ΣΗΜΕΙΩΣΕΙΣ ΟΠΤΟΗΛΕΚΤΡΟΝΙΚΗΣ

Μέγεθος: px
Εμφάνιση ξεκινά από τη σελίδα:

Download "ΣΗΜΕΙΩΣΕΙΣ ΟΠΤΟΗΛΕΚΤΡΟΝΙΚΗΣ"

Transcript

1 ΠΑΝΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΙΟ ΑΙΓΑΙΟΥ ΣΧΟΛΗ ΘΕΤΙΚΩΝ ΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΩΝ ΤΜΗΜΑ ΜΗΧΑΝΙΚΩΝ ΠΛΗΡΟΦΟΡΙΑΚΩΝ & ΕΠΙΚΟΙΝΩΝΙΑΚΩΝ ΣΥΣΤΗΜΑΤΩΝ ΣΗΜΕΙΩΣΕΙΣ ΟΠΤΟΗΛΕΚΤΡΟΝΙΚΗΣ ΝΙΚΟΣ ΚΟΝΟΦΑΟΣ ΕΠΙΚΟΥΡΟΣ ΚΑΘΗΓΗΤΗΣ ΣΥΝΕΡΓΑΣΙΑ-ΕΠΙΜΕΛΕΙΑ ΑΝΤΩΝΗΣ ΒΡΑΝΑΚΗΣ ΜΗΧΑΝΙΚΟΣ ΠΛΗΡΟΦΟΡΙΑΚΩΝ & ΕΠΙΚΟΙΝΩΝΙΑΚΩΝ ΣΥΣΤΗΜΑΤΩΝ ΣΑΜΟΣ

2 I !"# #$% &'( ) * " + $( -,-.(/ " (# # - +/" " $#% ( Snell #,-% "%.' "% N P P-N % Zener % 1% % +,,% (Tunnel Diode) P-N TRANSISTORS Transistor 0( (Field Effect Transistor) (THERMISTOR) (VARISTOR) &

3 '*+, # % / (/ #$%"'/*/ &/ ## % /! #$%,( " QUASHI-FERMI µ µ 0µ P-N µ P-N µ P-N PIN LED LED LED LED LED LED (OLEDS) OLED LED LED LED LED LED LED LASER µ LASER

4 2.2.1 µ LASER LASER LASER µ µ µ µ µ LASER LASER LASER µ LASER LASER LASER FEMTO - LASER LASER LASER LASER LASER LASER III O

5 DSS ; H ( ) ,1 ',##*/: E'$" Bragg: (." ('+,#*/: #$* "#!"# #+ ( /+ #,'*#*/ *% /'!*/ '('-%!/-% /,/* " +8()"% - "% PHOTOREFRACTIVE LCD (LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY) % #,-% (PIXEL) TFT (THIN FILM TRANSISTOR) '/1#

6 /1# TFT TN IPS MVA PVA ASV PLASMA PLASMA PLASMA PLASMA "% $/ "% OLED

7 I !" / ' "% ( 1% ( #' "/ "'#,/"1 /9' "/!1 ( + *$%, % $"% "% "/ ''"' " "% # "/ +'". + " "% "'#,/"1% /9'%, / $' "% #, $ +# -*% "/!1 "% 1% -/ (1% #-! "/ /9', "/ #1 /9'. /9' '-, "'#,/"1, (, +# / (/( #$% "'+ #,/"+ (, -/. '' "/.!/1,#1. "# (!&(. #$ "% "'#,/"1% /9'% /#8 /(,# "% -/ "% #%!1% "% "'#,/"1% /9'%, / (/" " ( #1(% +#% 1 "% (!/$"%, "'1 "% %&'(%), "% /9'%. "'#,/"$ # / *&%+'),!*% / (!(/ / #)+ /$% "(%" /9'% /$% ''(. '$'" # /, # (. $ &!-%, ( $ (% / - 6 -

8 / # 9. #1% +#% ' " (!/$" f #% /9'% (/-/ # "!- ": c = ' f (1.1) $( c / "!+" ( *$%, "'1 3x10 8 m/s. 3/,## ( "'#,/"+ #% $(% #1(% +#% (!/$"% "% /9'% # -% % &!-% (, /! #1" +#% */!&/ (. #%!'1 (/ / #, / +,(# "!1 " #,'*/.#&/,. (# % )1% #/%:!. 1-1: # "% "'#,/"1% /9'%. ()/$#/ #1% +#%, $ # ( 8 *% )1%: &%-450/?#, (/$-480/?#, /-520/?#, /-580/?#, '-600/7?# $/-640/?#. #"!/ #$%,*,1% "% /9'%, ' "% #1% 0("/1% ( 1%. / $#*% $# / (/.(# (# & $ " -, " /$% "'/( #, $ 9 /, (:"'$"%.#"% 9!#"'$"%.#"%, *$/ /-,% "% # " /-,% */ + 9*/.!(/ $ -, "% */ $#*/ /$% ('+, #1 /9'%

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e), ;'/ (He).'.. (!" #+/ % "# -% #8%.,) *'1/% Geissler (!" #+/,, "+% +% $*% ) '(!/% - 8 -

10 (,+( (:"'1% - *%. ) '#1% /'#1% (flash) (!" #+/, '1:" *,&/ (/.1% /+% * #+. / #'".+/ '+ /$#/,!."/ % #,'% ",%, /', # #,-." ( #'&/ % (/-.1% ( 9''/. ",% (-% # /! /$#/ -!(/ *% )1%: (.+,##" " ( *$% 0 #-/"!+" ( *$% /' " ( *$%.' " ( *$% 0.' " (#*/ (#9'1 (#*/ 0$'* " ( *$% '1.' " ( *$% *"'$ /$#/ /$#/ Compton #1 -, " $ (-% % ",% " &" >.- "/!1 "% *#1% + "%, /& " +" "% (#1% + "% ( *$%. " ", #' ' "% #1% 0("/1% ( 1% #$! 4!") "!&46410) /'( " ( ( + *$% "'1 "% "'1% /9'%, $,/ (, % ( -! " #$ (/1.*% # $ # '/1 #$, #% ( 8 '+,/* $ #) /(* $ /$#/ ( (/( $)(. #"/ (1% "% $/% "8 /$#/ "%.' "% ( *$%, ( / ('.. (1 " " (/!1%"!1 $'*/ */!*#*/ (.-/ /! -/ (,#-/ #1% +#%,!*% * $ / / (/$ /. # 1 #-, / " &#1*/!4*.#$!4) %" 4$ ) ( "'+ *$% "/!1 "% 1% /9'%

11 /9' "/!1 ( + (!$# $ / 1', /#8.*"2.) # "% / (/!-%. %*"2.) /#8(# "/ /9' (, $!/"-% ",-% # "% -! $' #1" +#% "%!1% ( +. #!*8/ + #,'% ",%, *% % / $ # /!8$# "/ /9' / "/ /'( 1 "% $ # $: ) #$! %" 4$ ): / # ( /(# $/ /'+(# (./ "/ /9' ( -# -/ &#, $/ ($, # /1 $, & / /9'1. 9) #$! 4((2.//): / # ( /(# $/ /'+(# "/ /9' ( / #- $ -/ &# $ $ (1 $/ " /9' -! $ ",1 #1% '(+ *$%. / /-% $ # #1% / -,!*# #-% "% #1% $/%, "'1 +/' */ */&/!&/, /& # $" "% / /$ #-% "% #1% $/%, "'1 +/' */ /&/!&/ $ +/' ( '(+ #% "%!1% /9'%. '( "#/ $!-% ( #% ( / /-% 1."/ $ ('$#- $ - " /9'. # #1%, '' $# # $" "%!*8/ +#*/ # "/ (1 (%, % )1% + #-(% ",%: # #. #'-" */ #*/, $! #$/ "/!1 ( + '' "/!1 ( (-(.( ( (&(%, / '+ #-/" #-.% 1% 1% /'( "%!"#&/ ( &/. -!(# $/ /'+ (# "/ /9' ( -#(/ 7# *( (,, &# "'1 ( 9 / '+ (:"'-%.# %..#-% ",-% ( /-/ /* /1(/ ' (1 "/ ",. (/!1 # */ $*/ *#*/ / -(/ #)+ (% (/&% " '" ( #-(/ / ""1! # " + " ( ('+, / -! # ). #/1 '" ( -! -/ - #,

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

13 $" "% ( ( "'(. <*% "/ * " */,##&/ #*/ #1%,,##$ # $" "% / +("!/(!"2 ( (% */ $#*/ ( ( ( +/,,' ($!" #+/ ( (+ " #'-" */ ('&/. 0'+ (!/,/ / # #1% 1 $" "%. 3 /#8/ # $/ " $/ ( "+# / $*% */,##&/ #*/ #1% 1 $" "% /',, '' (,##-% #/8/ #-/% & / #8(/ /%, ' $( $/#. - # "+/ $/ (' ( #'+# / (, 1 - ( 9 / #1 ". ".* */ #*/!+ &2$4)!4* Kirchhoff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

14 /9'%,) # $ -' # ( * #+ /$% /#-/( $ " */1 - #" ( / -% "% */1% /-,%

15 1.3.1.!%(%# &0 "/ '+" /$" " */ $ */ /.+/ " (/-!, - / (# -/,*#$ #-,.% ( / /'&% ", / #$ "/,1 */ *#&/ #,.&/, "!%(%# &0. "/ ",*# 8(# /,*/. #1% s /$% $)( "% -% /$% +'( $*% ($ "/" $ -/ ( +'(, #-/ # "/ / ( +'( r #! (radian) - rd, $*% /! $# $ 8(# /!& ",*/, $( "/ - +'(. 3-1:. /% r /. " /% R $) s /. " / S /* ", $*% /! % +# $,!"#,!%(%# &0 / $, "-!" #- "/ */1 / (!"#8 $ $'% % /% "% % ( '1,(/ $' "# (,##% "% 1% /% S 8 *% '$,%:. 3-2:.! (steradian) - sr / "#/ #-" "% "% %,*/% 8 *% ",*/ # "/ / $ -/ "% % #!1 "% /% "% " #,*/ "% /% "%. <*% " ",*/ - ",*/ / #-,.% $- #" $*% -/ /$% +'( "9'-" '$'"" "/ - ( #,*/ (27r)rd - -/ #% % "9'-" '$'"" "/ / "% #,*/ (47t)sr

16 1.3.2.!%& (4 $ "/ "'#,/"1 /9' ( -#(/ */-% ",-%, -/ #$ #-% "% /1 "/!1 "% 1%, "'1 /# 400/?# 700m. "1 % #% -)/ $ /.&/ # / // $' #1" +#% ( /.- " / "1. */1 '(!/.!. */ 401/1/ ( -# "/!1 ( (.+, / ',$ */1 $ # %!+% (401/1/) ( -# "/!1 ( /(. #1% +#% # ( 8 " #,'+" (." / / / */ 555/?#. */1 /-, ( -# # ",1 " #/ (!$/( / (+.(/", /, "/." " "% $ "% /#8.!%& (4 (luminous flux) F. $/ 10% "%!+% ( /9' # /1 '# * #+, / */1. / #-" "% "% */1% 1% / #$ (lumen) -lm, ( 8!- " # #.1 ",1 $*% (1 (8 $./-% -*/.#&/. 3/ lm / " */1 1 (1 " 1 /9'-/9'+#/"!+%) ( -# $ 1/60cm 2 /% '($!( ( ".# 1)"% ( -! #,*/ 1 sr ! " */1 1 / /.1 (/1.*% % $'% % (.+/ % *% % "/ ",1 ( "/ -#,,($. 1/!1 # / (# -/ /''* #-,.%. - / ".!46410 (luminous intensity) 1 -/ " #% ",1%. *9' #% */1% ",1% / " */1 1 ( -# $ "/ ",1 / 9''/!& / #/ %,*/%. / / F " */1 1 ( -# $ # ",1, $ " *9',*/ /:

17 % #/ "% *9'% -!. " %# (candle) - cd / " */1 1 1lvn, ( -# $ # ",1 #-,*/ 1sr. 0- / "#& (# $.&% ",*/ / -/ #-,.%, " *9' " */1 1 -!(/ % % %. ",1 ( -# *% #$# % $'% % (.+/ % /#8. 1 ",*/ # "/ / " / #% % $ -/ "% / 4, / /-% $ " (/'1 */1 1 ( -# $ # $" ",1 -/ "% /: 1.3.4!$2) /8"&/% -/ /''* *#$ #-,.%,. (# / (, $ " */1!+% '1, /* # / "/ *8. $ */1 / # /, ) $ "/ (/$" "% */1% 1% ( - /* "%.!$2) (illumination) #% /% S, / " */1 1 F ( -!. " #/ "% /%. / "'1:

18 / * #+ / Lux 8 *%, " */1 1 1lm ( *8 & # / 1m 2. 1" " #% -! ) $ $ / # ",1 9 # " /, $ '' *8 $ " (,#-/" ",1. "!- " -/ "% ",1% *8$#/"% /% S ( -! $ " r $ "/ ",1, #+# / (& (#.*&/% $ "." "/ /!"#8,*/. # "/ +.(/ " "% /9'% $*% /! / / ",*/ ($ "/ / " / S $ "/ ",1, " */1 1 F ( / $ (1 "/ / / # " 91. "%. 3-3: S -. (3.4):. F = I (3.5) */1 1 / /&% $ "/ / ( /." " +.(/ " */ /&/ ( -# " ",1 9 "/ $ " # "/ / S $*% /!1#. (1 " / / Scos., /& ",*/ ($ "/ / $ "/ ",1 /: (/&% " */1 1 ( / $ "/ / Scos., / # / " "%!. (3.6) "!. (3.5): #-/*% * #$% "% /% S / $ "!. (3.4) ( # " 91. "%!. (3.7),/ ': $ "/ / $:, & '!'! & $& #!, %,! r

19 $ " (1 /,/* 1 " *# /. 1.4 %$%!("!" " *#1 1 ),8$# /$#/ * / *% / ' #$/ $ *#. ($. " (1 #% ) '8 "/ +'" #"/ */ /#-/*/ "% %*,8($$/) 7#74/) ( *$%, "% &#"1/) (reflection) "% 7#,1) (refraction) (.,,/$% $ *% / (.+,## #% - / /(#!1 " */ //&/ "% ('%,*#%. /&,,/$% $ *% /' $ "/ / */ ('&/ *#*/ 1.' /&/% "/ 1 / /$% /,+ ('+, #% / " (/$" / "1 (# ( (' % /-% (%, #- ( '"% ( /8"+# / "% )"% #,-.(% ( #1(% +#% "% 1% /9'% 1 #,'+"%. "/, "% /' "%. /)(# 99*% % #,-% ( +/ " #'-" "% 1% (#% */ -*/ &/ $*/, /& ".' ". '9(# % #,-% ( +/ " #'-" */ &/ 1*/ */ #*/ */ &/ &/

20 1.4.1.!%& "!0& - *,8($$/ 7#74/!4*.!2) -// "%.!%&) "!0&) (!" # ",*#1 1 / (/#-/" # "/ (.+,##" " ( *$%. *% -# $ # */1 ",1 # " #1 &/ (#*/ (!. 4-1) / # -/ "/ ",1, /,*#$% $. 4-1:

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

22 &% '$/ (.+,## #!+" 3x10 8 m/s /$. / ' / #1% +#% "% /9'% -/ $ #- f " (!/$" "%, $ "!+" ( *$% c (,#-/ #- / $ ",/* 1!. (1.1).!+" ( *$% - $ ('$ ('$ //% " #, " "% #1 /$. '$,% "%!+"% ( *$% /$ c o, % "/!+" ( *$% ' -/ ('$ c, /#8 ($'(%) 7%0"!/) 7#,1/) (index of refraction) ( ('+ n: "%.' "% / #-,.% / #,'+% "% #/%.&% / c o >c. / / 4-1, "%.' "%, / *% #1(% +#% 589/?# #% % $!1 # ('.! 4-1: " # $ # /' " ( *$% &#"1/ (Reflection) / /$#/ # */1 / ##'!, $/ (// "!* 1 / + &/ &/ #- */, '' % #- ' $( -!. "/ /' " ( *$% $ % /% */ *#*/ ',,/$% $ (,// $ / /.&/.'#$. /' " ( ' $ # ) ' / /#8 "&4&" 1 "!4!(" (!. 4-3) /& " /' " ( -! $ '''-% ($!/% 1 (+( % /' % $ % #-% /% */ #" "1 #*/ /&/ /*#'&/ */ *#*/, /#8 &-$1/ &#"1/

23 !. 4-3: () //1 /' ", (9) /&#'" /' " 1 - ". ' "'7/ (diffuse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

24 %74 "#!4!(4 (mirror) / # ) ', # #''1 '#$", " /, " -! #,'" /' 1 /$". 1 / - / / #" (, -%!1 %) $ "/ 1 /9'. /#/ ($ /!1 # "/."#/1 #% 8*1%,' ($ $' -!(# #!1 # # % $/% (!"#8/ $. / $#*% /, / '(,$ ## &/ "#/&/,/*/ 1" "%. (1 ( / ( 8 % ( $'(%,.&% / #1# #% "%,('/"% /% %.(#"-% %, " # '( "% %./ # #,'" (/$" # /$% #''( # #,'" /' 1 /$" ( 9.# )!/* "%. 3/!"#8 *' #% "#1% ",1% 1 /$% + /#-/( (+/% (% /$#(% "% /' "%, $*% (% (& # "/ ",+#/",. "/. / #'1 (#!"# #$ &'( #% "#1% ",1% $ -/.*+#! (# (% '+% #+% "% "%,*#%. ( ""! & #& #! %&" $ ")#!!,! ) & * "&#.+% # "&#.!1#.*+# -/ */$ "# ( 9 # $ -/ 0 $ " ' ($. *' ( "#(!"# #-/ $. - / / "% -/ "#, (,*# # /. *% " #1 + (.&/. 0.+# / /!" #+# /% */ */,/*8(# "/ 1 ('! / #+# +' / "/,:(#. *+# '$/ # */1 / ( )/ $ "#. ( $( "#.,*/ $ * "% / 90 +#*/ # + /$# "% /' "% ",*/ /' "%. / "% 90, "'1 " /. /' ''8/% : % -.

25 +.(/ " 180. (! / "# #,*/ $ * "% /' #,*/.' "% '=. % */ + /'*#-/*/ /&/ (//&/ "# ' ( / *' ( "#(. $ ",*# (!1#%. /.=.'=', ' $( + $.=.' #-/*% ='=9. $#/ # / ", " (/-! "% /'( "%: ) /#8 ($!"2%0714 (real image) / (!"#8 $,#-% */-% /%. 3/,#$ *' #/ 9'". '-/ -#. 9) /#8.&!!"2 %0714 (virtual image) / (!"#8 $ */-% /% #",#-% "'1 $ % %,#&/ /&/. 3/ / $ *' / # / 9'". ' -/ -#. & #+# / +# $ *' /$% "#+ /#-/(, (!"#8 $ -/, / / $ ".- " ( / /* "/. $ "# %, * $#*% ' ($. $ 1 ( 9 $ / " # "/ $ " ( /#-/(. *' /$% + /#-/(!"#8 "# % "# # +' /!. '(.&/% (% /$#(% "% /' "% $*% /# ",(#-/*%.!. 4-6 $ *' ( /#-/( / - )- % '(-% (. (1 " / 1 ' -/ '+ 9 $!" $ "% 1% $/ "% !"# #$% &'( / " /' 1 / /$% $( / #+'" #' / #-% #% 1% /%, $ / $. / " /' 1 / /$% + $( / '" 1 (1,. -!($ /! "4014 (concave) 1 "*(!2 (convex).("2 "#!4!(4.!. 4-7 / / R " / #('$"% /$% + $(, -/ #('$"% "% %,$ -/ ( + + #1#% ( /#8 "4(*. ( $(, $ " (. /#8 "8(4) #34&) ( $(, /&. ''" (. ( / $ -/. 4-7: '.. 4-6: &$ #. (// "/ 1 /, /#8 7%*!%(%84&!) #34&). $- "% $ "% /#8 %!0 (focal point) ( $( / "# $( (.+// /'&#/% $'*/ */ */&/ /&/ ( +/ ''"' / + )/, $*% /! $ " =f /#8 %!" 2!/ (focal length) ( $( /:

26 "'1!! #. <' ' /#8/ *"10&4&!.&% # ''"'" - $" /&/ ( / ''"'" / + )/, (,'/ "/ # "/ /' 1 "% $ (!. 4-8). <#, $' (- ) m. 4-8: " $ () $ (), %. /$8/ 4"10&4&!.&% /% $% ''"'"% */1% - $"% /'&$/%. - / /+/ $ "/ ( $( (!. 4-89).!"# #$% &'( /$%,##+ /#-/( $ -/ $, '(. (% /$#(% "% /' "%. / /-% $ # */1 /. # 1 1 /, $/ " 1 " - 1 "% / $. 4-9: %. -/ #('$"% "% /%.!. 4-9.*+# -/ ' $ ( ( /, -/ #('$"%, " (1, ", +% )/% f " 1 $ ". 4*% / ",/$",.+# -/,##$ */$ /#/. / + )/ -/ ( -/( #('$"%.! (#,*# "/ (1 ( &'( ( $, (+/% (% /$#(% "% /' "%. *' ( "#( #-/(# / 9 ( /* / + )/,.,*#+% '$,(%. /8"1 (# *' ( "#(, '(.&/% "/ +!" &/ /&/ ( /!*+/ $ ($. "# "%

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f = R/2?:% /#-/( = = s?:% &'( = '' = s' $ "/ #$" */,&/*/ '' + $:

28 /& $ "/ #$" */,&/*/ '' + $: (/( #$% */!.(4.3) (4.4) /: $ "/ '( (1!- " +' + " %30/!4*.("48 "!2!(4*, ( # " 91. "% (4.2),/: ). (4.6) /, ($ $,,# ( # +' /,/& "% / ) / " "# / $. ($$" 1 %"#( $%',*&/ (lateral magnification) ( + $( / '$,% ( +:(% ( &'( % / ( /#-/(.!. (4.4) 8 9&% / #$ "%,##1%#,-.(/ "%: # " 91. "% (4.6),/: ( ' # ''" - " "%,##1% #,-.(/ "% (# # - +/" " 7/,(8(#!. 4-9 %,:(# /'( (# # $ "/,1 /'( " "% (1% ( &'( /$%,##+ /#-/( (. $ ", $( > 2R (4.9) # $ ' $ 1% $ "% f. 9 " $,:# (& # % ",+#/% +,(% " (/.1" (4.9), #+# / (/: (# )1%: 1. *' (!"#8 / %!- " # /#/. 2. *' /, +!"#8 $ %,#-% /% ( /'&/ ( &'( $ / $ "/ ). (4.6), + /,/* #,-." f. 4. *' / ( /#-/( # 9 " "!. (4.7), + / >

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

30 .&% /#/ '" 8 % "/ (1 ( $(, *' '' '" 8 ($ % "/ (1 #/. "/ (1 /#/ *' (#(/.$', # #$/" $ *' / / $ #,1/!4*.!2) "/,. 4.2.,:# /$#/ "% &#"1/) ( *$%, /&!. 4-4 / ",*# #% */1% - #"% (,!$#/" $ # ",1 0, /' $ "!* 1 / + #- */. / + #- / $ $ "/ 1 /9'.*1 (# $ " ",1 0 -# /9', $ $% $ /$#/ "% /' "% (+ -/ #-% "% /9'%, " ($!/ /$#/ "% 7#,1/) (+-/ '' #-% "% /9'%. </ # */1 - #" (// "!* 1 / + &/ &/ #- */, $*% # "/,. 4.1., ''8 "!+" (. ($ -! / (/-/ '') " +.(/ " 1% (

31 + #-.! "% ##' $& "" % % % ##, ' 7#,1/.! "+# ",*# (!. 4-4,.-/% '-/ " 7-,1-$%&/ - #" "% % ",*/ # "/. "!* 1 / "#- $ * "% /..,*/. /#8 &0 7#,1/). "/, # / 21*!4 7%0"!/ 7#,1/) n /$% /,+ #- (, #/!*#1 /9', *% '$, "%!+"% ( *$% 0 /$ % "/!+" ( *$% #- c (!. 4.1). 1 # /$% #- ( +/ /-#(/ "/ "'#,/"1 /9' # "/ (!/$", "#/ $ ".' " / *+&2!/! f!/) "!&46410) 7% $%!6#11%!. $ %!. (1.1) (4.1) #1% +#% "% /9'% '. 4-11:. $( ' / #1% +#% "%!$#/"% /9'%. + #-, ) $ ".' "% n "%!$#/"% /9'% $ "!- ":. /,$ ('$ -! $ ".' "%, #1" +#%, $*% + $ / #$ ( ".' "% $ "!. (4.1). ($ /, # $ $!" #+#/.' ('! '-/ / $ (-% % (/ % #+# (#'"& (# (% /$#(% "% /' "% "%,. 4.2., # (% /$#(% "%.' "% *% )1%: ).'&#/" - #" 9 ( 9 / " ( 0 " /'&#/", "'1. "!* 1 -/ "# $ * "% -! "/ ",1 0. 9) '$,% ( "#$/( "%,*/% $ * "% % "#/ "%,*/%.' "%. /.$% : " $

32 $#% ( Snell % (.- (# $ -!(# + #-.!. - /$ # %.' "% /! 2, (!*8/ # " / $*% /! ''"'% /% #/!*#1% /9'% ( -!/ $ "/ */1 ",1 (//+/ "!* 1 / #,*/ $ * "%, "!/1,#1 t 1 =0 " # 9 "# "% /%, /& " ''" "# ( #- (. "!/1,#1 t 2 =t " +" / -! "# ' "%!* 1% /% -!/% /+ "#: $( (1 / "!+" ( *$% #-.!. 4-13: $#% ( Snell. &" /. (/! "/ "% #-, -!/% /+ /!$/ "#: $( ( 2 / "!+" ( *$% + #-. "# 9 / #-* +#%, $*% "# ' ' 9 / '-/ '' $ ( &(. #-/*%,*/ ' '' /.,&/ ' /!. $,*/ ' (/( #$# "!. (4.11) -!(#: <# $,*/ '' # " 91. "%!. (4.12). /: #-'" " */!. (4.13) (4.14) #% ", "!- ":

33 $ "!. (4.1) -!(# $ ( 1 = c o /n 1 ( 2 = c o /n 2, $ "!. (4.15) ", " -' # ($ /#8 &2$4)!4* Snell % #1/ ( ''/+ /$#( #."#+ Willebrord Snell ( ) ( / +* &%.!. (4.16)!+, ".' " (1 (% (#*/ ( (/ "!* 1 / + #- */. '$, n 2 /n 1 /#8(# +%!"2 7%0"!/ 7#,1/) ( #- ( *% % #-. / /-% $ /$#/ / '1*% / $. /% '(.+/ "/ / " / - (/ "!* 1 / */ + #- */!$#/% $ + $ #-.,*/.' "%. / #$" "%,*/% $ * "% (.<) $ / *% #9/ $ #- (n 2 >n 1 ). / 99*% " */1 - #" -. "!* 1 / */ #- */ (=0), $ " #$/",*/.' "% ( # / '".+ "!. (4.16) / ".=0. (/&% "%! & " "$ ) % ""!" " $ %! ## $&. % (.- (# &, $ #/!*#1 - #" #9/ $ (/$ #- # ".' "% n 1 $ # ".' "% n2 (n1>n2). '(. "'1 "/ /." ( ",(#-/(,#%. <*% /! ",*/.' "%.. / #,'+" "%,*/% $ * "% $ /!+ /$#% ( Snell (!. (4.16)). / ",*/ $ * "% ()/, /! ()/ ",*/.' "%., (+/% / "!. (4.16) #-//%.>.,*/ $ * "%, * $, ",*/.' "% / " #, " "% #1 ( / 90 (',8 $ "!. (4.16):!. 4-14: '1 /' "

34 / ",*/ $ * "%,/ ', #,'+" "%, / /-% $ "/ ",+#/"!- " $ + / (! /$#/ "%.' "% (/&% " 1 - #" /' )''1(. /$#/ 1 - #", " #9 1 "% $ (/$ #- $, /' )''1(, /#8 41" &#"1/ 141" %!%(" &#"1/ (total internal reflection).,*/ $ * "% 1% - #"% ( #9/ $ (/$ #- $ "/ ",*/.' "% / 90 /#8 4(" &0 (critical angle). /$#/ "% '1% /' "% 9 #,1 # '1% /' "% (!" #+/ (+ "/ (1 &/, "&/,/*/ % *,-% #"!/-%. '+ /-( #,1 "% '1% /' "% " +,!/"!/',, / " # #% '1% */1% - #"% 1 #,'% % # 4!"') 0&%) (glass fiber). (-% / ( #-/% $ (:"'1% /%,('!1# '&/ ('/&/ /&/ (!. 4-15). / # */1 - #" -! ''"' / )/ "% /%, (// $ *$ "/ ('/1!* 1 / #,*/#,'+" "% 1% (/&%( '1 /' ". ($ (#9/! $'" "/ "% #- "/ /, - & /./ "/ -)!*% &'% "/. 4-15:. -/ 1 "% '$,*.' "%. "/ 1, # -% - #% /&/!" #+/ /.1%, "/ )- " "#/&/,/*/ ( /.&/( 1 8*+,/ #+!*%!(,1 -#9 ". "'/*/ ( 1#, # '1,('/" / # % /.&/"%!% #- '-/ 1 1 ( 1 '" +/#" # */-% ( #'+/ ($!/

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

36 !1% ' " $#/" #,1, ( " $/ *% -! $ /1 (.!.,('/") '!(% d ".' "% n, # ''"'% % -// -% (!. 4-18). +' #+# / )(# $ " )!$#/" - #". ( ' ''"'" #$ " $ " +.(/ " "%!$#/"%, ( / /'," (!(% d "% '%.!. 4-18:.' " $ '!(% d

37 "#,*, -!(/ #-% 1% / "% #)+ /$%,*,+ /$% #/*1. 9 $!" $ (% / " " $#" '+ #&/ (,/& */ #)*/ " 1 / ". # /# # /$% "#,*,+!( / #'.,#! Si Ge ( /1(/ "/ -" # ( + ( 1#%. ( ''1 #1 $'*/ */ "#,&,#*/!*/ / $# # "/ #1 ( #/.!1# / &% "'$/.-/(% ( Ge!"#8(/ #'+% #+% #,/ (% 2.2 &74%&%0) /$40 /,/% "#,*, / "#,*, + '' (:"'1%.$"%!*/ $*% Si, Ge ''. $ (%!" $ / " )" " "%,*,#$"% (% $ "/.#.. /,$,## /$% "#,*,+ /!1#..# T=0 '+!#"'-%.# % " 8&/",*,#$"% / /'&% " 8&/".-/(% '1*% '"##-/". (' (#-/ / #/*-%

38 /,$! # / (/1.*% #$ E g = 1.14eV, Si 0.67 ev, Ge /& */ #/*&/ / "% )"% */ 5 ev. 3.# *#( -/% "#/$%.#$% "'/*/ #+/ / 1 (/ 1.#1 /-, / #"1 (/ $ "/ 8&/".-/(% "/ 8&/",*,#$"%. ($ "#/ $ #' # 8(/ "'$/ ( #(#-/ $ # #+/ / /".+/ '(.- / + '' /, ( $#/ "/ 8&/",*,#$"% /' #-/ ($ "/ " "'+ ( (/ -/% - "/ "'1,*,#$".#$% (% ()/ ()/#-/"% "%.# % / (/- (1% "% +)" "% ()/ ",*,#$" ()/#-/"% "%.# %. </. -/ "'$/ $ -/ #'$ #$ "/.- " ( "#(, -/ /$ /,$,## (!1# / $ " &' ( "'/( (/# # "/ "#(, #% 1% "/ /.-/(%. 1 (#- / -/. #-/ *# ( # / '+. " /.-/(%. (,/, " /1.- " ( "'/( ( -(, '#9/ $ -/,/$ "'$/ "#(, # "/ ( # 1 - " 1 / #- "/ 8&/".-/(% /. # "/ /" " ( "'/( "/ 8&/",*,#$"%. 3 " /' #-/" /" " * $ "/ " /$% "'+ ( E ( "'/( "/ 8&/",*,#$"% ( (/# # /" ".+ (. " /" " "% 1% /$% ''( "'1 #-/( *#(. "'$ +# /. $ -' # */ + (&/ (/ &/. / -' # "%!1% "% "'1% ($"%.#$% */ &/ "/ /.-/(%. / % # /.#$ */ "'/*/ "/ /,*,#$"%

