): " ) ##

343 3.1.3 (PIXEL) /! 1 )' (pixel, $ PICture ELement =! $/%) / -/ " "#" #% $/% ( #/8 "/.$/" /$% (', + ( 1#%, "'1,, (', $ + "#, -/,# '"%. / (', 1 " $/ / ($ " #1 ":"*+". /! /, ', # :" ( :"*+ (+, *% +(,.* *% #$ '1%,# #% $/%. "/.$/" /$% (', 1 $/% / &/ # "( "" "%.$/"% -/ / # 1'%,##-%.. "'" -/ - / / -/ /!..#$% */ (- */ / &% #,'%, $ & /.&/ # / #" # / / -/ /! $ '' / 9'- "/ $/ /.. #$% */ /!*/ / )&#/% $ #,&/: # ' *,1 #"!/1 #.$/" -/ *1 (scanner) /'( " /$% #- ( # / /! / #/ #1(%,,,# 2400 )' / / (ppi). "# / / (dpi) /! / / (ppi)!" #+/ #-% -% /'', '',.&% 8(/ -% -//%, ($ / '#. $, / #- (*&/, " #/ dpi ' #- "% (/% ( # / +! (*1% (.!. (/$",/*/ #'/"%). < $ / /! (!" #+/, / / *+ (/ # $/, $ '+ -' # #8 #,#$..#$% /!*/ # $/ ' #-% -% /'( ", / "-// (1 -! (,#-/ #$

344 #-% /'( "% /! #+/ / +/ *% /%.#$%, $*% # :"1 *,1 #"!/1,.!. «3 megapixel». ($ "#/ $ " #"!/1 -! /# ##+ /!, 1 *% 8+,%.#&/, $*%,.!. $/ " ". - " (1 "#/ $ " $/ -! 640 /! #1% 480.' +:% #-/*% (/'$.#$ 640 x 480 = /! (1 0,3 megapixels). M'%,4) %"4&4!4+%04* 4,2&/) #-,.% /$% /!(.$/"%.8 $ "/ /'( " "%.$/"% "/,&/ "%.$/"%.,#: /'( ".$/"%: 1024x768,,&/ #-,.%: 19 ",#-,.% /!(: 0.377mm /'( ".$/"%: 800x600,,&/ #-,.%: 17 ",#-,.% /!(: mm /'( ".$/"%: 640x480,,&/ #-,.%: 15 ",#-,.% /!(: mm * " '&&! 14") &!!4+0) %"4&4!4+%0& % 4,2&%)!8 4* LCD.$/% +( LCD (8/ # (,#-/" /'( ", /', # "/.$/". (1/ "/ /'( ", " $" $/%, ( (/, / " #-, " (/1. "/ * ", $#*%, ( 9'' # $/ */ 800x600 )'.$/" /'( "% 1280x1024 )', / (! 91% /! /!( % /!. 3, #&/" $" "% $/%. 24) 7#!/) /! # / -!(/!1#.,&/,*/. 3/%.#$% '+#/% '$,% "%, $ '" 8 -/ //$,*/ /!. 0,#%!/, '$,% "% 1.25:1 "#/ $. /! / 1,25 -% '+!- " # +:% (. '$,( "% ($/ "%) / " 9 1 ( #-% -% $/% / (', 1 #/8/ #*#-/%, %.$/% #.1 /'( "

345 &#1*/ (,$2) 03%1 24) 7#!/) 320x200 64,000 8:5 640x ,200 4:3 800x ,000 4:3 1024x ,432 4:3 1280x1024 1,310,720 5:4 1600x1200 1,920,000 4:3!%&2!/!. /! # #/!*#1 $/ -! # #1 */$"%..#"1 / &( " #"/$% (/1.*% / *+ #+ " #-, " #1 / *+ '($. 0,#%!/, # $/ & (&/ :"*/ (bits), " #-, " #1 ( # / /. $ ( / 2 8 =256, / " #1 (!" #, '($ " #1 0, #+. # -,!*#" $/,. /! # /,!" #&/% "/ $!* ", / #$ "%, " */$" ( (hue, saturation, and value:

346 HSV) '' / *+ (/1.*% $ #-%, $/, /, #' (RGB) TFT (THIN FILM TRANSISTOR)!/', thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) / # '',1 "%!/',./&/ (,&/ ( ''*/ (liquid crystal display (LCD)) "!" # "/!/', /8 '+ (#/( (thin film transistor (TFT)), "/ 9'* " "% $"% "% $/%.!/', TFT-LCD / -/% +% active matrix LCD.&% $'%.$/% LCD 9 8/ (.(/ $" " active matrix.!/', TFT LCD!" # % "' %,.$/% (', &/,./% /"&/ (', -%,!/#"!/-%!$%, ( 1# navigation, 8-% ' $ #$! #%.$/"% (,&/ ( ''*/ / (,$% + ''%. < / +, )+#*, + -/% + ''% -. #+ /!" (,$%, (!(/ (' " + " 9 / # /# " ", "'1 / #+/ /.*".+/ + (, '' +. /: /! TFT

347 $ " # #$ (% #+/ / /".+/ '+. $*% (,, /& $ "/ ''" /' #$% (% #-/ %, $*%. $,* "% #1% (% #1%, (, + '' -!(/ "/ $" / ''8(/ "/ '$" ( *$% ( / $ #- (%, /', # "/ " ( "'+ +#% ( #$8 (+%. (/&%, *'/% -/ &# (,&/ ( ''*/ #)+ + '*/ 8$/% $'* "% ( *$%, / /' #-/ & / #"/ 1/(/ " -'( " (, / $ / ',!. " $" ( *$% (. " )" (1 /', # "/ "'1 " ( #$8 &# */ (,&/ ( ''*/. 3 #.$/" (,&/ ( ''*/ / / $ $ -/ - «/(%» '*&/ '*/ (,&/ ( ''*/. /: + pixel TFT 1 $#*% (, + '' / -#(/ *%,.$/% (,&/ ( ''*/ *8/ $ )*1 ",1 *$%, " "/ * " */./&/ (,&/ ( ''*/ (!" #+/ (% /,/ # #1 '#.( * $ «/(%», " (/+ $ # /!( "% ( *$%, "/ $ " /#1 "% */$"% $'" "/ / "%.$/"%

348 /: #)! TFT $/!"#8 /', # "'$ ( (% (,+% ( ''(%, $ -/ '-,# # &/ "'*/ %.$/% +( LCD, % -!(/ " ) ",*,1 (% -! '!, $ # (! "#,*,&/ (/8 ) %.$/% +( TFT, % '+/ "/ '-/ 1 $ " $/ "% # " 91. (,&/ ( ''*/. /: ( #! ) ## & pixel tft %!"

349 /: & '! # $! (thin film transistor TFT) #% " &! $ ## %4&%"!$! 1 /'* ""'1% /-,% (/-',$"-'( ".#$"% $ " ( (1 / 9''/!&..$/" TFT */ 15 / &/ /'&/,+* 35 watt "'1% /-,%, /& " /'* "#% /!"% CRT (#/,+* 90. -#(/ '+ ',""'#,/"1 /9'. $ 9% '+ #$% $,%. 4"8/ (*% $ '+ #$ (%!%, ( ''-% & % # / (,. # ($ /$% (. / " -#(' "/ $/ (%, + (1 /!"#8 $ # / ( &/ "/ / "%.$/"% ''-% -% ($'. /.-*% " $/ (!"#8 #-/ *% -! #-! (1 / //*. # /+,. / ( 8(/,*#-% #& % "/ $/. (.,##1 /8 *% (.,##1. $" (1, $*%. +# *, -: "/ (1./&/ "% 1% $/ "%, % -(/ -// 1 $(%!1 % / /'".+/,#$ 9.%,!*% "!1 " &/,('&/ 1 ''*/ ( (&/. *-'#"!1 $/ "% / " # #-,.% "%.$/"%.,#, #.$/" CRT 17 / &/ #-, #-,.% $/ "% (

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

351 /" " ( 8 /-/ $9'"#. 0$' ( $#*%, " 1 -,!*#" $/ " # '1 (2D).$/" (,&/ ( ''*/,!" #&/%,(' "'/+,#%, / $# +/". 9-%, +, "# %.$/% +( CRT TFT TN / 1: & TFT 1."/1.$/" (twisted nematic) / " (/". #-/" /'*1.$/". /$ " ( pixel /- /' TN /,1," & / #"/ (#9/(/ /$#/ shadow-trail ghosting artifacts!- " # '$% $ % (+ ( +(.$/"%.,1," /$ "!" #1.", "# +% +% / ($ / / *+ "/ $ " #1% $'( ( +(% */!*#&/ '',&/..$/% (-(/ $ #-/",*/.- "%, *% % "/." +.(/ "

352 IPS +% IPS (in-plane switching) /+!." $ "/ Hitachi to 1996 # $ / 9'& "/,*/.- "% "/ /$ " (!&#% (!/ TN.$/%. 0$' ( " $/ " (!&#% '" 8 (1 */./&/ CRT, (/#$ +% /!#"'$ '' ($ 9'&." # - # */!$/*/.!/1 Fringe Field Switching!" #1.", "/ 9'* " "%,*/%.- "% #1%, % IPS.$/%.!/', IPS!" # (+ panel #,-.(% 20 / &/ -*% 30 / &/ LCD TV 17 / &/ -*% 52 / &/. MVA +% MVA(multi-domain vertical alignment) "#(,1." 1998 $ "/ Fujitsu & / /,*/ % IPS. /$ " pixel 1/,",$",",*/.- "% 1/ '+". "%! (:"'1 /. "# $ % "/ */$"!&#. +,!/% MVA.$/% #+/ / -(/ #,' +%,*/%.- "%, '$ 9.% ( #+(, '1!*#1 /,*,1 9.%,,1," $ "# "/!1 "!/',&/ RTC. PVA +% PVA (patterned vertical alignment) S-PVA (super patterned vertical alignment) / /''-% $ % "%!/',% MVA ( - $ "/ SAMSUNG. /+!" /)" - $#!" # "/ MVA, '' # (:"'$ '$, /. "% /* $ 3000:1.!/', PVA / /#1 (!/!" #+/ FRC.&% " S-PVA!" # ('! / 8 bit /!&# /!" # #.$(% #* "%!&#%

353 ASV +% ASV (Advanced Super View) ( "% ' Axially Symmetric Vertical Alignment /+!." $ "/ Sharp / -/ VA mode $( #$ */ (,&/ ( ''*/ /'8/ $( # ($ *# " off. To (-pixel "% 9 "% / (/!&% '(##-/ # "'$.&% /* -!#$"!1 "'( -/ ( (-pixel. </ / On #$ ( ''(!8(/ / #/+/ % -/ */ (-Pixel '$,* ( "'+ (. 8#(.1,*/ #% (/!&% # -' # "/ ",*/.- "%

354 3.3. PLASMA "'/1 $/ "!/',% ' #% 1/ # + " ( / "#( ( ''/$% "% #1% " $ / " (1 #% ( (1% $/ "% ". '+// $ -/ / '+ #&/ '#1*/ /-(, -//,. /! ( ", 1 " &"!" 1 ( (1 $/ "% # /'( " /!!&#% '. $ $ #-! 1#, " )-')" -! 1 "/!/', ' #% /1 $, "/ $/ " $/*/ (:"'1% (/%, $, "/ ' 1 $ " */!*#*/, /& "/,#1.* # $ % '+% '+ %, "/ (1 */ '&/./&/ #,'(#,-.(%. 0'+ '$,%,/ % #-% #%, " /-!/',!& */./&/, "/ /#8$#/" PLASMA, ( #8 # ''% ($*% LCD, TFT, FED, LCoS, LEP, PALC) -!(/ *% $! / 9'(/ #% ( (-% $/ "% #!" "/ #,'" $/ (#-! 60 / %), #$ 9.% (6 / %, "'1 ( 15 ), "/ '+ '1,*# $/% " #,'",*/.- "%. "/ /# (%.$/% plasma "/ '(/ $ -/ - " / #+, /#8 plasma. $/ %.$/% ' #%!"#8 $!'% # +% '#1%. #+, / % +!&#% 8(/ -/ /!.. -/% $ (% '#1% (+% / -/%,('/%.'#%, ( ( -/ $ % -)" '(-% / *#-/% # &!&#% $/(, /( 1 #', /& " -" '( / /" # /' #$ "/ 1 / "%.$/"%..'# ( -!(/ # #)" (,/&/ */ (/- )-/) ($!#"'1 ". </!( (+% (%.'#(% "'1 /-, (:"'1% "%, $ (,/1 -,/ -#(/ (&" /9'. '($#/" (&" /9' # " "%, #$ ( * $( ( 9!&# */.'#*/, '&/% - "/ #1 *$% ( /!(!&#%# ($ ( * $(