39 % ($ "%,*,#$"% /#8 %&74%&) $2!/! "#,*, ( #/8(/ %&74%&%0)/$40. 3!/% ( $:/ $,*,#$" & ' + " -*/ "'$/ % -% #+# /,/+ (# (# #, "/,*,#$" */ #''*/ / +# "/ " */ + (&/ -*/ "%.# % "/,*,#$" ( /,/+% "#,*,+. / n / " (,-/* " */ "'/*/ "/ /,*,#$"%, p " (,-/* " */ &/ "/ /.-/(%# " " (/" */ "'/*/ # " (/" */ &/, ",*,#$" 8 *%. # "% (/ % */ #-(% -*/ */ &/ */ "'/*/. H,*,#$" + #, /*8/% %.- #% /,-% % % 8&/%.-/(%,*,#$"% /! $ # "/ 91. "%!- "% ''"&//% # /, $ ''1* "% / (.#-/ "% 8&/"%,*,#$"% E c -*%, 9 (# $ " (,-/* " n */ "'/*/ " 8&/",*,#$"% / $ "!- ", $( m n * " /,$% #8 ( "'/(, h ". ( Plank, k ". ( Boltzmann. /',(% (', #+% #+# / 9+# "/ (,-/* " */ &/ "/ 8&/".-/(%, ''"&//% # /, $ $ / (.#-/ "% /%.-/(% =0 -*% "/ (1 "% /

40 $"% N c N V ( )&/./&% $ "/.# (~ 3/2) /#8/ /,-% (/$"% "% /%,*,#$"%.-/(% /!.!- % (4.2.2) (4.2.4) / '&(% "# % $ (/-(/ n, p,?, T #)+ (%!+(/, "#,*,$ (B c -E F ), (E F -E v )>(# kt), "'1, % $% & %. 0''' 8/% %!- % (4.2.2) (4.2.4) /(# /,/1 "#,*,$ # 9 " "/!1 "% "'1% ($"% -!(# " (4.2.6),/, "'1,/$#/ */ n p / /)" $ ".#" Fermi ) #$/ $!" ( "#,*,+ "'1 $ Eg. $ % (4.2.4), (4.2.6), (4.2.7) #+# / '+ (# *% % EF, 1 % $% & % «+% $% "/ (4.2.9) / '+ #$% ( &( ".#" Fermi 9 /, #- ( /,+! #%. (,/& % */ "'/*/ &/ % /%,*,#$"%.-/(% /! 9 / $ / (/( #$ */ (4.2.7) (4.2.8) / 9 $!" $ "% (4.2.10) / "!.1 +)" " ( n.&% ".# ()/. / "!- " (4.2.1) / 1 (# "/ (4.2.10) $,

41 ( ' "/ #1!- " ( / "/ )" " "% "'1%,*,#$"% $ "/.#, /,/1 "#,*,$.,.#8/% "/ (4.2.13) /(# "/ $,## "% (.% 9 (# Eg ) (',8(/ "/ ' "

42 2.3 3%&%0) /$40 (% /,/% "#,*,+% '1.% */ '+.*/ -*/, #-/ "#,*,$. #-/".# /. #-/. % "#,*,-% )% $#*% / #+# / ()/(# '1.% */ + &/ '(.-*/ -*/ (&/ "'/*/) 1 #$/ ( /$% (% /)" # /,$! # "/.#. ($ (,!/ / #"$ '-,# ( "#,*,+ (!(/ #-/ " #)*/ ##-/ $!.,## #-/".1" #)*/ %$ 14*!$2) (doping). -/ "#,*,$ /# $40!8 4* n!1# / Ge -/ # ( -! /. # # As -! -/ "'$/.-/(%. -# "'$/ / (##-! "/ "#(, */ #'&/ #&/ /!' (/#-/ / $ ( (1/. '+ +' / '+. / / '(.- '-,# / #. " 8&/",*,#$"%. 3 /,, #- % /,-% /% ( Si # #/*#-/".#" (+ ( "'/( ( As, 0.01 ev!#"'$ $ / (.#-/ "% 8&/"%,*,#$"%..#" (1 /#8.#" 1 $" >.! */ */ # *% #)% (#-/ $*% As /#8/ $% "'/*/ 1 '&% $%. /!%.#%.#% &/. 1.#% &/ / '+ / "/ /,*,#$"% % (/". #-/%.# % -% / / #-/ $' "'$/ (% -!(/ #"1 "/ 8&/",*,#$"%.,*,#$" ( ' %.#% */ &/ /#8 )*,/1%,*,#$". / n>>p $ "#,*,$%!"8 *% +( n. % ':" /#8/.4(%0) 1%4&2!/!) ( & / "'$/ % #:".4(%0) $%4&2!/!) ( & / -%. /,$,##, -/ "#,*,$ +( n /!1#

43 (% )*,/% "#,*,+%!+(/!- % $, "#,*,+% +( n /', # "/.# 1!1 : I) 4#"'-%.# %! #&% / #$% */ &/ /& / ".#1 /-,, "/.#1 -, " $ "/ /.-/(% "/ /,*,#$"%. n / $ "!- ", $( " (,-/* " */ / #-/*/ &/..- " "%.#"% Fermi $'( #"-/ /.&% ()/ ".# ".#" Fermi / % * # +.(/ " #- ( /,+! #%. ) - % ( (/". #-/%.# %) <' $% / / #-/ / " (,-/* " */ &/ / -!(/ / $' $,.*&/% #'"- "/ (/ "% /,/+%,*,#$"%. ) :"'-%.# % /& $' $% / / #-/ " n -! $ "/.#1 -, " "'/*/ $ "/ 8&/".-/(% "/ 8&/",*,#$"%. (! " /,/1%,*,#$" # "/!- " (4.2.10)!- " (1!+ $, )*,/% $, /,/%. )" " (% (,-/* "% */ "'/*/ $ "/.#, "#,*,$ n +( /!1# 4-4.!1.# &/, "/ ",*,#$" #-/.1 /#8!1 $(

44 4.3.2 $40!8 4* p

45 !1# / Ge -/ # ( -! /. # # Ga -! "'$/.-/(%. Ga # / / -/

46 "'$/ $,/$ # / (#'"& - % #'+% #+%..,/$ # -! & -''## "'/( "'1 # 1 " (#- /.$ $'(" #1 # ( "'/( h # / /". '+. 3 /,, #- (% /,-% /% ( Ge # #/*#-/".#" (+, 0.01 ev :"'$ $ "/ (1 "% /%.-/(%..#" (1 /#8.#" 1 $".! */ */ # *% #)% (#-/ $*% Ga /#8/ -% "'/*/ 1 '&% -%. /!%.#% /#8/.#% &/. 1.#% */ &/ / '+ / "/ /.-/(% % (/". #-/%.# % -% / / #-/ -% (% -!(/ #"1 "/ 8&/".-/(%. /,$,## (% "#,*,+ p +( /!1#.9,*,#$" ( ' (%.#% */ &/ /#8 (1 )*,/1%,*,#$". / n<<p $ "#,*,$%!"8 *% +( p..4(%0) 1%4&2!/!) & / -%.4(%0) $%4&2!/!) & / "'$/. (% )*,/% "#,*,+%!+(/!- % $, "#,*,+% +( p /', # "/.# 1!1 : )4#"'-%.# %! #&% / #$% */ &/ /& / ".#1 /-,, "/.#1 -, " $ "/ /.-/(% "/ /,*,#$"%. p / $ "!- " <( N a ~ " (,-/* " */ / #-/*/ &/..- " "%.#"% Fermi $'( #"-/ /.&% ()/ ".# " Fermi / % /* # +.(/ " #- ( /,+! #%..#" ) - % ( (/". #-/%.# %) <' -% / / #-/,!+ (1 "!1 $( ",*,#$" #-/.1 /#8!1 $(. ) :"'-%.# % /& $' -% / / #-/ " p -! $ "/.#1 -, " "'/*/ $ "/ 8&/".-/(% "/ 8&/",*,#$"%. (! " /,/1%,*,#$" # "/!- " (4.2.10)

47 2.3.4 &!!,$$'&4 /$40 </ (!(/ $% -% $ "#,*,$% /#8 /.# #-/% /,$ (,## /!1# 4-6 <*% /!1# 4-6, % / '% $/ (!(/ + " #)*/. 3 "'$/ "/ /,*,#$"% #+/ / 9.+/ "'$/!$#/ $ "/ /.-/(% #.#1 -, " 1 #.#$ / #$ */ &/ /! -% # / 9.+/ " /.-/(% ) % "%.#1% -, "% */ "'/*/ $ "/ /.-/(% "/ /,*,#$"% " $ "/.#1 -, " */ "'/*/ $ "/ /.-/(% %.#% */ &/.-*% "'$/ # / - (/ $ %.#% */ &/ %.#% */ &/

48 2.4 /& % "#,*,&/ '+/ /& % "% #% -V. "'1 (-% /& % (!"#8/ $! "% "% -#"% #% ( + ( 1#% $*% /& % GaAs GaP, InAs, GaSb ''-% ''%. ( ''1 #1% (% / $# # ( #/ # "/ $ " 9 " ' & $ + #.! Ga As # / #'. 2''% "#,*,#% /& % / /& % */ #*/ -V $*% CdS ZnS /& % "% #% rv-vi $*% PbTe / /-% #"!#-% #$% / /$%. "#,&,#" (# (% ' % "'/-% ( ''-% -'% #1% ( / -' # "% $' "% $ "!#1 (% + ". /& % # $/*/ / "#,*, n +( /& /& % # /$/*/ / p - +(. /.!"#1 -/* " # / #/ "#,*,#$" #.1" # ''"'" #-. /$/*/ 1 $/*/ 0.!. + '' NaCl $/.+/ -!'& (:"'1.#,// "#,*, p +( /& $/.+/ #+% Na,//"#,*, n +(. 2.5 '+." / /$% "#,*,+ )% "% /#$#"% /#1% */ "'/*/ /# / * #, $ /.+#" # #)*/ 1 ) ( (!(/ "/ /, $.% /,-%.#%,/* -% *% /-% %. / # */ ( ''*/ '(,+/ / -%. /-% /.+#"% #)%'(,+/*% -% 1 -%

49 2.6 )#& % #&/(/ "/ (/" */ "'/*/ 1 &/, (/ /!-% ( #8(/ "/ /" " (%.,(/ /-% /,-%.#% (.- % (% )&/ $ / + ( "#,*,+!1# 4-7 / -/% "#,*,+% n +( # "/.#" */ )#& */ / '(, / -"% #-% */ "'/*/ ( $",+/ /,$ )#$ */ /,/ " 8&/",*,#$"%. 0/* $ "/.# 1!1 $( ".#" */ )#& */ /8 "'$/ #(/ " /,*,#$"% #-/*% % (:"'-%.# % ",*,#$" / "8 "#/ $ % )#& %. $. # / /.+#",,(/ /-%.#% 1 1 -" /,$! # # -' # / ''&/ " # #,'" 9 *$#/" (,-/* " "'/*/ 1 &/ (.8(/ / + "%,*,#$"%.,# " (,-/* " #)*/ ( $#./ -/#/+ '' / "% )"% 0.1 " 10 ppm 3 ##1 (,-/* " '$,* /.+#"*/ #)*/ # " % $"% */ "#,*,&/. / '$, ($ #,'"!1 '#9/ "/,*,1% "#,&,#*/ ('&/! #-/, 1 (:"'1%.$"%

50 2.7 "/ (1 "#,&,#*/ #/( ''*/ # #$.#$ )#& */!" #+/ ''-%!/-%. $ (1 / "!/1 Czochralski. 3/% #$% #/+ ''% Si 1 Ge #98 1,# Si 1 Ge "/ (/-! / + # #1!+" 1cm/h 1 / $ ($ # ( 1,#% ''+/ / #/+ '' /(/ "/ #1 (.!$% + ''% - / -! $ (/$/ '! % )#& %, (-% /,/ // /!"# #$ ( ( ''( #-.%, "/ (1 (&/ 1 &/ "#,&,#*/ /& */ / " #-.% 9% :+)"%. +#*/ # " #-. (1 ''"'" #+' $!'8 /$ /#,/+/! (. '- (/ "/ -/* " # "/ ''"'"!#.#// ''"' +/ C /* $ "# 1)"% ( + "(!(. "# ($ ".# #-/.1 #-! / ''"*. " / ". " (/-!, "#-% #-/(/ 50 # 10 0 C * $ "# 1)"% "/ (/-!:+!" #+' # '+,$ (.#$ (8 + ''% 2.8 "#,*, '+/ /.#-' '. "% #"'/1% //"'/1%. 4" #+/ % "'/-% "'/-% )% / /8, ''"*#-/ ('&# / "'', ('. -% #,-% */ "#,*,&/,/ $#/. <'% "#,*,% )% 9 8/,,/$% $ ",*,#$" ( ('+ '-,! # "/ (,-/* " */ #)*/ 1 # / #9'' ##,'"!1 #&/ / ''8 $!1!1 /* " )" ) %.) p-n % 1% p-n / (/1.*% -/% + ''% Ge 1 Si # #)% +( p #!1 +( n #/ ''" 1 + "#,*, -/% p +( $*% Cu 2 O -/% n +( TiO 2. $,*!( "% -% $ "!1 p #9/(/ "/!1 n "'$/ $ "/!1 n "/!1 p. "'$/ ( +,(/ $ "/!1 n ( ( ''(!-/ "/!1 p 1/(/ #-/ # ( $" ( '+/ '-/ /". $/ "/!1 p /* "'$/ '#9/(/ %.- % */ &/ # ( -" 8(/ /" # ( '+/ & /" /" $/ "/!1 p.!1 (1 /#8 %(4+.4(!0& +-(4* 1 %(4+ %11%05%).4('& -' # / " "#(, #% /1%!1% "% %(4+) %.) # "'$ $ "/!1 n "/!1 p (!-4-8). 1 "/!1 "% 1% / (!(/ '+. % " &!0!/ %.) / #,'". </ #$ (# )*$ "'$ #,'+ /. $ "'$

51 ( (/#+ 1% $ (/#$ "!1 p. - / / #,'+ $ (/#$ "/!1 n. H +/ " (1 /#8 4(, 21/ " ( "'+ ( $ p n % $ "/!1 p -!/ "!1 n "'$/ $ "/!1 n -!/ "/!1 p 3 & (!(/ '+. % "/!1 "% 1% " / " 1%. /!!#"'1 +# "/.1 $'* ". / #,'. (1 " 1 (/!4 4(,2 (%8$. "/ /." * " $/ " $'* " / &#!(4./ -% $ "/!1 p / #+/ / + (/ "/!1 n. (#9/ # "'$/.#$% */ "'/*/ "!1 p / '+ #$% #$/ $ $ 9'-/ $ #"!/ #$ "% /,/+%,*,#$"% $ -(/ /!(.+/ $ "/!1 n. "/ * " (1 " / " "% 1%. / #,'". 3 "/ / " $'* " " 1 /,. #-/*% "/ / " $'* " " 1 '(, / #/*1% #-/*% /'' $#/ +# / /.*1% + - #$/ "/ # +.(/ " "/ #"#. </!+, pp=nn, $( p P " (,-/* " */ -*/ '/$"% "/ p!1 n N " (,-/* " */ -*/ '/$"% "/ n!1 $ " 1 /#8 *$$%!(".!+ p P >> n N 1 p P << n N $ " 1 /#8 8$$%!(/. "/ )"!" #+/ +##% -% % % " % (,/& % (#/ $ 100 -*% %. +# # 1 p-n / $ "/!- " ( Shockley " ' / /$# "% /1% $( 1%, $( #!" 1.1 "% )"%, +# $(, e ( "'/(, k ". ( Boltzmann T " $'(".#. +# $( ) "#/ $ "/.# +#*/ # "!- " #-/*% +# 1% ()/ "#/ # "/.# " " "%.# % %!" -% -V / "#/1. "!- " ( ) "/ / " $'* " " " / -V. Si +# $( / 0.01# (/#$ *'( 0.6V, /&, Ge +# $( / 10# (/#$ *'( 0.2V

52 " V +# / / #$ "#.&% V,/ #,' /"$ +#,,8 "/ #1 -.!" 1 I-V #% 1% p-n /!1#. "/ * " ( " / " " (9 # #" #1 ( /#8!#/ 7# /) "!#((%*/) 7#!(//) V b (breakdown voltage) " 1 / '(, '-/ / /.*1%!1 -V ( "% /, $ "/ ( ). % ( '+/ "/ " "% $( / ) " ( 1 " " Zener </ " -/ " ( "'+ (,/ '+ #,'" "% )"% ( 10 6 V cm -1 $ / (/$/ / '9!& #* "% "'/*/ $ "/ /.-/(% "/ /,*,#$"% '$,* ( 9/#"!/+ /#-/( "% +,,%. / $ ($ / (/$/ / ()".+/ % #/$"% "/ p!1, "'1 "'$/ / ()". "#/ / +#. ) " "!/ 9% "/ " (1 "'$/!+// (,+/# (- # /8(/ # /$#/!/ 9% ''' 8(/ (% '+.(% % # -' # "/ #/ "#,'"%-/ "% +#% ).#1 " "/ 1 ( / ( +#% " &' "'1% /-,%.#$" * $ (/.1% (:"'1% / "% "% (/' "/ +)" " "%.# % 1% " # " "% ' +)" " ( / ( +#%.. -*% $( " 1 / /.! / (/. # # #,'" / " " / 8 +# #-% #$% #% #-, "% #1%

53 ) Zener #. #-/" " "% ( (8/, / '(,+/ ' "/!1 ( "% /#8/ Zener. / /$ $ -!(/ "/ $" / "+/ "/ " (%!$/.1, #,'% #9'-% +#%!" #+/, "/ */ ('*#*/. " "% (.#8 # "/ (,-/* " */ #)*/. Si (#/ $ V.!1# 4.9 / "!" 1 I- V #% $( Zener ) %.) (8 $ #/+ '' + '' Si # #)% In 1 $ #/+ '' Ge # #)% B 1 Al.!*"$" 1% / "% )*% */ 10pF "'1 #,'" $ / # /!" #". ('&# (:"'&/ (!/1*/ /* $ 100KHz. 4" #,-." */ $*/ Si / V b =1.5 -*% 2 KV, #-, ".# '(,% ^^=150 0 C /& /!!" #,-." "% $( Ge / V b =100 -*% 400V, #-, ".# '(,% ^^=80. 0 C

54 ) 8() (Tunnel Diode) +,,% -!(/ '+ #,'.#$ #)*/ #/" 3!- " # "/ (,-/* " #)*/ #/cm 3 */ /&/ $*/. $,* "% #,'"% (1% (,-/* " */ #)*/ ( 9/#"!/+ /#-/( +,,% /,-%.#% */ #)*/ /,// /,-% /% $ /&// # % /% ( "#,*,+ # -' # " /,1 #1 ( "#,*,+ / '" 8 "/ /,1 #1 #''(. -' # / "!" 1 +#% "% / #/8!1 # /"1 1 / ". "% "!1 1% ( 8 '+ #1!*"$" 1%. % +,,%!" # / /!+ / '/*1% /& / #/!" #". / /.& ',474 "!"%*) %.-& p-n! 9 -% #-. (1% &/ -" 1/: () " 1 #-.%!"# #+ &/ " /()"% #/( ''&/ "#,*,&/ ('&/ (.) " #-.%!"# #+ &/ # #" ". + (-% #-. //,## $#/!1#

55 "/ &" #-.!"# #+ &/, " "% /()"% */ #/( ''*/./ 1,# ( "#,*,+ #)*/ #-/( +(.!. +(. "# "% /()"% ( #/( ''( " (,-/* " */ #)*/ 1,# #9'' $# # "/ $. "

56 $"% #)*/ ", # -' # ($' ( #/( ''( / / +( ". "/ /()" */ #/( ''*/,# $9 ''"' '#9/(/ "/ 1 #-.% (1 $#*% / / ''"'", #81,*,1 "/ " 9#"!/. " #-.!"# #+ &/ # #" ", -/ "#,*,+ ('+ +( ". #$,('+ ( '#9/ #)% +( p " (/-! (.#// & #-% ( ( /!"# # # "#,*,$ '. "/ :+)" ( ( ''( /( ''+ % ) #-/ # #)% +( p $*% /!1#, -!"#8 " 1 p-n. #-.% (1! /!" #". # #,'" (!, " #81,*,1 $*/ /8. 0'"/ $#*%, ()/$#/% 1 %, $ / " '(, */ /8 - " / /-% % (/#% "% #.$( (1%. ($%,/%,/% (.8 "/ '(, ( /8 &/ / " $ " #)+ */ + &/ "/ /* #-. ".- " */ &/.8 $!% */ /( ''*.-/*/ *#*/, $#*% / / +' / ',!. # 9. / 91 -',! "%.- "% */ &/ p-n, " -(/ 1," " #-. "% " $*/ #)*/ #- / "#,*,$. "/ * " (1 " / ( '(. # ",1 #,'"% (,-/* "% #)*/ +( /.( /( */ #)*/ ( '( 0/&%, / '#9/!& #!"# #$% */ #- "#,*,$ ', '' #)% +(/ #- / + '' #!( ", " / (/$/ / ',!. # #,'" 9. /'(:" $ -/ '$ &# SiO 2 9'' "#/1 / " "!( " */ $*/ #)*/, &/ &/, $. $#" #,'+" 9 / -',! "%,*#% */ "#,*,&/ )*/.,*# #% )"% / (/$/ /. # '(:" ( "#,*,+ # SiO 2 " (/-! # -. " % #)% #-/*/!&/ ( "#,*,+ $ % % -! #(/. SiO 2.!-% ((-%.8/ # "!1 " "%!/1% ( /,/* 1 / #&!. "!/', /,##!1#. #-.% (1 (/(8 '/1# "% #.$(!"# #+ &/ #!( " # "/ $" ( SiO /,+ "!( " $*/ #)*/ #- ( (+ - - / 91. #$ "%,*#% */ )*/. "%, "!/', (1 #''+,,/$% $ "'-% $"% #% /% Si, " -! '(. # SiO 2, / '+ /&% $ /% ( / -!(/ '(. # SiO 2. ($ / $ " "!/', 1," "/ /()" */ ''"*#-/*/ ('*#*/, '+/ " +" / " "/ '/1 # "/ #/ " ( '!

57 2.8.3 Transistors / -% n-p-n 1 p-n-p. transistor 1% (8 $ #/+ '' / "#(,+/ + p-n -%.!1# 4-11 / " "#,*,1 )" p-n-p ( ' transistor p-n-p.&% +#9'$ (.!1# / " "#,*,1 )" n-p-n ( ' transistor n-p-n.&% +#9'$ (. # $ % %!-% (/1.*%" 1 /#8 " 4$ 2) ()"#!1 / " #/ () " ''" " ) ' *11'"!/) (C). +#9 " #$% (#9'8 # -/ 9-'% ( -! " */ &/ </ #$% -! -% " 9 " $ 9-'%!/ % (1 /& $/ -! "'$/ " 9 " 9-'%. -! $ " 9 " / #$. '(, ( transistor p-n-p /!1# / " +/ " */ )*&/ &/,^ "' */!&/ 1% #+ -9 "% 9 "% - (''-" / /.. 0'&//% "/!1 1% #+ - "%. "%- (''-" / -!(# #* " ( "'+ ( "%!1% 1% ( #+ /!" #* " ( (/#+ 1% #+ - 9 "%. /! # "/ / " $'* " "/!1 1% (''-" - "% -!(# +)" " ( "'+ ( "%!1% 1% 9 "% - (''-" /!" +)" " ( (/#+ 1% 9 " (''-",- & ^^^^. / $ ($ '!( " &/ " 9 " #- * ( #+ ( /! -/ (%8$ %" 4$ 48 IE. (,-/* " */ &/ "% 9 "% ()/ -%!-/ % "/!1 1% ( (''-". $#*% -!/ '-% (/#% F 2 '$,* ( "'+ ( E pn2,!+// /+/ "/!1 ( (''-" "#(,&/% -/ (%8$ *11'"!/ IC "/ -) ( transistor. To (%8$!/) 6#/) -! $ "/ /'1* " */ "'/*/, (!// ) % "% / +/ "% (% # % -%, $ "/ / /-% $ $/ / (! +# +'*# ( #+ +# +'*# ( (''-" / '+ #$, " " "% 1% 9 "% (''-" -! / ". / $ ($ +# +'*# ( (''-" '-,! $ +# +'*# #$+.!+,

58 / 9 1 #% ( transistor ' '91 +#% #-,.% #-,.% ( " (,-/* " */ -*/ '/$"% "/!1 ( #+ / '+ #,'+" $ "/ (,-/* " */ -*/ '/$"% "!1 "% 9 "%. 3 % '/$"% "/!1 ( #+ / '+ $ $ (% % '/$"% "% 9 "% # -' # / -!(# I C <I E <1 # #-% $ *% / transistor #!1 1% 9 "% 1#.1 $'* " 0.2V / " $'* " 5V -*% 10V / #-% $ *% =32 #-! 99. $ '$,* "% ( ) I C =99 I B. '3 # #1 #9'1 ( +#% " 9 " /!+ # "/ $'" " #% #,'"% #9'1% ( +#% (''-". transistor # / $ ($ # / '(,1 / /!(1% +#%. / #)+ #+ 9 "% #$ (# # " U E (1. '- '',1 ( "'+ ( ' - " #9'1 ( (/#+ "%!1% /# / #$ " 9 ". (1 " #9'1. / /'," "% #9'1% ( 1#% U E. 3 "!( " */ &/ $ / #$ " 9 ". '(.1 (.#$ "% #9'1% ( 1#% U E. 3. -!(# '',1 "%,*,#$"% "% 1% (1%, # /!( " "%!( "% */ &/ $ / #$ " 9 " +)" " ( +#% ( (''-" I C. +# ($ - "/ / " R C ' & " "% " / " " )$( ( transistor. 1 " 1 p-n ( (''-" - 9 " / / '*#-/" #/8 #,'" / " 1%. 3 #+# / (/- (# / " R C # #,'+" #1 / -!(# #,'" " )$( "/ Rc!- " # "/ " V e $(. 3 #+# / -!(# /!( " "% /!( "!+% "/ -)

59 Transistor %704* (Field Effect Transistor) 0'',1 ( transistor ' transistor ( (!1# 4-12). 3/ ' Si +( p ( /#8 /' - "/ # ( / +!-% +( n ( /#8/ ",1 (source) 1 (drain)..-/ #$8 -/% #''$% -"% (terminal). '(. /* "/ / -/ #/*$ &# SiO2 /* $ ($ -/ #''$ "'$ " +'" (gate) </ / (! "/ +'" #$ (# (/#+ # 1 '$" #)+ +'"% 1% +# / '+ #$ 1 # $ % -% p-n / / '*#-/". " (/-! 8(# "/ +'" #.$. ('$ +( p / (!(/ '' "'$/ (!/ $ "/ /,/1,*,#$" -'/ % "/ +'". /' " +'" '+/ (% ' #+% /$% (/*1 # "'$ SiO 2..&% ()/.$ (/#$ "% +'"% ()/ " (,-/* " */ "'/*/ /' # -' #/ ()/ ",*,#$" /'

60 / & #$ (# (/#+ /# "/ ",1 "/ 1 $ '$,* "% (:"'1%,*,#$"% /' - $ +# #1% (. +# ($ # / ''8 ''8/% "/ " "/ +'" '$,* "% '',1% "%,*,#$"% /'. +# ($ / '+ (." (/#$ "% +'"%. )" '(, *% /!(1%. "#,*,1 )" (,:# /#8 Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor MOSFET. MOSFET / # "#,*,1 )" &/ &/ "/ +# /# + -% '-,! # #,'" 9 ''8/% (/#$ / -" "1/($'& "*"1-$!.!1 /$. " *#*/ ('&/!"#1,!)" #&/ +#% / (/$/ / +!(# (/( #-/" '(, ''&/ MOSFET, (/*&/, / &/ /* -/,*/ #! ('+ #,-.(% ',*/ mm. - " (1% "% -% -! ",1 ''"*#-/ ('&# #,'"% '#%( ^) "/ ''1* " '+ #,'"% '#% (VLSI)

61 2.8.5 %($0!4( (Thermistor).# (Thermally Temperature Resistors) #''($# "/ )" " "% 1% / "% */ "#,*,&/ $ "/.#. / )1# ( (8/ $ "#,&,# ('. +#*/ # $ "# (.#+ (/' 1 / "%.# // ) NTC (Negative Temperature Coefficient) #.#$ (/' 1 / "% /"$ ) PTC (Positive Temperature Coefficient) #.#$ (/' 1 / "%.$ NTC.# " )" " "% / "% # "/.# / $ "!- ", $( R0, #!1 #1 "% / "% (.# "/ (/1.*% "/.# 9''/%. $ "/!- " (1 / $ " / " '&/ ()/#-/"% "%.# %.!- " (1 /!1# 4-13.# '(,% */ NTC / )/ (% C. NTC!" #+/, $*/ "'&/ "'/&/ )"#*/ 1 ( 8(/ #,'" / " :(!1 " +(/ +'*# "/!1 ( '(,% ( - & / #"/ () #,' +# +'*# 1 #-/ "'', )1# ( 8(/ #1 / " '$,* (.+.#+ (/' 1 / "% (%..&% ()/ ".# '$,* '(,% ( ('&#% + /..# (/' -% / "% /.#8/ " -/ " ( +#% #-/.. 4" #+/ "/ 9.# $("% * "% */ &/ "'+ 1#%, "." " (

62 '(% "% * "%, (% #"-%.# %, (%.#+% $% '-,!(.'.. NTC (8/ # / % # #-% $ (8/ $ MnO,Fe3O 4 #,# "'1 #''*/ Mn, Cr, Co,Ni, Fe. PTC -!(/ / " ( #9'' # ".# $*%!1#

63 $!1# 4-11 / $ %!#"'-%.# %.#$% (/' 1% / "% # / / /"$% +/ /!" #".+/ / NTC, #!1.# &/. 4" #+/ $,/ #-" "%.# % # '+ #,'" 9 $*% ('&#." "% ( +#%. (8/ # $# $ $*% NTC, $ BaTiOs, SrTiOs

64 2.8.6! (Varistor) Varistor (Voltage Dependent Resistors)!" -% +#% "% / #",##-%. / " ) $ "/ #8$#/" "!.!1# 4-15 / "!" 1 I -V " )" " "% / "% $ "/ " -/ Varistor.&% "!+% /'* "% P (/" " # "/ " V. / #/* ( "'+ (!#"'1% -/ "%, " '(( ''$" $% /' #$% */ $*/ #8(/ "/ #/" " */ /#,/+% $(%. 0/* $#*% $ -/ &' -/ "% "'+ ( " /" " */ "'/*/,/ $*% / ( ''$ ('$ " / " '&/.. Varistor!"8 $ # #-, " $#/" " '(,% (-9 " "% % ' 1 "% ( ''1% #1% " (1 (#/ $ 8V-1300V. H #-, " #1 ( +#% (#/ $ 1 -*% 100 ma. 4" #+/, "." " "% "% 1, ( (&/ $ (- ". (8/ $ /.(, ) Zn Ti

65 2.9 & 2.9.1!" 4((2.// '+ "#/1!/1, " #-" " ( /,+! #% /$% "#,*,+ / " $" " "'/( $ ('$. ($ # "+# *$/ $ ',#-/ #1" +#% / (.+// '1!1 # " $*/ */*/. #-/( $, *$/ # /-, #,'+" $ /,$! # +/ ''"' # "/ # " */*/ ##$" #1 /-,% $ /,$! #, / /"$ $ # ($ / -/ 9-% #- ( /,+! #%. / /-% $ -/ *$/ # /-, hv>= Eg # / ". -// "#,*,$ (!. 1.1 ). #-/( $ " 8&/".-/(% -! '' "'$/ " 8&/",*,#$"% -! ''-% /-%.- % % % "'$/ #+/ /,.+/, $ "./$" $" "% */*/ / (:"'1. <*% /!1# 1.1, -/ "'$/, "/ 8&/",*,#$"% $ 1 $" " #/-! $" /-, $ (1 ( / (/". #-/", "'$/ " 8&/",*,#$"% (!$/ $' "'$/ ( / / " Ec $% /,# / /!(#-/ #,' 9.#$ ). 3,,#-/ "'$/!/ /-, #-! "!+" ( "/!+" "%.#1% % */ ''*/ "'/*/,*,#$"%. Figure 1.1 Optical absorption of a photon with hn > Eg: (a) an EHP is created during photon absorption; (b) the excited electron gives up energy to the lattice by scattering events; (c) the electron recombines with a hole in the valence band

66 "'$/ " 1 ( "#(, $ (1 " $" "% / (-9 " */ #-*/; #-/( $ / $% % # 9''/ (%, - ' / / (/ +/. /& " (-9 " #-*/ (! % /!% 8&/%, * $ / '+. / (/ -(/ "/,*,#$" ( ('+. 3/ *$/ # #$" /-, $ Eg / +/ /, -/ "'$/ $ " 8&/".-/(% " 8&/",*,#$"%. 3 -/.$ "#,*,$ (! #'"- $" " */ */*/ # hv < Eg. ($ )",, # (' / / #-/%!-% #1(% +#%. +# '-/ / /(# #-/(% #/*-%, $*% '$% NaCl + ''%, '$,* ( #,'( /,+! #% */ "'/*/ ( / (! ('$. /! # / ( 2eV '%, #$/ #,' #1" +#% $/ ## $ /-% # 998/; $ "/ ''",! # 3eV - (-(.% $' $ # / 99. / # - #" */*/ # hv > Eg (, -/ "#,*,$,. (! #,' $ $" "%,.8 $ % $"% ( ('+. /#-/(# "% */ #$#/*/ / 998 "/ -/ " ( *$% / ) $ #1% +#% */(!% (,#%. / (', (# (1 "/ )" ", % (.- (# $ " -/ " #% - #"% */*/ ( *$/ / cm2 s ) (.+/ -/,# $!% l (!. 1.2 ). - #" -! *$/ # #1% +#%, ',#-/ $ #/!*# 1. <*% " - #" -! $,#, " -/ " "% $ " 4 $ "/ / # / (', # "/ )- " "%./$"% $" "% /$% 1 +)" " dx. #-/( $ -/ *$/, 9*, $ " 4!*% / ". / -! #/1#" ( $ '+ -! )-:, "./$" $" "% (. dx /.1. (/-, " (9.# " "% -/ "% dl(x) / dx / /'," "% -/ "% ( #-/ x: dl(x) / dx = al(x) (1.1) '+ " "% ) * "% /: (!) = e-ax (1.2) " -/ " ( *$% ( # $!% l (,#% /: t = Ioe-al (1.3)

67 Figure 1.2 Optical absorption experiment. (/' 1% ' (/' 1% $" "% -! #/% cm-1. (/' 1% ($% (. - # #1% +#% ( */( $ ('$. # '1 ( # #1% +#% (!. 4-3 ). (! #'"- $" " #,' #1" +#% ( hv small ) "#/1 $" " */ */*/ # /-,% #,'+% ( Eg. +#*/ # "/ ) * " (2-2), "!- " #)+ "% /-,% */ */*/ ( #1(% +#% / =hc/'. / " / "'$/9$'% ' #$, $,/ = 1,24/'. Figure 1.3 Dependence of optical absorption coefficient a for a semiconductor on the wavelength of incident light

68 !1# 1.4!/ /,$! # #&/ $ (% /+% "#,*,+%!- "# $, % (-(.%, (&% #1# ( *$%. 0"+# $ GaAs, Si, Ge lnsb 9 / -)* $ "/ 1!1, "/ (-(.". 2'' "#,*,, $*% GaP CdS, -!(/! # (+ - & / *$/ "/ 1!1. / "#/$ / "#& (# $ -/%"#,*,$% *$/ # /-,% % #! # 1 #,'+%. 2 Si $! #$/! # ( -1 #.m ) '' #$ #1" +#%, (#'#9/#-/( (&/ ( / "/ 1!1 ( #%. Figure 1.4 Band gaps of some common semiconductors relative to the optical spectrum

69 2.9.2!8% </ "#(, 1 $ 8+," "'/*/ -/ "#,*,$ 1 $/ #%,/ (:"'$ #)*/ $ #(/ % % %, *% # /. $ ('$. 0'' $ (% "#,*,+% / ''"', "/ #1 *$%, */ "#,*,&/ # # " 8&/" /&/.,/1 $" #1% *$% /#8 *,-/. (1 " ", # / (. /', # #"!/ #$ -, "%. / #% /,#-/ $ "/ $" " */*/, " /9' ( + $ / / (/-# */,#-/*/ #-*/ ' *,-/; /,#-/ #% ( "#(,+/ $ 9#9 #$ "'/*/ (:"'1% /-,% $ ('$, $ ($% #"!/ #$% ' cathodluminesence; / " -, " + $ "/,*,1 */!$/*/,# " '1 *+, ' "'*+,. 2'' " -, "% /./, '' ( / $ % "#/-% #,-% ( (&/. '$,# #1% ( *$% $ -// "#,*,$ ( 8, "/ (.% -, " /! #+ /$%, $*% /8!1# 3-5. / / (/ #$% (#9/ # $! #- * /$% '*#+ -(,! # *$% / / "..1 " -, "%, / (/ #$% (#9/ # (% (% (.#+% # "/,*,1 -/ *$/ -#,. *$/ (. # % / (/ #$% / #,1," ; #- " 8*1% ( / (/1.*% $ 10-8s 1 ',$. 2 " #1 */*/ # ( 10-8s # -'% "% -, "%. -,1," *9$'% /- (!/ *%. #$%. $, (' " #1 (/!8, $(% $ seconds #-! ' + #(/. " -, ". (-%,-% % '+/ * #$% (' * +!. 3/,#,1% % /!1# 4-5. ('$ ($ -! ( *% '$,* $ #)"% ) " 8&/" /+ ( -! # -//" ", "/ */1 +''":" "'/*/ $ " 8&/",*,#$"%.,,/$ ( /8/!1# -!(/ *% )1%: () 3/!$#/ *$/ # hv1 > Eg "#(,&/% -/ EHP. (9),$#/ "'$/ $ "/ /-, '-,# $ - " #-! / '" -'% "% 8&/"%,*,#$"%. (c) "'$/ /,(#-/ $ */ )-/*/ ('&/ Et #-/,(#-/ #-! / )/,..# " 8&/",*,#$"%. (d);(e) -'%, # % / (/ #$% + $/ "'$/ - # " " 8&/".-/(%, 1//% -/ *$/ (hv2) $ /,$! #.!$/%.( -" "% #)+ -, "% /! #+ # / /! #,' / "./$".#1% /-, "% $ "/, (d) / #1. $# #,'+%.( 1 % (!(/ $/ "'$/,+ -% -% / / / (/-#. / "./$",( "% / #,'+" $ "/./$" /! #+, -/ "'$/ # / / #-% #-% #)+ "%,% "/ 8&/",*,#$"% / +: / (/ #$%. -/ - ('$ " #1 ( * 8/ *$%, #,'!!/$ "# # "/ #(/ " "% -, "%

70 Figure 1.5 Excitation and recombination mechanisms in photoluminescence with a trapping level for electrons.!&# ( *$% ( -# $ -/ & ) (*% $ % + % #)%, #-/( $ ''-% #9 % /9'% (/,(/ $ #)"% /$% "% 8&/"%! #%. (1 " ',1!*#*/ /!1 #", "/ (1 /$%!&#% "'1%.$/"%. 3/ $ (/1.",# photoluminescence / '#1%. #+. (/1.*% # - '(!/ ' $ -/,('/ *'1/,# -, # -/.8/! # *$ ( *'1/. </ "'1 -/* " '1." #)+ */ "'*/ *'1/,,#-/ # ( ( -#(/ *$/, #,' 9.#$ "/ 1 "/ (&"!1 (! #%. *% -! ". $ "/ *9$' * " -#/ *$/. (1 " ' #$" /$% -( '#1 /." '+" $ /" /$% '#1 (& *% " /#)" /$% #1(% +#% *% # / (.#8 $ "/ '+" ',1 ( ('+. #+. 0,# 1.1 3/!+,# 0,46 #m ( GaAs *8 # #/!*#$ *% hv=2ev. (/' 1% $" "% / 5x104 cm-1.!+% (,#% / 10 mw. (a) " (/'1 /-, $" "% $,# / second (j/s). (b) $ "% '/8( %.#1% /-,% ( '(.&." $ "'$/ '-,# / / / (/-# (j/s). (c) /.#$ */ */*/ / second ( '(.&."/ $ $,,/$ /! #+ (.-/% -' 9/1 $ "

71 + " $ "/ ) * " (1.3): It=I0e-al = 10-2 expl - 5 x 104 x 0,46 x 10-4 = 10-2 e-2,3 = 10-3 W $ " (/'1 /-, $" "% /: 10-1 = 9 mw = 9 x 10-3 J/s ' # */ */*/ / #/ /-,% ( #-.#$" /: (2-1,43)/2 = 0,285 $ $ /-,% ( #".#$" / ($' /: 0,285 x 9 x 10-3 = 2,57 x 10-3 J/s.-/% -/ #$#/ *$/,. *$/ ( (-' 9/1 $ "), -!(#: (9 x 10-3 J/s) / (1,6 x V x 2eV/photon) = 2,81 x 1016 photons/s /''1 '+ ": / (/ #$% /9'%, 9-2,57 = 6,43 mw 1,43 ev/photon (6,43 x 10-3) / (1,6 x x 1,43) = 2,81 x 1016 photons/s %"!(4.!8%!(/ '' $ # (% (% " "'1 /-, # /!" #"., "/ "#(, #1% */*/ $. LED -/ "'$ +# ' -,!( " */ #/&/ #-*/!-% ( ( ''( $( #+/ / / (/ +/ # ':" #-*/, # '- # "/ #1 /! #+ /9'%. "#/$ ($ -' #. /'(. ' 8 (% $(% "%.*% "% p-n +* "%. & -' # "'*+,% ( "1." 1/ " #1 */*/ $ (,#-/ * +! /'' $#/ "'/$. " ( (1 (1, # * +! $/" $*% ZnS 9 (/$ ('$ ( (/1.*% ' $ ) #% "'1%.%. </ #$8 -/ --- "'$, *% / $% ( * +!(. - + # / /!1 # *% * #$% -----, / " ' #$" (% 1/ '+!#"'1, % $% #,-% " ) (% /

72 2.9.3 %!.4(%0) "!4/$2!/! </ "'$/ -% ( "#(,+/ "#,*,+%, (! /!" +)" " "/,*,#$"% (,#% $*% /- "/ ) * " (3-43). / " (-9 " */ #-*/ +: $ "/ 1 *+, /#8 *,*,"#$". ($ / -/ "#/$ -' #, #!1 #% #,-%, "/ /'( " */ ('&/ */ "#,*,&/ '(, */ ''&/ &/ ( (-%. #1# ($ )8(# (% #"!/ #+% # (% (% "'$/ -% / (/8/ #$8(/ / (/ #$, "/ /'( " *,&,#*/ ( (&/. $, " "# ( /! #+ / 8 % & % % % " (-9 " */ #-*/ "#(,+/. "/,#$",!$/. ( (1 "#,*,&/ ) / $ $ "/ (-9 " ( /! #+ "'/*/ &/. % +(, -//% ( /+ / $/ #1#.!" #".+/ (-*%, "/ /'( " */ $*/, /8, '-8, ''*/ ( (&/ $#/ '

73 $%4) &*&7$2) /1%"!(4&0& " 4 -& '$/,*,#$"% " 8&/" */ "#,*,&/ #+/ / /(/ " #9 " " 8&/".-/(% # -##. # / (/ #$ (9'+ '".( #+ */ "'/*/ &/ (/.-/ $ "'$/ ( '(.+/ & " $ " 8&/",*,#$"%, / " "% 8&/"%.-/(%. /-, (!/ -/ "'$/ " #9 " / $ -/ *$/. # % / (/ #$% (#9/ (.$#"../$" $ -/ "'$/ # 1 / (/8/ /.1!$/. <*% "/ * " "% - "% ( #-, (1 ".1./$" #% ", / /#-/(# #.1 '+ ", " " "% (-9 "% */ #-*/. "/ * " (1 $ "% +/. "% */ "'/*/ 1!/1,#1 t / /'," # /.#$ */ &/ #.1 /',%, / (/ #+% Ar*..$ $ #9'1% " 8&/",*,#$"% "'/*/ / (/' 1%.#1%,/% #*/ $ / (/( #+. dn(t)/dt = arni2 - arn(t)p(t) (1.4) % (.- (# $ "#(, '$/ # "'/*/, t=0,,,# $ -/ +/# '% *$% "!1 (-9 " &/ "'/*/ n p / %. " (/-!, $*% "'$/ -% / (/8/ 8+,",#% (,/& % */ #-*/ n(t) p(t) / "% %. 3, #+# /,:(# +/' */ (,/& */ "% ) * "% (1.4) $ "/ #&/ n0 p0 % (,/& % #-*/ n(t)=p(t). 4" #&/% "/ ) * " (3-24)-!(#: dn(t) / dt = arni2 - ar[n0 + n(t)][p0+p(t)] = -ar[(n0+p0)n(t) + n2(t)] (1.5) ) * " (1 / + ' / '(. (1 " #1 ((!&% ( / (/$ / '".+/, "/ * " (!#"'+ -( -,!( "%. / (,/& % "% (-9 "% */ #-*/ / #1 #+# / #'1 (# / $ n2. '-/, / ('$ / )*,/-% #+# (/1.*% / #'1 (# / $ ( / *+ "/ #/$"% #-*/.,# / ('$ / p-+( (p0 > n0), " ) * " (1.5),/: dn(t) / dt = -arp0n(t) (1.6) '+ " (1 "/ ) * " / #.1 +/. " $ "/!1 (,-/* " -/ ( #- (n): n(t) = ne-arp0t = ne-t/tn (1.7)

74 Figure 1.6 Excitation and band-to-band recombination leading to photoluminescence. 9+/ "'$/ -/ p-+( "#,*,$ / (/8 # (/!1. Tn = (ar t0)-1 ' / (/ #$% 8*1%. #-/( $ (', #$%,/ $ "/ :" "% #:"% */ #-*/ Tn ' (!/ " 8*1% "% #/$"% #-. (9'1. &/ -/ n- +( ('$ #/8 # Tp=(art0)-1. "/ * " */ # */ / (/ #&/ " ':" #-*/ (/. 9&% # / (.#$ # " #/$"% #-*/.! -/ #,' $ #9'1% "% #/$"% "% (,-/* "% #-*/ "'/*/,# 1.2 -/ #$ $ #9'1% "% ':"% (,-/* "% */ &/. " -,, " */ )*,/&/ ('&/!#"'$ #% - / / *+ (# n(t) "/ ) * " (1.4) $ "/ (9'1 (,-/* " n(t) p(t) $ "/ #1 % p(0).!1# 1.7!/ $ (1 / # '1 -,, ",,#.,/1 +* ", #- "% 8*1% /: Tn = 1 / ( ar(n0 + p0) ) - " (1 / -,(", n-n p-+( ('+ / /!#"'$

75 Figure 1.7 Decay of excess electrons and holes by recombination, for Dn = Dp = 0.1p0, with n0 negligible, and t = 10 ns (Example 1.2). The exponential decay of dn(t) is linear on this semilogarithmic graph #"$,# # / /!1 # "/ 1 -,, " ",/, "/ /'( " */ # */ / (/ #&/. % (.- (# -/,# ( GaAs / /!(#-/ # 10^15 acceptors/cm^3.,,/1% (,-/* " #- ( GaAs / ( 10^6 centimeter^-3. 3 " #:" (,-/* "% "'/*/ / n0=ni^2/p0=10^-3cm^-3. '&% " -,, " ( p0>>n0!+ "/ * " (1. & / 10^14 EHP/cm^3 "#(,".+/, t=0. # / (', " " */ / '$,* #-*/!&. -,, " n << p0 / ',1 $*%!/!1# 4-7. $ ($!/ ".!$/ "% % ( '".( #+, -/ #- / (/ #+ 8*1% $( Tn = Tp = 10^-8s

76 :$$%4) &+%7$2) 07%*/ " 1'" IV "#,*, #-/% /& %, "./$" # ( / (/#+ "'/*/-&/ / '+ #1.! 8&/"! #% *% /. $% */ ('&/ $*% Si Ge " ( / (/ #+, '' (1 " /9' / '+!#"'1 # / /!/(. #$/ $ (."(% )' #+%. (/1 ':" */,,/$*/ / (/ #+ /$% "% 8&/"% ( /+ "% (/$'(."% &'% /-,% $ / (/ #$ "'/*/ (/1.*% #-! '-,# *%.#$" $! # "/ #1 */ */*/.. $ #)"% '*# # /!" #+ *% -/ / (/ #+ / /.- " / '#9/ #-% /$% +( " (/-! / (''9 /. % ( -, - 8+,% )'.+.,#,!1# 4-8 /8 -// / (/( #$ -( En % / * $ Ef *% +(, / "#/,#" # "'$/. </ (9/(/ "'$/ -% ( "#(,+/ ($ ('$,. EHP / (/8 Er, + : (a) +''":" 1% (b) +''":" "'/(. Figure 1.8 Capture processes at a recombination level: (a) hole capture at a filled recombination center; (b) electron capture at an empty center

77 #-/( $ -/ / (/ #+!1# 1.8 -!(/,# "/, & (#9/ " / (/ #+ / " +''":" 1%. / "#/$ / "#*. $ (#9/ ($ / +/# # -/ "'$/ E, ( (, " 8&/".-/(%, 1//% * (% # " /+ / (/ #+. 3 " +''":" 1% " /-, / #-/" *%.#$" '-,#. "%, " /-,,'." $/ (,$"# "'/*/,*,#$"% (/-! - # " "/ Er. </ ( (,,/$ -!(/ (#9, -/ / (/ #+ / * "/!1 ( " ( (#'"&/ # -/ "'$/), '' ' -/ EHP. 3 $/ -/% EHP / (/ #$% -'9!& '' -/ / -# / (##! ''" * " / (/ #+ //% +''":" #% 1%. #-% 8*1% ( + $ / -## / (/ #$ / *% '+' $ $ / " * " ( # ( / (/ #+, #-/( $ / /, / '". ($:" / %!$/% (, " '1:". +( #-. *%, / (/ #$% (!/.( $ "/ " /$% #- / /.#,#-/% "/!1 8&/" / " +''":" ( -// (% #- ( # / +:,#, / (''". -/ "'$/ (b) / '(. #- *% # " +''":" "% 1% (a),!1# 1.8, " 1 / # /,..# " 8&/".-/(%. (1 "!8 /-,, ( /! 8&/".-/(% "'/*/ ( 9''/ # "/ " / (/ #+. (1 ".( / / (/ #$,.&% " 1 - / (''". ' / ''"*. / (/ #$%.,*,#$" (,#% " "% +/. "% /: (t) = q[n(t)#n + p(t)#r] (1.9) % +(, " )" " $!$/ ( #- # / '(.". $ "/,1 / "% (,#% (/" " #!$/. ",1 #&/ '#&/ *$%, #8 # -/ '#,, "/ $/ " (,#% "%.&% " / " ''. 0'# *$% #('-*/ #+/ / '".+/ # -% :% -// (/*1 #- * /$% *'1/ #- * /$% '% ( -! -/ - $*% xenon. #$(% '#+%, -%!/-% $*% "!1 " */ '#&/ laser - /!" #+/

78 QUASHI-FERMI "/ ",+#/" (81" ", / # "/ 1 (9'1. ( '".( #+ EHP. $, #"!/ # / (/ #+ / "% "#/ -/,#.#1% %.,#, -/% "#,*,$% -!.#1,/ EHPs $ g(t)=gi (, "/ ) * " 1.7. (1 ",/ / "#-/" $ $ / (/ #+ - & " */ (,/& */ */ #-*/ n*^0 p*^0 / "+/: g(t) = arni2 = arn0p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i. ($,##.-"% "'&/ / " $ #)" /.11 /"1 $/ /8/. #-/% #)%,(/ ''' " 8&/"! #%.,# Zn, -/ (Zn-) 0,31eV ( / #- (! #% Zn $ #)". $#( /.- "/!. + "'$/ $ / "#,*,$, -/!#"'$ " (/-!# /&

79 Figure Energy levels of impurities in Si. The energies are measured from the nearest band edge (Ev or Ec); donor levels are designated by a plus sign and acceptors by a minus sign. & % ( / (/ #+ "%,( "% # / #". $ -/ # *,&,#"% +/. "%. <*%!/!1# 1.7, -/ $ '".( #+,#-/*/ "'/*/ &/ )/8 # -/.$!" $ +/. "% "% % ( / (/ #+. / -/.$ *%,#, -/ $ 1%,/% gop..,.#1,*,1, (,/& % */ #-*/ n p. ()".+/ /-%.-% #-%. #+ # /,:(# "/ */ n dp: g(t) + gop = arnp = ar(n0 + n)(p0 + p) (1.11).1 " / (/ #+ $!,( ", n=p. 3 " ) * " 1.11,/: g(t) + gop = arn0p0 + ar[(n0 + p0)n + dn2] (1.12) $% arn0p0 / 9&% % # / (/' 1.#1%,/% g(t). 3,,/*8/% $ n2,!#"'$ -, "%, #+# / )/,:(# "/ ) * " 1.12 *%: gop = ar(n0 +p0)n = n / Tn (1.13) (,-/* ",#-/( #- # /, *%:

80 n = p = goptn Figure Experimental arrangement for photoconductive decay measurements, and a typical oscilloscope trace. ('-( '#$% *$% # / '". # -% :% /$% (/*1 #- * /$% *'1/ ( -! - $*% xenon. (/#$(% '#+%, -%!/-% $*% "!1 " */ '#&/ laser - /!" #+/ ,# 1.3, ".1 " (,-/* "% "'/*/ /: n = n0 + n = 1,2 x 1014 = (1,5 x 1010)e(Fn - Ei)/0,0259 <( KT 0,00259eV.# *#(. 3 "'$/ Quasi Fermi 9 ".- " Fn-Ei $: Fn - Ei = 0,0259ln(8x103) = 0,233eV Fn / 0,233eV /* $,,/-%. $ -/ $# (', #$, " 1 Quasi Fermi 9 0,186eV * "% Ei (!1# 1.11). ($,#, " ( -( Fermi / 0,0259ln(6,67x10^3) 0,228eV /* $,,/-%. quosi-fermi (!1#% 1.11 /8(/ # "/ $' " $ "/ ( ' $ "/ 1 -, "..1 " Fn 8 * "% EF. $!1# / /-% $ " -, " ' -/ #,' $ #9'1% #:"% (,/& */ #-*/ &/! #1 #9'1 "% (,-/* "% "'/*/

81 Figure 1.11 Quasi-Fermi levels Fn and Fp for a Si sample with n0 = 1014 cm23, tp = 2 ms, and gop = 1019 EHP/cm3-s (Example 4 4). (/, quosi-fermi Fn Fp / ".1 " /', "/ ( -( Fermi Ef. </ / $/%,#-/ #%, ' % */ Fn Fp $ Ef /- $ # "'$/ -% 9 / $ % #-% % no po. #-/" (,-/* ",#-/( EHP ' #,#-/" 1 "/ #/$" #-*/ */ quosi-fermi Fn-Fe /!$/ # #- "% $' "% $ "/ ( Fn=Fp=Ef). -// */ quosi-fermi -*/ / '+!1 #", "/ $/ " "% #/$"% "% '/$"% (,/& */ #-*/ ( (-%, % % $"% (-% ''(/ /', #.- "

82 3- % / '+ % +% ( (1% "µ,*,+. /, / µ "'/1 ( (1 + &/ -(/ +µ / - - µ +.(/ ". +µ / ) +µ*/ µ "/ " µ)+ */ &/. / (+(/ /$µ ( *µ.!(/ "#,*,&/ ('&/: * $( "µ,&,µ% $"% ( ('+ (#9/(/ (, "'1 / -% " + " ( ('+ )* $( "µ,&,µ% $"% ( ('+ (8 $ µ% & ('$ / (µ- µ / $ µ / µ%.(µ+µ.!$/ $' "µ,*, +,!/ "'/ ( 1µ / )*. ($ "µ/ $ -!(/ "µ(,". µ9''/% % "'-% $"% ( ('+. /-% µ-. / 1 (µ % "'-% $"% / *: 0.1" µ)*/ "'1 ".1" «)-/*/» $µ*/ ('$. % 1% "'1,,/$% ( (µ9/ $/ /& (µ (' µ8. / /1 (µ *% '(, µ % 1% p n, )/µ (.-/% + )!* µµ /$% "µ,*,+, -/ µµ p -/ µµ n

83 $/ !-% p n. $/ 2.2. /*µ-/%!-% p n µ. % µ' (% (µ9'8(µ '+. "'$/, µ µ',*/ µ ( -", µ $/,*/ µ ( $" µ $/% (% % '+.% -%. -/(µ %!-% % /&/(µ, / )(µ -/ µµ "µ,*,+ -!,/ ".1" µ)*/,. '( "% 1%

84 $/ " " '+.*/ "'/*/ $ "/!1 p "/!1 n. '+. "'$/ "/!1 n '+.% -% "/!1 p µ+/! / -/ µ (! /" " µ- "/ 1. </ -/ '+. "'$/ (//1 µ '+." 1, $ «-» µ- (1. < / % /1 % */ */ ($ "µ/ $ " 1 "'$/ -(/ -/ '' )/8/

85 $/ 1.4.,µ1 «& "%» ( "'/( µ- µ 1. -' µ / $ '+. "'$/, 9 / / "/ 1, /(/ / «,*.+/» µ)+ (%,,/% µ!1 µ*µ-/" $ 1 /+µ/.,,/$% ($ "µ(, "/ /µ8$µ/"!1,+µ/* "%. $/ *% "µ(, "!1,+µ/* "%. &. '+. - µ- "/!1,+µ/* "% 9 / ($ ( µ!1!*% '' '+. "'$/. 9'- ''. ( µ */ &/) "/!1 n '' /" ( µ */ &/) "/!1 p. ( 9''(/ +/µ" -/ '+. ",&/% * "/ «1» (%!1 "% 1% µ $ "/!1,+µ/* "%. µ */ &/ */ &/,.+/ $ &µ / µ+/ / µ/".+/. $, /"$ ( "'/( ( -".$ ( */( ( $" (.-#/ $!µ-/ "'$/ () / / "1 "/!1,+µ/* "%.1 $ '+. "'$/.&%!"#8 "!1. 3/ '+. "'$/ & '-/ /-,, / (/1 % (/µ% $ µ */ &/ &/ & /!8-84 -

86 "/!1. 1 µ-/*% / -/,µ, #8/% 1 / + (+µ) µ- ( (,#%. $/ p n $/ " (,#%. (/1.*% / +µ,µ ($ '//% "/,*,#$" % 8&/%.-/(%.&% (-% /+/ "/!1,+µ/* "%. & µ+µ / / +µ "'$/ / ",+/ «/», / /".+/ $ "/!1 n "/!1 p. -% (µ-/ / / / µ'$/ µ/8/ )/ // µ 1. ($,µµ.! +µ /-,, / 91)(µ % * / µ- (/ µ/".+/ $ "/!1 +( p "/!1 +( n. /-, " $ % '+.% -% "'$/ µ / #".( $ ''"'" " # #-/" µ)+ */ + */ "% $( p n 1%. #9/#-/( ($:" $:/ $ " " (1 - / # µ * $ $, ($ *. /* $,µ. $, #$8/% "/ " µ '.% $,µ,//!$ 9&/% $ '+. 9 / µ $ "/ 1. ($,(/ µ µ$/ +.(/ "

87 "µ(,+µ µ 1 p n /&//% µ8 + µµ /$% "µ,*,+, -/ µ µ)% +( n '' µ µ)% +( p. ($ ' µ!1,+µ/* "% (!"#8,+* $ "/ 1 ("/ -/* " "'1) µ)+ */ + ('&/.!1 (1 '-,! " (# "% $(. $/ &% '(, " %. </ -(µ µ8 % +!-% "µ(,,+* $ (-% µ!1,+µ/* "%. ($, -/,µ µ8 / + (/.! " " µ)+ */!&/ p n / µ"/1. µ$8(µ " "/.1. µ'!&µ (µ9'8/ "'$/ /"$ "% (/!+% "% (-) /& µ $/!&µ (µ9'8/ -%.$ "% (/!+% "% (+). &/% µ.1 $'* " "/ 1, "'1 /"$ "/!1 n.$ "/!1 p,µ µ&/ ($ - µ / (/ "/ 1, "#(,&/% -/ +µ µ- * "% $(. "/ +)" " "% *%,µ )/8 -! *% -' µ / -(/ µ- * "% $(. ($, -/ µ,'+ +µ $(.,,/$% ($ (µ9/ µ-! " " /. ( µ-! 0,7 V. +µ & "/ / ", "'1.$ "/!1 n /"$ "/!1 p. (1 (/µ+ ( µ$8 ()/ ' +% "%!1% +:% (,#%. (µ µ '$/ $ " 1 µ / " " " % /,, /& $ µ.1 "" %!8 /, $ "/ " % */ 0,7 V ( /*. - "% / /-(µ $ % + & % (! µ µ1 "% "% "/ " % / /(/ /. "/ µ/.1 $'* " /µ8 µ-, " ", " / " $'* " /µ8 µ-, " / " ". *!1µ µ%!/ "!" 1 $( 1% p n

88 $/ " 1 "% $( 1% p n

89 $ "/!" 1 "% $( / $ " %, 0,7 V $/ '&/., /& $/ '&/ / +µ,*,1% / µ"/$. (www.mtmi.vu.lt/pfk/funkc_dariniai/diod/index.html) 2.2!4641!;"2.&2µ%&4 *+µ µ "#,*,&/ µ 1 /9' " -! +.(/ "." "% 1% p-n " *8 "/!1 n "% $(. </ ('$ *$/, */ */ " /-, / µ,'+" 1 " $ +% Eg ( /,+! µ%, "!1 n "% $( µ/8/ 8+," "'&/ -*/, ("'$/-.-% -%), µ-! -/ 9.% 40 $ "/ / ( "µ,*,+ ($/ 2.9). $/ 2.9 % (, ( '-,/ *%,!-/ µ- / "µ,*,$ µ-! /. (/ "/ / 1%. / (µ9 ($ -!% ( "µ,*,+ (+ / / - &, -/ µ,' µ-% $ (% *% /./ "/ / 1% / / (/.+/. -!!* µ$% */ *-*/. "'$ EJ "% 1%, µ8 "'$/ /!(.+/ / "µ,*,$ p. ( ( *+/ "!1 ( "µ,*,+ n ( (/+ µ "/ 1 ($/ 1.9). /.,.-% -%!+// $ "'$ EJ, // "/ 1!-/ µ- / "µ,*,$ p. 0"+µ $, +µ */ *-*/ ( - "/ 1 p-n / -' µ */ -*/ µ/$"%, ( /.-% -%. '$ -' µ (1% "% % / " µ/ " "'1% $'* "% "% *$(, $( "µ,*,$% n 8 /" "µ,*,$% p 8.. $'* " (1 /µ8 *9'=1 " " ",1 ( + /µ8 *9'=$!