355 PLASMA % (#9-% "' % -/ #,' '1.% $ * 8( % (% ( pixels), *9'+/ +#*/ # % /'-% ( /(/ $ 1# video. $ ( 1# (!(/ $*% # /* 9!&#. pixel "%.$/"%, /, #' $/ # +/. " (&/ */!*#*/ % / %,, $'!*#$ # , "/ $/ " # ' # / /!"# " $/ $ *% ( -#(/ # -% ",-% # " 91. ( /#-/( (. #+. /$! /$#/ ($ (. #+ / -/ ' #, "'1 - ( ' $ (/" $/, $ '+. "'$/. $%,*,1% ' #% / $'(.%. (/". #-/ - ( ' *%,/* $/ $ (- #, /!.+/ '+. "'$/ # (,!$/*% # ", '+. "'$/!+// $ "/ "'1 ", (,+/ # #, # % + % (-% '(.&/(/ '' "'$/ ( $#(. 3 #-/(/. #-/ $/ (+ -!(/! "'$/), /& "'$/ ( '(.&."/ -/ *% '+.. ' # #- $ / "'$ +#, /" #-/ *#, /+/ % %!-% ( ' #% #.$, /&. #-/ *#, /+/ % % /" #-/%!-%. % #/1 % (-%, *# (,+/ (/!&% -/# ''. (,+ % (-%,(/ # ( ( ' # (:"'$% /,-%.#%, $/ ' (,/ -#(/ $ *%. '- "/ /* $/. # */!*/ 7-// -/, / ( (!" #+/ %.$/% ' #%, -#(/ (*% *$/ "%!1% ( (&(% $/,/. *$/ ( / $ #, '' #+/ # " (% / '- (/ /-%,- % % ",+/ ' #1 + *$%, $*%. +# *

356 //-% (/.1% -/ - ' (*% $ #!*%. ($ (#9/,. # '#9/.#$ */*/ (. #-/*/ *#*/ / (1/ ( $#() "'/*/ (/" #-/*/ *#*/,+* $ / (1/). "'$/ -/ ''-%!-%,+* $ / (1/ ( $#( ( /#8/ 9%. # 9 -! (,#-/".#" /-,%. </ -/ "'$/ ( 9 # *1 9!#"'1% /-,% 1 '-/ /-, (# #,1 "'1% "% 1 $ ( " # '' *# 1 # ".#$"%) $ #" 9 #,'+"% /-,%. 1 $#*% " ( 1 (.- " / 9!#"'$"% /-,%,,#1. -: (! 9 $/, '(.&//% $#*% '-/ $ /-,% (! '9, # " #1 */(, "'1 */1% /9'%. /:

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

358 /" "/!1. '$, ($ "!1 " */./&/ ' #% # / (/, + (!(/ ''-%!-% $( /8 #, #,'!/$ "#. 8*1% (% #&/ $/ '(,+/ #-, "% */$"% (%. -% (1% ".$/" / #" ( #" (/&%!" ". 9$% $# $ % /!%.$/% (,&/ ( ''*/. $ #,-." #,'+ */ 32 / &/ "/ #1 ), +,*,1 #,'( #,-.(%./&/ (,&/ ( ''*/ / $# ' PLASMA.$/% ' #% (8/ $ + '%,('+ $ " ',*/!' &/ /# (%, #,# /&/ */ ($*% )-/, /-,,$, 1')!#"'1 ". ''"'!* # +/ "/.$/" # ' 1 /! (pixels) (.-/ -! " 1 ( $" #,#% */. /1 "'$ /+/ "% /# %,('/% '% $ % ( #-% */ '&/. 3 "#(, -/% /"$% /% # (/,#-/%,. -/ '. "'$ 9''/ $ #/*$ "'$ ('$ $ -/ ($ &# $ ) ( #,/" (. "/ /," ". '+ " */ /!*/ "'*/, ( 8$/( ( $(( ( / $ (,#-/ '. </ + ( "'$ ".+/ # " - ( 9 #- ' /8 " (/-!, (&"% /9' (, & ( (! *$ #-% ( '+ % "/ )*1 # (,('/( /'. 3 (,/&% $ / / #$ ( * $(, $ *% ( 9'-.1%. % -,!*#%.$/% ' #%. ' ( - ', -/,. 9 $!&#: $/ R, / G #'.. ( - ' -! $ ( & ( /9' "/ /!"!*#1 /9' (

359 "'$, $ "/ ''"'" " */ */ "#(, (/( #$% $/(, /( #', /$% / / 1!&# ($*% / "/ /* $/) PLASMA </ ( # (:"'1 (/#+ /# #$% * "'$ -!(# # "'1 -/* ", (, (&" /9', " /% /* (% * $(%, (%,. " -, " ( -#(/!" $ (% *%, $*%,/ " (/". #-/" * " "%,/* 1% #%.1% '(!/%. -/ " ( *$% ( -# $. ( (.#8 # " "% -/* "%, " # # " "% / '-,! # + $(%. &% / " 1," " C $( % (% / # '# /& */ "% %, /', # /.#$ */ */ + "-/ " ( *$%. +% $% / " 1," " DC $( '#$% -, "% / (/!1%.8 " "% -/* "%. '',1 ( /* /$#/(

360 PDP(Plasma Display Panel) / "!/', LC(Plasma Addressed Liquid Crystal) ( )/" $ "/ ektronix #$8 $ " S (/, # " SR " ILIPS. (1!" # (,+% ( ''(% / /9(/ #"'1 1," " '' # 1," " $ -/* " ( # -' #/ '( + " (1. $% $ % /* '',-% (!(/ L(Electroluminescent) FED(Field Emission Display). 0- $#*% $ %!/',-% /#% % %,(/.$/% ' #% (-% -!/ $# 16:9, "'1 # '$, '(&/ 1.78:1, % #&/ '+ /.&/ $,# ()/ "/ $'( " "% $/%. "% -/ '' '+ *!" $ */ /-*/./&/ /!% (% / )/ 16,# #% / ''-% (')% "/.-" " (% #-!&. ",+#/ 75!$/, " #,'" ':" */ "' */ -!! # 9 " "/!/', */ *'1/*/.&/ /*/ (CRT ). 1# $#*% (! ".$/" ' #% # # 1!/',. # "'$ " CRT, -/ (9$' "'/*/ )+ # - #" "'/*/, #- -/,('/ $/ *'1/. "'$/!(+/ # * 8( &/ ( &/ 9 / # /$ #-% ( *'1/, "/.$/",,(/. "/ -, " */ $#*/ ( * 8(/ -# $ *%. "'1 $/, $ / * #$ ( -# $ #1# "% * 8( % '(:"% "%.$/"%..!&"%!1 "%.$/"% -! * 8/% $(% ( /!+/ 9!&# /, #' $/. (/( #$% (&/ */ &/ 9 &/!*#*/ ( -#/ +% (/( #+% / */, "/ (/'1-,!*#" $/.. *'1/%,(/ (% $/% '' -!(/ -/ "#/$ #/-"#. /,&%. 0#-/( /H()1 (# +% "%.$/"%, - "% /H ()1 (# #1% ( *'1/, & / & (# " - #" */ "'/*/ / "!& / $' "# "%.$/"%. (/&%. "'$ " CRT # #,'".$/",. - / 8(,8 '+ / / '+ #,'( $,(

361 0$ #/ " # /- /''1 '+ ". ".$/" ' #%. "' % (+ ( +(, -!(/ #,'%.$/% ''!% (% / #$'% 15 cm "0!/) %"2&/) - 7-// -/ # "'$ " ' #% -!/ /%!'% #!4+%0, ( /."#-/% #)+ +,('/*/ '&/. #1" "'$ / "% #((#-/ / /(=% #)+ */ '&/ % + '(-% */ (:'*/. /1%"!(27 7%8,*&/) 9 / * $! #1% "%.%,('/"% '%. /1 /1%"!(27 %"2&/) 9''/ $ -/ #/*$ 7/1%"!("2 *1"2 '+/ $ (4!!%*!"2!(-$ 43%704*!4* $&/04*,.+/ /* $!, #1% "% # /1%,('/"% '%. + +/' "'*/ // #1% '% '$'""% "%.$/"%. "'$ $/ "% /,#-/ 8$/% -%

362 #1% "%.$/"% "'$ +.(/ "% /,#-/ $(% 1'%. <*% #+# / +# "/ * $/, $( 8$/ "'$!"#8(/-/ 9 $ 1'$. / / (# - -/ (,#-/!, (', 1% ( '-,! " ( (1, 8 "'$ ( -#//! ( #% /-. / (1 " $ "%,!'% -% H -/ #$ ' # ( ('-(, 8/%.! # ". </ #/$#/ "'$ +/ (# # (/#+ #)+ (%), -/ "'$ +# - #- * ( ( (!(. +# ($ "#(, #,1," 1 #-/*/ *#*/, " # /$#/ (,:# /*,, # ( (. "/ -, " (% ( '(., -#/ (&" *$/. (&" *$/ ( '(.&// ''"'+/ #..4(0<4*%) 4*0%), ( 9 / *% '(:", *!&# */!*/. * 8( % ( % / ( % ( -#(/ *% $/ /* (% - '' *%. </ -/ (&% *$/!(1 -/ * 8/ #!, ' -, " /$% "'/( ( $#( (:"'$" /,

Το άτομο του Υδρογόνου

Το άτομο του Υδρογόνου Το άτομο του Υδρογόνου Δυναμικό Coulomb Εξίσωση Schrödinger h e (, r, ) (, r, ) E (, r, ) m ψ θφ r ψ θφ = ψ θφ Συνθήκες ψ(, r θφ, ) = πεπερασμένη ψ( r ) = 0 ψ(, r θφ, ) =ψ(, r θφ+, ) π Επιτρεπτές ενέργειες

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Αλληλεπίδραση ακτίνων-χ με την ύλη

Αλληλεπίδραση ακτίνων-χ με την ύλη Άσκηση 8 Αλληλεπίδραση ακτίνων-χ με την ύλη Δ. Φ. Αναγνωστόπουλος Τμήμα Μηχανικών Επιστήμης Υλικών Πανεπιστήμιο Ιωαννίνων Ιωάννινα 2013 Άσκηση 8 ii Αλληλεπίδραση ακτίνων-χ με την ύλη Πίνακας περιεχομένων

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΓΗ ΚΑΙ ΣΥΜΠΑΝ. Εικόνα 1. Φωτογραφία του γαλαξία μας (από αρχείο της NASA)

ΓΗ ΚΑΙ ΣΥΜΠΑΝ. Εικόνα 1. Φωτογραφία του γαλαξία μας (από αρχείο της NASA) ΓΗ ΚΑΙ ΣΥΜΠΑΝ Φύση του σύμπαντος Η γη είναι μία μονάδα μέσα στο ηλιακό μας σύστημα, το οποίο αποτελείται από τον ήλιο, τους πλανήτες μαζί με τους δορυφόρους τους, τους κομήτες, τα αστεροειδή και τους μετεωρίτες.