90 2.3 &+&%*!').!2) /!/(-% *$% '+/ "/ 9&% /." '(, $ (% µ+% *$%. µ $*% 1",/*8(µ / "'- )1µ. /!/(-% / "' )1µ. -(/ (% "'+% 'µ+% 'µ+% *$%. -(/ $ 1µ / µ )/ "'+% 'µ+% ( 'µ9// $ / -" */ µ-/*/ */ &/ /&/, &/ ( &/ (/- */. (/". µ-/% /!/(1% / " *% "µ,*,+, (, +µ / $ " / *%. µ µ1% *$% (Light Emitting Diode LED), " /-, ( -µ "/ / +/ " "'/*/-&/ / µ " µ1 *$%. µ *, (µ9/ /. /$µ/. *% ( - " * "µ(, -/ +µ )*$ +'*µ. "µ-/ *$/,(/ "'$/ -' µ / " "µ(, /$% 8+,(% "'/(- 1%.. 8+,% ( "µ(,, -/ "'$/. (' / +µ )*$ +'*µ. <*% (% µ+% *$%, " '(, */ /!/(&/ 9 8 "/!1 "% 1% p-n. </ -/ *$/ " / -/ "'$/ µ- " 8&/".-/(% 1 /-,, / µ9 " 8&/",*,µ$"% "#(,&/% - -/ '+. "'$/ µ 1. / " "µ(, (&/ */ -*/ (µ9 µ!1 * "%, %,1,. +/. "µ(,1 (/ +µ.&% /(/ "%!1% * "%, "'/-% (/µ% '&// +µ + / (!. /& p-n / ''"' /!/(-%, ( 1µ &/ /&/, * PIN / *!/ 9% (APD s) /! µ-/, / /.µ8(/ µ/1µ */ $*/ p-n /µ&!"') (#µ%!(4.!4&+&%*!-& /!/(-% *$%!"8/ $ % µ-(% % "µ/$% / *: µ$": µ$" /$% */!/(1 / '$,% ( +µ% )$( % *% $(. < µ,'+" " µ$" ( /!/(1, $ '+" " (." ( -". + " µ$" '!- " µ µ1% +µ%,.8 µ1% +µ% "% µ-, "% µ$"% µ1% +µ% ( µ% /-. % $% µ,-%, " µ$" / "µ/$!" $ /$% /!/(1 1.8 "!- " µ)+ "% 1% $( "% "'1% )$(. µ-, ".*"1 µ$" / ( 1,05 A/W -/ µ1% +µ% */ 1300 nm. /!/(-% InGaAs ( µ( -(/ (1 µ$" $ 0,8 0,9 A/W -/ µ1% +µ% */ 1300 nm. µ-, ".*"1 µ$" /$% /!/(1 + $/ " 9/1 $ " ( /!/(1 / 100%. µ$" 9/1 $ " (") (/-/ µ "!- ": R="*'/1240 $( R=µ-, ".*"1 µ$" A/W "=

91 9/1 $ " '= µ1% +µ% nm. (/&% -/% /!/(1% 1300 nm. -! µ-, ".*"1 µ$" 1,05 A/W -/% /!/(1% 850 nm. -! 0,68 A/W. 9/1 $ ": 9/1 $ " / '$,% */!&/ 8(,&/ "'/*/ &/ ( "µ(,+/ $/ (/ *$/ /* ('$ µ% $(. 100 % 9/1 $ " "µ/ $. *$/ ( "µ(, -/ 8+,% "'/( 1%. (1 9/1 $ ", -// /!/(1 ( µ( / $ 70% *% 90%. ($ µ-,.% 9/1% $ "%!/ $ 7 *% 9 $ 10 *$/. "µ(,1 (/ %. 0,/% ( µ8(/ "/ 9/1 $ " $ / / 100% / &'% " 8+)" $ "/ / / /!/(1, " $" " *$% "/ p 1 n!1 -% (µ*/ / /!/(1. 4*"$":!*"$" /$% /!/(1 ) $ "/ /,$!1 ( )1µ% "/ / " " /* ($. µ1 /,$% µ% - µ$"!*"$". <µ*%,.&% " /,$% µ% µ&/,,/ ( '$ / (.(,µµ (µ "/ / $ / /!/(1. ($ '- $,,/$% $ " $ " "% *$( /,1 "% /,+!1%. / * +/, µ,1 $ ". µ/, ()//% «µ)µ» */ */. / "µ/$ / *8 µ$/ /$ µ-% "% /,+!1%, / '! 1 (µ ($ /$µ/.!*"$" "% *$( µ&/ µ "/ +)" " "% / "% "%.!" 1!/ $.&% " / " " ()/ /* $ Volt, " µ* " "!*"$",/ '! ". ($ "µ '-µ $ /!/(1% / '1*% *µ-/%. :"'$% / % % "% ()/(/ "/!+" ( /!/(1. (9'1 / " " µ / ()1.$(9 ( /!/(1 µ-/% & %

92 2.4! * µ+/ /!" µ".+/ / µ1 (/ */$". & " *% ( / (-% ) $ $ ( *$% ( - /* (-%. % led, *% $ +µ / $ (1. led µ+/ /!" µ".+/ *% ",1 *$% */ laser. ( (-% */( (µ,1% "% 'µ9/(/: ) 0",-% *$% $*% led laser "#,*,&/. 9) ( (-% % /!/+(/ 1µ (*/!/(-% 1."1% /!/( "%),) *9'=-% ( (-% ("' +) "'µ,/"1 /9' µ (!/$" A* < Eg / -// "µ,*,$ µ! µ1 $" ". /9' µ (!/$" Aw > Eg //$. - /9' µ / "µ(,1 8+," &/. 3/ / *µ*µ-/ "'$ (! / µ % 1% p-n 1 µ Schottky µ /!* "'$/ $ % -%. B '$, ($ (-% ( (-% / "' +,(/ "' µ$, / */!/(-%, /// "/ "'µ,/"1 /9',/% -/"'$ 1µ ! p-n ) &+&%*!) p-n / "% $'* "% /./$/ µ-/!1 " */!/(-%. B "/ /$" " "% '(,% (&/ */ ( (&/.-(µ "/!" 1 "% +µ% "% $( ($ */$" ($/ 4.10). "/ $/ (1 " +.(/ " ( +µ% " $(% '-, *% /"1, / "% +/".%, -/ "'$ +. & - (V>0, I>0), " % '(, *% "'$ (V<0, I>0), " % '(,*% */!/(1%

93 $/ 2.10: 4" 1 "% +µ% µ% p-n $(, +µ,$µ/ $ *%, IL=0,1 2 ma/cm2. µ (!" µ+/ /: +µ $( " $(% 10-9 ma/cm2, /$%,/% 1.1, / ", Rs=0, 1 / " 1% +µ%, RshC D,.µ T=300 ok. 3/ ($!- µ% p - n *$( / "/ $/ (1 " ( (1 "'$/ -%,/ "/!1!*% µ)%!*8/ $ / *µ*µ-/ "'$ $*% / "/ $/ ((1 / 1 $ -/ ( ''$ "'$ + $( % (''-,/ $ µ1"!( "% % (-%!-% µ% $( p-n.) µ-, +µ µ / (''!. $ µ p-n / $ "!- ": ().2.1) $( S / µ9$/ "% ( (1%, L / µ1% "% *1%!1%. ().2.2)

94 /* ) * " µ%!/ (.µ$,*,1% 8(,&/ "'/*/ &/ ((.-/% $. *$/ (, -/ 8(, "'/( 1%, P1 / " ( -/ " /9'% ( µ/% W/m2) Pl/h* / " 1 */*/ (/ µ/ µ9+ / ($'). () (9) $/ 2.11: ) *% p-n * µ-/" $ ($ *µ 9),µµ 8&/"% µ% / '*µ-/"% $( p n. /. &/% "/ ) * " 2.2 "/ ) * " 2.1 ''"&//% "/ ) * " 9 (µ $ +µ /: ().2.3) "% 'µ9/(µ / * (', µ$, " µ-, " $" ('',1%, µ p n: ().2.4)

95 / '9(µ ($:" $:/ µ%,,/$% $ µ$ $ ( *$% /' $ "/ / ( */!/(1, $ " ) * " (1,/ *% )1%:

96 ().2.5) $( R / (/' 1% /' "%, *% $ * "%- & 1-R / / ' µ */ */*/!*+/ / "µ,*,$. <*% / $ "/ ) * " 4.5 p n µ µ,'+% *-% (Intrinsic)!-% -!(/ µ,'+" 9/1 $". $ "/ ''",!$/% µ% ( -/% ( % 8 "/ $ " (!/$"% */ $*/ p n) ()/ /', L. ($.8 µ.1 '',1 / $! µ+ */ $*/ p n. µ-, " (!/$" "% '(,% */ p n *$*/ InGaAs / "% )*% */ 10 GHz. (1 / '+ µ,'+" $ % (-% % (!/$"% */ *,*,&/ (photoconductor), % / 100 MHz. "%.$(9% µ p n / (/1.*% '+ µ$% $ $ -/ *,*,$. $ "/ ''" * / ( 8(/ -% (Aph = 1), " $ " "% *$(, Rph E Qc'(µm)/1.24 / '+ µ$" $ $ -// *,*,$ ) 1%!4*(%0 µ0.!470474) * ( '' "' + / 9 /µ$( $*% p n. 0 + " %. *%, $( -/ +µ $. µ +µ "% $( & (/'$ +µ / $ "/ *!- ": ().2.6) $(.-µ/ +µ, ph, / $*% ",*,1 */ "'/*/ */ &/ / "/ $/ "'$/ ( -% µ8+/ "/!1 $( (! '/$" -*/ $ "'$, "/!1,+µ/* "%.,$µ/ $ *% % '+/ -/ +µ, /. +µ $( "/ / " $'* ". (/&%, " % µ /!" µ". *% */!/(1%,!" µ&/% / " 1 µ"/1 " $'* "%,.&% µ+µ/ +µ '$,* *$% / /', "% -/ "% ( /% *$%. % µ "% /!" µ". *% "'$ +,!" µ&/%.1 $'* ",, /, "'1!+. +!" µ% *$( / " $ ", +µ " $(% +% 8&/"%. $ " / +µ '$,* *$%!*8$µ/ $ "/ ( 1!+. µ-, ($ +µ, µ * + µ: ().2.7)

97 $( Pin " ( 1!+%. µ-, +µ 'µ9/!& $/.!$µ/ *$/ "µ(, -/ 8+,% "'/( 1% (µ9'' +µ '$,* *$%. +µ ($ "/ ( µ% /' "% R "/ / "% *$( µ% $" "% (/$"% d -/ ('$ µ (/' 1 $" "% $ "/ *!- ": ().2.8) +µ ($ + ' $ *% µ&/ $ / 8+," "'/*/ &/ (,/ '$,* *$% / (.+/ µ- " * / / /+/ µ- %!-% $( (!(/ '/$" -*/. +µ " $(% / +µ ( / " ( *$%. +µ ($ (! '$,* ( /+ +µ% $(, "'1 "%,*,1% - / + "% */ -*/ "/!1,+µ/* "%. /% 1%, " (µ9/ "/. +µ " $(% / µ/-% *% 8 "/ '! "!+ " /!/+ $ " *, $( +µ '$,* *$% / '+ µ$ $ +µ " $(% / + ' / µ"

98 2.4.3! p-n * / *(." "#,*,&/ (-% p-n), */ */ " '(, 9 8 *9'=$ /$µ/. '' '$,, (, $/ / *8/ (µ-/ *% //, /& $/ *8/ ''8(/ "/ "'1 (% (µ% )% ( *+ *"'+ /µ-/( ( /+ µ- (-%. /$µ/ ($, µ / "'*. *% *9'=$, $/ / (! )*1 "'1 $'* ", 1 / *,*,µ$", $/ (! $'* ". ($ "µ/ $ * µ+/ / '(,1 (/ / *9'=!, '' / *,&,µ ('. "/ &" * ", " *% (µ- / µ,//1 "'+ +µ% (*+µ) ($/ 2.13) ( ( " -/ " µ / (',. µ " 91. "% ) * "% 1.9 +/µ "'$ +'*µ / "/ $/ ) 9)

99 $/ 2.13 V ev/ = Ip - Ipn B I = IP(Popt) - I0 I= (e 1) ().2.9) R $(, IP(Popt) / *+µ ( ) $ "/ 1!+, R / " / " ( ('&µ% (/ " (), Ipn / +µ ( - "/ 1, V / " " "% / "% R, I0 (eev/ 1) + $,,/$% $, " /µ1 */ */ q µ- (/µ$ V "% 1% '(. " /µ1 Boltzmann, q = q0 eev/ ().2.10) $( / ".µ "% $(, e / ( "'/( =1.38x10-23 joule/grad (. Boltzmann) ("!/(!"') 1%!4*(0)!/).!47274* *+µ "'$ +'*µ "% $/% 1.14, / ) (µ % * & %: $/

100 0&" 0* ", VdF0. </ Vd=0.$% $% "% ) * "% 2.9 / % µ " µ/ $: Id = Ip (Popt) BPopt Vd=0 ().2.11) "%, $/ Vd<0 $.$% $% eev/ <<1 I0<< Ip (Popt), $ " ) * " 2.9 / ' "/ ) * " "/ * " '$/ ( VdF0 +µ (. - +'*µ "% *$(. / /)" "% "% Vd /', "% 1%!+% Popt. 1" " (1 /8 "/!1 ( ) "% "'1%!" 1% Id=f(Popt) ($/ 2.149), µ "/ 1!" 1 Ip=f(Popt) ($/ 2.15). ) 9) $/ * " +", Vd>V,. "/ * " (1, $/ "'1 " " Vd "% *$( / µ,'+" $ " ",*,1% V,, $.$%,/% "% ) * "% 2.9. / ''-% -% µ,'+% $ " µ/ '-/ +µ Ipn.1% $'* "% "% $(. / '+ µ,'+ $ *+µ Ip(Popt). $: Id E I0 eevd/ ().2.12)

101 ) * " 2.12 / *+ "/!1 (I) "% "'1%!" 1% Id=f(Popt) "% *$(, ($/ 2.149). 0* " ", Id=0. "/ * " (1 +'*µ "% *$( / /!$ (/- / - µ +µ, (Id=0). +µ*/ µ ( ( /-µ, *% ("'$/-.-% -%) ( "µ(,+/ µ- " * '!*8/ µ "/ " ( "'+ ( "% 1% µ -' µ (!( (+ / /+ "'1 " Vp " /µ8 " /!+ 9$!( "% *$( 1 *9'=1 ".!- " µ+ "% *9'=1% "% Vp + $ "/ ) * " 2.9 / (1.- (µ Id=0 Vd=Vp. (,µ-/: 0 = Ip (Popt) - I0 (eevp/ 1)B eevp/ = 1 + Ip (Popt) / I0 B evp/ = ln (1 + Ip (Popt) /I0) B Vp = /e ln (1 + Ip (Popt) / I0) Id=0 ().2.13) "/ $/ / " )" " "% *9'=1% "% Vp "% *$( $ "/ 1!+ Popt ( (1. 0* " -", 0< Vd< V,. "/ * " (1 +µ.1% $'* "% *+µ "% *$( / (, µ µ µ-/ $ *+µ Ip /.$, () µ$/ $ "/ 1!+), /& +µ Ipn ()/ µ "/ +)" " "% "% Vd, (/'$ +µ Id ( - " *. µ9'' $ " µ1 Ip "/ µ1 0, (!1 IV "% "'1%!" 1% "% $( ($/ 2.149). $ "/ /'( " ( ",1." (,µ-/ $ "/ "'1!" 1 "% *$( ($/ 2.149) +(/ * "1 %:

102 "/!1 ( ) " % /. '*µ-/" +µ Id ()/. µ "/ " Vd. "/!1 (1, " '(, "% *$( / "8 $ "/ 1!+ Popt (/-, $% -',!% ( +µ% "% $( / +/%. "/!1 ( ) " % / / '*µ-/" +µ Id -!.1 µ1 Ip (+µ $(), ( ),µµ $ "/ 1!+ Popt ( *8 " *. "/!1 (1, " *% '(, *% *,&,µ ('$!" µ (*%, "/ /!/( " / $ µ$ "%!+% "% 1% /9'%. "/!1 IV " % /. '*µ-/" '(, *% *9'=$!. "µ µ1% */ µ('&/ Id=f(Vd) µ / )/ Vd µ% /(/ % µ-% Vp */ *"',&/ (/µ*/, 1 *9'=&/ */. "%, µ-% */ µ('&/ (&/ µ / )/ Id /!+/ +µ 9!(+'* "% Is (=Ip) ( + $/ " " "% *$( / µ"-/

103 2.4.5 %4&%"!µ!!4727& p-n / * p-n µ+/ /!" µ".+/ / */!/(-% % -% /*/%, ( ( 8(/ % /.+µ"% $"%: / -!(/ µ,'" (.". 0( 8(/.$(9. / //, (/1.*%, /" %,1,% µ9'-% "% */1% 1% *% +( / µ+/ /!" µ".+/ -% /*/%, " µ µ,'"% (!/$"% "µ*/. $ % /.+µ"% (-% $"%, " " / " "µ/1, '$, ($..1 (µ / " (/1 (µ. $/ 2.16!/ µ / '*µ-/" * p-n.&% "/ /µ1 ( "'+ ( µ- "/!1,+µ/* "%. +% "%!1% (1%,, µ-/" / " $'* ", ) $ " (,-/* " */ $µ*/ $ µ)"% (% "µ,*,+% ( 9 / -*./ "% 1% p- n. $/ 1.16 $/

104 (,µ-/, $ µ1 / " (,-/* " (1 $ µ,' / +% "%!1%,+µ/* "%. 3, " *% "% $/% 1.16 ' $ -// "µ,*,$ +( p µ µ,'" (,-/* ".&/ &/ $ -// "µ,*,$ +( n µ '+ µ1 (,-/* " '(.-*/ "'/*/. / " )" (1-1 /9', *$/. -'.(/ / "µ,*,$ +( p $ (. + (/ "/!1,+µ/* "% $(. "µ(,1 (/ *"'+% %, ("'$/.-% -%). "/!1,+µ/* "%, "'$/.-% -%.!* +/ µ- *%. /".+/ /. )% "% +)"% ( "'+ (, /& *% ( "µ(,+/ "/!1 p.!(.+/ % "/!1,+µ/* "% $(. (''!.+/. "%!( "% / '+,1!- " µ "/ /" " */ "'&/ -*/ µ- "'$ *% +(. (!.( -" ", / '1"!* µ$ */ *"'&/ -*/ " *. ($ "µ/ $ * p-n ( 8(/ /, "'1 -!(/ µ1!+" $ "% % µ9'-% "% 1%!+%. -' µ "% /.+µ""% (1% $"% / "/ $/ 4.17 $( " $µ" µ9'1 ( *+µ% Ip - " *. $ /* + $, "/ +)" " "%!+"% $ "% "% *$(, - " $" " */ */*/ /,/, + '$,, µ- "/!1,+µ/* "%. &" 9'* " "% $"% (1% -! '&//% " (,-/* " */ $µ*/ $ µ)"% / "µ,*,$ p. 3, µ (1 *% p-n -! +%!1%,+µ/* "% ( 1-3 µm. " "% ) $ $ µ1% +µ% "% 1% /9'% $ $ ('$ "% )"%.,µ * ((, (Si), -!(/ µ-, " " "/ 1!1 ( + µ%, ( µm) /& *,µ/(, (Ge), "!1 '" / ( (-(.(, ( µm). ("µ& % "'/1% Laser, 1% (.%.1999, '.115) 2.5! pin $9'"µ "%!+"% $ "% */ *$*/,/ $µ -// % -% /*/% $( µ1" +µ% (!" µ+/ / "/!1 ( (-(.( 9." ( "% "% /9'% (% "µ,*,+% "% *$( / µ,'.,,/$% ($ 9'' "!1,+µ/* "%,+* $ "/ 1 p-n / -! $ (/$ µ,'+ +%. ($ µ / (!. / µ)+ */ + "#,*,&/ +( p-n µ9'". -/% % "µ,*,$% +( n µ '+ µ1 (,-/* " µ)*/, $ " & ($% /.* $µ" /,/1% (intrinsic).,*,µ$" "% /µ "% (1%!1% / µ$" $ "/,*,µ$" */ "#,*,&/ p n "% )"%. )" ( + ' " µ1 "% *$( pin, (Positive-Intrinsic- Negative), "% % "!1 i /!1,+µ/* "%. +% "%!1% i µ / ', " (1% "% *$(, - & $' '-/ *$/ / +/ µ- (1 µ '$

105

106 -' µ, $' *"' % /!*8/ / /+/ ($!/ ($ "/ " ( "'+ (. $/ 2.18!/ µ / '*µ-/" * pin.&% "/ /µ1 ( "'+ ( µ- "/!1 i. µ (1 * pin +% "%!1% i / µ) µm, " 9/1 "% $ "./ 85%,!$/% $ "% % µ9'-% */ &/ "µ*/ / µ$% ( 1ns. $/ 2.18 µ1, " ", µ '1, µ,'( µ1(% +µ%, $ " µ! µ- $'* "%, / " ',$µ/" p-i-n µ1, ( / "/ $/

107 $/ 2.19:!"µ1 µ1 µ% pin *$(. /- " /µ1 ( "'+ ( µ- " µ1 pin * pin -!(/ * '/1µ: ()/.- µ% $,%, "/!µ'& " */*/, ()//% (/- '% ( &µ% -/* "% µ-/( / +!(/ µ,'+" $ ". 3/ (+ &µ -/* "% µ&/ "/!*"$" 1% & / (),",$" $ ". $, ($!/ ()/!$/% µ "% - / " /,/ µ /.µ ". µ* " "% /',% /µ /.µ$ */ */ (,/,+* $ "/!1 /.µ$ */ */ (,/ µ- "!1 -/* "%, ()/ "/!+" "% ( (1%

108 - 1-LED "#(, + 1#% / "#/1, # ' '(,&/ ), % '"&/. 1#!" #+/,.$/%, / 9''(/ '"% -% #/1#% +/, ( 1# #/1#"% 9 #-/ 1 /,/& ". % #1% *$%, ( (/1.*% ' LED (light-emitting diode) / # $ % '+ % "'/-% ( (-%, " -! 9 "#/-% #,-% *%.$/".&% "% *% ",1 + 1#%, -% /*/%. / # % "#,*,&/ ( -# +/ /+ #% *% $/ '&/. "/ +.(/ " "% p-n 1%. - % p- '(-%,!-/ "'$/ #- $ % n- '(-%,!-/ -%. ($ /$#/ / # #1 "'*+,% ($ "'$ /$#/ ( (#9/ $/ -/ ('$ -# &% *% -' # "'+ +#% ( -! $ ($ 1 /$% "'+ (). 3/ LED / (/1.*% # #1%!1% ",1 *$%, (!/ #.-#/ "%, / #& #/-' /9'% "%. LED!" #+/ (!/ *% # % *$% % "'/-% ( (-% $' (:"'$"%!+% #,-%, $*% -"% *!&*/.!&# ( *$% ( -# ) $ " +/. " "/ " ( ('+ ( "#,*,+ (!" #. ', / $/ LED #+/ / (/( +/, /,(/.!&# (#'#9/#-/( ( '(+. -(. (&" (UVA) LED / "%.- #. LED # "% /!" #". *% 1 ",1 *$%. $% $ * #$, /-( % #,-% / " * " ( /+ " '+#/ " */ ( (&/

109 1.1!4("#!4+%0 %!-% ( 20( &/, Henry Round "% Marconi Labs &% 1" $ "#,*,&/ #+/ /,(/ *%. & % Oleg Vladimirovich Losev "#+," & LED #- ( (/ (, $' ( "# +." *,,#/ 9/ "#/,,/1.". Rubin Braunstein ( Radio Corporation of America /-." "/ (-(." #1 $,'' arsenide (GaAs) ''*/ #*/ "#,*,&/ (/"-% "% Texas Instruments, Bob Biard Gary Pittman, * / 1961 $,'' arsenide )-# (-(." /9' $/ #8$/ ($ "'$ +#. Biard Pittman 1/.- " / )(/ "/,($" "%, % (% -'9/ '*# (!/%, "/ (-(." #1% *$%. Nick Holonyak Jr. "% General Electric Company!,$ 0/ 1# ( Illinois Urbana-Champaign, /-() & $ $ # LED 1962.* *% "-% "% $( #1% *$%". 3/% &"/ "1% ( Holonyak, M. George Craford, /$" 1972 & / LED 10 -% '#$ $/ $/-' LED. Shuji Nakamura "% */1% Nichia Corporation -) & (:"'1% */$"% #' LED #!1 " ( InGaN, 9 #-/ GaN nucleation ( &# 8+ 9 #-/ p-+ GaN (! /(!. $ / I. Akasaki H. Amano Nagoya Alberto Barbieri Cardiff University Laboratory (GB) +/" "/ ' #$" "/ ) ( (:"'1% */$"% LED /+/% (:"'$ -' #!" #&/% # /1 1 ( #-/" $ / ) ( ( (ITO) (AlGaInP / GaAs) LED. +)" ( #' LED (:"'1% $ "% 1," & '($ LED,!" #+, Y3Al5O12:Ce, 1 "YAG", * " * $( $ #,# /( #' *$%,/,(/ *% ( / '($. Nakamura! /#" # 9!/',% Millennium, "/ + 1 (

110 1.2 &"#1*5/!& LED &",/* 1 / "% $( #1% *$% ( -# - " -,/ 1907 $ 9/$ (/"1 H. J. Round. $, / -,/!1 " "% /'(:"%, -% %. /)", Oleg Vladimirovich Losev "# ( "*/$ /.( [9 ( ((] /!/(1 /!/( " # ( ''(%" (Luminous carborundum [silicon carbide] detector and detection with crystals) " * 1 "# Telegrafiya i Telefoniya bez Provodov ( +#" "', "'*/). -, ( Losev $#*% / #$ ", %. & LED (-." $ / Nick Holonyak, Jr., 1962 /& 1/ "/ General Electric Company - " #.- # -'" "% % ( 1960.!&# ( &( LED 1/ $/.!/!" #". (/1.*% *% (, % (* "%,! -#"#*/, & 9$ )' #$ $*% )' #$, "&/ "'/&/ #&/ " (/-! ( (-%, $*% "' %, $*/, "'-*/,.##"!/-%, $#" '$,. ( $/ LED 1/ '#, /!" #+/ #$/ *% % +,$#/ &% / 1/ $,/ *8 -/!&.,$, ''!&# -,// (-*%.- # "% #/ "/ ( (-% )' #$..&% "!/', */ LED ('&/ -,/ ",#-/", ",*,1 ( *$% ()1." ', "&/% "/ ' #$" "/ ), *% +( LED."/ */,/!" #".+/, * #$. $ LED ( "/ '+ - */ 5!' &/ T1³/B 3!' &/ T1, '' # (:"'$"!+. / '-/ /, " '',1 $ ".#$", #-/( / "". " '1 ), - ( -!(/,/ ' # #-/ "!( " "%.#$"%. '-/ -, (:"'1%!+% LED -(/ '," #$" #! LED

111 1. 3!%+&4140!& LED *" 1%!4*(0 LED ' $ -/ "#,*,+ ('+($*% # //1 %) # #-/ # #)% & / "#(,". # pn +* ". <*% (#9/ ''% $(%, +# - +' $ p ## ( ('&#%(''&% /$(), % "/ n- '((''&%.$(), '' / (#9/ /.. "'$/ -%, -(/ "/ 1 $ "'$ # -% %. </ -/ "'$/ (// # 1, ($ #" -/!#"'$ /,$, '(.&/ /-, # " #1 /$% */(. #1% +#% ( *$% ( -#, +*% /!&#, ) $ " /,$! # */ ('&/ ( '+/ pn #1#. % $(% (( 1,#/(, "'$/ -% / (/(8/ $ # #" /9'1 #9 " " /, 1 #1,.&% ( / (' -## ( /,+! #%. ('!" #+/, LED -!(/ # /,$! # # /-, ( /!!$/ (-(., $ 1 / "/ (&" /9'. LED )/" / / /+ / # (-(.% (.-% ( (-% ( -!(/ ( #,'' arsenide. )-')" "/ 1#" */ ('&/ -! 1 (/1 "/,*,1 =$/*/ # $' #$ #1" +#%,,(/ *% # '!*#*/. LED / (/1.*%,#-/ /* -/ n-+( ($ *#, # -/ "'$ ( (/- # p-+( ($ *#."#-/ "/ / (. p- +( ( &# / ',$ (!/!" #+/ "%. 0'' # LEDs, *% GaN / InGaN, "%,!" #+/ ($ *# (. $ (' (!" #+/, "/,*,1 LED -!(/ '+ (:"'$ "%.' "%. ($ "#/ $ '+ *% //' * " 1 ( ('+.&% / -. ( &# -(/ #$#/ #1% +#% /, ( "8/ $ # //' 1 & " # ( )'&/ &%, ()//% "/ ' #$" */ LED. "%.' "% ( ('+ ( ( %. - / 8 # / " */ "#,*,&/,,$#/ *% //' #&% * / "#,*,$ $( # / ". / # $.".#$" #&//% - "/ $ ". (+ ( (% " /' " (#9/, "%, "/ / ( -( / LED / (/#-/ -/ ($ *# # $ ".' "%, $*% #,('/" / " -%. "%.' "% */ $*/ "#,*,&/ LED / (:"'$%, - $'%!$/ % & % LED / (/#-/ -/ #- # '+ #$ ". #,'" ( ".' "%. "/ /' " -/ ($

112 $9'"# ( +#*/ # (% (/' -% Fresnel) (1 / (/1.*% # $ % (!% % /' #$"% */ LED. (!/, $ $ # $ ( #$#/( *$% //' * LED % )*-% ( (/- %. /' " % $% & % #&/!" #&/% -/ - # #1 +'( (# 1 ) # " -/ & )!$#/% /% /!(+/ "/ /.-*%,,*/ ( '! "/ /' ". 3/ /-/' $! # # /. "%. - # / / -/."/$ ' $ # / /!*# #-/, ($ $#*% /.,."+% '$,(% 1, / 9'& '$, /. "%.!&# "% ( ( % / "8 "#/!&# ( #$#/( *$%. 2''% ",-%, " #* " */ & */ "% /' "% '#9/(/! #$ ( LED & / / /-# /'&#/ *% (/+'* " */*/).&% "/ " " "% # 1% #1% "% /% & / #*. (/' 1% /' "%, # "/,*,1 (!% /*#'% "/ / # " #-. moth-eye. 0/% ('&/ "#,*,&/ $ (8/ (#9 LED:

113

114 1.4. ('+4*%) %3%103%)!/)!%+&4140) LED LEDs ( / ( #-/ $ (% "#,*,+% InGaAlP /+!."/ $ "/ Toshiba - "!/', -/ -/ '#!- " # "/ */$" */ LED. Toshiba, # "!1 " */ MOCVD (Metal Oxide 4"#1 /$. " #&/) /-() # #1, ( 1/.- " /, 90% 1 $ *%. ($ (/' "/!$/ ' +)" " "% */$"% */ LED +, " # % (#9-% ( (-%. $ " */ LED 9'&." -* # "/.-* " /$% &#% #$ "% " #1 ( LED - ($ (#9'' "/ '+" $ " "% ( (1%. % -' # */ )')*/ (&/, #,'+ #-% "% /()"% */ LED " ( /*. % 9 +% #%: &% / -',!% "% ('% ( (-%, / #+/ &, 1# */ 8&/,,#, & /+/( */ &/ /*/. +% / /% #9'"&/ #"/(#*/, $*% ($ ( 9 "/ Times Square "% -% $"% % #/8(/ 9 =$/, 1 % ''% '"%. % / #,-% (/1*/. LED! "/ $ $ #-! /!.+/ "/,(!$/ / $ 30). #' LED,!."/ $, ",+/ '-/ $ # '$'"",/ /-*/ #,&/. #' LEDs, '$,* "% (:"'1% /-,% */( (> 2.5eV) "%!!#"'1% (." % */ #&/ 1/ / + ' /!.+/. '-/, "!/', ( / /,, "/ (1 (&/ */ LEDs / '+ 1!- " # $( LED ('. LED -!(/ $ "/ 91 "' "/ "9 /#*8(/ '-/, /()" "/,. "!1 " ('&/ InGaAlP MOCVD (/( #$ # "/ ' #1!1 (% "#(, *%.!/', (1, #8 # '' /- LED. ) ' "/ ( #,1 */ LEDs. )')% #' ( #% " /,", "/,*,1 '(+ *$% ()/(/ % 1 %, % /#-% (-% ",-% *$%. 0% % */ ",1 */, / -#:(/ *%.8(/!&# ( *$%;

115 </ #$8 #-/" " chip, "'$/ #+/ / /".+/ +' #$/ # +.(/ " #1% "% +/ "% #)+ */!&/ p n. "/!1 p (!(/ '+ $. $ $ /". "/!1 n "'$/ / o '' $. "'. </ # " #$8 (! 1 "'/*/, "'$/ "/!1 n -!(/ "/ /-, /1 / / / /".+/ #1% "% +/ "% "/!1 p. "/!1 p "'$/ '+/ #- *% $. '$,* */ #9*/ (/#*/ Coulomb "% -')"% #)+ */ /.*/ "'&/ */. </ -/ "'$/ / / -/.$ "/!1 p, + /&//.. ( -!(# # -/* " /$% "'/( # -/.$, " "'1 /-, #- "'#,/"1 /-,.. -/* " /$% /"+.+ (, # $" (9/) "'#,/"1% /-,% -# ($ #1 */( # # (!/$"!" 1 ( ('+ $ -! ( "#,*,$% ( (/1.*% -/% (/( #$% */!"#&/!*/,''(, ( /+ ( * $(). $/ *$/ -/ '+ /$ # (!/$"% #+/ / #.+/ $ 1 ('$. LED ( -#(/!&# '+/ $ (' "#,*,&/, +/ -% /-,%, / -#:(/ *$/. 0$ " /-, -#(/ LED; "'1 /-, / /'," % "/ " (, / /, "'$/ / + (/ #1% "% +/ "% p-n.!*# #-/ LED -#(/ (*% '+ /$% /(!&#%. /-, (E) ( *$% ( -# $ LED (!8 # "'$ (q) /$% "'/( "/ " (V) ( +/, / /: LED +#*/ # "/ ) * ": = q*v Joules. (1 " ) * " ' '- $ " " / /'," % "/ "'1 /-,, / #,/1 1'* " (!+, 1 +'*#,.&% "%, LED..$ q / "'$ /$% "'/( + # -1.6 X Coulomb. / (.- (# $ -!(# #1 "/ " ( #$8 /$% LED.(#+# / 9+# "/ /!" /-, (, / /: LED. / (.- (# $ "/ * " /$% $/( LED " " ( #$8 #)+ */ */ ( LED / 1.71 Volt. 3 " /-,, / /: LED / = qv 1 = -1.6 X (1.71) Joule, #-/( $ -/ Coulomb*Volt / -/ Joule. $ "/ ) * " -!(# / -' # = 2.74 X Joule. + " "% (!/$"% #1% $ #1% +#% ( *$%. (!/$" ( *$% ( -# (!8 # #1% +#% ( *$% # -// '+ '$ $. #1% +#% (!8 # " (!/$" ( *$% #- * %!- "%

116 c = ' * f $( c / "!+" ( *$% (3 X 108 m/s) ' / #1% +#% ( *$% ( 98 $ #$# ( % #/% //#-*/ #-*/)..- $ "1 $/ LED #- * ( #$#(, & $ LED -# -/ +%!*#*/ # " #-, " -/ " ( /! -/ #1% +#% $*% 98 $ #$# # = 660 nm X 10-9 nm. /!" (!/$" "/ $/ LED -# #,'+ #-% ( *$% / X 1014 Hertz % LED ' LED / 9 #-/ (% "#,*,+% ( / ( #-/ $ GaN (/,'') InGaN (/-,''-/). +/ / (/( +/ # $/ / LED, /,(/ "/ /+* " ( ( *$%, / '-/ $*%. +# " (/-! LED /, # (1/ "/!/1. & #' LED ( " 1971 $ Pankove ((-"% */ LED /(-,''(), 1 RCA. 0$' ( (-% LED ( 1/ '+ +/#, / -!(/ 1!1 ". 0% -'% "% % ( '80, "#/-% /'+:% /* (% "#,*,+% GaN "/!/1 p-type doping $ / Isamu Akasaki / Hiroshi Amano! / " +,!/"!1 */ GaN "'/&/ ( (&/./ -' # 1993 (:"'1% */$"% #' LED ( " #- * "%, % ( Shuji Nakamura "/ Nichia. $ -'" % ( '90, #' LED!,/ (-*%.- # $!& $ 1% LED #' LED -!(/ # /,1!1 ( ' $ -/ 1 $ 9/ InGaN ( #&!// #)+ */!+*/ *#*/ GaN, '+/ &# -/( "%. 9''/% "/!1 $" ( GaN 9/ InGaN, " ' #1 *$% # / (#/. $ &% #-! 9.+ #'. /-,''(-'(#/( AlGaN '( #-(% AlN # /!" #"., / ( "/ -/( " 9/, (&" LED, '' (-% ( (-% / -!(/. $# $"%!/',$ */ #'/ /*/ LED ingan-gan. / /, 9/ / GaN, / '1 # /#,#-/ InGaN 1 AlGaN, " ( (1. -#: *% (,,8 (&%# #1" +#% / (#// ( nm. To 0 / LED ( (8 $ ingan-gan / '+ $ */$ $ / LEDs (, # (' #"-/*/. / ( -!(/ '(#/, (*% AlGaN AlGaInN, $# # #1" +#% / +)#. LED ( -#(/ *% #1" +#% ( nm, (,,8 "'1 (&%, / 1" "/ (!/ )+/ / ( black light, "/ /!/( " '," "% */ UV (,"#*/ -,,!/# #

117 #$( #1(% +#%, /& ( / 9$%, /.- #% #$, #1" +#% * */ 247 nm.&" LED ( -#(/ nm (*%!" #+/ ( (-% '+#/ "% * "%. #1" +#% * */ 210 nm +!."/, 1!" #&/% / '(#/( %*"# LED - cite_note-21!(/ + $, " "#(, LED '(+ *$% (:"'1% -/ "%. &% / "#(,&/% & ##/*#-/ LED ( -#(/!!&#, $/, / #' /#,/+/% - $',$#/!&# (, LED,/!. " /+* "'(+ *$%. % +( =$/ ' '+!*#- LED (#-% -% '+#/ RGB LED). 1 #"!/ #$% ( '#9/ ' "'$!-, / '-,) #,# "!( " */ &/!*#*/ (1 " -,, " -!!" #". / #8 =$/ ( LEDs " 9#"!/. /+% (1 " #-.% / /-(, ''+% (/"-% 1#/% '$,* "% (')% "% #)"% */ &/!*#*/.,/-%,##-%, ($% #"!/ #$% -! "% "/ (:"'$" 9/1 $" "/,*,1 ( ( *$%. $ "/ ''" # " +" #-.%,*,1% '(+ LED '#9/ "/ -/( " ( LED /$%!&#% ( (/1.*% #' LED,#-/*/ $ InGaN) # *# * 8( &/ ( &/ /$% +!&#%, /,, '($ *%. /', #!&# */!&/ LED, &# * 8( &/ ( &/ &/!*#*/ #+/ "% /!" #".+/. "/ #,1 */ *#*/ * 8( &/ ( &/ */ (*/!*#*/, #+# ' #/ ()1 (#!&# ( / LED. 1 (1 " #-.%,*,1% ( LEDs (. "!1 " * 8( &/ ( &/, $'(. LED ' 9 #-/ * 8( % ( % LED. / ('$ / ( $ '+!*# LEDs, 9 #-/ * 8( % ( % LED -! #!#"'$" 9/1 $". /+% / $# " "#'- "!/1 (1% (:"'1% -/ "% '(+ LED.&% "% (:"'1% -/ "% LED ''*/!*#*/ 1 '+ ('$" ('1 ), #-/*% 8 % "#/-% #,-%. 0''1. -!,/, "/ 9' " " ( '(,+ 9''/%, "'1.# +'*#,, ($/ / + */ LED.!(/ + '+!*#*/- */ LED: -, -!*#$ LED.,/%-' ( '#9// (' '$:" #)+ (&/ */ &/,, */ '#9/(/ ".$"!&#% (colour stability), " 9.# " */ */!& */ *$% (colour rendering) " */1 $" (luminous efficiency). */1 $" (luminous efficiency) / -/% $% ( 8 " */1 1 / "'1 #/ 1%. / -/%,/%-' " #'-" "% /,1% $"%.,/-%,##-%, / /-% ( (-% % "% * #+ #+/ / ( +/, */$"% # / (!. # /!" #1 #$/ 1/20 "% /-,% ( # /1 ",1-(& *% * #+..$"!&#% (colour stability) / -/% ()1,"%

118 $% o George Palmer! * $ /'"$!&# /$% /#-/( ) -// $ "/ ",1 * #+. /'(: $ # "/ ' ",&/ * #+,!&# /$% /#-/(,/$/ /'"$ # $ $. $,* "% /($#/"% + "% (% (! / /. " #)+ "% */1% $ "% $"% 9.# "%!&#%. 0,#%!/,!*#$ LEDs -! "/ '+" */1 $" (120 lm/w) '' "!#"'$" /$" 9.# "%!&#%. /.-*%!*#$ LED!&# '' *!1 */1 $".!*#$ LED 9 ( /# -!/% '1 */1 $" (> 70 lm/w) 9.# "!&#%. 9 #-/ * 8( % ( % LED (8/.&/% InGaN #' LED #- : #% * 8( % ( % LED 9 #- -/ )$ 9'"#. / (+ ( +( '( LED -!(/ -//! ('$ #"!/ #$ (1%, "/!1 " (%./(#.#'&% #+% '$,* "% /$("% &'% /-,%, # &' ( #/8 $/ #-/ *$/ #+ #1(% +#% *$/ #,'( #1(% +#%. )(#-/( (+ ( #/1#% "!/1 (1 (. $ #,'+ #-% "% 9#"!/% (1% LED '$,* (!#"'$( $ (% "% (:"'1% $"%. <' (:"'1% -/ "% '( LED "/, (8/ #' ($ / $. */ '+!*#*/-'(&/ LED / $! #$/ # ''" '+ ",*,1% ( '(+ *$%, '' / '$'"" /-!/1,*,1% *$% &/!*#*/.,/-%,##-% $'!&# $ # #+/ /!.+/ # " #)" ( + + &/!&/!*#*/!" ($. (/$% 91% (/#$% -',!%!&#%. /+% + / #- / # ($% +% LED -// $' "/,, - / '(.+/!/ 9'1#. - 9'1# '#9/(/,,/$% $ " -/ " ( #$#/( *$% (+ ( +( LED #&/. # "/ +)" " "%.#, # (/- # ( 1 '',1 ".$"!&#%. - $9'"# / / $, 9#"!/1!1 ". #-/*%, '' /-!- ( ( % /$% LED,(!+(/ / '+ (/ ($ $9'"#, -!(/. '- # (% /,/ $ (% (/"-% (% 1#/%. ' /$%, 9 #-/ * 8( % ( % '( LED / " 9-' " '+ ", /!. '($ *% (:"'1% -/ "%. 4" / '( (#-/ #"!/ #$ (, ($% +% LED -! '+ '+ /-/ "/ 9#"!/ * #+. $,* "%.$"% $ 1% (% - $ # #1.# &/, *$(.&% "% =$/ 9 #-/ ($/ / 9 #-/ * 8( % ( % #"!/ #$ LED -!(/ #/ 1" "/,. /#-/ /!.o+/ $# (:"'$"% -/ "% '( LED //$ #-''/. /+% " #,'+" $'" " ( -!(/ / /#* (/ (+ ( +( LED / " /#/ /$(" /,1 &'. ($ #/ (!. # "/ #,1 /$% '+(!( ( ( % 1 # "/ / " /$% ''"'$( +( * 8( % ( %. ($ LED # "% / ( $ "/ * " LED, -# *% '+ / "/ (&" / (NUV), # #,# (:"'1%

119 $"% $/*/ #' * 8( &/ ( &/,9 #-/% (&, (/!'$ ( -# / /!(#-/ #,' (aluminium doped ) (' :(,(((ZnS:6u, Al). (1 / # #-.% /'," # / $ # / ('+(/ '#1%. #+. /+% (&% *% ' " (9.# " )$ '(## '' '' (' (!" #+/ " ( ( */ LED -!/% / -' # # +/#" 8*1%. /$" #-.% (!" #, / ( '($ LED /!" # # * 8( ( / 9 #-/" '1/ :(,(( (ZnSe) -/ ($ *# ZnSe ( -# ($!/ #' *% $ "/ /,$!1 ( / *% $ ($ *#. /-!/1 ( /+ '#9/ "/ -/( " #' LED # 9/ "# ( /9'+/ '($ $ " #' *% (, #' LED. (1 "!/1, -/.#$, '(/ *% $# # ($ (, $ (% '#1% (& *%. BLUE-YELLOW LEDs: "/!/1 (1!" #+# -/ GaN #' LED.&% # * 1 -/* " (yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG) phosphor). #' *% ( -# $ LED $ "/ * 1 -/* " "/ (/-! (1 -# *$/ /( *$%!" #&/% /$#/ ( * #+. 3 '($ *% (, / (/( #$% #' /( *$%. <#*% "!/1 (1 ( 8 -/ $9'"#. < ()/ " -/ " ( +#% ( LED " -/ " ( #' *$% (electroluminescence) ()/!*% $#*% / -!(# #,'" +)" " "/ -/ " ( /( *$%. ($ -! *% -' # "/ +)" " # % (!&#% (/- *% / / $ % #'. RED-GREEN LEDs: "/!/1 (1!" # -/ $/ LED *% 9 " * 1 -/* " (, / *%. (1 "/ * "($*% "/ * " ( #'-/( LED) " +)" " "/ -/ " ( +#% LED -! *% -' # "/ +)" " "% -/ "% ( $/( #$#/( *$%!*% / -!(# "/ "" +)" " "/ -/ " ( /(. (/- (+ / LED /, *% #!#"'1.#!&#% (/ "'1 % $/). BLUE-GREEN-RED LEDs: "/!/1 (1!" # -/ #' LED.&% $/% /% * -% /& %. #' LED!" #,/, % * -% /& % $*% 9&% "/ * " ( BLUE-YELLOW LED. "/ +)" " "% -/ "% ( +#% ( - LED -!(# /$#/ ( "+# $'!$/ LEDs # '(:" * $(. +)" " "% -/ "% "% /9'% $ #' LED (/+ $ +)" " /9'% $ "/ '( */ * $*/. <#*% " +)" " "% /9'% ( $/( * $( /, / /.# "/ /9' ( /( * $( "% #' ",1% # -' # / /9/ ".# ( '(+ *$%

120 $/: 3/ " ( *$%!- " # "/ -/ " ( +#% #1" +#% Near-UV LEDs, Blue, Green, Red Phosphors: (1 "!/1 ( ' )-')" "% ",+#/"%. "/!/1 (1!" #+# InGaN AlGaN near-uv LEDs ( -#(/ *$/ # #1% +#% / (&%,.&% * -% /& % ( / (/$/ /,(/ $/, /, #' *%. LED ($ '(, $*% # '#. #+.! n-uv LED, *$/ "/!1 ( (&(% "/ (/-!,(/ #$ */ * &/ /& */ "/ (/-!,/,(/ *$/ # #1% +#% 450nm(#'), 500nm( /), 600nm($/). $/: 3/ " ( *$%!- " # "/ -/ " ( +#% #1" +#%

121 PHOSFOR-FREE BLUE-GREEN LED:!/1 ( LEDs ( '+/ $ -/ &# AlGaInP. 2 LED InGaN-GaN -#(/ /9' 460nm(#') 550nm( /) "/ (/-!,(/ &# AlGaInP # -' # ($ # "/ ( / -# /9' 630nm($/).&. - / / $ &# AlGaInP. - / / ( #-/ - & / 1/ "/ /9' $ o #' / LED / &# "/ (/-! /9'% / /#!.+/ /,(/ '($ *%. $/: #1 /$% BLUE-GREEN LED epitaxy AlGaInP layer Nitride-Based Cascade Near White LEDs:!/1 (1!" # + /9'% + #1(% +#%, / +! '($ *%. <#*% /!" #+# 2 LED #$/ -/ LED (, 2 -% /9'%. LED ($ / ( #-/ $ 2 &# InGaN-GaN # 1 $" In, / (!.+/ #1" +#%. $/: #1 /$% BLUE-GREEN CASCADE LED

122 0 1 ',1 */ &/ #"&/ +#% #+# / +!(# LED ( ".# ( '(+!&#% (, / #9'' "#/ $ ()/ " -/ " ( +#% ( - LED, /. " # LED # '(:" * &/ /& */. $/: 3/ " ( *$%!- " # "/ -/ " ( +#% #1" +#% Quantum Dot Leds 9/-% '% / //-+ '' "#,*, (.-(/ #/-% -% $"%, #$#/!&# (% # / (.# $ $ #-! (-(. #. ($ - 9/ #-/*/ '*/ LED / "#(,+/!$/ 1!&#,## CIE -! $% ',-%!*#*/ '+"%!*#1% $ "% '( LED. LED 9/ #-/*/ '*/ /.- # % % ( ( % # + +( LED * $(

123 1.5 (&"') %" 4$ ).!2) (OLEDs) / ('$ ( &#% #1% /$% LED / #,/1 -/* " $ ($ /,/* $ *%,/1 % #1% *$% (OLED). / '(,1 *% "#,*,$%. -,/$ ('$ #1% / -! (8(,% p- #+%. ('$ #1%. #+ / / -/ #$,/$ #$ #- # ( ''1 " 1 -/ '(#-%. 0'(#1 (' # / / (-', - LED /,/* *% PLED 1 FLED. +, " # (/1." LED, OLED / '+ '(#1 LED #+/ / -!(/ $. '/-"# $ / (-'. #-/% #''/-% #,-% */ OLED. #+ / / /:."/-%, (-'%.$/% 0",-% *$% #1 %!*/ */ ( # OLED -!(/!" #"., "/,*,1 &/.$/*/ "&/ "'/&/ ( (&/ $*% /", :"-% *,-% #"!/-% MP3 players. 3!(/ "% ( #,'+%.$/% '' " &#/" 8*1% (% / '+ #1 & / / -%, #$" $ 1000 &% !%1%$!"2!/! " 1%!4*("') (#$%!(4 / LED -!(/!, / '(,+/ # "'$ +# ( / (9/ milliwatts (mw). +* 1999, " Philips Lumileds 1,, LED /, (/!1 '(, 1 watt. ( LED!" #+/ '+ #,'+ #,-." #1% "#,*,+, /! +/ % #,'% -% +#%. "%, "#,*, 1/ /"#-/ #'' #1# & / -(/ "/,*,1.#$"% $ " #1 ( LED. 3/ $ 9 '/1# ( * #+ ( 9 8 LED / " (:"'1 $ ", $*% (1 # $,$#/ *% / #/!+% $(. '( LED,1, - / '' )- / "/ $ " */ ' &/ ( "#*/ * #+ (& *%. 2002, " Lumileds + LED */ 5 watt # */1 ' #$" */ Lumens / watt (lm/w). (,, -/% (#9$% '#1% (* "% */ W, ( 15lm/W /& (#9 '#1%. #+,(/ -*% 100lm/W. */ -#9 ( / /- % #' LED ( " $ "/ Cree Inc., "/!1 24 mw 20 ma. 3!." -/ #$ LED '(+ *$% -/ *% 65 lm/w 20 ma,. &/% */$ '($ LED ( 1/ #.- # /" "/!1.&% $ $ - % -% ' #$ $ (% /+% '#1% (& *% " $ */ 131 lm/w 20 ma, 2007 " Seoul Semiconductor ( -/ LED -/ 135 lm/w / */ 145 lm/w 1/ '+ ' #$ $ (% /+% '#1% (& *% $# '+ $ (% /+% '#1%. #+. -'%, " Nichia

124 Corporation /-() -/ LED '(+ *$% # */1 ' #$" "% )"% */ 150 lm/w 20 ma. - "% / "#*. $ (:"'1%!+% LED (W B 1) / /,, #,-% * #+ $. ($ +# '(,% (&/ */ ( (&/ )/ $ 350 ma. (:"'$"% $"% (:"'1%!+% '($ LED $ " Philips Lumileds Lighting Co # */1 ' #$" "% )"% */ 115 lm/w 350 ma *&!2!/!%)!& OLED 1#, OLED '(,+/ # "#/!#"'$" $ " $ /$,/ (( '') LED. '+" */1 ' #$" /$% OLED #-! & / ( 10% (.*"+ #-, ( */ 683, '($ *%, "'1 ( 68 lm/w. / '+."/$ "/ (1!- " # /$,/ LED #,'% (!% $ ( #+/ /.".+/ #.$/",!" #&/% '-% #.$(% +* "%, & / "#(,". # -,!*#".$/",&/. 1.6 (2 4!4+0) /$% $%!% */ LED / " 1 #* " "% #1% *$% " &' ' #$"%. $, )/-% (!% # / (#9+/ "%. #"!/ #$% #* "% "% /-,% "% /,1%!1%, $( (#9/ / (/( #$% "% /9'%, (#'#9/ (1/* " /()" ",#*/, ($ -/(!/ '*# + ''!+/ $ " 8- ", "/ (:"'1 (/$" ( +#% #$#/ *%. / (,''( / ( '(#/+!(,''( / (." / #"!/ #$ $ * +! / (,''( * +! /. $,* */ &/ 1*/ */ /,&/!&/ 8*+!,'' 8*+! / (,''( / ( 8(/ (." (+ ( (% '*#. $, (:"'1% (/$"% +# # / '- #/ ( " "'/*/ $ # ( 9 / $% */ /,&/!&/, '&/% #/ " #& */ "#!%, '(,&/% *% -/ #" /9'+ / (/( #+,/%.#$" /, *%. /8( /9' # / ",1-9'1# "%, '+/ /9'1 '1(/ " */ ('*#*/ ( -!(/ LED. "%, & $/ LED 1/,/*, " +/#" 8*1% (%. '( LED (!/!" #+/ # 1 $% * 8( % ( % % /(/ / (9.#8/ # ".#$" - # (!$/( ",&/% &' ' #$"% '&/% '',-%!&# (,$#/( *$%. 8 LED (!/!" #+/ #,/1 +/. " * $( ", $# # $ #-% &% '(,%, # / (9.# '&/% #,'" '',1,$#/!&#

125 :"' "' +# (/( #$ # (:"'-%.# % # / '- (/!( " $#*/ #''( $ "'$ "/ /,$!1. (', (*% /+! ) ( (,(%, ($/ #/ ( " "'/*/ # -' # " 1 +#% #" /9'+ / (/( #+ ( chip. #-/% & %, # GaN /InGaN $(%, #''$ #$!" #, / # % & % "% #/ ( "%. "!/-% - %, (:"' +# 9*$ 9''/ #+/ / ",1 (/!"# #$ ( ''& */, '&/% 9!(('&#. (:"'1%!+% LED / (." /$#/ ( /#8 current crowding, "'1 " #" #,/1 /#1 "% (/$"% ( +#% $'" "/ 1. ($ # / ",1 " "#(, &/.#&/ "#*/ (! "% /)-',"%.#1% '(,%. /#,-/% ($ *#, % '+/.#1,*,#$", /&/(/ "/ ". 0 /-% $ (-% % /#,-/% / /, ( '+/ $ '1 (,$''" " 1 $ #/ ( " "'/*/,.&% / Kirkendall. /, " /)-',".#1'(, / # /1 (!% */ LED. #+/ / ( +/ -% -% 8"#-% $/ #$#/ *% (9 -/ # # -' # / '". '& # "% /%. "%, # (' "% ' 1% ( ( % /(/ / /8(/ $/ (9''/.#$" '&/% #1 $" " */ "8$#/*/ #"&/ +#% (/- &' ' #$"%. 7/-% (!% */ LED '/ (!/.#-% /1 %. </ " )1 "/" (!" # " ( ( ".# #* "% (,('+,!8 / -'' #!% (.#+% '&/% #"!/-% /1 % / "#,*,$ " (/#-/" 1 '&/% "/ ).-/ " " $# # (%. /., '+!#"'-%.# % # / '- (/, # " ( (. -'%, " "' 1 $ " (ESD) # / '- # " (! "% 1% ( "#,*,+, # #$/#" '',1 */ #-*/ "% 1 $# '/./( % 9'9% ( '+/ ()"#-/ (.#$ $#" "%. 1.7 (461/$!$40 "!#!/ +(/ /. $ (% '#1% (& *% ( -#(/ *% /)" $ "/ "'1 '$", '#1% LED -!(/ *% #$// ".1 "'1 '$". </ " " " +8()".+ - /"+ (pn) / " * 1 +.(/ ", $ - "#/1 $" +#% " )"!"8 *% -!( "/ % #$% +.(/ " 1% +#%. / " +/ " " " -! /." '$", $ - '+ #1 $" +#% / -# *%. 0''! LED -!(/ #-/% (/$"% / "% 1% # -' # / -/ / ' (-% # " (:"'$" $ # 9'. 0'' " '#1*/ LED / (/$ / '(,1 (/ # /'' $#/ +# '' -!(/ *% #$/ " 1.+ +#%, #

126 -' # *% ( -! / #/8 /$#/ flicker. -'%, "!1 " (% (.% # /'' $#/ +#.* *% 1 * ", # -' # / / (!/1 " #,1 (% # (/!-% +# #- * #!"# &/ /.*&/ ( "#*/. #$/%,(% $%, / (# "/ '$" ( LED / / ) +/!" ( LED. * #-. / )$ %: +#9' + - #$ /% (A).% (K) #+ /$ )*$ $,,(',*/ *$ #$ #,' '** " $/" #+",$ )$ % #-., / #$ "% '$"% / $#/%: +#9' + - "# /-/ '* pin 1 2 '- $,,('",*/" 0$' ( / / "# )$ " #-.%, /!$/, #*% $ *% ## ( " #1 ( LED /! "/.. (/ /*% *% / # #!#"'1 " / "". * #$%, /)" $ " #-. (.!" #"., / #$ "% '$"%. 1!" */ LED, "/ " -// ( +#% / $*% $'% % $(% ("'1 +# /!$/.1% (/" "% *% % "/ ") # #1 '',1 "/ " ' '',1 +#. ($ "#/ $ # (,#-/" ",1 "% ( # # ( ' / /9 LED, '' / -:. / #/ "!+%!$/.1 #9'-% "/!1!" */ LED, - / (! ",1 +#% "'1 +# ( -! / /.$. / / (:"'1 $ ", # -,, " "/ ",1 +#% / /,/ " +/ " */ LED # # / " #+ +#%, # ",1 "%. $ LED "% -!(/!#"'-% #1 % / "% "%, $ # /.(/ 8"# # # / " " (. / /* $ # volt. 1 '' ( -% / '(.+/ %,-%,. - / ) +/!" ( LED / (/., 1 / # $, / (!.+/ -( (% 9'1#. LED '-/ #+# / #".(+# # / *#*#-/% -% / */. (-% #+/ / ) ' (/ $!& % '-% /!1 #% $/!// *$( 1 /,/ '-% # $ $ ' ($/ (!/ 9'-:! -%. 0$' ( " #1 "% / "% -!. " "%,*,1%, $ / # / ()#*. " -/ " ( LED. 0#-/( / ()". " ' #$", "!+% # / #. $ / (.#$% ( * #+ /

127 ,1,% $ ($/ ( # / / /.*%, LED. / *% / &% /##-/. 0''' LED #+/ / (/.+/ # # / " +#%, #-/( $ " " "% ",1% / #,'+" $ +/' "% "% (. LED. / (/1 " ''"'" +/ ", '' # / / 9'"#1. LED ( / (/#-/ ''"' - / -!(/ $#% %, / -!(/ +# $ -) *$%. LED 2!*#*/ '+/ $ 2 $(%, #. +.(/ ",.-/ +!&#% ( (/1.*% $/ /) //% " (/$" /!. -/ #,' #!*#*/, ''8/% $ (!$/( ( #-/ " ". $'.!(/ LED # /* $ 2 $(% +!&#%,#-/ /.. ( LED /!8 / / - " '$", /!.+/!&#, '' / " /(!(/ /* $ 2 "'$. (/1.*% LED #-/(/ /##-/,, $' "# ( /&/ $ +#, '' (!(/.- # LED ( /9 91/(/. ( '+/ $ // LED '' '-/ -!(/ -/ +'*# * ( / LED / /9 91/ ( (/1.*%. -/ ($'). (+ ( +( LED,/ (/1.*% /, $/ 1 /!&#, '' (!(/ "% # ''!&#. /$, LED /&( +( (3mm 1 5mm) -!(/ (/#+ ( / / * /. (/#+ ) $ "!"# ( LED, "/.# +#. 4&# (/#+ (Vf) -(. 1.6 V $/ V 0' 2.2 V / 2.4 V 0 / 2.6 V ' V V &% 3.5 V LED "% '(,+/ *% *+,(/ +# /', # *%. / / '+ 9-9 / *+,(/ #$/ ', ma, '' "'$ (/#$ (,(/ / "% )"% */ 2 # 3volt. ($ / /* $ $, / '(,1 -// /!(1 1 # ',1 +'" +( CMOS %4&%"!$! +(/)!& LED H!1 " */ LEDs #/8 "#/ '/1#, (/:8/ *% )1%:

128 LEDs +/ "#/!#"'$" /'* " +#%!- " # % '-% '#%.!" $ (% ($. +!" ( (-% (!" #+/ #% *% /,1 ",1. LEDs -!(/ " (/$" / -#(/ *% (,#-/*/!*#&/!& */,!*% / "!1 "!*#&/ '*/, $*% (#9/ # % -% #.$(% * #+, (#9''/% -* " #* " (!+ $ (%. (#,1% ( ( /$% LED # /! - & / /&/ *% $*% / /,, /& ''% ",-% * #+ +/ )*+% /' 1%, / (,/&/(/ *% / (.+/(/ % # +.(/ " # +!" $. </!" #+/ #,-% $( «( "», LEDs / ''8(/ "/ $!* 1 (%,.&% +# (!-!#"'&/, /. " # % '#% (* "%, % ' /8(/. LEDs (8/ #- (#,%.1%, % +(/, )",&/% " #,'" (%. / -!(/ (,( /. " # (% (#,% '#1%. #+. LEDs -!(/ ) #,'" 8*1%: //, ( - -" ( &% 8*1%), "'1!$/ ' $ (% '+(% '#1%. #+ -% #,'+" $ (% '+(% '#1% (& *%. -9, - / "#*. $ '#1%. #+ #+/ "% / -!(/ ) #,'", '' ($ (#9/ #$/ * " ( '(,+/!#"'$" $ "/ //1 ", # #,'% ',-% &'%. $ "/ ''" '(, LEDs ) '8(/ #,'" $# $/ '(,+/ #-, /-,% (%. $,* */ (/1*/ ( /.&/( #+, '#$% */ LED # / ''), / )/#". /-, 1, /,/ 1 #,'+" */$". '-/, LEDs!8(/ /./ # " 1 #* " "% -/ "% ( *$% (%, /& '#1% (* "%,/ )/. LEDs -#(/ &% #$".#$"!- " # (% '#1% (* "%. -'%, LEDs /9(/,1,. 3/% '$% "% LED (,!/ '1" -/ " *$% ' # ( ('-(. 1.9 %4&%"!$! +(/)!& LED

129 0,,/$% $ "!" #" " */ LEDs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nm #+/ / '- (/ '',1 (!&#% /#-/*/ '$,* ( /#-/( ( ## #+. LED / #&/ 9&% # ",1 *$%, $ / # /!" #". #,-% ( +/ ''"'% /% *$%. / -!(/ "/ (/$" 9% /"$ 9.#$, /. " # laser ( " $' " / "% )"% 0.2 #&/ 1 ',$. ($ 9-9.&/ # "!1 " &/ 1 ''*/ &/ ( (&/.! #,/1 /" (! *% LED #' (!&#% #+/ / (9+/ $ '%, /.&/ #

130 LED!(/ % 9 + */ LED: #,%, '.#", ( 1# * # "(4(.0%) LED ( / (*% single-die LED (!" #+/ *% %, #/8/ % %--: /!1% 2 mm 3 mm (1) 5 mm (T1³ B) 2'' #,-." / "%.- #, '' ',$ (!/.!1# -*/:,,('$, (1!1#.$'(,,('$, " (1.,&/, " (1 (( (!/ #/8/ LED / % bar,"#*/),*/$ 1,*/, " (1 /.('* " # "% / / 1 1 "#-/1, " 9'* " "% /. "% "%,*/%.- "%.!(/ % +% ",% #,&/ single-die LED: 4#"'$ +# - (/1.*% # 2 ma ( 2 V (( 4 mw /'* "). (/1."% - LED */ 20 ma ( 2 V (( 40 MW), $/, ', / /, 20 ma 4-5 V (( 100 MW), #', 9' '($. -(:"'1 $ " - 20 ma ( 2 V V,! #-/, 9'1 # "'$ *% Multi-color LED 3/ "bi-color LED" / "/,#$" + LED # * ". ' $ +!&# ( (/-/# (% (% +,*,+%, '' ",+/ /.% (.+/ %. 1 ( +#% % # #$/ +.(/ ",, -/!&#, " 1 ( +#% % "/ ''" +.(/ "

131 , ''!&#. /'' /% +!&# # 1 ' "/ #/ " /$% (!&#%. (!/$" 3/ "tri-color LED" / "% + LED # * ", '' + LED / (/#-/ )!* +%,*,+% - & + LED #+/ / '-,!/ /)" / /9(/ (!$/*%. RGB LED -!(/ $/, / #'!&#, #1,!" #&/%,/ +/ " */ '**/!8$#/ -/ /$ (/ 1.). 5 volt 12 volt LED ( / # LED ( '#9/(/ # / */, #+/ / (/.+/ (.% 5 V 1 12 V (/#$ %. Flashing LED ( LED '#(/ $/ (/-/ # 5 V 1 12 V. 4" #+/ *% %, / 1 (/ "/!1 $( /.(#"$, / (!. " '('$" */ )*&/ "'/&/ &/ (,$/!"2 LED.$/% LED /.- #% #1 7-#"#*/ starburst #1..$/% "% #1% */ 7-#"#*/!8/ $'(% (%.#+% -/ #-/ +/',##*/..$/% "% #1% Starburst #+/ / #/ (/ $',##. LED.$/% */ 7-#"#*/ 1/ (!1 " " ( 1970 ( 1980, '' " ()"#-/"!1 " */./&/ */ (,&/ ( ''*/, #!#"'$" /'* " /-,% #,'+" (') $/ "%, #* " "#$" */.#"&/ '.#"&/ LED./&/ ($4')!& LED #-/% $ % #,-% */ $*/ #1% *$% ( 8/ *. ( (-%, -% #,-%, -/( ",!/ 4 1, $*%, "' % VCR, (!/!" #+/ (-(. LED. Glowlights, *% 91, '' # #,'+" (/$" /!" #" "%'+ ", Glowsticks.."1% /" "%,,,# / / (', 1.."1% Nintendo Wii!" #+/ (-(.% LED. % -% /% Free Space Optics /*/%.!/.'" "