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Το πυρίτιο είναι ο πιο σημαντικός ημιαγωγός για τα ηλεκτρονικά στοιχεία σήμερα

Το πυρίτιο είναι ο πιο σημαντικός ημιαγωγός για τα ηλεκτρονικά στοιχεία σήμερα Τα Hμιαγώγιμα υλικά Το πυρίτιο είναι ο πιο σημαντικός ημιαγωγός για τα ηλεκτρονικά στοιχεία σήμερα 200 mm and 300 mm Si wafers. GaAs χρησιμοποιείται σε ηλεκτρονικές και οπτοηλεκτρονικές εφαρμογές υψηλής

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Tunable Diode Lasers. Turning Laser Diodes into Diode Lasers. Mode selection. Laser diodes

Tunable Diode Lasers. Turning Laser Diodes into Diode Lasers. Mode selection. Laser diodes Tunable Diode Lasers Turning Laser Diodes into Diode Lasers Laser diodes Mode selection FP diodes high power at low cost AR diodes for best performance Compact and robust Littrow setup Highest power from

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΜΕΛΕΤΗ ΚΑΙ ΠΡΟΣΟΜΟΙΩΣΗ ΙΑΜΟΡΦΩΣΕΩΝ ΣΕ ΨΗΦΙΑΚΑ ΣΥΣΤΗΜΑΤΑ ΕΠΙΚΟΙΝΩΝΙΩΝ.

ΜΕΛΕΤΗ ΚΑΙ ΠΡΟΣΟΜΟΙΩΣΗ ΙΑΜΟΡΦΩΣΕΩΝ ΣΕ ΨΗΦΙΑΚΑ ΣΥΣΤΗΜΑΤΑ ΕΠΙΚΟΙΝΩΝΙΩΝ. Τµήµα Ηλεκτρονικής ΜΕΛΕΤΗ ΚΑΙ ΠΡΟΣΟΜΟΙΩΣΗ ΙΑΜΟΡΦΩΣΕΩΝ ΣΕ ΨΗΦΙΑΚΑ ΣΥΣΤΗΜΑΤΑ ΕΠΙΚΟΙΝΩΝΙΩΝ. Σπουδαστής: Γαρεφαλάκης Ιωσήφ Α.Μ. 3501 Επιβλέπων καθηγητής : Ασκορδαλάκης Παντελής. -Χανιά 2010- ΠΕΡΙΛΗΨΗ : Η παρούσα

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Οπτικές Ιδιότητες των Υλικών

Οπτικές Ιδιότητες των Υλικών Οπτικές Ιδιότητες των Υλικών -Προέρχονται από την επίδραση της Ηλεκτρομαγνητικής Ακτινοβολίας με τα Υλικά -Οπτικά φαινόμενα είναι: Απορρόφηση, διάθλαση, Εκπομπή φωτός (φθορισμός φωσφορισμός), αλλαγή της

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

GENEVA Sound System. Model M - L - XL GENEVA. www.apopsissound.gr 1

GENEVA Sound System. Model M - L - XL GENEVA. www.apopsissound.gr 1 GENEVA Sound System Model M - L - XL GENEVA www.apopsissound.gr 1 . : μ, μ, μ μ. μ μ. μ 1). 2). 3). 4). 5) μ. 6) μ μ μ. 7) μ. μ μ. 8) μ μ μ, μ, μ, ( μ μ μ ) μ. 9) μ μ μ μ. 10) μ μ. 11) μ μ μ μ. 12) μ,

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΒΕΣ 04: Συµπίεση και Μετάδοση Πολυµέσων. Βίντεο (Video) Περιεχόµενα. Βιβλιογραφία. Καγιάφας [2000]: Κεφάλαιο 5, [link]

ΒΕΣ 04: Συµπίεση και Μετάδοση Πολυµέσων. Βίντεο (Video) Περιεχόµενα. Βιβλιογραφία. Καγιάφας [2000]: Κεφάλαιο 5, [link] ΒΕΣ 04: Συµπίεση και Μετάδοση Πολυµέσων Βίντεο (Video) Περιεχόµενα Εισαγωγή Βίντεο και πολυµεσικές εφαρµογές Αναπαράσταση Βίντεο Πρότυπα αναλογικού βίντεο Ψηφιακό βίντεο Πρότυπα ελεγκτών αναπαράστασης

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΤΕΧΝΙΚΕΣ ΠΡΟ ΙΑΓΡΑΦΕΣ ΕΞΟΠΛΙΣΜΟΥ

ΤΕΧΝΙΚΕΣ ΠΡΟ ΙΑΓΡΑΦΕΣ ΕΞΟΠΛΙΣΜΟΥ ΤΕΧΝΙΚΕΣ ΠΡΟ ΙΑΓΡΑΦΕΣ ΕΞΟΠΛΙΣΜΟΥ Α. κεντρικός εξυπηρετητής τεµάχια : 5 (πέντε) Ολα τα µέρη του προσφερόµενου εξοπλισµού να είναι του ιδίου κατασκευαστή. Αριθµός µονάδων. 5 Τα τµήµατα που συνθέτουν το σύστηµα

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Overview of optoelectronic devices

Overview of optoelectronic devices Overview of optoelectronic devices LEDs Laser diodes Optical amplifiers Photodetectors Photovoltaics-Solar Cells Light Modulators ίοδος εκποµπής φωτός ιάταξη που εκπέµπει αυθόρµητα φως λόγω έγχυσης των

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΗ ΔΗΜΟΚΡΑΤΙΑ Ν. Φιλ/φεια: 27 /11/2015 ΠΕΡΙΦΕΡΕΙΑ ΑΤΤΙΚΗΣ Αριθμ. Πρωτ: 24142 ΔΗΜΟΣ ΦΙΛΑΔΕΛΦΕΙΑΣ-ΧΑΛΚΗΔΟΝΟΣ Α Ν Α Κ Ο Ι Ν Ω Σ Η

ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΗ ΔΗΜΟΚΡΑΤΙΑ Ν. Φιλ/φεια: 27 /11/2015 ΠΕΡΙΦΕΡΕΙΑ ΑΤΤΙΚΗΣ Αριθμ. Πρωτ: 24142 ΔΗΜΟΣ ΦΙΛΑΔΕΛΦΕΙΑΣ-ΧΑΛΚΗΔΟΝΟΣ Α Ν Α Κ Ο Ι Ν Ω Σ Η ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΗ ΔΗΜΟΚΡΑΤΙΑ Ν. Φιλ/φεια: 27 /11/2015 ΠΕΡΙΦΕΡΕΙΑ ΑΤΤΙΚΗΣ Αριθμ. Πρωτ: 24142 ΔΗΜΟΣ ΦΙΛΑΔΕΛΦΕΙΑΣ-ΧΑΛΚΗΔΟΝΟΣ Α Ν Α Κ Ο Ι Ν Ω Σ Η Διενέργειας για την εκτέλεση προμήθειας < ΕΞΟΠΛΙΣΜΟΥ ΕΙΚΑΣΤΙΚΟΥ ΕΡΓΑΣΤΗΡΙΟΥ>

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΠΡΟΔΙΑΓΡΑΦΕ ΕΞΟΠΛΙΜΟΥ ΠΡΟ ΠΡΟΜΗΘΕΙΑ ΠΙΝΑΚΑ ΠΡΟΥΠΟΛΟΓΙΜΟΥ

ΠΡΟΔΙΑΓΡΑΦΕ ΕΞΟΠΛΙΜΟΥ ΠΡΟ ΠΡΟΜΗΘΕΙΑ ΠΙΝΑΚΑ ΠΡΟΥΠΟΛΟΓΙΜΟΥ ΠΡΟΔΙΑΓΡΑΦΕ ΕΞΟΠΛΙΜΟΥ ΠΡΟ ΠΡΟΜΗΘΕΙΑ ΠΙΝΑΚΑ ΠΡΟΥΠΟΛΟΓΙΜΟΥ 1 ΡΟΔΙΑΓΑΦΕΣ ΕΞΟΡΛΙΣΜΟΥ ΤΠΟΛΟΓΙΣΕ (ΕΠΙΣΡΑΠΕΖΙΟΙ ΚΑΙ ΥΟΡΗΣΟΙ) ΜΗΦΑΝΕ ΓΡΑΥΕΙΟΤ/ ΤΚΕΤΕ ΗΦΟΤ ΚΑΙ ΕΙΚΟΝΑ Κωδικός 1: PC INTEL ΚΟΥΤΙ ΥΡΟΛΟΓΙΣΤΘ Θα είναι

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Auto Daylight Synchro (Αυτόματος Συγχρονισμός Φωτός ημέρας) Clear Photo LCD

Auto Daylight Synchro (Αυτόματος Συγχρονισμός Φωτός ημέρας) Clear Photo LCD A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 1-9 Κλείδωμα AE Τεχνολογία AGCS AR Coat (Επικάλυψη AR) Auto Review Cancel (Ακύρωση Αυτόματης ανασκόπησης) AF Illuminator (Φωτιστής ΑF) Διάφραγμα Auto

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Αξιολόγηση Ημιαγώγιμων Υμενίων Σεληνιούχου Καδμίου Σε Υπόστρωμα Νικελίου Για Φωτοβολταϊκές Εφαρμογές

Αξιολόγηση Ημιαγώγιμων Υμενίων Σεληνιούχου Καδμίου Σε Υπόστρωμα Νικελίου Για Φωτοβολταϊκές Εφαρμογές ΕΘΝΙΚΟ ΜΕΤΣΟΒΙΟ ΠΟΛΥΤΕΧΝΕΙΟ ΣΧΟΛΗ ΗΛΕΚΤΡΟΛΟΓΩΝ ΜΗΧΑΝΙΚΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΜΗΧΑΝΙΚΩΝ ΥΠΟΛΟΓΙΣΤΩΝ ΤΟΜΕΑΣ ΣΥΣΤΗΜΑΤΩΝ ΜΕΤΑΔΟΣΗΣ ΠΛΗΡΟΦΟΡΙΑΣ ΚΑΙ ΤΕΧΝΟΛΟΓΙΑΣ ΥΛΙΚΩΝ Αξιολόγηση Ημιαγώγιμων Υμενίων Σεληνιούχου Καδμίου Σε Υπόστρωμα

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΤΕΧΝΟΛΟΓΙΑ CD-DVD Ανάπτυξη Υποστηρικτικού Εκπαιδευτικού Λογισµικού Πολυµέσων

ΤΕΧΝΟΛΟΓΙΑ CD-DVD Ανάπτυξη Υποστηρικτικού Εκπαιδευτικού Λογισµικού Πολυµέσων ΑΡΙΣΤΟΤΕΛΕΙΟ ΠΑΝΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΙΟ ΘΕΣΣΑΛΟΝΙΚΗΣ ΣΧΟΛΗ ΘΕΤΙΚΩΝ ΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΩΝ ΤΜΗΜΑ ΠΛΗΡΟΦΟΡΙΚΗΣ ΙΠΛΩΜΑΤΙΚΗ ΕΡΓΑΣΙΑ Ανθούλα Μπαµπούλη Α.Ε.Μ 512 ΤΕΧΝΟΛΟΓΙΑ CD-DVD Ανάπτυξη Υποστηρικτικού Εκπαιδευτικού Λογισµικού Πολυµέσων

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΑΝΑΡΤΗΤΕΑ ΣΤΟ ΔΙΑΔΙΚΤΥΟ

ΑΝΑΡΤΗΤΕΑ ΣΤΟ ΔΙΑΔΙΚΤΥΟ ΔΙΚΤΥΟ ΚΟΙΝΩΝΙΚΗΣ ΑΛΛΗΛΕΓΓΥΗΣ ΝΟΜΑΡΧΙΑΣ ΞΑΝΘΗΣ 'Η ΣΤΗΡΙΞΗ' Πληροφ. κ Αλατζά Κυριακή Τηλ. 2542350120 ΕΥΡΩΠΑΪΚΗ ΕΝΩΣΗ ΕΥΡΩΠΑΪΚΗ ΕΠΙΤΡΟΠΗ ΑΝΑΡΤΗΤΕΑ ΣΤΟ ΔΙΑΔΙΚΤΥΟ The Programme is co-funded by the European

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Κεφάλαιο 1 Αφαιρετικότητα και Τεχνολογία Υπολογιστών (Computer Abstractions and Technology)

Κεφάλαιο 1 Αφαιρετικότητα και Τεχνολογία Υπολογιστών (Computer Abstractions and Technology) Κεφάλαιο 1 Αφαιρετικότητα και Τεχνολογία Υπολογιστών (Computer Abstractions and Technology) 1 Υπολογιστές Οι υπολογιστές μπορούν να χωριστούν σε τρεις κατηγορίες, βάση της εφαρμογής τους: Επιτραπέζιοι

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

EUROPEAN TERRITORIAL COOPERATION PROGRAMME GREECE ITALY 2007-2013

EUROPEAN TERRITORIAL COOPERATION PROGRAMME GREECE ITALY 2007-2013 ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΗ ΔΗΜΟΚΡΑΣΙΑ ΠΑΝΕΠΙΣΗΜΙΟ ΠΑΣΡΩΝ ΕΙΔΙΚΟ ΛΟΓΑΡΙΑΜΟ ΚΟΝΔΤΛΙΩΝ ΕΡΕΤΝΑ Π.Δ. 432/81 ΣΗΛ: 2610/996660 FAX: 2610/996677 E-mail: rescom@upatras.gr http://research.upatras.gr Πάτρα,.26/06/2012 EUROPEAN TERRITORIAL

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Πωςπροέκυψαν "λάµπες" φωτισµούαπό ηµιαγωγό" -ΝόµπελΦυσικής 2014"

Πωςπροέκυψαν λάµπες φωτισµούαπό ηµιαγωγό -ΝόµπελΦυσικής 2014 Πανεπιστήµιο Κρήτης, Τµήµα Φυσικής και ΙΗ Λ, ΙΤΕ Οµάδα Μικρο & Νανο Ηλεκτρονικής (ΟΜΝΗ) Ηράκλειο, Κρήτη http://www.iesl.forth.gr/research/material/mrg/index.asp Πωςπροέκυψαν "λάµπες" φωτισµούαπό ηµιαγωγό"

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Η ΦΩΤΟΛΙΘΟΓΡΑΦΙΑ & ΟΙ ΕΞΕΛΙΞΕΙΣ ΤΗΣ. Ε. Κ. Παλούρα, Καθηγήτρια ΠΜΣ «Φυσική & τεχνολογία υλικών» Τμήμα Φυσικής ΑΠΘ

Η ΦΩΤΟΛΙΘΟΓΡΑΦΙΑ & ΟΙ ΕΞΕΛΙΞΕΙΣ ΤΗΣ. Ε. Κ. Παλούρα, Καθηγήτρια ΠΜΣ «Φυσική & τεχνολογία υλικών» Τμήμα Φυσικής ΑΠΘ Η ΦΩΤΟΛΙΘΟΓΡΑΦΙΑ & ΟΙ ΕΞΕΛΙΞΕΙΣ ΤΗΣ 1 Ε. Κ. Παλούρα, Καθηγήτρια ΠΜΣ «Φυσική & τεχνολογία υλικών» Τμήμα Φυσικής ΑΠΘ ΦΩΤΟΛΙΘΟΓΡΑΦΙΑ Για την κατασκευή διατάξεων, π.χ. τρανζίστορ, απαιτείται μία σειρά από

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

τροχιακά Η στιβάδα καθορίζεται από τον κύριο κβαντικό αριθµό (n) Η υποστιβάδα καθορίζεται από τους δύο πρώτους κβαντικούς αριθµούς (n, l)

τροχιακά Η στιβάδα καθορίζεται από τον κύριο κβαντικό αριθµό (n) Η υποστιβάδα καθορίζεται από τους δύο πρώτους κβαντικούς αριθµούς (n, l) ΑΤΟΜΙΚΑ ΤΡΟΧΙΑΚΑ Σχέση κβαντικών αριθµών µε στιβάδες υποστιβάδες - τροχιακά Η στιβάδα καθορίζεται από τον κύριο κβαντικό αριθµό (n) Η υποστιβάδα καθορίζεται από τους δύο πρώτους κβαντικούς αριθµούς (n,

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

2 - Κάμερες και χρώμα

2 - Κάμερες και χρώμα 2 - Κάμερες και χρώμα H κάμερα Επισκόπηση Το μοντέλο σημειακής οπής (Pinhole) Ποιοτικά χαρακτηριστικά Πίνακας προοπτικής προβολής Κάμερες με φακούς Εστιακό βάθος Οπτικό πεδίο Παραμορφώσεις φακού Ψηφιακές

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Εισαγωγή στη Μικροηλεκτρονική 1. Στοιχειακοί ηµιαγωγοί

Εισαγωγή στη Μικροηλεκτρονική 1. Στοιχειακοί ηµιαγωγοί Εισαγωγή στη Μικροηλεκτρονική 1 Στοιχειακοί ηµιαγωγοί Εισαγωγή στη Μικροηλεκτρονική Οµοιοπολικοί δεσµοί στο πυρίτιο Κρυσταλλική δοµή Πυριτίου ιάσταση κύβου για το Si: 0.543 nm Εισαγωγή στη Μικροηλεκτρονική

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Διπλωματική Εργασία Σου φοιτητή του τμήματος Ηλεκτρολόγων Μηχανικών και Σεχνολογίας Τπολογιστών της Πολυτεχνικής χολής του Πανεπιστημίου Πατρών

Διπλωματική Εργασία Σου φοιτητή του τμήματος Ηλεκτρολόγων Μηχανικών και Σεχνολογίας Τπολογιστών της Πολυτεχνικής χολής του Πανεπιστημίου Πατρών ΠΑΝΕΠΙΣΗΜΙΟ ΠΑΣΡΩΝ ΣΜΗΜΑ ΗΛΕΚΣΡΟΛΟΓΩΝ ΜΗΧΑΝΙΚΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΣΕΧΝΟΛΟΓΙΑ ΤΠΟΛΟΓΙΣΩΝ ΣΟΜΕΑ: ΣΗΛΕΠΙΚΟΙΝΩΝΙΩΝ & ΣΕΧΝΟΛΟΓΙΑ Διπλωματική Εργασία Σου φοιτητή του τμήματος Ηλεκτρολόγων Μηχανικών και Σεχνολογίας Τπολογιστών

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

SOLO. intelligent security systems

SOLO. intelligent security systems SOLO intelligent security systems ΕΝΘ.1 HIK VISION ANALOG PICADIS SYSTEM DS-2CE15C2P(N)-VFIT3Bullet 720 TVL High Resolution Vari-focal 1/3'' PICADIS,1.3 MP, DS-2CE15C2P-IR DS-2CE55C2P-IRM 1280 (H) 960

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

E. K. Παλούρα οπτοηλεκτρονική_4radiat_tr_led.doc

E. K. Παλούρα οπτοηλεκτρονική_4radiat_tr_led.doc Ακτινοβόλες μεταπτώσεις Φωταύγεια (luminescence) : εκπομπή ακτινοβολίας από ένα στερεό όταν του παρέχεται κάποιας μορφής ενέργεια. Photoluminescence οπτική διέγερση, απορρόφηση φωτονίων Cathodoluminescence

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

QUICKTRONIC PROFESSIONAL QTP5

QUICKTRONIC PROFESSIONAL QTP5 osram.com QUICKTRONIC PROFESSIONA QTP5 ECG for T5/ 16mm, T8/ 26mm, DUUX fluorescent lamps QTP5 i.e. UMIUX T5 HO ES 01 Product Features: Up to 100.000 hours lifetime 1 amp start with optimized filament

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΜΑΘΗΜΑ 2 MULTIPLE CHOICE

ΜΑΘΗΜΑ 2 MULTIPLE CHOICE ΜΑΘΗΜΑ 2 MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Ποια από τις πιο κάτω δηλώσεις για την μορφοποίηση της δισκέτας την πρώτη φορά είναι αληθινή; a) Η μορφοποίηση προετοιμάζει τη δισκέτα να αποθηκεύσει δεδομένα b) Η μορφοποίηση

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΑΠΟ ΤΗΝ ΚΒΑΝΤΙΚΗ ΟΜΗ ΤΗΣ ΥΛΗΣ ΣΤΗ ΤΕΧΝΟΛΟΓΙΑ

ΑΠΟ ΤΗΝ ΚΒΑΝΤΙΚΗ ΟΜΗ ΤΗΣ ΥΛΗΣ ΣΤΗ ΤΕΧΝΟΛΟΓΙΑ ΑΠΟ ΤΗΝ ΚΒΑΝΤΙΚΗ ΟΜΗ ΤΗΣ ΥΛΗΣ ΣΤΗ ΤΕΧΝΟΛΟΓΙΑ Α. ηµουλάς Εργαστήριο ΜΒΕ Ινστιτούτο Επιστήµης Υλικών ΕΚΕΦΕ ΗΜΟΚΡΙΤΟΣ Συµβολή των ηλεκτρονικών υλικών στην ανάπτυξη των συστηµάτων πληροφορικής Τρανσίστορ :

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Φυσικό Επίπεδο Σήµατα & Κωδικοποίηση. Ενότητα Β

Φυσικό Επίπεδο Σήµατα & Κωδικοποίηση. Ενότητα Β Ιόνιο Πανεπιστήµιο Τµήµα Αρχειονοµίας - Βιβλιοθηκονοµίας ίκτυα Η/Υ Φυσικό Επίπεδο Σήµατα & Κωδικοποίηση Ενότητα Β ρ. Ε. Μάγκος Βασικές Έννοιες Σηµάτων Τα ελαστικά σώµατα υφίστανται παροδικές παραµορφώσεις

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Β2.5 Οθόνες. Εικόνα 46 Μια οθόνη αποτελείται από εικονοστοιχεία, το καθένα από αυτά έχει τρείς φωτεινές πηγές, για κόκκινο, πράσινο και μπλε χρώμα

Β2.5 Οθόνες. Εικόνα 46 Μια οθόνη αποτελείται από εικονοστοιχεία, το καθένα από αυτά έχει τρείς φωτεινές πηγές, για κόκκινο, πράσινο και μπλε χρώμα Β2.5 Οθόνες Τι θα μάθουμε σήμερα: Να αναγνωρίζουμε και να αναφέρουμε τα κύρια χαρακτηριστικά μιας οθόνης (τεχνολογία, ανάλυση, μέγεθος, κόστος, κ.λπ.) Να αναγνωρίζουμε και να αναφέρουμε τις μονάδες μέτρησης

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

HMY 333 Φωτονική Διάλεξη 01 - Εισαγωγή

HMY 333 Φωτονική Διάλεξη 01 - Εισαγωγή 1 2 HMY 333 Φωτονική Διάλεξη 01 - Εισαγωγή Εργασίες = 10% Αξιολόγηση Σταύρος Ιεζεκιήλ Τμήμα Ηλεκτρολόγων Μηχανικών και Μηχανικών Υπολογιστών iezekiel@ucy.ac.cy Green Park 111 Ενδιάμεση εξέταση = 30% Τελική

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

1. ΧΗΜΙΚΟΙ ΕΣΜΟΙ ΣΤΑ ΣΤΕΡΕΑ

1. ΧΗΜΙΚΟΙ ΕΣΜΟΙ ΣΤΑ ΣΤΕΡΕΑ 1. ΧΗΜΙΚΟΙ ΕΣΜΟΙ ΣΤΑ ΣΤΕΡΕΑ ΓΕΝΙΚΑ Η στερεά, η υγρή και η αέρια κατάσταση αποτελούν τις τρεις, συνήθεις στο γήινο περιβάλλον, καταστάσεις της ύλης. ιαφέρουν η µία από την άλλη σε κάποια απλά γνωρίσµατα:

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Οπτικές Ίνες (Fiber Optics) - Καλώδια Οπτικών Ινών

Οπτικές Ίνες (Fiber Optics) - Καλώδια Οπτικών Ινών Οπτικές Ίνες (Fiber Optics) - Καλώδια Οπτικών Ινών έσµη οπτικών ινών. Ένα καλώδιο οπτικών ινών, το οποίο περιέχει µια δέσµη οπτικών ινών µπορεί να µεταφέρει εκατό τηλεοπτικά κανάλια ταυτόχρονα, χωρίς το

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΤΥΠΟΣ ΤΕΧΝΙΚΑ ΧΑΡΑΚΤΗΡΙΣΤΙΚΑ TIMH Crystal Line Crystal 35

ΤΥΠΟΣ ΤΕΧΝΙΚΑ ΧΑΡΑΚΤΗΡΙΣΤΙΚΑ TIMH Crystal Line Crystal 35 Crystal Line Crystal 35 1/1/2014 Home Cinema Video/Data Projector DLP, 1 chip DMD 1080p, Φωτεινότητα: 2500 ANSI Lumens, Contrast >30.000:1, Ανάλυση 1920x1080 pixels, Aspect Ratio 16:9 (4 aspect ratio selectable),