132 * #$% */1 '* >/(,. ( (-%.# (,$''" "%, " #-" " ( #+ )(,$/(. LED *., "/ #1,!" #&/% #' 1 $/ LED -!!. $ #&/ "#/ "/ #1 " #% #"/"% $(. #-/ *-%!" #+/ # $ $/, / #' LED $! "/ (1 :(!1. '#1*/. #+ *% ",1 *$%. 3!/% / /)" -',! */ &/!&# - / *1,,#1 " 9.#/$#" ", 91!&#%, / (! /,",.-#/ ". (% (', -%. #-/ (', -%!" #+/ * #$ LED, / 1 (/ "/!1 -/ (,#-/ ( $. 0'' ( -% "'/&/ (', &/!" #+/ LED, / /"#& (/!1 ", "/ */1 ". 3/,#. #+ / / Mac,!1 " $/ ($%. " «+/(» 91//% & LED. "/ * " ( /+ ''*/ ( &/,!" #&/% (&% *%.,' & '+#/ $ LED / ' # $,,(/ $ *% / watt $ ''% /''-% '+ % $ 1 #+/ / #$8/ (,#-/% (!/$"% )&/% - "!1 " (%. 0,# #,&/ / *: #1% * #+ / * #$% )*&/!&*/,'"% '#%.$/% video!/$% * #$% 0",1 *$%, ( 1#!/"1% $ "% ( +/ */$", ", #,-/./&% 9 $ * #$. & "'*/ &, #"!/, (#'#9/#-/*/ #-/*/ #/-'*/ ( /+/ #"!/. * #$%,!1# -"% /,"%

133 ($% * #$%, LCD.$/% "' %.. #$" */ LED (,#-/!&# (RGB) - # '1(% #% ",1 *$%, " (+/ # */!*#*/ ( 45%. & "/&/ (!" #+/ (!% LED, / / 1 (/ (% '#1% (* "%. LED,(/ ',$".#$", (/&% / +' / '(,+/ / #&/(/ "#/ / /(/ (,%.! (,// & 9 #-/ LED -!(/. $ 2002, '' & #$'%!8(/ / (/ "#$"!1,,/$% ( ' (:"'$!$ $ %,% +, " # & (* "%. $ %,% # / / $#" #,'+, #/!*#-% (!% LED &*/ # / 1 $,$#/!&#, $*% #9, 8 1 '($. /)" $ "/ (:"'$"!1 #1,%, (/'$ $ % " %,! (,// & LED. #+ /!#-/*% / / &" $ "/ TCO, $# & (* "% #-/( $ LED +/ '+ ',$"!+, / )!. $ *$% $*% # $# '# (& *%. LED -!(/!$/ $ " 8*1 / (#*#-/ / /!" #+/ /)$ % 8% $*%,/ # % / #% '#%. 3, # $ LED & /#-/ / 81, $ "#,!*% # (/1" ". % /% % # ' )' #+ / /% 0/% )$( 0/% "#&/ (& */ (/!% % * #$% (#&/ /'( 1*/ -% '-%.$/% #"/(#*/ $# "#+%.#+%,.$/% (!/(/ / #$, -/, '*,#$, # '#/. $/ 1 / LED!" # (% % % '.#"-%.$/% 9''/ $( - / "". " /(!/1 $ ":.'# (9-/" "% (%, (9(!*/,-(% '*/, /#, ""1,,.!. /(!/1 '+." " 8&*/ *. $/, /, / #' LED # /!" #"., #,-% "#&/,##&/ "/ )/$#" " /*/ */, "/ #/ "#"/(#*/

134 $,* "% #,'"% % 8*1% "%,1,"% /'',1%, LED -!(/!" #". (/", & -/*/ ( /."#-/ (:"' & -/*/ ",&/ '**/ /% &/ '' ''!1#!8(/ & /!" #+/ LED, +/' */.*/ #&/ *$%. $% $ $'% "% ) %, ($ -! #& '/1#, $ LED / / / "#(,1 (/!/$ *% $ & (& *% # 9'+% /' 1%. "#/1 9'* " (!$/( (,/ /: ( *% 0.5s!+ $ # '# (* "%) 9'&/ "/ ' //% $!$/ (% ",+%,/ / (/. % #-% $"% ",1 "% "'/ ('&#. & " "% % (/#+ (,,#, ( 1,7 V, -/ //$ $/ LED) # /!" #". / "% $( Zener!#"'1% "% (.# -%. Zener / /.- #% * $ " */ 3V. * #$% )*&/!&*/ * # )*&/!&*/ '#9/#-/*/ */ &/, */ $#*/, */!&*/.#( "%,.&% (% 8$#(%!" #+/ #,'" '# (' $ #-'' ',/*/ (MH) /( (:"'1% "% (HPS). / '$,*! (:"'1% /,1% $ "% ",-% *$% 1/!1 ", ''!$/. $ $ % )')% "/!/', */ LED -!(/ ",1 # /- ',1, / (. * #$, # '' '/1# -// */ (/"&/ MH HPS. '&%! #-/ LED )*+!&( #+/ / -!(/ "/ +#/" / * #+!" #&/% ',$" /-, 9'&//% "/ #,-/, +, " # HID. LED * # / -!(/ "#/ #,'+" 8*1% ( &% 1 $, +, " # *% &%) # "/ '+" 1" " "% */1% 1%. "% '' '/1# */ LED '#9/(/: / -!(/ (,(, #$'(9, 1 ''(%,/* +% /+/(%. "%. * #$% / # %!*%!/1.( -" ". 0-*, /&!/',% MH HPS (/!8(/ / 9'&//, "!/', */ LED / '+,1," $ "/ ' #$" ( *$%, "/ $"!&#%, / $! #$, "/.#1! ", $ %

135 0",-% * #+, ( 1#!/"1% $ "% < " 9#"!/ */ LED (/!8 / ()/, "!/', */ LED. #/8 (!/ #,-% (!8/ # "/ (/"9#"!/. 0'' /.* / (/"+/ $ (!/1 / "!1 " */ LED / $ # */ (/1*/ 1#. 9 1 $" # "/ # / /,/* -/ LED *% /,,/$% $ /9,#. /$ ($!" $ */ LED " '% ( (/1( & */ -/*/.!1 " */ LED & */ (/1*/ / ''"'$" $ (% +% '#1%, '( # - # */!$/*/!/(/ "/ */$" (%.!" $ ($,/ $ #/-% "/ 1," " $/ * $ +!1#, -/ / #-/ # & LED /& '' / /.,# /# # " ( /."$ LED '%. / (.#$% # / /9 91/ /.$%, " # +)" " ( (.#+ (+ ( /#-/(. % -' #, " #/ " ( '% / $.1, (% ",+%.,,+% #-''/, '$,* ( $ "!1 " */ LED '% & */ -/*/ 1/ ' #1, ( -% (/1*/ / / #$8(/ "/!/', LED $! #$/ * & (, '' (% 9'% (. $ -% ( 2008, -!(#! / 9'-(# (/" / / )' #-/ # 9'% LED (/1*/. $, (,/% 9'% LED./$/ / #"/ ()(/, +/#!/$ "# '$,* 9 &/ #&/ (#9$"%. LED ( 9'- /.!" #+/ -/ $ /' 1, ''. ( +/ '' +"%,/%. 1 #1 (,/+% LED 9'- (/1(. - / / 1 '1*% /!$ $ 9'-. LED 9'-%. '(, '+ $ / $( 9'- (/1*/. 0 (,#-/ 9'% "8/ "/ *1 //' 1 /, / /(.+/(/ *% (, $ / 9'- 9'9+. /. " '(, */ 9'-*/ LED / 9.#$ (, #" # "/ '(, */ '-8. #-/( $ LED #+/ / -#:(/ *% # (,#-/" +.(/ ", " '(, "% /' 1% $"% ( + 9'- / / '-/ "". $, -/% )*$% $% $% # / 9".1 "/ " ( *$% (, $ % '(!/% LED, # $ #-/" - #". #$" (, $ "/ #1 $*/ &*/. # # #,'" $" "%.#$"%. &% LED 9'-% (/1(./$. / *#& LED, # (:"'1.#!&#% (. '" 8 ( (% 6000 Kelvin. <*% "!/', )', / '+./$!/',% ( 9 8/ '( LED /!" #".+/ (% 9'% (/1*/. 9'% # LED. -(/ # '+ #,'+" 8*1%, (. )/ /" ( (/1(. % +(, LED 9'-% /. (/1" ",.&%..- #$/# -/ 9'"# %. 0,,/$% $ " ""!/', $ (!8/ /.- # 1#, * $ $ %, "/ (1 (% / / $ $ (% $(%, -% (/1*/. (1 " '',1. -'. +/#, + " 9#"!/ (/!&% ()/ $ % ()/ ' #. Chameleon LED (!" # * / ( (/1( -!!*1 "/,*,1 $ #- ( $'- --/ '% LED -!!" $ "/ '1 '(, ('*#*/ " (#'#9/ & 1#/ "%, & -" "%,.&% '%. % )!* -% -%

136 /-,% /!+/ "/ '(, */ * &*/. )*!(' -!(/ % /$"% "#*/ 1% /& *!(' '(,+/ *% % &/ -/*/. (/'1 #/ " '(,$" / $# # "/ 1" (!( # */ 2.5-inch LED, * &. /'*-% (.(#+/ / / 1 (/ 1" (!/ / # -/ LED #+/ / #$ (/ "/ )*1 #. )*1 #% (#/ "/ 1 / # /. #-! % 6 / %.,,/$% $ #- #-,.% */ ()1 */ / ( 0,25 / % - '(.#% '',-% "/ # ( (#// #)+ 1 6 / %..- #!&# '#9/(/ $/, / '.!&#!+(/, $'% % '(,% (#'#9/#-/*/ */ &*/ 1#/ "%, */ &*/ */ -/*/.&% */ &*/, 1# 1%. Lunar Design Corporation -! 1# % 1 % */ '&/, / #$ & LED, * / / $# # Chameleon LED. LED & 0,* "% &%,* "% */ &/ 9 (/1.*% "/!1 "% #+"% 1 */ &/ ( (%. *% )(" + 9 +% +%. *%,* "% */ &/ ()/ "/ $".&% ($ '" 8 / #, / -/ "#/$!" $, "/ '. 2'' ",.&% +,% '-,!( ( #( #+/ +' / /8(/ " (,,8(/ # "/ 91. */ &*/,* "%. '-/ "!1 " */ LED,/ / # 9".&/% # ($/ / $ / '$ "/ #,* "%. '(, */ &*/,* "% / "" "/ "%,* "%,* "%, /!" # " "% //1% 1 "%. (,#-/% & % (! /!$#/, '$% /!" # *% 1# '' ", " "% 1 "%. (1 " #-.% /*/% / # '1 #-.% (!" #, "/ /"#-* " "%. % (. (%. 3/ $ "#/ #/1# (!8/ # &,* "% / " ). $% *$% '#1% - / (#/ % (/.1%. ( % ' #,* " (/%. ($ -! *% -' #,.,* " "/ # " 1 (, "/ / " (. 3 ()/ #,1, (.#$ $ % (/1" "% &/. LED &,* "% /-!(/ (% #+% ( '+/ "/ #,* "% /. " # (% +% '#1%. '-/, LED *%,* "%-!*%!" $ "/ #,'" 8*1% -/ */ /1/!'*/ *&/. ($ -! *% -' # "/ )/$#" " */ $*/ "/ (/ (/1" "% */ &/. / " ( + '#1 # LED ", "/ "#(, ''&/ /-*/ (/1*/. 0 (,#-/ /- " &*/,* "%. -!(/ *%!" $ # (+",*/ - #"% ''"'", % % ( (#9/(/ $# %,. *8 -/ (+ # ( '#-/ ( (%. ($. (!. #!1 " "% '(,% ( 9 + *$%. 0$' ( / 8/

137 , "/,* ", " '(, 9 + *$%. - # #-., "/ +)" " "% $"% */ &/. $% $ (!", LED *%,* "% */ &/. - #." " # +/"% (% '$(%.,*,1 ( &( LED -!! 1" $ / +,( ( $*",*,1 -! - #/% % -!(/! #, (,#-/ " #/-'. ', " '# "%,*,1% -!.,, / #- / '+: "/ +)" " "% (#9$"% /$% (+( #% */ &/ 0/% LED!(/ + + LED /*/: (#9, #!1 " &/ LED, /% /% 9 "% ( (1% (surface mounted device - SMD). $% (.%.$/% #-%.$/% *+!&( / ( #-/% $ LED, "%,/* *% )#(#-/ LED. 3/ +#',# $ $/", /" #'!" #+/ $ /+, /!"# (/ -/ '1% -,!*# pixel, (/1.*%,*/!1#. ( pixel -!(/ /#". )!* #&/ $ -/ -/, $'(" /'( " */ pixel. #,'+".$/" LED / $ # / /* $ 457,2 #- 9 % -,% "% 9 ( '+ "/ Fremont Street Experience. $%.$/% *+!&( "/, / ( #-/% # "!1 " "%!/',% SMD - # " ( 1# -! )'*. "/,. 3/ SMD pixel ' $ $/", /" #'."#-/ -/, " (/-!. "/ '- ( (', 1. #-(% / #$% $ # '1 % /."#-/ '+ /. #-, " $ " -! #*. 25% $ " #-/".$/" $( # -' #. LED /% -(/ #$ +/' $ /'' LED / '+/ # #,'".$/". *1!1 ",/ #.$/" (. 9 8 "/!/', SMD -! '! " */$" 600 cd /,*/$ #- (cd / m², #-% -% /#8 ( nits). ($ / (/1.*% $ -%, -% '/-% #,-%, '' * $ >.- % (:"'1% */$"%,.-# $"%. #$ )% (/1*/ / +,# "/&/ (:"'1% */$"% ( #+/ / 1 (/ (:"'$" */$". /., $/ ".$/" # / #/ -/ '/, # "'1 #1, " " ". / (!/,!#"'$ */$"% #!#"'$%.# %!&#% (/-%.$/% -!(/ -/ '($ "# */ *%

138 9000, " / #' $ /$ * #$ #%,*,1% "'1% %). )*1!1 ", ('! / 2000 cd / m² +/, % $% & %, /& (:"'$ + */$"% -*% 5000 cd / m² #+/ / /)-'.(/ $#" '+ # # "'$ *% "/.$/" (" */$" */ LED /*/ # / #*., $ / ). ''"'%. %, #,'%.$/% 8/ $,/% $*% " 1 1, 1 %! #+ (/ ", " 8 /,/ "#- #$/#"), " $ 9 "!"#*/ (", ( #-(/ "/.$/", -/ ",$ # /"#-/%.$/%, 1,/), '&, +# 9/ ((.+/ $ % 1 % '%, $ "% (,%), "/!+, "/ ''"'$" ( (%, ".- " "%.$/"% (/ / (!(/ *'1/%,!+ %, 1', 1 1,,% ( # / #"/ /.- " / ( ")(/ 9- ),.&%,/ #$. % "' % LED &",/* 1,,##-/" " "'$ " LED /+!." $ / James P. Mitchell $(" '#+#/" $/ " /,1." $ MV50 LED $.- # TTL (transistor transistor logic) ('&# (.(/ $" "%. *$( ", ( "/ "/ 3. " "!/&/ Anaheim ( 1978, (,/&." $ "/ " "#&/ "/ ( /,/..$/" LED TV -'9 99 /,/& " $ " NASA, " General Motors Corporation / 1#, (#'#9/#-/( ( Robert M. Saunders ( / "#( Irvine "% '$/%, (.","1 -( (./+ IEEE '-/, "!/', $ *!1 */ $ % 0 $ $ )*$ '+." / " '(, "% #/!*#1%.$/"% LED TV. *$( #-/ "'(,%..$/" LCD ((,&/ ( ''*/) ( " "% (/($ "#/$ -,, *% #''/1 /''1 "'1.$/"!" #&/% -/ $# #/-' * "% )*/. *$(" " "'$ " LED 1/ $/" #/!*#1.!#"'+ $ (% ' #$ #' LED / #/ " #-! %!-% "% % ( 1990, ''"&//% "/.(#"1!*#*/ RGB (red-green-blue). :"'1% */$"%!&# #/ "/ " ( /% /-!-, (. # " %.$/% 9/, (% (.(% /% //& */,

139 ."1% 1% $ / LED #8/ #-/% 9 -% ( -% $"% # % *$(%, %!" #+/ p-n -% #! # 8*/&/ /-,% #1" +#% ( + *$%, #+/ "% /!" #".+/, "/ /!/( " *,&/. (-% $"% 1/,/* -% & $ $, '' $, /#8$#/ '1% +.(/ "% LED, -!(/. *% #-. /!/( "% 1%. 2003, Dietz, Yerazunis Leigh "# ( / -/ -,, (, "!1 " */ LED *%."1%. (1/ "/!1 ", LED / / /9(/ 91/(/,1,. LED / /##-/ *8(/ /* -/ (' /$%!1 " 1 #,. LED / 9" '(,+/ *% *, "/ /!/( " ( *$% $ (' 1 $ ",. " ( ' # / $ ($ # " (/-! / 9 $ -// #), 1, % #"/+ % (-% "% "% " (/-! %!" # (1 ''+. 0",-% /-,% LED -!(/ '+!#"'1 (/#1 / ",# & " "%, #,-." +#%. ' ($ '$, / #+/ / (/.+/ (.% # % $% ",-% /-,%!*% / +/. //!" # -/ ($ *# '-,!( ( +#%, ( (/1.*% / (/!+% +#%. LED % #,% LED (/1.*% ",+/!#"'1 " #- * #% / "% #+ +#%. 0 /1 / "!1 " +#% 2, ma. %!#"'+ +#% //( #$/, +# 2mA. - / ",+/ (:"'$ +#. +/ / "#(,".+/ % * $ ma / ",".+/ (*/ LED '+!#"'$ +#. $" / / #&/ # '+!#"'$ +#, '' % ( '(,+/ / 100 #A -!(/ 1 ). 0/*% $ % */ (*/&/ LED / (:"'$ $ ($ */ &/ LED ( '(,+/ 2 ma. LED -!(/ #-, (.#$!#"'$"% / "% "%, ( (#/ $ 2 #-! 5 V ($ # / '- 9'1# % #,-%. #-/ LED 9-9 -!(/ "/ " (+ ( (% 9'1# /.- # -/ 1 2!&#.!(/ % ",-%, "! " "% / 1% "%. % )(#-/% #,-%, $*% / ". # (-(." /9', LED ",+/ +# #,'+ $ 9'$#/, '&/% #,' (.#$ (!% -% 1)%. ' ($ '$, (!/1 (/1" ". LED * #+,*,+% (/". #-/ ($ *# / -/% (/*1% # # / ", '(.+#/ $ -//.*1 +#% #8 # # $ ''"'% #% LED.,##1 '! % &'%, /& ''"'% (!% #8 ()/(/ "/ ). "/ )"!" #+/ 3 (!% 1 /*

140 '(, ",-%,*/&/ "#/&/ (#*/, $*% / / %, ' #,'" / "!( "% / (/*1 "/ / ", ($ *# */ LED ( /! #-/,!1 " "#/1 +#, / / "," ''( (% +#. ( +# "% 8(/!$/ 8*1% */ LED, #$8/% #,' +# (. 3/ "/ -/%.*1% //(/ (-% % & %, '' (!(/ ''% '+ % ( //. LED * #+!#"'1 " LED (/1.*%!" #+/ -% $ (!%, # " (/'1 (% " ( / / + "%!$#/"% "%, # / " '-,!( "%,. (!. +# */ LED / /', # "/!$#/" " #&//% "/ (/'1 " */ (!&/. </ " ",1 +#% -! $ #, " " ( + # / '', '&/% '',-% +# "/ -) ( *$%. -% #,-%, -/% (.# 1% (/!+% +#% / #$% $ "/ / " '-,!(,, '-/ -(/ % (!% /!" #+/ #,'+ $ "% $ "/, -!/% *% -' # #,'+" $" )/$#" " /-,%.!" #+/ -/ 1 $ LED # #!#"'1% "% (/1.*% -!(/ ($ *# # / "

141 2-LASER 2.1!4(" &7(4µ 4 (-!4 Laser '-)" LASER -! $! */,,'&/ '-)*/ «Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation» ( "µ/(/ /!( " *$% µ )/, µ-/" µ1 /9'%. 3, / $ LASER //' µ% $'% */ &/ "% )/, µ-/"% µ1%, "/,*,1 "/ /!( " +µ*/( *$%. B '$, ($ µ+µ / +µ $ "!1 "% /()"% */ LASER -,/ 1917 $/ Albert Einstein -) $ - / (!" "% )/, µ-/"% µ1%. $ $, µ-/%.*"-% µ-% µ'-% % 0 "/ &"/ 91 3/* "!/ / -' µ "/ (1 ( &( LASER $ / µ/$ ( $ Theodore Maiman, '+," µ- ( LASER ($ ' $ µ µ1 9 (9( µ µ1% 5 cm "% % -!/ '/.,(*.. 9% (1!.". / )/ /$% '+% *'1/ "'1% -/* "% % µ+ / & */1 /9' µ µ,'"!+ µ µ1% +µ% "/!1 ( /(. </ " '1% (1 'µ *9'+ $ -/ "% 9( (9(, ( - µ1 1,,/$/ 'µ1 µ1 /9'% LASER µ µ1% +µ% "/!1 ( $/(. $µ/ 91µ -,/ ' µ $ (% Javan Bermett Herriott µ "/ )" ( &( LASER (, (He-Ne LASER) '' + LASER, &/ */,! / / µ'&/ / (8/ /& "/!1 -,/ " )" ( &( LASER "#,*,&/. 'µ&"% /()" */ LASER "µ ( µ '9" $ 1960 µ-! 1µ! / -' µ "/ /()" ''&/ /µ-/*/ - & LASER 1µ / '+/ -/ $ "#/$,' "% 1µ"%, "%!/',% "% 9#"!/%

142 2.2 %(0 &-& µ# *1"# "'/ (' µ+/ /.+/ % ",%: (% µ/*-%, (%,*,+%, (% "µ,*,+%. + µ% (!" µ, / - /(µ /µ (' ( / " 1 / ", µ µ/% cm. <*% / / 0/ 2.1, µ/*-% -!(/ -% / % µ,'+% $ 105 cm, /&,*, -!(/ -% / % µ$% $ 10 3 cm. B,µ, µ/, -/% $ (% '1% $"% µ/*-%, -! '+ µ,'" 1 / ", 1016 cm. /.,.$%!'$%, ( / -/% '$%,*,$%, -! µ 1 / " µ$/ 3 x 10 6 cm. "µ,*, '#9/(/ "/ '1" 'µ &/ / */ µ)+ */ */ */ µ/*&/ */,*,&/. '-/, " 1 / " (% µ / ',!. µ "/.1" $*/ $µ*/ " #)*/" / + '' ( "µ,*,

143 0 2.1 '1 )/$#" " */ &/ '&/ ' /*-% µ,*,,*, 1 / " (G cm) 5 10 < < < 10 3 < 10!&% "µ,*,!"#8/ $ -// '$ + $µ( ( 1'" IV ( + / */!*/, 0/ 2.2), /& +/. "µ,*, µ+/ /!"# +/ $ (/( #+% */!*/ $ % 1'% III V 1 $ % 1'% II VI. /$#/ (' /-/ (!/ / +/. "µ,*, -V 1 -V.!(/ "% (', $*% ''( ( (,+(-µ(, / (,''(-'(#/(, / (,''(- /(, * (,''(-/(

144 ,µ/ (Ge) 1/ -/% $ (% &(% "µ,*,+% (!" #1."/. 1, $µ*% /." $ ( (Si), ( 1µ / µ-/ "µ,*,$ ('$. ( -! µ,'+ /,$! µ (Eg) µ)+ */ 8*/&/, µ -' µ / µ /!" µ". µ,-% µ,'+"%.µ % $,µ/. "%, " )* "!"µ8 -/.$ µ/*$ ) /* (, //% ( "µ/ '/1µ ), % -// (,µ/( ", (1% ''"*#-/*/ ('*#*/. '-/ µ (, 1µ (//µ (!/ /+!,'' (GaAs) * ( /( ( n), $' (,µ/!" µ $µ µ-% µ-/% µ,-%. +/. "µ,*, (' /+!,'' * ( /( / "µ/ (', µ,-% "'/1%, ( 'µ9/(/ % $(% µ1% *$% (LED), laser, (% /!/(-% *$%. -% ( 0+ 0/, ( 'µ9/ "µ/ µ,&,µ!

145 /% 2.3 (. * µ%!/ " +, " */ "µ,&,µ*/('&/ µ 1 +, "% /,$! µ. $ / / / $ ( -! '!$/ /,$! µ $,µ/. 3!" µ ( -// (,µ/( + µ / /-) µ,'+%.µ % µ2) &%(%"2 +#µ G (ev) /.% 5.47 ( 1.12,µ/ 0.66 % /+!,'' 1.42 * ( /( *+! 9$ ( (( 3.00 '"/+! µ

146 2.2.2!4.*"') 72!/!%)!& laser /$-& "/ /$" (1. /.+µ ".* ( /,+! µ% µ "/ '(, laser "#,*,&/. /.+µ µ/-' "% /,1% 8&/"%, -// "µ,*,$, ( µ% -! µ!1 µ" /''1 :" "% % "µ(,% "'/(-1%, / -',! */ (,/& */ -*/ µ- * µ)*/. 9/µ"!/1 9'- $ " '+ 1 ( ''1 µ1 /$% "µ,*,+, -% 9/ µ-/% 'µ% $µ/*/ µ" $µ/*/ /,&/ */, "'$/ ( 9''(/ µ / + ''. $/ 2.1 / µ //',1 $/ (1% "% µ1% 8*/&/ / "µ,*,$. "/ $/,!-% (,/ 8&/",*,1% 8&/".-/(% / +/ $µ/% /,-% %, "'$/. /-, C /! "/ ( " "% 8&/"%.-/(%, / " µ-, " $µ/" /-,, -/ µ.-/(%. /-, /! * µ-% "% 8&/"%,*,µ$"%, / '!.- µ /,$ " 8&/",*,1%. 0$' ( 8&/% (-% // / (/!% "/ $/ 2.1, "/,µ$" '+/ $ -/ '+ µ,'.µ$, &/ /,&/ -*/. "'$/ / - / '9(/ µ-% /-,% ( 9 / µ)+ */ C V. µ)+ */ C V /µ8 /-,! µ% 8&/"%, Eg

147 $/ 2.1: /-' /,&/ 8*/&/, -/ "µ,*,$ µ! µ 8&/"% Eg. $/ 2.2: µ,*,$% (% 0o, µ '1" " 8&/".-/(% /1 " 8&/",*,µ$"%

148 µ */ /,&/ -*/ ' $ '+ (% 8&/%. (-% / " 8&/".-/(% V " 8&/",*,µ$"% C,!* µ-/% $ µ!1,(µ-/*/ /,&/ (8&/"! µ% Eg).. 8&/" ' $ -/ µ,'.µ$ '+ /."µ-/*/ /,&/ */. +µ*/ µ "/,(1!1 ( Pauli, µ / 9 / µ$/ + "'$/ (µ /. spin). /,1 ". (/-, "./$" '":"% f(e) µ-/"% "% /-,% / $ " 1 Fermi-Dirac $ " 1 Maxwell-Boltzmann. 3 : f (E) = {1+ exp[(e F) / kt]} 1 ).2.1 $( ".µ 9.µ+% Kelvin, F " /-, ( '+µ/( ( Fermi k ". Boltzmann. ($ -! "/ $'(." ( 1 "µ : $/ C 0 -!(µ, f=1 (, E<F) ).2.2 f=0 (, E>F) ) & ($ +/ µ)+ */ '1*% '"µµ-/*/ */ '*% /&/ -*/ =0. B µ" (' #-/(% "µ,*,+% Fermi 9 µ- " 8&/"! µ% ($/ 2.2). 3 '$/,, =0 " 8&/".-/(%. / '1*% '"##-/" " 8&/",*,µ$"% '*% /1. * $ (-% % (/.1%, "µ,*,$% /.,, µ-/*% / µ/*1%. 3!/% / $'% % /* "1 %, µ+µ /! (µ "/,1 */!&/ '(,% */ laser "#,*,&/..-(µ! $ "µ,*,$% 9 =0. ("/ $/ 2.3 ",µµ µ-/"!1 /! /'&% '1% /,-% %). ) 9) $/ 2.3:!1 '(,% /$% laser "µ,*,

149 .-(µ & $ "'$/,/ $ $ " 8&/".-/(% " 8&/",*,µ$"%. $ -/ '+ 9!+!$/ (10-10 ms) "'$/ " 8&/",*,µ$"%. -!(/ -!µ"'$ µ- " 8&/" "% "'$/ / "/ (1 "% 8&/"%.-/(%,. -!(/ -!µ"'$ µ" '"µµ-/, 1//% - "/ (1 "% 8&/"%.-/(%,µ" <<-%>>. ($ "µ/ $ (! / 1 '".( #&/ µ)+ */ 8*/&/.-/(%,*,µ$"% ($/ 2.39). "'$/ " 8&/",*,µ$"% -(/ * " 8&/".-/(% (/ (/-/ µ % -%) -#/% " -/ *$/ (/9' / +/ "%). µ-/"% µ% / 1% '".( #&/ µ)+ */ 8*/&/.-/(%,*,µ$"% $*% / "/ $/ 2.39, ", "% )/, µ-/"% µ1% "% /9'% / +/ "%., '/* " laser $/ "µ,*,$%.". -/ ''"' /"!. $ "/ $/ 2.39 / $ " (!/$" "% µ$µ/"% /9'% - / / " (/.1". Eg < hv < Fc Fu ).2.4 " "µ(, +%,µµ1% '91% ( "µ,*,+. / & >0 /$µ/ ' "/ $/ 2.29 "µ&/(µ $, / "µ,*,$% "/ '$" ( / /.µ1, $' (. (!. /$% µ% µ$/"% 8&/"% '+ 9!+!$/. +µ '$/ / µ'µ,./$"% '":"% fu fc, % 8&/%.-/(%,*,µ$"%!*, $( fu fc // $ %!- % : fu= {1+ exp[(e Fu ) / kt]} 1 fc= {1+ exp[(e Fc ) / kt]} 1 ).2.5 ).2.6 % / /-,% */ '+µ/*/ -*/ Fermi */ 8*/&/.-/(%,*,µ$"% /!. / /$ $ µ-% fu fc )&/ $ /.µ$ */ "'/*/ (,/ " 8&/",*,µ$"%. 3!/%, "/ -// */ :(-*/ Fermi µ+µ +' / 9+µ "/ /, (/.1", " laser 9''/% "/ " ".µ$% */,,/$*/ )/, µ-/"% µ1% /,/ µ,'+% $ /.µ$ */,,/$*/ $" "% (" / /,, / ) +/ &'% "% '$"%). + (-%, %, )/, µ-/" µ1 $" " / /',% %,/$µ/ (.µ+ */ */*/ ( ( / "/ '$" ( (/' 1, " µ* ". $ '' µ-%, (.µ$% )/, µ-/"% µ1%. / "% /',% %,/$µ/ "%./$"% '":"% ( (:"'$( -( µ "./$" µ" '":"% (!µ"'$( -(, /& (.µ$% $" "%. / /',% %,/$µ/ "%./$"% '":"% (!µ"'$( -( µ "./$" µ" '":"% ( (:"'$( -(. % +(,, / -!(µ )/, µ-/" µ1 - /!+: Bq[ fc (1 fu ) fu (1 fc )] > 0 ).2.7 (1 " / $" "µ/ $ fc > fu. 2 -!* $: Fc Fu > E2 E1 = hv )

150 $( 2 1 / /-,% ( (:"'$( (!µ"'$( -( /!. 3!(µ '$/ -, )/ µ $ % +!- % % ",(µ-/*% 9-."/ µ µ /1 -,, ", = 0O. (1 " $)" $µ*%,!/ $ "!- " (1!+,..µ ($ / " -// */ :(-*/ Fermi )'(. /!+). '-/ -!!. $ " /* ) * " Fc Fu > E2 E1 = hv, / µ (/- "% " "% $, % )/, µ-/"% µ1% - / )/+/ %, % )/, µ-/"% $" "% ("!/(!"#!& laser /$-& /'"-%, % -/ laser "µ,*,+ (,!// (/1.*% (8/% / "µ,*,$ ($ " µ1 µ% 1% 1% p-n µ (:"' (' µ-/% p-+( n-+(!-%, "'1 '+ µ'( µ-/% (,/& % &/ 1 &/ (µ,'+% $ 1018 µ / cm3). / / $ µ ($ / $ " / 1, "/!1 "% 1%. / &,µ /$% laser 1%..*1 (µ "/ * " $( (' p-+( n-+( / (.!. GaAs) / µ, /!"µ (/ "/ 1, " *% ++. /µ8 µ1 (homojunction).!-% '(,% /$% laser ( / ( µ-/ µ ($/ / $ // "/ $/ 2.4. $/ 2.4:!1 '(,% /$% laser "µ,*,+ 1% p-n µ a) "/1 $'* " b).1 $'* "