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Τρανζίστορ Επίδρασης Πεδίου Field-effect transistors (FET)

Τρανζίστορ Επίδρασης Πεδίου Field-effect transistors (FET) Τρανζίστορ Επίδρασης Πεδίου Field-effect transistors (FET) Χρησιµοποιούνται σε κλίµακα υψηλής ολοκλήρωσης VLSI Χρησιµοποιούνται και σε αναλογικούς ενισχυτές καθώς και στο στάδιο εξόδου ενισχυτών Ισχύος-

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΗ ΔΗΜΟΚΡΑΤΙΑ ΠΑΝΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΙΟ ΚΡΗΤΗΣ ΠΡΥΤΑΝΕΙΑ Ρέθυμνο 01/11/2010 Διεύθυνση :Οικονομικής Διαχείρισης Αριθ. Πρωτ.: 12183

ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΗ ΔΗΜΟΚΡΑΤΙΑ ΠΑΝΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΙΟ ΚΡΗΤΗΣ ΠΡΥΤΑΝΕΙΑ Ρέθυμνο 01/11/2010 Διεύθυνση :Οικονομικής Διαχείρισης Αριθ. Πρωτ.: 12183 ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΗ ΔΗΜΟΚΡΑΤΙΑ ΠΑΝΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΙΟ ΚΡΗΤΗΣ ΠΡΥΤΑΝΕΙΑ Ρέθυμνο 0//200 Διεύθυνση :Οικονομικής Διαχείρισης Αριθ Πρωτ: 283 Τμήμα :Προμηθειών Ταχ Δ/νση :Παν/πολη Ρεθύμνου Πληροφορίες :Σ ΧΑΤΖΗΔΑΚΗΣ Τηλέφωνο :283077929

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Ολοκληρωμένο Σύστημα (Σουΐτα)Τρισδιάστατης Ψηφιοποίησης.

Ολοκληρωμένο Σύστημα (Σουΐτα)Τρισδιάστατης Ψηφιοποίησης. Ανωτάτη Σχολή Καλών Τεχνών Μεταπτυχιακό Ψηφιακές Μορφές Τέχνης Ολοκληρωμένο Σύστημα (Σουΐτα)Τρισδιάστατης Ψηφιοποίησης. Ολοκληρωμένο Σύστημα (Σουΐτα) Τρισδιάστατης Ψηφιοποίησης επαγγελματικών προδιαγραφών

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

SIEMENS Squirrel Cage Induction Standard Three-phase Motors

SIEMENS Squirrel Cage Induction Standard Three-phase Motors - SIEMENS Squirrel Cage Induction Standard Three-phase Motors 2 pole 3000 rpm 50Hz Rated current Power Efficiency Rated Ratio Noise Output Frame Speed Weight 3V 400V 415V factor Class 0%Load 75%Load torque

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Digital Image Processing

Digital Image Processing Digital Image Processing Πέτρος Καρβέλης pkarvelis@gmail.com Images taken from: R. Gonzalez and R. Woods. Digital Image Processing, Prentice Hall, 2008. Παρεμβολή Εικόνας Χρησιμοποιείται σε διαδικασίες

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Ο προσφερόμενος εξοπλισμός θα πρέπει να καλύπτεται από εγγύηση του κατασκευαστή τουλάχιστον 1 έτους. ΝΑΙ 13.1

Ο προσφερόμενος εξοπλισμός θα πρέπει να καλύπτεται από εγγύηση του κατασκευαστή τουλάχιστον 1 έτους. ΝΑΙ 13.1 L.1 Φορητοί Σταθμοί Εργασίας (Laptops) 15,6'' (High end) Full HD 1. Φορητοί Σταθμοί Εργασίας 2.2. Ανακοίνωση τους τελευταίους 12 μήνες 3.1. Να περιγραφεί η αρχιτεκτονική της CPU και να δοθούν: Τύπος CPU:

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Συµπίεση Ήχου µεβάσητην Αντίληψη: Τα πρότυπα συµπίεσης MPEG-1 layer I, layer II, layer III

Συµπίεση Ήχου µεβάσητην Αντίληψη: Τα πρότυπα συµπίεσης MPEG-1 layer I, layer II, layer III ΒΕΣ 4 Συµπίεση και Μετάδοση Πολυµέσων Συµπίεση Ήχου µεβάσητην Αντίληψη: Τα πρότυπα συµπίεσης layer I, layer II, layer III Εισαγωγή Υπάρχουν πολλοί αλγόριθµοι κωδικοποίησης µε βάση την αντίληψη οι κυριότεροι

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

SCOPE OF ACCREDITATION TO ISO/IEC 17025:2005 & ANSI/NCSL Z540-1-1994 CALIBRATION

SCOPE OF ACCREDITATION TO ISO/IEC 17025:2005 & ANSI/NCSL Z540-1-1994 CALIBRATION SCOPE OF ACCREDITATION TO ISO/IEC 17025:2005 & ANSI/NCSL Z540-1-1994 FLUKE CORPORATION Everett Service Center 1420 75 th Street SW Everett, WA 98203 Randy Lemon Phone: 425 446 5243 CALIBRATION Valid To:

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)

IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) Περιεχόμενα Εισαγωγή...2 IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)...3 ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute)...4 ITU (International Telecommunication Union)...5 FCC (Federal

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΘΕΩΡΙΑ ΤΩΝ ΗΜΙΑΓΩΓΩΝ ΔΕΥΤΕΡΗ ΕΝΟΤΗΤΑ ΟΜΟΓΕΝΕΙΣ ΗΜΙΑΓΩΓΟΙ ΦΑΙΝΟΜΕΝΑ ΜΕΤΑΦΟΡΑΣ

ΘΕΩΡΙΑ ΤΩΝ ΗΜΙΑΓΩΓΩΝ ΔΕΥΤΕΡΗ ΕΝΟΤΗΤΑ ΟΜΟΓΕΝΕΙΣ ΗΜΙΑΓΩΓΟΙ ΦΑΙΝΟΜΕΝΑ ΜΕΤΑΦΟΡΑΣ ΘΕΩΡΙΑ ΤΩΝ ΗΜΙΑΓΩΓΩΝ ΔΕΥΤΕΡΗ ΕΝΟΤΗΤΑ ΟΜΟΓΕΝΕΙΣ ΗΜΙΑΓΩΓΟΙ ΦΑΙΝΟΜΕΝΑ ΜΕΤΑΦΟΡΑΣ 1. Μηχανισμοί σκέδασης των φορέων (ηλεκτρόνια οπές) 2. Ηλεκτρική Αγωγιμότητα 3. Ολίσθηση φορέων (ρεύμα ολίσθησης) 4. Διάχυση

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Περιεχόμενα διάλεξης

Περιεχόμενα διάλεξης η Διάλεξη Οπτικές ίνες Γ. Έλληνας, Διάλεξη, σελ. Περιεχόμενα διάλεξης Εισαγωγή στις οπτικές ίνες Κατασκευή οπτικών ινών Ανάλυση οπτικών ινών βηματικού δείκτη διάθλασης Γεωμετρική οπτική Τρόποι διάδοσης

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Χρθςη 2011 ΣΔΥΝΙΚΗ ΜΔΛΔΣΗ. ΣΔΥΝΙΚΔ ΠΡΟΓΙΑΓΡΑΦΔ ΓΙΑ ΦΗΦΙΑΚΟ ΔΙΓΙΚΟ ΡΑΓΙΟΓΙΚΣΤΟ (dpmr) ΣΔΥΝΟΛΟΓΙΑ FDMA 6,25 KHz KAI ΓΙΑΥΔΙΡΙΗ ΣΙΓΜΑΣΟ Δ ΦΗΦΙΑΚΟ ΥΑΡΣΗ

Χρθςη 2011 ΣΔΥΝΙΚΗ ΜΔΛΔΣΗ. ΣΔΥΝΙΚΔ ΠΡΟΓΙΑΓΡΑΦΔ ΓΙΑ ΦΗΦΙΑΚΟ ΔΙΓΙΚΟ ΡΑΓΙΟΓΙΚΣΤΟ (dpmr) ΣΔΥΝΟΛΟΓΙΑ FDMA 6,25 KHz KAI ΓΙΑΥΔΙΡΙΗ ΣΙΓΜΑΣΟ Δ ΦΗΦΙΑΚΟ ΥΑΡΣΗ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΗ ΔΗΜΟΚΡΑΣΙΑ ΝΟΜΟ ΑΣΣΙΚΗ ΔΗΜΟ ΔΙΟΝΤΟΤ «Προμθιεια υλικϊν επικοινωνίασ ( αςφρματοι, ραδιοζεφξεισ, κλπ) για τη Βελτίωςη των Ζργο ςυνιηκϊν πρόληψησ για την αντιπυρικθ προςταςία των Δαςικϊν Εκτάςεων

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Information Theory Θεωρία της Πληροφορίας. Vasos Vassiliou

Information Theory Θεωρία της Πληροφορίας. Vasos Vassiliou Information Theory Θεωρία της Πληροφορίας Vasos Vassiliou Network/Link Design Factors Transmission media Signals are transmitted over transmission media Examples: telephone cables, fiber optics, twisted

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΣΙΜΟΚΑΣΑΛΟΓΟ ΧΟΝΔΡΙΚΗ ΤΚΕΤΩΝ ΕΙΚΟΝΑ - ΗΧΟΤ

ΣΙΜΟΚΑΣΑΛΟΓΟ ΧΟΝΔΡΙΚΗ ΤΚΕΤΩΝ ΕΙΚΟΝΑ - ΗΧΟΤ ΣΙΜΟΚΑΣΑΛΟΓΟ AV ΕΠΣΕΜΒΡΙΟ 2011 HT-D7000/EN 8806071323596 HT-D6750W/EN 8806071344003 φςτθμα 2.1 καναλιών τεχνολογίασ 3D υνολικι ιςχφσ εξόδου 110W Cubic Design με αςφρματο subwoofer Αποκωδικοποίθςθ ιχου

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Επιςτιμθσ Επιφανειϊν και Τεχνολογία Λεπτϊν Υμενίων. Π. Πατςαλάσ, Αναπλ. Κακθγθτισ

Επιςτιμθσ Επιφανειϊν και Τεχνολογία Λεπτϊν Υμενίων. Π. Πατςαλάσ, Αναπλ. Κακθγθτισ Επιςτιμθσ Επιφανειϊν και Τεχνολογία Λεπτϊν Υμενίων Π. Πατςαλάσ, Αναπλ. Κακθγθτισ Στοιχεία Επικοινωνίασ Γραφείο: Γ324 & Φ3-109β Εργαςτιριο: Εργαςτιριο ΘΜΟ, Νζο Κτίριο ΤΜΕΥ, 1 οσ Προφοσ Τθλ: 9012 (Εργαςτιριο),

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Τεχνικά χαρακτηριστικά

Τεχνικά χαρακτηριστικά Τεχνικά χαρακτηριστικά Ευκολία σύνδεσης µε ένα µόνο πλήκτρο: Το ειδικό πλήκτρο Direct Link σας βοηθάει να συνδεθείτε γρήγορα στα ασύρµατα δίκτυα, ενώ οι λειτουργίες AutoShare, Social Sharing, Cloud, email,

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Φωτοµετρικά µεγέθη πολική κατανοµή φωτοβολίας

Φωτοµετρικά µεγέθη πολική κατανοµή φωτοβολίας Ο8 ωτοµετρικά µεγέθη πολική κατανοµή φωτοβολίας 1. Σκοπός Σκοπός της άσκησης είναι αφ ενός η κατανόηση βασικών µεγεθών και νόµων της φωτοµετρίας και αφ ετέρου η µέτρηση της πολικής κατανοµής της φωτοβολίας

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

SPECIFICATIONS. PRODUCT NAME: AC COB15W LED module (3120) General Customer MODEL NAME: CUSTOMER P/N: DATE: 2015-09-10

SPECIFICATIONS. PRODUCT NAME: AC COB15W LED module (3120) General Customer MODEL NAME: CUSTOMER P/N: DATE: 2015-09-10 SPECIFICATIONS PRODUCT NAME: AC COB5W LED module (320) CUSTOMER: General Customer MODEL NAME: CUSTOMER P/N: DATE: 205-09-0 APT Electronics Ltd. CUSTOMER Prepared by Checked by Approved by Approved by He