151 1 (' / µ'( µ-/, Fermi Fp ( "µ,*,+ p-+( - µ- " 8&/".-/(% Fermi F n ( "µ,*,+ n-+( - µ- " 8&/",*,µ$"%. /!. $,!*% "/ µ,1 "%, + Fermi 9 / "/ 8$/,µµ1 ($/ 2.4), "'1 -!(/ "/ /-,. </ µ$8 µ " V, +!*8/ µ $" ( / $ "/ * ) * ": F=eV ).2.9 3, / laser "µ,*,+ /. '*µ-/, /,. / $ $*% // "/ $/ 2.4b. '-(µ $ "/ $/ *% " / 1 '".( #&/ -!!. '+µ/ << &µ,+µ/* "%>> "% 1% p-n. ($ ( (!/ ".1 $'* " / 9 " -,!( " &µ,+µ/* "% "'/*/ $ " 8&/",*,µ$"% ( n-+( ('+ -% $ " 8&/".-/(% ( p-+( ('+. ' "µ&/(µ $ + F E Eg, (/, $ "/ ).2.9 $ V EEg/e. B GaAs ($ "µ/ $ V E 1.5V. $/ 2.5!/ -/!"µ$,µµ /$% laser 1% p-n, $( ",µµ µ-/"!1 / &µ,+µ/* "%. E$/ 2.5: )!"µ$,µµ /$% laser "µ,*,+ 9), /µ1 "% -/ "% *$%

152 / $ " % -! µ-% %.!% "%!1% ( &µ%,+µ/* "% / (/1.*% '+ µ$ (0,1µm). / +!(µ " laser, + µ-% /% (8/ / / ''"'%, (/1.*% µ 1 µ1% */ ( ''&/ -*/. ''% + 1// ), µ-/% /&µ', / )(*. " '/* " /.+µ"% (.+/ %. (!/ + /% / -!(/ /' -% & %. "/ )", 1 "%.' "% ( "µ,*,+ / '+ µ,'%, (! 1" '+ µ,'" /' $" (( 35%), "!* 1 / "µ,*,+--. /,$%!1 ' $ &µ!(% ( 1µm, "'1 *% '+ $ &µ,+µ/* "%. ) % "%.' "%,", " "% - µ"% / '+ µ,'+" (40µm) $ '% "% /,+%!1% ($/ 2.59). - µ" laser - / '+ µ- % p n!-%. <µ*%, 1, % % "% - µ"% / $µ" '+ µ-%, " - µ" )$( ( 8 ' *% µ,'" $' " (µ-% µ%). /8(µ $.µ *µ(, " (/$" +µ% *'(, -/ laser µ1% / (:"'1 (( 10 5 A/ cm2, GaAs). ($ ' % (:"'-% &'% ( (.µ+ '$"% 1 / '+ µ- % p n!-% ($(" $" " µ''/ " /!( " (!). (1 " (/$" +µ%, $µ*%, '&/,1, µ "/ '* " "%.µ % '(,% [( exp(t /To ), $( " µ1 ( To "!1!+% "% - "% µ9'' $ / -// "µ,*,$ / '']. ($ / -/ -' µ (,,/$% $,.&% ".µ '&/, fc (1 fu) ()/ fu (1 fc ) '&/. 3 " '91 [ " ) $ fc (1 fu ) - fu (1 fc ) ] ()/,1,. / $'(. (+, laser µ1% µ+/ / '(,+/ µ$/ (,/-%.µ %. ($ ' -/ 9$ µ$ */ laser (+ ( +(. "µ/1 /'(:" µ/ " 1970, $/ -(!/ ($!/ Alferov " * ( '.$/ " 91 3/* "), Hayashi Panish % /*µ-/% 0'%, "/ ()" (/!+% '(,% */ Laser "#,*,&/. laser "#,*,&/ ( /+!."/!"8/ $,,/$% $ µ* / ( "/ (/$" +µ% &*/ */ µ- * "% µ,1% µ% '1% µ1% (heterojunction) ( ' $ -/ GaAs /,$ &µ, µ '1 /, "/ /9' ( *$%, ( µ&!" µ)+ + *µ*/ AlGaAs. B / ) " /* ( ' ('(, laser µ$/ (,/%.µ %),!" #1."/ laser 1%!1µ 2.6!/ -/,µ laser GaAs '1% 1%

153 $/ 2.6:!"µ$,µµ /$% laser "µ,*,+ '1% 1%. /,$%!1 ' $ &µ GaAs(n), (,µµ µ-/"!1). (1/ " (!(/ + -% [Al0.3Ga0.7s(p) - GaAs GaAs - Al0.3Ga0.7s(n)] µ)+ &/ ('&/. /,$%!1 ' $ '$ &µ GaAs (0,1-0,3µm). µ -, " (/$" +µ% *'(,, '(,.µ *µ( µ / µ*. ( ( )% µ,-.(% ("'1 103 / cm2 ) (, µ " ( (1 µ1%. 3 " cw '(,.µ *µ(,/ (/1. µ* " "% (/$"% +µ% *'( ' (/( µ-/ -' µ &/ */: ) "%.' "% ( GaAs (n=3.6) / "µ/ µ,'+% $ // ( Al0.3Ga0.7s (n=3.4) -!/% µ µ1 + (µ",+. ($ "µ/ *% (.µ$% laser. / &,'*9 µ-/% &µ ( GaAs, "'1 "/!1 /!( "%, /. % "/ " " µ1%, +, "% /µ1% ( ( / // '-/ µ- % µ" /'+µ/% ( *% +( + %)!-% 9)! µ 8&/"% ( Al0.3Ga0.7s (( 1,8eV), / "µ/ µ,'+ $ (+ ( GaAs (( 1,5eV)

154 (/&%!"#8/ /,,µ % + -%,,'*98(/ ' µ %,!(µ-/% -% "'$/ /,$ &µ ($/ 2.7). $/ 2.7: /,$,µµ 8*/&/ /$% laser "µ,*,+ '1% µ1%. µ-/" (/$" +µ%, " (,-/* " &/ "'/*/ /,$ &µ ()/.,) /$" /'* "%.µ$"% "% $( -!." 9'*.. ($ -! (!. (,''&/% GaAs(p) ($ *µ, -/ '!'+ 1 -(, )% "% µ8% "%.µ1% (,*,µ$"%, /,*,-%.µ$"%

155 2.3 %(0 $2(./) LASER 2.3.1!"') % "4&&0%) $ "/ &" "µ- "% (!"µ-/"% '(,% ( laser! ". µ,1% ( % "'/*/%. /*/% µ laser / µ /-( * ", ''+% '$,(%. 0& / " µ,'" (.(/$" "% - µ"% laser / (,..!. µ "/ /!" */ µ&/ (,(/ µ(µ-% %. (.(/$" µ% - µ"% laser 8 $ /,µ "% ( / $ "/ : = 1.27 'L/DL () 3.1) $( 'L / µ1% +µ% "% - µ"% laser DL " µ% "% "/ -) "% $ laser. - " (1 "% / ( * 1, µ(µ-% % µ-( DM ( -µ(/ /9' µ1(% +µ% '. B / -! µ(µ$% µ$% /,µ - µ"% $*% µ$% laser - " µ% "% µ(µ1% % / / : ' DM = DL B 105 DL ' ().3.2) "' % µ,'+" $ " µ "% - µ"% laser. "'1 laser µ - µ" µ-( 1mm, (/µ µ µ(µ1 µ-( 100m, *% % "/ (.(/$". 3/% ''% '$,% ( / "/ - "% 1% /*/% '( 1 / " µ,'" (/$" "% µ$µ/" $" '"%. $ '"% ( µ / ' µ -/ "'µ,/"$ +µ / /', ( +(% 8&/"% ( -/% +µ%. 3 ",//% $ "/ µ(µ1!1 "/ 1!1, " (!/$" ( -/% ()/ -/,/ 104 "#(,&/% >.- % '+ µ,'( +(% 8&/"%. -/ $ µ,' +% 8&/"% /.*" (/$ / µ.+/ µ -,!*µ /' "'$ "% µ µ - µ" laser. / µ,' +% 8&/"% " (.(/$" "% - µ"% laser */ ( "µ*/ /*/% µ laser '+/ ( '+ "µ/ '/1µ, (!(/ ( (!&% µ µ/1µ. µ,' +% 8&/"%.!. "% - µ"% laser '+ + ' µ /!" µ".. "% "!" µ$" /*/&/ ( "µ*/ µ laser 8 $ ''(%,/% $*% *-% ( '%.-" "% "% '"% /* - µ% laser. / /*/$ + "µ µ laser!" µ / µ- "% "/ µ$ $ " $ " ( ( 1µ% /&%. "8 $ µ -%!-%, 9!1, µ!'"..'

156 ( '% (-% ( +(/ $ "/ " */ &/ (µ*/ "/ µ$ 1," (% (/"-% "/!1 " */ &/ (µ,*,&/, ( ",+/ "/ - µ" laser '-/ / +' /µ $ / (.+/ 1µ. % ($ /*/% µ/*' 1µ /-/ */ (/"&/.!1 " */ laser % /*/%,!*% µ- "% "/ 1 /, " /. + µ$/ µ,-%, % /*/% µ)+ ($*/ 1 ($(.µ+ (%,.&% /*/% µ&/ */, µ)+.µ&/ ( -!(/ µ)+ (% !"40 7µ4(.!') "µ ($. +µ (% $(% µ (% (% µ+µ /.1 (µ -/ 1µ 1 µ1%,.!. µ', 1µ video ', /* µ */1 - µ" led 1 laser..-" " (1 ( 1µ% /* "/ 1 (!/$" '-, µ$* " &/ (!/1*/. )" (. 1µ /* "/ */1 - µ" /µ8 µ*1%. / '(µ -/ 1µ µ µ */1 - µ" - / µ& (µ 1 / '')(µ!" "% - µ"% (1% µ $.!(/ -/!" ( µ+/ / µ9'".+/. / "!+%, " (!/$", " ", " $'* " " +.(/ " "% - µ"%. $ -/ (!" (/1.*% µ9''/ "!+% 1 " (!/$", /& " $'* "!" µ / /µ ( ''( +( µ$* "%. /. " " 1 " +.(/ " "% - µ"%!" µ+/ '+ ',$.!(/ % $ -µ9 "%!" "% */1% - µ"% ( /-µ. µ " -µ9 " 1 µ " µ$* " " -µµ " )*1 " -µµ " *1 µ$* " $( '-)% )*1 *1 /-/ $ µ*-% 9 / -)* 1 µ- $ /"! "% )"% laser (, "/ */1 /9' µ%/ 7µ2(./ "/ * " "% µ "% µ$* "% -!(µ ( -µ9 " / (.µ$ /'" "% ( laser $*% / "/ $/ 3.1, $( "!+% )$( ( laser µ/8 / (/" " ( +µ% ( - / *'1/ laser. To I0 / '! +µ (, / () "'1 -/* ", 1 / '! +µ (, / () -)% laser, 2 / +µ $(. µ+ µ '$/ /!" µ1 (µ $'" "/!1 1-2 / µ& (µ "/ -) ( laser µ)+ */ µ&/ '! ( µ, (. (/1.*% $µ*% " µ$* " 8 "/,µµ1!1 "% µ+'"%, - & / +,/ µ& % dp/di / /.$. / & +µ $( µ9'' "µ/&%,+* $ µ µ1 Iq $ "!+% )$( ( laser µ9'' "µ/&%,+* $ µ µ- " µ1 Pq. "µ (Iq, Pq) '-, "/ * " (1, "µ '(,% ( laser

157 $/ 3.1: µ,1 "% µ "% µ$* "% laser (. µ-.% (1 µ$* "% / / '+ '1 -! µ/-"µ $ / µ / µ. '' laser '"/ (&/ (,/ (./ $ "'-% /& % $*% laser */ 1 laser "#,*,&/. / /$"" "!1 " laser $*% 1% /'" "% 1!"µ µµ " )*1 µ$* " $ µ$* "% ( µ+/ /!" µ".+/ / " )*1 "'1 µ$* ", " )*1 µ,/"1 µ$* " " )*1 ( 1 µ$* ". 2.4 ',474 7µ2(./)!(/ µ-., ( µ /!" µ1 /%, / µ-: % '"% µ9'1 % µ-( ( -/% +µ%. µ-. ( µ+/ /!* +/ % µ,'% ",% : % /',-%, :"-% 'µ+%. "/ /',1 µ$* " " '" µ/8 µ "/ µ1 µ%!/ µ9''$µ/"% "'1% "% ( "8 µ ( -/% +µ%. µ-/*%.!/1,µ1 (! /! ( '(% (!+ 1µ% ( µ,-.(% "% µ-( ( -/%. % ''% + µ.$(% '% ( 1µ% )8!/ 1µ " '" µ/8 µ "/ µ1 'µ&/. "/ * " (1 +% ( 'µ+ µ9'' /', µ +µ/ 1µ 1 'µ (,µ-/( +(% µ/8/, µ-!/1, /', ' µ +µ/ 1µ. % (-% & % µ/8/ "/ $/

158 $/ 3.2: % -% µ-. µ$* "% µ% */1% - µ"%. $ % % µ.$(% µ$* "% ( /-µ ",(µ-/*%, ( (!/!" µ+µ/% / " /',1 " :" &14" 7µ2(./ 0 $!1/ '' µ ( -/% +µ%. µ+ / / µ*.+/ % -% (!/$"%, (! $9'"µ $ *-% /9'% // µ$/ µ9'-% "% -/ "% "% /9'% (./ (+%. "'$ ( -/% +µ%, / : Ec (t) = Ac cos (*c t + c) ().3.3) $( c, *c, c, / '%, ",*/1 (!/$" " " /! /&% $' µ+/ / µ*.+/. / 1µ ($ - /* / *1 /9'%, $ " -)% 0d ( *1, (( / µ$/ µ9'-% "% -/ "% /9'%),. / : 0d = RAc2 < cos2 (*c t + c) > ().3.4) 0d = RAc2 / 2 ().3.5) $( R / " (." ( *1, (responsivity), < > ("'&/(/ / µ- $, "% (/" "% µ- (-%,, µ '1". / /-% '$/ $ "/ (./ & ", (direct detection), µ$/ " -/ " "% /9'% µ / /!/(., " / /'," ( Ac2 µ-/*% µ$* " */ ''*/ µ-*/ / +/".!(/ $µ*% ''%!/-%

159 & "%, '"/ "% (./, % -(/ / )!. '"! µ ''% µ-(% $ 'µ9/$µ/ 1µ

160 "/ $(/" & ", (heterodyne detection), % /'( " 1µ /+ µ ($ /$% + '/*1, (local oscillator), (, / : Eo (t) = Ao cos (* + ) ().3.6) <( * 9 '+ / "/ µ1 *c. -)% ( *1 &. / 0d = R < [Ec(t) + Eo(t)] 2 > = R < Ec2(t) + Eo2(t) + 2 Ec(t) Eo(t) 1 0d = R [Ac2 / 2 + Ao2/ 2 + 2Ac Ao <cos (*c t + c) cos (*o t + )>]!+ $µ*% : <cos (*c t + ) cos (*o t + )> = 1/2 < cos [(*c t + *o) t + (c + )] + + cos [(*c *o) t + (c - )]> 1 $µ*% * *c -!(/ ( "/ µ1 $% cos [(*c *o) t + (c - )] '/+ '+, ''% $% µ /.*". / µ., "/ µ1 (!$/( / 'µ9/ µ- % $%.!1 " /$% "'+ '( + "/ 8&/",+* $ (*c - *) "/ -) ( *1. "/ -) ( *1 : 0d = R Ac Ao cos [(*c *o) t + (c - )] ().3.7) $( /&% d ) $ '% ( -/%, "/,*/1 (!/$" ". µ-/*%. µ $ (-% % µ-(% µ /!" µ"., / µ- '". "/ µ$(/" & ", $% '/*1%, '(, "/ (!/$" ( -/%. 3!+ : 0d = R [Ac2 / 2 + Ao2/ 2 + Ac Ao cos (c - ) + Ac Ao < cos (2*c t + (c + ))>] ().3.8) "!1 " & /$% "'+ '( + %!µ"'-% (!/$"% / - "/ -'( " (% + '( $ ( )+ µ-(% "% '(% - "% / '-/ >> C $ -!(µ : 0d = R Ac Ao cos (c - ) ().3.9) µ-/*% "/ µ$(/" & " " µ$* " '(% " µ$* " " / (/-%

161 2.5 ("!/(!"# 7µ2(./) ', ( 1µ /*/% µ *+µ!" µ+/ % + µ$* "% : " ASK ( Amplitude Shift Keying ), " FSK (Frequency Shift Keying) " PSK (Phase Shift Keying). (/1.*%, µ& % ASK PSK./ '(, $ )*+% µ*-% (!" µ+/ "/ "'1 ". $ "/ ''" µ, " FSK µ$* " µ +' / (!. µ µ ' µ$* " ( +µ% 1," "% ( laser. '$, ($, "!1 " "% FSK µ$* "% / $ µ-/". )% (+ (,,/$%,. /& (µ /-/ µ% FM!" */ "#,*,&/ lasers. +µ*/ µ.*"-% µ-% -(/% µ FM!" */ "#,*,&/ lasers (!+/ $ + + /$µ/. -/ / /$µ/ "% -( % (/$"% µ$* "%. ($ µ"!/ µ$ " µ$* " (!µ-/( +µ% ' µ$* " " -( (/$" ( ('+ ( laser " '( µ " "% ' µ$* " ( ".' "% ( /,+ &µ% '',1 "% (!/$"% '/* "%. /$µ/ "% -( % (/$"% µ$* "%, µ1% +µ% ( laser ''8 µ$ µ1(% +µ ()//% +µ, '-, µ' µ$ " (blue shift). '' /$µ/ / " '',1 "%.µ %. (1 ' )% "%.-µ/ "% ( /,+ &µ% $!$µ/ +µ. /$µ/ ($ / (! %!-%!µ"'1% (!/$"% '$,* "%!!µ"'1%!+"% / "%. "/ * " (1 µ1% +µ% ( laser µ,'&/ ()//% +µ ($ '-, $/" µ$ " (red shift).,µ FM!" */ "#,*,&/ lasers (!+/ 9 $ + /$µ/ (,:µ /*. FM!" "/!1!µ"'&/ (!/1*/ / -' µ ( /µ-/( "% '',1%.µ %, /& ( "/!1 */ (:"'&/ (!/1*/ '+/ $ " -( (/$" µ$* "%. $/ 3.3!/ %,µ-% µ1 % */ FM!" &/ /$% DFB laser [1]. "/ $/ 3.3 "+µ µ!1,+* 100 khz $( " $ " */ FM /!!µ"'1. -!1 ' µ:" $ "% (efficiency dip) ( "µ,*,+ laser, " /! "µ $( (&// /$µ/ "% '',1%.µ % "% -( % (/$"% µ$* "%

162 $/ 3.3: FM!" /$% DFB laser. $ ( +(% 8&/"% µ$* "% /$% "µ,*,+ laser "/!1 (:"'1% (!/$"% -! (*% $ "/ '/* " "µ% (relaxation oscillation) *% -' µ "% ''"' "% µ)+ (.µ+ */ */*/ "'/*/ ( laser. $ (% (', µ+%, µ /!. $ " (!/$" '/* "% "µ% /, -,, ", /'," µ "/,*/1 8 "%!+% )$( ( laser "% µ "/,*/1 8 ( / (!$/( 8*1% */ */*/. µ-/*%,, " µ$* " (:"'1% (!/$"%, / µ$ / ",1 (µ -/ laser µ µ,'"!+ )$(. 4" (// µ+ 1 (!/$" */ "#,*,&/ lasers µ / (// ''8/%!$µ/ +µ "/.µ */ lasers. (, µ '',1 "/ 1 (!/$" $, (, 1 3 GHz µ / (!. ''8/% +µ 1," "% 1 ma, µ '',1 $ ( GHz µ / (!. µ "/ '',1 "%.µ % 1 0C "/!1 ( µ1(% +µ% µm. ', ( 1µ /*/% µ *+µ!" (!/$"% (// µ+ */ "#,*,&/ lasers -!(/ µ,1 (// µ$ ( 1µ% ( /µ$" (% +% '/*-%. $, " (/$" (// µ+ */ (µ9&/ laser "#,*,&/ / / " 1%, µ-/% µ,-%, $*%,,,µ, ( 1µ FDM (Frequency -Division Multiplexing)

163 2.6 *"1-µ! 47//) laser ('&µ 1," "% */ led ( ) µ /* µ µ µ-% µ$/ 1 % /!" µ".+/, "/ 1," " */ laser. ($ 9-9,/, *%,/* $ laser ( 8(/ -/ &' µ1%,µ ( / (µ9/ % $(% led. (1 9&% " 8 µ1 $' " */ 1 */ $ / +µ 1," "% */ + +*/ *",&/. µ$* " -/ "%!1 "/ 9 8 " µ$* " -/ "% " )*1 µ$* " -/ $ "'/*/$ + "µ /+ "/ $/ 3.8. <*% 9'-(µ " -/ " ( *$% $ "/ ",1 laser µ&/ µ 1 )* $ '"$ 1µ (/',$ 1 :"$ "'$ 1µ) µ9'' /', µ " µ1 ( '"+ 1µ%. 'µ9/$µ/ -" 1µ /!/+ µ (direct detection) $ / */!/(1. $/ 3.8 / Ith / +µ *'( "% ",1% laser, Ib +µ $'* "% "% $( I0 +µ $'* "% - & / µ"/ -!(µ µ$* " 1µ% (I0>Ith), "/ $/ 3.9 / " * " $( Ib<Ith

164 $/ 3.9 <*% 9'-(µ, -!(µ µ$* " ( % µ " /',+ 1µ%, '$, ($. - Ib /. "/ µ1 I0 "/ * " (1. /., " " ( / "/ $/ 3.10 (/, :"1 µ ", '$,(% ( -!(/ / /(/ µ "/ $ " ( -" (*!$ extinction ratio)

165

166 $/ "µ "% $/% !(µ " µ " ( /',+ 1µ% */1%, " -/ " ( *$% / *+ (.-*% '% ( 1µ% */1%. $/ 3.11 / +!(µ )$ " /,*,1 ( 1µ% '"% "/ /',1 µ ", $' $ + "µ. - /.- *!" : ).- (:"'$ 9.µ$,µµ$"% : ($, µ/ "/ 1 ",1 "µ/ $ "!- " µ)+ ( ",+/% +µ% (1% "% -/ "% *$%. - / /,µµ1. >$. " (1!+, "/ ",1 led.&%.- µ!$/,µµ1!" 1 ( "/. ''"'", /',1 µ ".!+% µ1% $µ*% "% led /! µ1 ($µ µ$" / ' " 1!+% ( (8(,/+ "/ 1 /) µ -' µ " $'" µ " / "8 $ /.$(9. /.,, µ ",1 laser, /.-'(µ / '(,1,µµ$ µ1µ "%!" 1% "% /* $,$/,. - /!" µ1 (µ

167 ('&µ." "% ( 8(/ +%!1 "% */ laser "/ /',1 µ ". &, $ / "/ 1 /, (1 µ /.*". $ ( 8,µµ1 (µ. -'%, / 1 " +)" &/ /!/(&/ µ!$/,µµ1 (µ $( " '+µ/" µ$* " / µ$" ( 1%. 9) $ " ( $'( ( 1µ% ( (!$/(, */ (!/1*/ )8$µ/"). - / µ / / /! (µ91 µ '" 1µ ( $ / µ.+/.,) $' + "µ. - / µ/8!µ"'$.+9(, "/ ()" (:"'&/ µ&/ Signal-to-Noise (S/N). " " (1 µ% (!&/ /!" µ1 (µ % ",-% led µ$/, µ " µ-% %

168 2.7 47"2 laser "/ /$" (1.!'".+µ µ " laser!" "%. µ *$% /! <<'>> -/ + "µ 1% /%. )"µ ($ µ- "'$ 1µ -/ /! */$ 1µ µ / µ- $ µ /. µ$% *$% / -/ "µ/$! $ / (!/ /"$! + "µ!" ( (!/ "8(/ ' $ "% "% /$% (/- µ(. $/: laser µ-(/ -/ "'$ 1µ *%

169 laser / '+' "µ,*, µ-(/ "'$ +µ *%. µ1% / 1 $, µ$ $.µ$"% (,/$µ/ µ 'µ$ *%. 0-/ -% $"% /(/ laser '(,!1 " "/ 1µ" */ &/ /&/. '#9/(/ µ$!& 3!(/ (:"'1 /9' (-µ(/ '+ *% µ1!1)!1 µ1% (% / µ1, (,/$µ/" µ % % */ &/ /&/ 3!(/ µ,'" 8*1%, -/% (:"'1 ). +/ / µ*.+/ (:"'-%!+"%. * /% µ,1," +, " µ&/ $!" */ laser */ led.!" (. /'(.+/ 'µ- *. ("!/(!"# LEDs Lasers +8) %3274* µµ /'," % +µ *'( +µ *'(: ma µµ /'," % /'," ( +µ% /* $ &' +µ *'(: 5-40 ma %8µ *<%*µ'&/ +8) - :"'1 +8!/!,$" ",$" 8 4) %3274* :"'$" $" 8(4) <-&/) - :"'$,'µ µ"/ "8µ!4) µm µm µ!"2 %8(4) 0/% 4.2 (+ ( nm FWHM) /$ ( nm - 10 nm FWHM)

170 laser (/1.*% (8/ $ GaAlAs ('' '(µ/ /), ( (-% µ&/ µ"&/ +µ%. ( (-% µ,'*/ µ"&/ +µ%,/ / *µ&// InGaAsP (5/ '' / * ) ("!/(!"# % 074/) 727& laser..µ'&"!".8(/ "!" µ$" µ,1. ( /: µ 1% +µ% (1%: / µ1% +µ% " ",1 -µ "/ µ-, "!+. - / 8 µ1" +µ% -µ/ µ "/ '! " ).-/" " µ- ( "% 1% /%. /-% (-% µ"&/ +µ% / 1310, nm. µ1!1: *", $' *% -µ $ -/ laser. 1.' / / "/ (1 ( µ1(% +µ%. 0 $µ*% *% -µ µ!1 $ µ1" +µ% /*µ-/ ( µ1% +µ%.!1 (1 /µ8 µ$ +% "% ",1%.,µµ µ1%:,µµ ( µ$µ/( *$% "8 "/ $" ( *$% / µ- µ 1 /. µ-,.% "%!1% µ1%. - / / $µ µ " µ ( (1/ "% /%. $/ 4.27!/!- µ1% /$% laser. $/ 4.27:!- µ1% laser!+%: '+ '- µ (,!// (/1.*% //% 8+)" $ (/$/ $"%!+% $ "/ ",1 µ- µ 1 /. 9 1 " " / $ "!+% )$( "% ",1% - / /!(1 & / ) ' 1!+ / /!/(1 'µ9//% (H $:/ "/ ).-/ " "% /%, "/ &' "% +8()"% ''(% µ+% ( ( 1µ%. B/ laser /!($ $ led.!+": ",1. - / /, / '/,1, & / /-) $ +(% ( ( 1µ%.!+" +µ*/ µ!$/ /$( (rise time) 1!$/.$( (fall time) "% ",1% % /!$/% ( "/!+ / /-9 $ 10 % 90 %. laser -!(/ µ,'+!$/(% /$(.$( $ $ led. µµ$":,µµ$" / '' -/!" $ */ ",&/ /-,%, µ-% µ,-%.,µµ$" / *+ 9.µ$ / " 1 -)% / µ /'," "/,*,1 ( "'+ +µ%

171 $% ",-% *$% /(/ µ1 -*%.$'(!1 ",µµ$", //% %!1 µ% µ$/, :"-% µ,-%. /',-% µ,-% +/ /1!1 ",µµ$". µ",µµ$" laser ' µ/1 µ$* " -/ /',$ 1µ -µ /* -/ +/ µ 1% /%. laser / (." ".µ. &' */ laser ''8 µ ".µ. $/ 4.28!/ µ (1 (µ /$% + laser..&% ".µ '(,% ''8, (#9/(/ '- µ.!, +µ *'( ''8. +µ *'( / /!µ"'$ %!µ"'$%.µ % /. +" '',1 " / "µ/1 / " ' " "% $"%. ' " "% $"% /.µ$% */ mw 1 */ µw "% )$( *$% / ma ( ()/$µ/( +µ% 1," "% /* $ &'. $ laser!/(/ µ & " "/ ' " "% $"% "/ +)" " "%.µ %. 3, laser +/ µ µ-.." "% ( *'( & / (!. " µ-, " $ ". (!/ µ *%!" µ, "/ '+." " "% )$( ( *$% "/ * $:" ( laser. +µ $ µ * ''8 µ ' % "/ -) ( *$% -! / " & / (.µ +µ 1," "% ( laser

172 $/ 4.28: % "%.µ % "/!+ "% )$( ( + laser. $/ 4.29: 4" -% µ&/, a) Led b) Laser

173 $/ 4.29a!/ " (µ /$% led " $/ 4b!/ " (µ /$% + laser.,-% %!/(/!$ $ "% )$( ( *$% -// ( "'+ +µ% 1," "%. -) *$% ( led / (,µµ-% µ +µ 1," "%.!$/ $' led ( 8(/ µ +* " "/ µ+'" $*% / "/ $/ 4.29b. µ",µµ$" ( led 8 "!" µ$" ( /',-% µ,-%. +* " µ / '". $ -//.µ$,$/*/ " ( 1 */ led "#,*,&/ '' (!/, -/ µ,' 9.µ$ ' "/ (.-µ/ " ( ''"*µ-/( ('&µ% ( led. $" $'*/ */ led µ&/.&% ()/ ".µ " '(, (%. 3,.&% led ", (:"'$ +µ ''"*µ-/ +'*µ ( 8 / '&/% & " "/ $" ( " /µ/1 +* " "% $/% 4.29a. led ( '(,+/ +µ µ (1 100mA. /! -% ( (-% '(,+/ (:"'$ +µ% (µ4')!& laser /$-&. µ$" */ laser "#,*,&/ µ/+ $( '(,%, (:"'1% ' µ$"% ) %, -! 9'& '+ "/ ((µ-/"!1 " (% % -% /*/% $ ', ( 1µ $ ( 1µ µ$* "% -/ "%, (:"'+ (.µ+ µ "% bit µ "% /!/( "% (Intensity Modulation Direct Detection). µ,1 ', ( 1µ µ/$% $% '(,% µ µ-/ +%,µµ1% µ% (:"'1% (/$"% (// µ+ laser ( ( 8(/ µ,' /-/,!1 " '(/' ( 1µ, $*% ( 1µ CATV, LAN MAN. IM-DD ( 1µ (:"'+ (.µ+ µ "% bit "!- " /µ laser µ "% µ$* "% " (!/$" µ1% - / /µ*. " (,µ-/" * " " $' " "% (!/$"% (!8 µ +µ µ$* "%, ( 8 laser µ/1% '(,% *% /.+µ" 9 µ (1 *% (/µ1 +(/ ",µµ1%), "8/% - "/ $ " ( ( 1µ%. $% (+ ( µ- / / -!.µ'&% ($9. 9 (!" */ "#,*,&/ laser (!" µ+/ ( 1µ /*/%

174 2.8 LASER 3) #1/% # "/ /'(:" ( Ruby Laser $ / T.H.Maiman,.Javan (/,% (, -(!/,*,1 /9'% Laser $ #,# */ He-Ne. -'% ( 1962 % /)",8$#/% #% */ M.I.Nathan, R.N.Hall T.M.Quist -(!/ #1 /9'% Laser $ "#,*,$. $ $ " -(/!&" # '# '' '' (' # "/.&."/ / /, #- ( "#*/ Laser./ /, ('!" #+/ 1# # 1 / #-/ -, "#,*,, (/. + '' # #)%, '+#!* &/ '. #-,.% " #1 */ Laser ' "%. / / # / % #-% #/+% */ Laser ( ')+/ / '- (/ "/ */ &/ ''"*#-/*/ ('*#*/ (% #''/+% "'1 (/$(% */ "'/&/ ''"*#-/*/ ('*#*/. / / #( #,-.(% # #1% + /"!( ( 30cm, # $#*% /. (/ #,'% % "% )"% */ 10m #1(%. #+ # ($ "# / )(# Laser ",% +#*/ # % ( /,+ (% ('+, "/!1 #1% (% 1 "/!+ "% - #"% (%. (/". #-/% $#*% 1%!* #$% / ($% ( 9 8 % ( /,+ (% ('+.&% + "# /'" "% +!" #+/. 0* )/#+# Laser /', # % ( /,+ (% ('+!1# 1: O + */ Laser

175 2.8.1!%(%#)!#!/) / Laser / 9 */ $/*/ ( ''*/ */ #'( #-/*/ # neodymium,('&/ ( ''*/. % "% 9( #&// + ''"'% /% ( '+/ # # #" #''1 / $/ "%. % "% Laser -(/ "/,*,1 (:"'$"% +/#"%. 4" #+/ (/1.*% # -/ ''$#/ $, /,(/ # -")" *$% "/ /$% +/#(!$/(. 1)% $ +/#% $*% sec -!(/ (!.,!1 #% "/ #'-" ( &/ /#-/*/ '+ (/1% %. /'" " (,!/ # *% $ (% *'1/% '#:"% )-/(, (% '#1% $)*/, 1 (% '#1% #-''-#+. # (!/$"% -!. $ (-(. (IR) "/ (&" / (UV) # / ''' #$ "%!1% (!/$"% Laser # + '' $*% (,$/ '(- * $ '%, #1" +#% */ /*/ X -!(/ (!.!+/% # /% Laser -/ yttrium $!. "/ ", (1 /1(/ Laser (9(. -/ laser (9(, '($ *% $ " '(!/ )-/( ( /9 91/ *8 (9 () (,'(), "#(, " ',$#/" "1 /'" "",,/% - #$ " 9 (9( & / -#:(/ -/ 9.+ $/ '#$. /# ( (9( (!(/ + ( /"!- -/ "#$ '' /' $' *%), /# '/&/ *% -*% $( /!(. #-! /$% "#( -'% *% )+, $ "/ '$" /!(#-/. $/ 4: Laser (9( %(04* Laser,+ #+/ /,(/ #,'8 /*/ #"&/ +#% *$%. 4" #+/ "/ :(!,*, (# Laser) -!(/ ''-% -%!1 %, $*% "/!(,1 -#9 " #&/ "/ '1(/ "- 1)" */, #*/ */ /&/.! -%!" #+/ ($ Laser, /,(/ % ',-% $/%. #-%! # (-% /-/ /$" ( '(.. #- Laser /$% Laser ( #/ / -/.$ -, -/#,# */ 1 $# #$% #''*/ '#9/ (/1.*% -// ('/$ *'1/,('+ 1!'8. +.-% 9 / -)* $ % % ( *'1/, / #& (/ "/ '$" Laser. Laser ( /'+/ $ (&% *%, % - #% "'/*/, "'$ +#, 1 %!"#-% / %. Laser "'(- /-( /,/* $, ".$" (:"'1% (!/$"%, "/,/$"!&#% "/ '! " / (. Laser )( ( /. / '+, (/&% /!($ Laser (/!&/ (#*/ (CW)

176 2.8.3 $-& (#,1% /9' Laser / (1 */ Laser "#,*,&/ ( ' (/1.*% $ # +/ " #)+ */ *#*/ */ "#,*,&/ # % -% "'-% $"% (%. /,''( / /$% "#,*,$%!" #"#-/%, (. Laser "#,*,&/ /'+/ $ "/ # " #,1 ( "'+ +#% - $ " +/ ", #+/ /!" #".+/ / Laser (/!&/ (#*/ # '+" $ 50% $". #-.% ( - $#" $"!1 " "% /-,% -! /". '#9/ # Laser. ('&#, # (/$" $ $ /$% ##(( /,*/$ $#. Laser "#,*,&/!" #+/ (*% CD players.&% (*-% Laser. " ( 90 1#/% /-()/ #' &" Laser. 1 ( Laser -#(/ *% # # #1" +#%, #+/ / -:(/ -/ CD /!*- (/ $% '"% / /(/ (% (*-% Laser / (&/(/.. "%. #+ / /!" #".+/, / /(/ / $ * #$ / «)/#» /-, (# LASER / (, #- Laser / /$,/%!* -% ( % ( '#9// 9'1#,('+ ( /'+/ $ (% -//(% '#1%'#:"%#-// $ (,#+ 1 $ -/ Laser ( # $ (/!&/ (#*/. $/ 5: /,$ ('$ / -/ '(#!* 1% #1% +#% #1% ( Laser / #9'"$ #- $ Laser (!" #+/ "'$/ +/ #, /'+/ "/ /$" $ # #,/"&/, /+!."/! 1997,// & "#/ (/" $,/. / $# # Laser!* &/ ( &/.*", -/% #$%.#$%. #+ / '+: '$'" # $ % (-(.% /% % /% X. Laser '+.*/ "'/*/ - "% /,/(/ / /,(/ '+ (:"'1%!+% /9' ( / (1/ "/ '+ 91,/!