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

http://www.electronics.teipir.gr /personalpages/papageorgas/ download/3/

http://www.electronics.teipir.gr /personalpages/papageorgas/ download/3/ Δίοδος επαφής 1 http://www.electronics.teipir.gr /personalpages/papageorgas/ download/3/ 2 Θέματα που θα καλυφθούν Ορθή πόλωση Forward bias Ανάστροφη πόλωση Reverse bias Κατάρρευση Breakdown Ενεργειακά

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΙΑΤΡΙΚΟΣ ΕΞΟΠΛΙΣΜΟΣ ΑΝΑΛΩΣΙΜΑ ΕΞΕΤΑΣΤΙΚΟΙ ΦΑΚΟΙ & ΦΩΤΙΣΜΟΣ

ΙΑΤΡΙΚΟΣ ΕΞΟΠΛΙΣΜΟΣ ΑΝΑΛΩΣΙΜΑ ΕΞΕΤΑΣΤΙΚΟΙ ΦΑΚΟΙ & ΦΩΤΙΣΜΟΣ ΙΑΤΡΙΚΟΣ ΕΞΟΠΛΙΣΜΟΣ ΑΝΑΛΩΣΙΜΑ ΕΞΕΤΑΣΤΙΚΟΙ ΦΑΚΟΙ & ΦΩΤΙΣΜΟΣ ZOOM Modern LE Ds lamp of cold light with a 5X magni - fication. The intensity of light can be adjusted. Its articulated arm eases the movement

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Κεφάλαιο 3 Το υλικό του

Κεφάλαιο 3 Το υλικό του Κεφάλαιο 3 Το υλικό του ΗΥ 1 3.1 Η αρχιτεκτονική του ΗΥ Υλικό : οτιδήποτε έχει μια υλική - φυσική υπόσταση σε ένα υπολογιστικό σύστημα Αρχιτεκτονική του ΗΥ: η μελέτη της συμπεριφοράς και της δομής του

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Κεφάλαιο 3 Το υλικό του ΗΥ. Εφαρμογές Πληροφορικής Κεφ.3 Καραμαούνας Πολύκαρπος

Κεφάλαιο 3 Το υλικό του ΗΥ. Εφαρμογές Πληροφορικής Κεφ.3 Καραμαούνας Πολύκαρπος Κεφάλαιο 3 Το υλικό του ΗΥ 1 3.1 Η αρχιτεκτονική του ΗΥ Υλικό : οτιδήποτε έχει μια υλική - φυσική υπόσταση σε ένα υπολογιστικό σύστημα Αρχιτεκτονική του ΗΥ: η μελέτη της συμπεριφοράς και της δομής του

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

OIKONOMIKO ΠΑΝΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΙΟ ΑΘΗΝΩΝ ΠΑΤΗΣΙΩΝ 76-104 34 ΑΘΗΝΑ - ΤΗΛ. 010-8203911 - FAX: 010-8226204 - http://www.aueb.gr

OIKONOMIKO ΠΑΝΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΙΟ ΑΘΗΝΩΝ ΠΑΤΗΣΙΩΝ 76-104 34 ΑΘΗΝΑ - ΤΗΛ. 010-8203911 - FAX: 010-8226204 - http://www.aueb.gr Ε Λ Λ Η Ν Ι Κ Η Δ Η Μ Ο Κ Ρ Α Τ Ι Α OIKONOMIKO ΠΑΝΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΙΟ ΑΘΗΝΩΝ ΠΑΤΗΣΙΩΝ 76-104 34 ΑΘΗΝΑ - ΤΗΛ. 010-8203911 - FAX: 010-8226204 - http://www.aueb.gr 14PROC001936787 2014-03-20 ΔΙΑΚΗΡΥΞΗ Ν ο 121/2014

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΨΗΦΙΑΚΟ ΠΕ ΙΟΜΕΤΡΟ TRIMAX SM 2500

ΨΗΦΙΑΚΟ ΠΕ ΙΟΜΕΤΡΟ TRIMAX SM 2500 ΨΗΦΙΑΚΟ ΠΕ ΙΟΜΕΤΡΟ TRIMAX SM 2500 ΤΕΧΝΙΚΟ ΕΓΧΕΙΡΙ ΙΟ www.trimaxmeters.com Παρακαλούµε διαβάστε το εγχειρίδιο αυτό προσεκτικά πριν χρησιµοποιήσετε το πεδιόµετρο για πρώτη φορά. Τα τεχνικά χαρακτηριστικά

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΘΕΜΑ : MULTIMEDIA & ΤΕΧΝΟΑΟΓΙΑ

ΘΕΜΑ : MULTIMEDIA & ΤΕΧΝΟΑΟΓΙΑ ΤΕΧΝΟΛΟΓΙΚΟ ΙΛΡΥΜΑ ΚΑΒΑΛΑΣ ΣΧΟΛΗ ΔΙΟΙΚΗΣΗΣ & ΟΙΚΟΝΟΜΙΑΣ ΓΜΗΜΑ ΛΟΓΙΣΤΙΚΗΣ ritwiakfi ΕΡΓΑΣΙΑ ΘΕΜΑ : MULTIMEDIA & ΤΕΧΝΟΑΟΓΙΑ ΚΛΡΑΒΕΡΒΕΡΗΣ ΓΕΩΡΓΙΟΣ ΕΙΣΗΓΗΤΗΣ : ΒΛΑΣΑΜΙΛΗΣ ΣΤΑΥΡΟΣ Κ.ΛΒΛΑΛ ΑΠΡΙΛΙΟΣ 2000 Μ, Η

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Τι συσχετίζεται με τον ήχο

Τι συσχετίζεται με τον ήχο ΗΧΟΣ Τι συσχετίζεται με τον ήχο Υλικό Κάρτα ήχου Προενυσχιτής Equalizer Ενισχυτής Ηχεία Χώρος Ανθρώπινη ακοή Ψυχοακουστικά φαινόμενα Ηχητική πληροφορία Σημείο αναφοράς 20 μpa Εύρος συχνοτήτων Δειγματοληψία

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΚΑΤΑΛΟΓΟΣ ΠΡΟΪΟΝΤΩΝ. www.valcom.gr ΚΑΤΑΛΟΓΟΣ ΠΡΟΪΟΝΤΩΝ. βιοµηχανικός ηλεκτρολογικός εξοπλισµός

ΚΑΤΑΛΟΓΟΣ ΠΡΟΪΟΝΤΩΝ. www.valcom.gr ΚΑΤΑΛΟΓΟΣ ΠΡΟΪΟΝΤΩΝ. βιοµηχανικός ηλεκτρολογικός εξοπλισµός ΚΑΤΑΛΟΓΟΣ ΠΡΟΪΟΝΤΩΝ Μείνετε ενηµερωµένοι για όσα κάνουµε. Συναναστραφείτε µαζί µας στο facebook. βιοµηχανικός ηλεκτρολογικός εξοπλισµός ΚΑΤΑΛΟΓΟΣ ΠΡΟΪΟΝΤΩΝ 2015 www.valcom.gr ΌΡΟΙ ΠΩΛΗΣΗΣ Οι τιμές τιμοκαταλόγου

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΤΙΜΟΚΑΤΑΛΟΓΟΣ Οδόραμα mobile-android 2015

ΤΙΜΟΚΑΤΑΛΟΓΟΣ Οδόραμα mobile-android 2015 ΤΙΜΟΚΑΤΑΛΟΓΟΣ Οδόραμα mobile-android 2015 Η πλατφόρμα οδόραμα mobile-android της Praxicom Software Inc. είναι η πλέον ευέλικτη, παραμετροποιήσιμη, ανοιχτή και σύγχρονη λύση για την έκδοση τιμολογίων από

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Τεχνολογίες Ψηφιακής Εικόνας

Τεχνολογίες Ψηφιακής Εικόνας Τεχνολογίες Ψηφιακής Εικόνας ΥΠΟΣΥΣΤΗΜΑ ΕΙΚΟΝΑΣ Προσαρµογέας (κάρτα) Γραφικών Οθόνες CRT Οθόνες Υγρών Κρυστάλλων (LCD) Οθόνες αφής Προσαρµογέας (κάρτα) γραφικών Graphics adapter Υποσύστηµα εικόνας Προσαρµογέας

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

«ΜΕΛΕΤΗ ΚΑΙ ΚΑΤΑΣΚΕΥΗ ΡΑΔΙΟΦΩΝΙΚΟΥ ΣΤΑΘΜΟΥ AM ΜΕ ΤΡΑΝΖΙΣΤΟΡ»

«ΜΕΛΕΤΗ ΚΑΙ ΚΑΤΑΣΚΕΥΗ ΡΑΔΙΟΦΩΝΙΚΟΥ ΣΤΑΘΜΟΥ AM ΜΕ ΤΡΑΝΖΙΣΤΟΡ» ΤΕΧΝΟΛΟΓΙΚΟ ΕΚΠΑΙΔΕΥΤΙΚΟ ΙΔΡΥΜΑ ΙΟΝΙΩΝ ΝΗΣΩΝ ΣΧΟΛΗ ΜΟΥΣΙΚΗΣ ΤΕΧΝΟΛΟΓΙΑΣ ΤΜΗΜΑ ΤΕΧΝΟΛΟΓΙΑΣ ΗΧΟΥ ΚΑΙ ΜΟΥΣΙΚΩΝ ΟΡΓΑΝΩΝ «ΜΕΛΕΤΗ ΚΑΙ ΚΑΤΑΣΚΕΥΗ ΡΑΔΙΟΦΩΝΙΚΟΥ ΣΤΑΘΜΟΥ AM ΜΕ ΤΡΑΝΖΙΣΤΟΡ» ΠΤΥΧΙΑΚΗ ΕΡΓΑΣΙΑ ΕΥΡΙΠΙ

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Οδηγίες χρήσης Έκδοση 1.0E

Οδηγίες χρήσης Έκδοση 1.0E Οδηγίες χρήσης Έκδοση 1.0E Σηµειώσεις σχετικά µε τα πνευµατικά δικαιώµατα και πατέντες Γενικά Το iaudio είναι καταχωρηµένο εµπορικό σήµα της COWON SYSTEMS inc, Aυτό το προϊόν προορίζεται για οικιακή χρήση

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΙΟΥΝΙΟΣ 2014. Μεγάλη Διάρκεια Ζωής Μικρό Κόστος Κατανάλωσης >50.000 ΩΡΕΣ ΧΡΟΝΟΣ ΖΩΗΣ 90% ΟΙΚΟΝΟΜΙΑ ΣΥΜΒΑΤΟΙ ΜΕ ΟΛΟΥΣ ΤΟΥΣ ΟΙΚΙΑΚΟΥΣ ΛΑΜΠΤΗΡΕΣ

ΙΟΥΝΙΟΣ 2014. Μεγάλη Διάρκεια Ζωής Μικρό Κόστος Κατανάλωσης >50.000 ΩΡΕΣ ΧΡΟΝΟΣ ΖΩΗΣ 90% ΟΙΚΟΝΟΜΙΑ ΣΥΜΒΑΤΟΙ ΜΕ ΟΛΟΥΣ ΤΟΥΣ ΟΙΚΙΑΚΟΥΣ ΛΑΜΠΤΗΡΕΣ ΙΟΥΝΙΟΣ 2014 Μεγάλη Διάρκεια Ζωής Μικρό Κόστος Κατανάλωσης >50.000 ΩΡΕΣ ΧΡΟΝΟΣ ΖΩΗΣ 90% ΟΙΚΟΝΟΜΙΑ ΣΥΜΒΑΤΟΙ ΜΕ ΟΛΟΥΣ ΤΟΥΣ ΟΙΚΙΑΚΟΥΣ ΛΑΜΠΤΗΡΕΣ Η εταιρία μας ως εταιρία προώθησης των προϊόντων νέας τεχνολογίας

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

EPL324: Tutorials* on Communications and Networks Tutorial 2: Chapter 1 Review Questions

EPL324: Tutorials* on Communications and Networks Tutorial 2: Chapter 1 Review Questions EPL324: Tutorials* on Communications and Networks Tutorial 2: Chapter 1 Review Questions Pavlos Antoniou University of Cyprus Department of Computer Science * The material is taken from J.F. Kurose & K.W.

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Τηλ.: 22892130, Φαξ: 22756082 Η-ταχυδροµείο: cc@ucy.ac.cy, Ιστοσελίδα: http://www.ucy.ac.cy/cc Καλλιπόλεως 75, Τ.Θ. 20537, 1678 Λευκωσία, Κύπρος

Τηλ.: 22892130, Φαξ: 22756082 Η-ταχυδροµείο: cc@ucy.ac.cy, Ιστοσελίδα: http://www.ucy.ac.cy/cc Καλλιπόλεως 75, Τ.Θ. 20537, 1678 Λευκωσία, Κύπρος ΠΑΝΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΙΟ ΚΥΠΡΟΥ ΥΠΗΡΕΣΙΑ ΠΛΗΡΟΦΟΡΙΚΩΝ ΣΥΣΤΗΜΑΤΩΝ Τηλ.: 22892130, Φαξ: 22756082 Η-ταχυδροµείο: cc@ucy.ac.cy, Ιστοσελίδα: http://www.ucy.ac.cy/cc Καλλιπόλεως 75, Τ.Θ. 20537, 1678 Λευκωσία, Κύπρος ΠΡΟΣ:

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΛΑΜΠΕΣ LED - LED LAMPS

ΛΑΜΠΕΣ LED - LED LAMPS 20 LED 1,5 W GU10 V 74711021 74711022 20 LED 74711024 RED 1,5 0 0 GU10 747111 20 LED 747112 mat 747114 RED POWER LED 1 W GU10 V 74711001 74711002 1 LED 1 25 0 74711004 RED GU10 74711005 GREEN 48 LED 3,5

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

1.7 Αδιάβροχο ΝΑΙ 1.8 Ειδική επίστρωση φακών χρωματικής διόρθωσης (fluoride)

1.7 Αδιάβροχο ΝΑΙ 1.8 Ειδική επίστρωση φακών χρωματικής διόρθωσης (fluoride) ΦΩΤΟΓΡΑΦΙΚΟΣ ΕΞΟΠΛΙΣΜΟΣ ΚΑΙ ΕΞΟΠΛΙΣΜΟΣ ΠΑΡΑΚΟΛΟΥΘΗΣΗΣ ΠΙΝΑΚΑΣ ΠΡΟΔΙΑΓΡΑΦΩΝ 1. Τηλεσκόπιο 1.2 Τηλεσκόπιο γωνιακό 1.3 Αριθμός μονάδων 2 1.4 Σώμα τηλεσκοπίου με αντικειμενικό φακό διαμέτρου τουλάχιστον 85

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

«Μικροοπτικές διατάξεις και ολοκληρωµένα οπτικά» ΜΙΚΡΟΣΥΣΤΗΜΑΤΑ ΚΑΙ ΝΑΝΟ ΙΑΤΑΞΕΙΣ ιατµηµατικο Μεταπτυχιακο Προγραµµα. Ι. Ζεργιώτη ΣΕΜΦΕ, ΕΜΠ

«Μικροοπτικές διατάξεις και ολοκληρωµένα οπτικά» ΜΙΚΡΟΣΥΣΤΗΜΑΤΑ ΚΑΙ ΝΑΝΟ ΙΑΤΑΞΕΙΣ ιατµηµατικο Μεταπτυχιακο Προγραµµα. Ι. Ζεργιώτη ΣΕΜΦΕ, ΕΜΠ «Μικροοπτικές διατάξεις και ολοκληρωµένα οπτικά» ΜΙΚΡΟΣΥΣΤΗΜΑΤΑ ΚΑΙ ΝΑΝΟ ΙΑΤΑΞΕΙΣ ιατµηµατικο Μεταπτυχιακο Προγραµµα Ι. Ζεργιώτη ΣΕΜΦΕ, ΕΜΠ Ολοκληρωµενα Οπτικα = ιαδοση φωτος σε περιορισµενο χωρο Μικρο-Οπτο-Ηλεκτρο-Μηχανικα

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Αρχιτεκτονική Σχεδίαση Ασαφούς Ελεγκτή σε VHDL και Υλοποίηση σε FPGA ΙΠΛΩΜΑΤΙΚΗ ΕΡΓΑΣΙΑ

Αρχιτεκτονική Σχεδίαση Ασαφούς Ελεγκτή σε VHDL και Υλοποίηση σε FPGA ΙΠΛΩΜΑΤΙΚΗ ΕΡΓΑΣΙΑ ΕΘΝΙΚΟ ΜΕΤΣΟΒΙΟ ΠΟΛΥΤΕΧΝΕΙΟ ΣΧΟΛΗ ΗΛΕΚΤΡΟΛΟΓΩΝ ΜΗΧΑΝΙΚΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΜΗΧΑΝΙΚΩΝ ΥΠΟΛΟΓΙΣΤΩΝ ΤΟΜΕΑΣ ΣΗΜΑΤΩΝ, ΕΛΕΓΧΟΥ ΚΑΙ ΡΟΜΠΟΤΙΚΗΣ Αρχιτεκτονική Σχεδίαση Ασαφούς Ελεγκτή σε VHDL και Υλοποίηση σε FPGA ΙΠΛΩΜΑΤΙΚΗ

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΛΥΣΕΙΣ. 1. Χαρακτηρίστε τα παρακάτω στοιχεία ως διαµαγνητικά ή. Η ηλεκτρονική δοµή του 38 Sr είναι: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 3d 10 4s 2 4p 6 5s 2

ΛΥΣΕΙΣ. 1. Χαρακτηρίστε τα παρακάτω στοιχεία ως διαµαγνητικά ή. Η ηλεκτρονική δοµή του 38 Sr είναι: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 3d 10 4s 2 4p 6 5s 2 ΛΥΣΕΙΣ 1. Χαρακτηρίστε τα παρακάτω στοιχεία ως διαµαγνητικά ή παραµαγνητικά: 38 Sr, 13 Al, 32 Ge. Η ηλεκτρονική δοµή του 38 Sr είναι: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 3d 10 4s 2 4p 6 5s 2 Η ηλεκτρονική δοµή του

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΠΤΥΧΙΑΚΗ ΕΡΓΑΣΙΑ. Σχεδίαση και ανάπτυξη οχήματος που ακολουθεί μια γραμμή

ΠΤΥΧΙΑΚΗ ΕΡΓΑΣΙΑ. Σχεδίαση και ανάπτυξη οχήματος που ακολουθεί μια γραμμή ΤΕΙ ΑΝΑΤΟΛΙΚΗΣ ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΙΑΣ ΚΑΙ ΘΡΑΚΗΣ ΣΧΟΛΗ ΤΕΧΝΟΛΟΓΙΚΩΝ ΕΦΑΡΜΟΓΩΝ ΤΜΗΜΑ ΜΗΧΑΝΙΚΩΝ ΠΛΗΡΟΦΟΡΙΚΗΣ ΠΤΥΧΙΑΚΗ ΕΡΓΑΣΙΑ Σχεδίαση και ανάπτυξη οχήματος που ακολουθεί μια γραμμή Σπουδαστές: Ταβλάκης Γεώργιος ΑΕΜ:

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΟΡΓΑΝΑ Είδος Ποσότητα Φορητός Η/Υ Τύπος μνήμης Χωρητικότητα μνήμης Σκληρός δίσκος(χωρητικότητα/στροφές λειτουργίας) Οπτικά μέσ Δίκτυο

ΟΡΓΑΝΑ Είδος Ποσότητα Φορητός Η/Υ Τύπος μνήμης Χωρητικότητα μνήμης Σκληρός δίσκος(χωρητικότητα/στροφές λειτουργίας) Οπτικά μέσ Δίκτυο Σελ. 1 ΟΡΓΑΝΑ Φορητός Η/Υ Τεχνικά χαρακτηριστικά φορητού Η/Υ Επεξεργαστής: Ταχύτητα >=2.2Ghz, Πυρήνες >=2, Cache >=3MB RAM: DDR3 >=8 GB Οθόνη: 15,6, HD Αποκλειστική μνήμη κάρτας γραφικών: >=1 GB DDR3 Σκληρός

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Από τις διαλέξεις του μαθήματος του Α εξαμήνου σπουδών του Τμήματος. Κ. Παπαθεοδώρου, Αναπληρωτής Καθηγητής Οκτώβριος Δεκέμβριος 2013

Από τις διαλέξεις του μαθήματος του Α εξαμήνου σπουδών του Τμήματος. Κ. Παπαθεοδώρου, Αναπληρωτής Καθηγητής Οκτώβριος Δεκέμβριος 2013 Συγγραφή Τεχνικών Κειμένων Σχήματα, Πίνακες, Εικόνες, Αριθμοί Από τις διαλέξεις του μαθήματος του Α εξαμήνου σπουδών του Τμήματος Πολιτικών Μηχανικών και Μηχανικών Τοπογραφίας & Γεωπληροφορικής Κ. Παπαθεοδώρου,

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Τεχνολογία Ηλεκτρικών και Ηλεκτρονικών Υλικών. Δρ. Ηλίας Σταθάτος

Τεχνολογία Ηλεκτρικών και Ηλεκτρονικών Υλικών. Δρ. Ηλίας Σταθάτος Τεχνολογία Ηλεκτρικών και Ηλεκτρονικών Υλικών Δρ. Ηλίας Σταθάτος Οι ιδιότητες των υλικών μελετώνται από την Επιστήμη των Υλικών Η αξιοποίηση των δεδομένων τηε Επιστήμης των Υλικών για τεχνολογικούς σκοπούς

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΛΑΜΠΕΣ LED - LED LAMPS

ΛΑΜΠΕΣ LED - LED LAMPS 74711001 POWER LED 1 W GU10 V 25 100 74711002 25 100 3500 1 LED 1 74711004 25 45 RED GU10 74711005 25 100 GREEN POWER LED 3 W GU10 V 74711011 15 140 1 LED 3 74711012 15 140 3500 POWER LED 3X1 W GU10 V

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Τεχνολογία πλάσματος

Τεχνολογία πλάσματος Τεχνολογία πλάσματος Το πλάσμα είναι να σύνολο ανισόθερμων θετικών ιόντων και ηλεκτρονίων που είναι εμβαπτισμένα σε μία θάλασσα ουδετέρων ατόμων. Το πλάσμα συντηρείται από συνεχή φαινόμενα ιονισμού και

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Νανοτεχνολογία και Ηλεκτρονική Μικροσκοπία

Νανοτεχνολογία και Ηλεκτρονική Μικροσκοπία ΕΚΕΦΕ ΗΜΟΚΡΙΤΟΣ Ινστιτούτο Επιστήµης Υλικών Νανοτεχνολογία και Ηλεκτρονική Μικροσκοπία Ν. Μπούκος Αυτός ο κόσµος ο µικρός, ο µέγας. Περίγραµµα Εισαγωγή - Κίνητρα Νανοτεχνολογία Σχέση παρασκευής-µικροδοµήςιδιοτήτων

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Μετάδοση πληροφορίας - Διαμόρφωση

Μετάδοση πληροφορίας - Διαμόρφωση ΠΑΝΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΙΟ ΙΩΑΝΝΙΝΩΝ ΤΜΗΜΑ ΜΗΧ. Η/Υ & ΠΛΗΡΟΦΟΡΙΚΗΣ Μετάδοση πληροφορίας - Διαμόρφωση MYE006-ΠΛΕ065: ΑΣΥΡΜΑΤΑ ΔΙΚΤΥΑ Ευάγγελος Παπαπέτρου Διάρθρωση μαθήματος Βασικές έννοιες μετάδοσης Διαμόρφωση ορισμός

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΕΡΓΑΣΤΗΡΙΑΚΗ ΑΣΚΗΣΗ Ι

ΕΡΓΑΣΤΗΡΙΑΚΗ ΑΣΚΗΣΗ Ι ΕΡΓΑΣΤΗΡΙΑΚΗ ΑΣΚΗΣΗ Ι ΣΤΑΤΙΚΕΣ ΧΑΡΑΚΤΗΡΙΣΤΙΚΕΣ ΚΑΜΠΥΛΕΣ ΑΜΦΙΠΟΛΙΚΩΝ ΤΡΑΝΖΙΣΤΟΡ ΕΠΑΦΩΝ Η άσκηση αποτελείται από δύο τμήματα: 1) μελέτη των χαρακτηριστικών καμπύλων εισόδου και εξόδου των τρανζίστορ για

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΤΕΜ LS24C65U SAMSUNG MONITOR 1 Τύπος Οθόνης: Μέγεθος: Ανάλυση: Αναλογία: Φωτεινότητα: Aντίθεση εικόνας Χρόνος απόκρισης Ήχος Συνδεσιμότητα:

ΤΕΜ LS24C65U SAMSUNG MONITOR 1 Τύπος Οθόνης: Μέγεθος: Ανάλυση: Αναλογία: Φωτεινότητα: Aντίθεση εικόνας Χρόνος απόκρισης Ήχος Συνδεσιμότητα: ΕΙΔΟΣ ΤΕΜ LS24C65U SAMSUNG MONITOR 1 Τύπος Οθόνης: Μέγεθος: Ανάλυση: Αναλογία: Φωτεινότητα: Aντίθεση εικόνας Χρόνος απόκρισης Ήχος Συνδεσιμότητα: ΧΑΡΑΚΤΗΡΙΣΤΙΚΑ : 2 χρόνια. MONITOR LED LG 22M37 21,5" 7

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΠΡΟΣΚΛΗΣΗ ΕΚΔΗΛΩΣΗΣ ΕΝΔΙΑΦΕΡΟΝΤΟΣ

ΠΡΟΣΚΛΗΣΗ ΕΚΔΗΛΩΣΗΣ ΕΝΔΙΑΦΕΡΟΝΤΟΣ IΔPΥΜA TEXNOΛOΓIAΣ KAI EPEYNAΣ Iνστιτούτο Μοριακής Βιολογίας και Βιοτεχνολογίας Ν. Πλαστήρα 100, BAΣIΛIKA BOYTΩN HPAKΛEIO 70013 Πληροφορίες: Θεοδωράκης Κων/νος Email: theodora@imbb.forth.gr τηλ. (2810)

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Ηλεκτρονικοί Υπολογιστές και Επεξεργασία Πληροφοριών

Ηλεκτρονικοί Υπολογιστές και Επεξεργασία Πληροφοριών Ενότητα 6 Ηλεκτρονικοί Υπολογιστές και Επεξεργασία Πληροφοριών Πληροφοριακά Συστήματα Διοίκησης Ι Διδάσκων: Νίκος Καρακαπιλίδης 6-1 Στόχοι και αντικείμενο ενότητας Βασικές λειτουργίες ενός υπολογιστικού

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Ακαδημαϊκό Έτος 2006 2007, Χειμερινό Εξάμηνο

Ακαδημαϊκό Έτος 2006 2007, Χειμερινό Εξάμηνο ΠΑΝΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΙΟ ΠΕΙΡΑΙΩΣ, ΤΜΗΜΑ ΔΙΔΑΚΤΙΚΗΣ ΤΗΣ ΤΕΧΝΟΛΟΓΙΑΣ ΚΑΙ ΨΗΦΙΑΚΩΝ ΣΥΣΤΗΜΑΤΩΝ ΔΤΨΣ : ΨΗΦΙΑΚΗ ΕΠΕΞΕΡΓΑΣΙΑ ΕΙΚΟΝΑΣ Ακαδημαϊκό Έτος 2006 2007, Χειμερινό Εξάμηνο ΤΕΛΙΚΗ ΕΞΕΤΑΣΗ Η εξέταση αποτελείται από

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΤΕΧΝΙΚΕΣ ΠΡΟΔΙΑΓΡΑΦΕΣ

ΤΕΧΝΙΚΕΣ ΠΡΟΔΙΑΓΡΑΦΕΣ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΗ ΔΗΜΟΚΡΑΤΙΑ ΤΕΧΝΟΛΟΓΙΚΟ ΕΚΠΑΙΔΕΥΤΙΚΟ ΙΔΡΥΜΑ (Τ.Ε.Ι.) ΘΕΣΣΑΛΙΑΣ ευρώ) Λήψη προσφορών για δαπάνη ποσού 10.000, ολογράφως ( δεκα χιλιάδων για την προμήθεια Η/Υ, εκτυπωτών, βιντεοπροβολέων, FAX κλπ

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ENCO Μ.Ε.Π.Ε. - Νίκαιας 9, 55132 Καλαμαριά - Θεσσαλονίκη. Επαγωγικοί Λαμπτήρες (Induction Lamps) EnCo ΣΥΣΤΗΜΑΤΑ ΕΞΟΙΚΟΝΟΜΗΣΗΣ ΗΛΕΚΤΡΙΚΗΣ ΕΝΕΡΓΕΙΑΣ

ENCO Μ.Ε.Π.Ε. - Νίκαιας 9, 55132 Καλαμαριά - Θεσσαλονίκη. Επαγωγικοί Λαμπτήρες (Induction Lamps) EnCo ΣΥΣΤΗΜΑΤΑ ΕΞΟΙΚΟΝΟΜΗΣΗΣ ΗΛΕΚΤΡΙΚΗΣ ΕΝΕΡΓΕΙΑΣ Επαγωγικοί Λαμπτήρες (Induction Lamps) Η εταιρεία μας εμπορεύεται φωτιστικά με Επαγωγικούς Λαμπτήρες (Induction Lamps). Η λειτουργία τους είναι παρόμοια με αυτή των λαμπτήρων φθορισμού, με μία όμως σημαντική

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

E P5 Κιτ με φακό 14-42mm Ασημί

E P5 Κιτ με φακό 14-42mm Ασημί E P5 Κιτ με φακό 14-42mm Ασημί Σύστημα εξαιρετικά γρήγορης αυτόματης εστίασης Διαισθητική λειτουργία οθόνης αφής Αισθητήρας Live MOS με υψηλό δυναμικό εύρος και χαμηλή αναλογία σήματος/ θορύβου Οθόνη LCD

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Θέµατα που θα καλυφθούν

Θέµατα που θα καλυφθούν Ηµιαγωγοί Semiconductors 1 Θέµατα που θα καλυφθούν Αγωγοί Conductors Ηµιαγωγοί Semiconductors Κρύσταλλοι πυριτίου Silicon crystals Ενδογενείς Ηµιαγωγοί Intrinsic semiconductors ύο τύποι φορέων για το ρεύµασεηµιαγωγούς

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Capacitors - Capacitance, Charge and Potential Difference

Capacitors - Capacitance, Charge and Potential Difference Capacitors - Capacitance, Charge and Potential Difference Capacitors store electric charge. This ability to store electric charge is known as capacitance. A simple capacitor consists of 2 parallel metal

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Τ.Ε.Ι. ΗΠΕΙΡΟΥ ΣΧΟΛΗ ΤΕΧΝΟΛΟΓΙΑΣ ΓΕΩΠΟΝΙΑΣ ΤΜΗΜΑ ΦΥΤΙΚΗΣ ΠΑΡΑΓΩΓΗΣ

Τ.Ε.Ι. ΗΠΕΙΡΟΥ ΣΧΟΛΗ ΤΕΧΝΟΛΟΓΙΑΣ ΓΕΩΠΟΝΙΑΣ ΤΜΗΜΑ ΦΥΤΙΚΗΣ ΠΑΡΑΓΩΓΗΣ Τ.Ε.Ι. ΗΠΕΙΡΟΥ ΣΧΟΛΗ ΤΕΧΝΟΛΟΓΙΑΣ ΓΕΩΠΟΝΙΑΣ ΤΜΗΜΑ ΦΥΤΙΚΗΣ ΠΑΡΑΓΩΓΗΣ ΕΡΓΑΣΤΗΡΙΑΚΕΣ ΑΣΚΗΣΕΙΣ ΓΕΩΡΓΙΚΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΘΕΡΜΟΚΗΠΙΑΚΩΝ ΚΑΤΑΣΚΕΥΩΝ ΜΕΡΟΣ ΠΡΩΤΟ ΓΕΩΡΓΙΚΕΣ ΚΑΤΑΣΚΕΥΕΣ Δρ. Μενέλαος Θεοχάρης Πολιτικός Μηχανικός

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Γραφικά Υπολογιστών: Συσκευές

Γραφικά Υπολογιστών: Συσκευές 1 ΤΕΙ Θεσσαλονίκης Τμήμα Πληροφορικής Γραφικά Υπολογιστών: Συσκευές Πασχάλης Ράπτης http://aetos.it.teithe.gr/~praptis praptis@it.teithe.gr 2 Περιγραφή Συσκευές εισόδου - Παροχή δεδομένων και σημάτων ελέγχου

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Technical Information Efficiency and Derating SUNNY BOY / SUNNY TRIPOWER / SUNNY MINI CENTRAL

Technical Information Efficiency and Derating SUNNY BOY / SUNNY TRIPOWER / SUNNY MINI CENTRAL Technical Information Efficiency and Derating SUNNY BOY / SUNNY TRIPOWER / SUNNY MINI CENTRAL WirkungDerat-TI-en-40 Version 4.0 ENGLISH Legal Provisions SMA Solar Technology AG Legal Provisions The information

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΠΡΟΣΥΝΕΔΡΙΑΚΗ ΗΜΕΡΙΔΑ 17 ΜΑΪΟΥ 2012. ΜΑΡΙΑ ΓΕΩΡΓΙΟΥ Χημικός, PhD ΣΠΥΡΟΣ ΣΠΥΡΙΔΑΚΗΣ Χημικός, MSc

ΠΡΟΣΥΝΕΔΡΙΑΚΗ ΗΜΕΡΙΔΑ 17 ΜΑΪΟΥ 2012. ΜΑΡΙΑ ΓΕΩΡΓΙΟΥ Χημικός, PhD ΣΠΥΡΟΣ ΣΠΥΡΙΔΑΚΗΣ Χημικός, MSc ΠΡΟΣΥΝΕΔΡΙΑΚΗ ΗΜΕΡΙΔΑ 17 ΜΑΪΟΥ 2012 ΜΑΡΙΑ ΓΕΩΡΓΙΟΥ Χημικός, PhD ΣΠΥΡΟΣ ΣΠΥΡΙΔΑΚΗΣ Χημικός, MSc Τι περιλαμβάνει το οπτικό σύστημα; 1. Την πηγή (πηγές) φωτός 2. Διατάξεις για τη μετάδοση ακτινοβολίας 3.

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

metriva 1. DietQuest, CE 3410 ( ) CE 7210 ( ), CECIL INSTRUMENTS,, 232, 266, 270 & 274nm. Cecil Instruments,., metriva. Cecil,,,,.

metriva 1. DietQuest, CE 3410 ( ) CE 7210 ( ), CECIL INSTRUMENTS,, 232, 266, 270 & 274nm. Cecil Instruments,., metriva. Cecil,,,,. . 166 & 151 26 www.metriva.gr. 210 7279003 210 7279200 1. DietQuest, CE 3410 ( ) CE 7210 ( ), CECIL INSTRUMENTS,, 232, 266, 270 & 274nm. Cecil Instruments,., metriva. Cecil,,,,. 1 metriva. menu, run.,,...

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΠΙΝΑΚΕΣ ΠΡΟ ΙΑΓΡΑΦΩΝ ΣΥΜΜΟΡΦΩΣΗΣ

ΠΙΝΑΚΕΣ ΠΡΟ ΙΑΓΡΑΦΩΝ ΣΥΜΜΟΡΦΩΣΗΣ ΠΙΝΑΚΕΣ ΠΡΟ ΙΑΓΡΑΦΩΝ ΣΥΜΜΟΡΦΩΣΗΣ ΑΝΑΛΥΣΗ ΠΙΝΑΚΩΝ ΕΠΕΞΗΓΗΣΕΙΣ Η στήλη Α περιλαµβάνει τις γενικές κατηγορίες των προδιαγραφών χαρακτηριστικών. Η στήλη Β περιλαµβάνει την περιγραφή των ελάχιστων απαιτήσεων

Διαβάστε περισσότερα