177 2.8.6 FEMTO - LASER 3/ femto- second "' sec / -/ ( #$!/$ "#. 4", /& *% -,+* $ "," $% $ -% #- -/ ($', /+ #1% ',$ $ -/ $ (!(% #%!% #- -/ femto- second (fs). Laser (,(/ '#+% # # femto- second -!(/ /(!.! $. ( Laser (/ $' $.!+% (% *$% ( -# "/ (&/ */ +/#*/ '#&/ )/ "/!+ 100 ("/&/.#&/ (,!/$ "# LASER!") =&) (1 &/ /.&/ Laser / / '1 ($. ". < #,'"% -/ "% / -/ Laser, $ ''1.#$" - #(/.. / " #(/ ".#$"% /,/ *, $ "#(,+/ % #- /,$ ('$ ( "8(/ "/ $" "% /% Laser #+/ / '- (/ "/ 1 ( ('+ ( Laser. Laser &/ /&/ '+/ # '+ #:1 '+ " (+ ( 9'1#%, $' ( /,+ ('+ (/' " 1 /, " ($!/ /!+ ", *%. #,'" / "% /,1% 1% /% -! #$#" 1 :+)". $. " 1 / ", *% # $ " 9, & Laser / -! '1% $"% - #". $/ 6: Laser &/ /&/

178 2.9 72!/!%)!/) "!&46410)!& LASER 4 /-( *% $" */ Laser / " #/!*#$" "% /9'% (%. / # ",1 *$% / # / & $'( #/!*#$ *%, Laser /(/ "/ '+" (1 -,, " % /$ #/!*#$ *%. 1, "/ (.(/$" "% - #"% / ',$#/ "/,#" "%, ( "/ )" / ' "%,*/% (!"#8 " )*1 / "% - #"% # "/ /1 /. (/".8 / 8 mrads. -/ ' $ #$ Laser /,# "% - #"% ( / ( 1mrad,,# ( /! +)" " "% #-( "% - #"% ( Laser 1mm / #- #1%. 0 Laser / ",-% #,'"% '#$"% -/ "% /9'%. 4" /- $ " '#$" "% - #"% /$% Laser He-Ne, ( -!!+ 1mWatt, / '+ #,'+" $ " '#$" ( 1'( (('! / 100 -% #,'+"). Laser 9 (# / (:"'$ (/$ 9.#$ (#*/% $ 1 ''" */1 ",1. / # ",1 *$% / '*% +#*/"!& /!$/, (! $'(".1 (!- " #)+ */ #9'&/ ( "'+ ( "% */1% /9'% ' -/ "# (!&( #' (-%. '' "# (. / " #9'1 (1 ( "'+ ( #". ( ( "#, # / /% # #,'" 99$". $#/"!/1,#1 / "'$ ' -/ + "#, '&% #$/ #&/% & "#. 0 LASER *% */ "'&/ '#1*/, */ '#1*/. #+, ( 1'( */ ''&/ ''*/ */&/ ",&/ (#-,/ / "#" '*#-/" 1 "(! '*#-/ ". /., '' Laser,(/ '*#-/ *%. #+ # '$/ / +#, $ " /9' (% -! (1 "/ $" /!" $ "%. "/ )" " $'* " "% - #"% ( Laser (,!/ # "/!1 " /$% + '*+!( (. #- $ /"!. (/". #-/! $ ( / -% /%,*/% Brewster, (( (/1.*% /#8/ ".( Brewster"), #,,# /' "%, '*-% '

179

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aser 9 µ-/ :"1 /*/ µ-/*/ :"1 /*/ µ "µ,*,$ laser -!µ"'$ $ %, /$ +% '1% (-(." /*/ µ-/*/, µ " µ-/*/ (', 1 "'µ%. ( (1 (1 µ /,. +'!$µ/ µ$ 9!-*% '"% -"% µ / /'". /1. + "µ ' $ + µ/*/ -", µ+/ / -µ:(/ 10 kbps (kilobytes per second) :"1% '"% +% 1.5!'µ-(. $/

181

182 . µ$% -µ (-(.(% 'µ+% % 200 nsec µ!+ (1% 4 W. ( -", 'µ *$% (,/&// " * µ " 91. ''"'*/ &/ µ- */ (% µ-(/ "'+% 'µ+%. 'µ ( ),8/ '-/, +/ " µ / "'/$ (', 1. µ-/ /'' / +!*% / µ9'' '&. $,* "% µ/1% $"% "% '+ µ1% $' "% "% - µ"% laser, + "µ - '1 /*/ µ-/*/ (,/$µ/" µ " /*/. 4" : :"'1 ' µ( $" "% /*/%! +'", " 4µ"'1 /'* "!+% /*/ "µ( % "µ +/ µ% µ1% '1:"% -, +%. $ 1.5!'$µ '+. $ EM/RF µ9'-% /!8!1 "% (.(,µµ " */ µ/*/ µ "' $ ( (1 (1!" µ, '1 /*/ µ-/*/ µ(/-% (."%!-%, $µ, /*/ µ)+ */ -// $µ*/,* "% */ &/,, "/ "'µ µ-/*/, "'! µ$. (www.barc.ernet.in/webpages/technologies/laser_digi.html) µ,1 ( Laser % "'/*/% (/, /&/ & */ µ"!/&/ % "'/*/%, /-() -/ + "µ laser µ 1 / *. "/ " $9 $ % $/ /. $ +% µ+% laser ( '(')% "% (µµ1% (Wavelength Division Multiplexing - WDM). µ " /-() "/ µ,1 (1, + $ ($ / & laser <</'" "%>> "'µ,/"1% /9'% 1% /% /+!." *% "'/*/$% µ$%.

183 $/ 5.9: -)% ( laser Yb (! -9) */ 977 nm /-µ & )!* /µ"µ-/ laser / "% µ 1 /,,(/ -// $µ9 */ 50 Hz $ (!/$"% WDM. µ$% -/ + "µ WDM / -/ $ $ µ )1µ, $ / "/ " '' $ % ( ( 1µ%. laser "#,*,&/ '(,+/ /µ"µ-/" / ", (/1.*% '+(/ / $' ($, '' /µ"µ-/"% / "% laser 1% /% / (/ /,*/ -%, "/, (1. ( '( / ( (-% (:"'1%!+% µ!µ"'1 &' µ9'1%, /1 /, µ/1 (!/$" '*µ-/"% )$( µ (:"'+% '$,(% 1µ% %.$(9 (Signal to Noise Ratio - SNR). $ µ/-"µ */ µ&/ laser 1% /% 1/ $ +/ -/ 9$ (*."µ-/ laser "µ,*,+, /'" " (&/. & $µ*% (/( µ$% ( 8 "/ /'" " */ µ&/ laser 1% /% µ -/."/$ laser 1% /%. " µ$* " ( /+( ( 1µ%, " -)% */ 977 nm $ -/ laser 1% /% (9( (Yb) '&/ & µ+% laser 1% /% WDM $*% / "/ /* $/ ($/ 5.9).. /µ"µ-/% µ$% / "% laser 1% /%!*8 $,/$ ( µ (!/$" 50 GHz, & + "µ /, -// ($ $µ9 WDM */ 50 GHz. laser /'" "% */ 977 nm ($.($ '+ µ µ."/1, (-*% µ% laser, µ1% +µ% 915 nm. 0( 1 Watt "% /9'% */ 977 nm + $ laser, '' &'% */ 8(&/ &/ /&/ */ 3dB "% '* "% µ&/(/ "/!+ /%. /µ"µ-/ laser / "% 1% /%!+ 90 mw. $ (-% % (/.1%. -/ $ & laser, ( 21 mw!+. 3 $ µ &/, µ"!/ +,// "/ " ( /µ"µ-/( laser / "% 1% /%, µ $ laser /'" "% /9'%. -." $ " ' " */ 1*/ (slope efficiencies) ( /µ"µ-/( laser / "% 1/ % / " ",1 /'" "% 1/ laser

184 1% /% 1 $ laser $ "!1 -/ ".+9( 1/ /)"" $ "/ ",1 /'" "%. µ +" */ & /µ"µ-/*/ laser / "% 1/ ) "µ* µ,'+ $/ /'+// $ -/ laser 1% /%. +)" " ( +(%, +(/ µ"!/, -!(/ *% -' µ "/ ' "%!+% ( laser /'" "% µ 1 /, '' +(/ $ / / 9'9-% "/ " ( ( 1µ% $ $ -// µ$ WDM. 4" µ&/% µ$/ -/."/$ laser 1% /% / & 9 laser, / /'1 (/ & /µ"µ-/ laser / "% µ 1 /, µ µ+/ / µ& (/ (/'$ $ % ( -( ( µ+. /()" (1 / /µ"µ-/ laser 1% /% $ /,*/ µ laser "#,*,&/,!1 " *% µ WDM. 6"1 µ " µ- * laser 1," " laser, :"1 µ " µ-/*/ / µ $µ" 9'* ". * + ('&µ ",+/ laser, :"-% µ,-%. $, (! µ ( ' ''"*#-/*/ ('*/$/ '$,* */ (:"'&/ 1 */, :"+% ",+% laser. -% µ& % ( ('&µ%!/(/ % $ /&%!" µ+µ/%!-% µ ''"*µ-/ ('&µ ",&/ laser. $/ " ('&µ 1," "% laser

185 !1µ 6.8a!/ -/ '$ +'*µ ) (!/$"% µ&/ /*/ MHz. «Digital data in», "'1 " :"1 % µ-/*/ '(. -/! '$ $µ. (/*1% C2, "/ L1 (/*1% C1 '(,+/, / (/ "!µ"'1 (!/$", (/&% / (/ % '(,%!µ"'+ (.µ+ µ-/*/. // -/ +'*µ 1," "% laser. - /!8 (!/$"% $!µ"'-% $ -/ $ ( (.µ+ µ-/*/ "% )"%. +µ - $ /8 Q3.8 $ ( +µ% µ$* "% ''8.- " laser / " µ :" µ µ$* "% $ (''-" ( /8 Q3 '/+ µ)+ ( + "%,µµ1% ( +( ($ /8 Q1) laser D1 ($ /8 Q2) $ -) ( /!(1 U2 ''8(/ µ *. B / +,(µ / -! +'*µ,1 $ ", +'*µ (!" µ :"$ laser - / +, / -. / $. B '$, ($ -/% ",$% laser! µ-/% /!8 -// (.µ$ µ-/*/ */ 622Mb/s. - "% /!8 (!/$"% $!µ"'-% $ 6.22MHz. $ '+' +'*µ / ($ (!1µ% 6.8b, -!+"% "% )"% */ Gb (109Byte). (www.fiberoptics.info). 4 % 9#"!/-% #,-%, $% $ %,/* -%, $*% " 1, " (,$''" ", " '/ ", " " ", 1 " $/( " ('&/, '#9// '+ '+'% $*% " "#(, "# &/" "/,*,1 #('*#*/ 1 " (1 *'1/*/ #1% #-( #"!/ /.&/ )*!"# /.&/ *. "/ 9#"!/1,*,1 #,'"% '#% Laser /(/,1, /# '- #, # '+ '+ -',! "/ ), */ =$/*/. $, Laser # #$ #1% +#% #1% #(/.#$" #-'' 1 "' '+ $ Laser #,'(#1(% +#% #-/*% /(/ # (,#-/" (',1,. +/ "%,#+// /(/ '-%, % 1 -!(/ #1 # #-/"% - #"%, " ( # #1% +#% "% /9'% (%. ( (!&% $#*% Laser #+ #1(% +#% -!(/ #$" "'1 $ ". 4 - Laser 8(/ ( $' "!"# % *!"#-% / %. / ''"',', " #'-" "% #1% */ #*/, " #'-"!"#&/ / */. +/ "% / )/1 (/ # (,#-/"!"#1 / " #- ' -/ #,# / (/-% ''-% -% / %. Laser!" #+/ & " #'-" #*/ /&/ */, #*/ /*/,&/.&% (.-/(%!"#&/ #&/

186 !1 " */ /&/ Laser / #- "% 1%: " #',!" #+/ (*% Laser CO2 Ag. Laser CO2 (-(." /9' o $ # # #1% +#% 1600 nm. Laser Ag,'8 / *% $ # # #1% +#% nm!+ 1-2,5 mw. ( #,1 (% "/."1 #', " ' 1!(,1 ' $ -!(/ % )1% $"%: ()/(/ "/,*,1 */&/, '',$/( ' /"% ( / 9 ( ( -#%. 0*.+/ "/ (,-// ". (#9''(/ "/!+"!-( " "% '-#(. 0'+/ 9'* " ( $/( ( -#%. '(/ " */ #&/ (*/. '(/ " */ $ */,*/ ( 1.%, ', #"). '* " "% (%. #(/ " */ )/&/. 0&." " ( #9' #+ */ '(*/. )/ " (# )-* ") */ '*/ */ "'*/ */ (8..( (% '- # / / #, '' #/8/ + $ &% 1 "#-% # "/.. / Laser # /!" #". ".- " */ 9'/&/ /, /', "# ( 9'/ #+. / / '/ #$, #&/ soft Laser $ / '+*% /(/, '- # (% / '1*% / -:# / $ ''"', / ( "8(/ "/ ( ',1 "$" (,/ #+. (*%!" # )1% +% Laser / 9'/ #$: Laser Ca - As / Laser "#,*,&/ ()% 3). /(/ $" /9' (-(." # #1% +#% 910 nm 0'' (/+/ $ # 9"."1 / )( (,'( (l) / (#/ 1 $ /!*#( (Cr) % (/ $/!&#.!(/!+ -5mW. ((/1.*% 3,6mW). (,+/ (/!&% '#+%. 9.% "% (1% (% /$"% /-! 5 cm ( ( ) $ % */ &/). / (% ', $ "/ # /" /$. #-/ -!(/ ''-% (!/$"%. /(/ # ".(1 /" " $ Laser He-Ne / ' # )% &(/% %

187 .(1 /" " (/1.*% ( 8 # 2-3 (/% /!8/ $% $ 8-12 (/% (/'. / / (! -' # 4-5 (/% '$/ / / #"/ #-/(#. & % $/( # " '(, '#+% # 73 Hz 20" '#% Gerd Meyer-Schwickerather //* "/ &" -#9 " "% $''" "% ( #9'" 1 )&/% *% ( 1'( *% ",1 *$%-/-,% )-') "!(,1 ( (1 (!" #&/%!(1 '(!/ -( )-/(. 1# "." " "% $''" "% ( #9'" 1 / # $ % (-% #,-% ( Laser "/.'#',. #+ % / /*"., 9$ Laser /- " % '+ %."/$% )% # (#9$ *%. /" " 9,,/$% $ " /9' Laser -! '+ #,'+" (/$"!+%.. "% $''" "% ( #9'" 1 -, «)(,/$''" "» "% #-( "% 9 "% "% ''"#-/"%!1% # «"'%,+#%» ( '!(,$% # /9'. ''"#-/" / / /-!, '' + / /. / " (/$"!+% "% /9'% /! #1,,. -,(# $!$/% ",$#/".#$" '9/ /!(. %,+*!-%, '&/% 9'9%,/+% +% $/ /./1. $% #9 % # Laser /.'#$ &//,1, )* #!1," " '+ "# +..'#$% 1/ & $,/ ( #'1." # # Laser 1 / /1% "/ (+) '-/ $% (.'#+ 9". "/ " "%!$#/"% - #"% /* / #9'" 1!&/. + " ( #9'" 1 ( ($'(.'#+ / -, & $ *% / / #,' $ ($/ /!&/ / $ ($/. $ *% Laser ( /.'#$, # / -! #1 (/$"!+%, ". /!(. # "/ " / 1 $ (.'#+. 1 " #-, " #1 9&% /* / #9'" 1.,'+*# (()"#-/" /.'# " )% «,(#-/(» (&(% &#%) ' /(/" " $ /+.+ # " 91. /( Laser r, # /,/ -%, " (,1 "% % ( (,+. "/ 9"1 #9'". ( ", +'* ", " -#9 " # / Laser r - "/ /(/" '".& #$*/,,*/ ( "#(,,/ #$% *% / " 9'1# ( ('+ ( $#*% ( 8(/ 1-#,. /#& " ( " (.$'* " ( + (.'#+),/ # " 91. (1!*/ (.(##8(/ $. ## +/ # $

188 "$,*,$. ".- " ( ( +.'#+. ' $%, / 1 "/.1 $ " (+" ", 9"."1 "% &"% ( ' / 1). <#*% 25% ( */ & */, # $ -'( " #"/$% «,//&/».'-%!-%,+* $ / ' $ $, #8/% "/ $ ".!(,$%.'#%!" # $ Laser # )#8 /!'" ##&#, ('## */ */ +/ (%,+* +%!*%/ "#(,1 (/ '' 9'1#. (&% *% $ excimer Laser!" #, " $.* " "% "% (.'#+. #,'+ #-% (+ ( -,( /.'#$ &/ 1%!&/%. )% "% % ( ".' "% ( - ($ $( -! " ) # / /! ( 1!&/, */-% /%.'&/!$#/% /.'#$. 1% - / -! * 1 #('$" & ''"'" ( - #" / / #9'" 1!&/ *#-% (.'#+ (#1 $.* " "% % ' $ $ (.'#+). / 1% / -! "/ ''"'" #('$" " $ " /.'1. &%.& % "% )+"% "% $ "%,/// # #-% #-% / 1 (/1 #1). (&% *% "% ( (1% -#9 "% ) ''1( / -! /.'#$. (, *% $ /( - # $:" $ #/. 0", 1 /.". +" #-.%, ' # *% $ Laser excimer " 91. (', #&/ # (/#-/ (', 1, / " " '$( &#% ( 1, # " #-. ( ' *-.' 1 #1, '&/% '',1 "% #('$"%, $ " 9&% * "../1% + '-/ /!8.*+% +%. ", /$" #-.%, / " #'( ", "/ $ #! ( #$#%) 1# ( ( / $) & '$ &# ( 1. '+.*% excimer Laser #'+ "/ (1 ( 1 & / #*. " #('" ( $. «$» '/ " +'* " ',% #-%. $/ 8: (&% *% $ excimer Laser!" #, " $.* " "% "% (.'#

189 /. % #-. / $'%, "/ «$.* "» #(*%, "!"8 $ #,'+" ( ( ',+ #('$" ( 1. $.* " (#% (1% # #$" ( ( ',+ #('$") # Laser,/# /', $. $.* " "% #(*% # Laser / # / #. $'% % & % +%./%, # "/ -#9 ", // ".*. $/ 9: 41 " Laser, "/ $.* " "% #(*%. soft Laser!" #+/ 1# "/ / #', # '+ ' '- #. /)% (% /: 0/%, '(', '!1/%, '/*1 ('"%, ('"%,/,.%, /(', +#(, + %, +/#,/.1%.& *%, #$% )"$ /,!'% -"%, '"% " *+, '', #-'' '. / #- ($ /#*8/ # Laser Co2 ",,/"1 "/, '+% */"&/!&/, #(,'#1,!$/ (1 (,,. Laser #+/ / /+/!1 # ". &/, '9 &/ ((,,&/. / #- ($ /#*8/ # Laser Co2 ",,/"1 "/, '+% */"&/!&/, #(,'#1,!$/ (1 (,,. 0 /#*8/ /9,! $, '1.% 1 1.% # Laser Ag, Nb - YAG 1 CO

190 %, -', '1.% 1 /, '%, '+%, #%, #+/ / /#*.+/ # Laser Ag 1 YAG. / #- "%,(/',%!" #+/ Laser CO2, He-Ne Nb-YAG. /)%: /#"* ",!"'%,!"'-% /."'-% /' %, #!(,1 (/('&#, '+%, ' $" ", ( $" "), $'% /-% % $'( (. X "% "/!(,1! $ " #,1 (%, " 8 "/ 1.',&/ &/, / #& %,,*/ /)% "&/. X $,,'( /*( #('+, "'9-% #%,,!1 %,,*/,// & # "/!1 " Laser Nb-YAG, CO2, Ag. 0!+" /* " $,#, (# #,.%, ( #:% '. (/:8/%, /-(# ($ Laser (!" #+/ 1 % $"% (%. "/ Laser CO2 ()( ( /.%). 1% +#% 1600 nm.!(/ + +: '$% +% / (:"'1% /-,% #!+ #-! 100w!" #, )-* " / /( -. /% /$% +% -! #$"!+ /,.#$" - & / ' Cold (+) Laser!" # 1 / /( -, 1, 1)". #1% +#% ( CO2 / "/ $" '( ((-(.) ( #%, ($!8 # ''"'" 1 / (, $ # +" ( (1 Laser. /% CO2 / #+/ / #.+/ # -% /%, ($!8/ ( 1# $*/ #*/, / +/ " 9'9". +/ $ $'(% (% +%, $% $ '$,* "% "$"$% (% $ /$ - #+/ /! #".+/ $'(% (% +%, '' $! (,$ 9''/. +/ # " 8- " )# " ( +% */ &/. $!&# */ &/ / -! "# $ / "/ $" " /-,% ($ #1% +#%. 1 /% (% &/ -// $ /$," % 9.% ( 1 (% / #1 " #1 */ &/ #,'+"

191 Laser Nb-YAG (Neodymium-Ytrium, Aluminium, Garnet = /"%).!(/ #1% +#% nm "/ (-(."!1 ( #%.!(/ #,'+" (1 /$" (% +%,(/ #,'+" % $ *!( ", (, # Laser CO2 Ag # -' # //$" 1)" */&/ $ $ Laser Ag. &/ $ $ +% # /!&#. /% /-% +% YAG */ 1320 nm / $#" +!" "/ 1. /!(. #- $ -% /%,.- #$% ( (-%, $ $ /$ (10 nm) ' '+" 1 1)"!-% ( )+/. Laser Ag (,$/). / & (!" "#1."/ (-*% "/ 1,!, (" %,,*/ ( #9'" +%.!(/ #1% +#% nm -#(/,'8 / *%. " (% ) $!&# ( +. &/ '+ $ +% ( -!(/ (#'"*#!&#,.!. $/, "'1 #9.%!-%. 0'+/ #,'+" )# " #$" % $ * $ Laser Nb- YAG. $,* ( #+ #1(% +#$% (%, #+/ / #.+/ +' #- (', % -% /% '(,+/ ' (,$ 9''/. Laser KTP 532 / $ /$ Laser # #1% +#% 532 nm, (/ / *%. 8(/ # Laser Ag '' ( 8(/ #,'+" $" " $ "/ # /". Laser excimer 3!(/ #$ #1% +#% 193 nm (&% # '+/ " */ #&/ #&/ (photo dissociation) # '+ #,'" 9. &/ -// $ /$ ($!/ '' "/ 1 $ / -!(/.#/1 " /& -!(/ #,'" 9. Laser #!* 1 (Dye).!(/ #$ #1% +#% 63 nm -#(/ $/ *%.!(/ #,'" (1 /$"!" #+/ "/ *(/#1.. 4" #&/% ''%!* -% #+/ /!.+/ Laser # #1" +#% 0 ('+.( () '+ #,'"!+" #$* "% */ Laser $*/ - "/ # " ' #1 /*/ # '+. +#

192 +% #,-% (1% "% (/$"% /: () /*/ #)+ ($*/ "# (1010 bits / ($') (9) /*/ *$!&(% ( / (!(/.$'( (#-% $/ 10:!+" "% */ Laser $*/. LASER 4 H 0",-% Laser #+/ / & (/ /(* -% -% %. </ " - #" Laser!*!1 # -//" (, 1 /$, 8 % $'% % (.+/ % "#(,&/% */+% $,(%. Laser $/*/ Ar Kr -#(/ $ #' $ $ -/ #1" +#% (,!$/*%. # '-,#!*8/!&# +/. '/+#/(%.-%.",+#/(% # (', 1, (,!/,1," /" " "% - #"% Laser. / (/1 " "#(, /+#/*/ -,!*#*/ $/*/. */1 - #" / $ -/ "#., ''.&% " 1 /+* " #-/!/$ "# /.'#$ ($*% / /"#,), ""1% '$'"" "/ $/.!/', -!. "# / #+/ '-/ / "#(,+/ (# Laser) /+#/,'( &/ */!&. (+ ( (% %, / (/( +/ # ',## #+/ / & (/ '+ '+.-#. ',## 9 (/ #,1.-# -,*/ -!/"% 1 /*/ /#-/*/ #( */. 0'+#.-# */ */ " $" / '1% # "/ ( ( /+, /. / # ',##. '1% $"% '$,## - $'% % '"% ( (./+ $((

193 0IN.&% (# #$% (! $' $ "/."#/1 #% 8*1, (1) $ -%, "/ * " ( ( 1#% "% ($#"% (" "% /'*&/ =$/*/.. =$/ «,8» # " 1 ( *1,## ", ( 98 # * " $ - #" *$% Laser. /'&#/ *% (''-, $ $ + "#."#-/ ' "/ ",1 "% - #"%. $/ 12:- #" *$% Laser 98 "/ *1,## " =$/%. *1,## " / # $ #+%,##-% $/, (*#-/" (/1.*% ($''"" /--. ($% $% *" "% / #% "% 9 8 +% */ #+*/ ( '(&/) 8*/&/ "%,## "%. *% Laser. + "# '(,$,.$ / /'&#/ *% / $ #$/ ( #-/ / $.% 9"."-% #/%. /'&#/ *% # $ *$(%, $( $ 1# - "'+% '#+%, #- (', 1 #8.#+%, " */ */, (,#-/ =$/. #/!*#$" ( *$% Laser 9". & # ''"' ' / #8 " % % % *$(%. + #1(% +#% $ /' ",/-% /%. *1% Laser # / -! " #1 ('$ 1 / / ' " " /$% +,*,+ 1 / / / *#*#-/% /-,, #.( ( ( - / " ($''"" - ( =$/%. + "#!" # '-/ $ '' / # '/-%. </./1% /,*,1 (&/ $ ($''"% -%, $( "#/! ( -!(/ *". # + "#,## "%. -%. ''".+/,# #%, +*/ 1 ( &/ #*/ /,%. 1# /!1 " + "#,## "% $( " '"."+ * + %. # - (+ ( ( 1#% # / (#(!.+/ '"%, =$/, - "% #% '$'""% '%

194 0 LASER "% +* "%!*8 + : '1:" "% '"% % +* " «# 1» "% $/ # "% '"% $ " ( (1 "#(,% "%! + -// (*1 Laser / $# # ( *(+ #"!/1#%. <#*% *($, &, &/ # -// #-/ /+#/ *% #/.!1 ( 9'' / *,&,# +'/. /! / (*1 Laser #/ #- / +'/ / (, '' '+,1,!" *% Laser ( &/ / +'/. / (*1 Laser (! / *#*#-/% /)"% ), 1% ( '-,! "/ *1 #/1#" ( (*1. #,'+ #-% "% ), % "% '"%, $ (% "'/+% '#+% ( -'/ (', 1%, #-! (*#-/!, ' #- / (*1 Laser. ($ / $, (', 1% &!/ - */ '"&/ % / (*1 '(.&/ #, -#%/ /'9 /-.1/. 0*,*/ 1% / (*1 ($*% *($ #"!/"#) / $#/% +'/% $ #''$,&,# ('$, '(##-/ # '$ #/*1 (." *% (*,&,#,.!. # '1/.+! #). '$ #-/ / '$ #/*1, #,'!/$ "#, $ 9. "# ( ('/( (.. *%,/,&,#!/ "'$ (. + "% % "% +* "%,/# 591#: #,/1% $ " ( *(."( ('/( #.$ "'$ # */ #-/*/ / +'/ # '$ * #$, #- * '1% - #"% *$% Laser, ( 8 / +'/ (,#-/ "# " '( ( ('/( ( (9' #-/, / '+ / $ /,#!( # $/",1% () :(,+(-toner) /##,#-/"% # $/" #,/"+ ('+ '(##-/( # '(#-%. 1!/1 (( ' /', # / + ( (*1) 8 "' " $/",1%, # /. $ ($ ( ('/(. $/" -'"' % #-/%!-% ( ('/(, "#(,&/% "/ "' 1 $/ (!+ #-/(! / '+ / / +'/, -!/% * ( $' '+ (:"'+ "'+ (/#+. ' " $/",1%,' / +'/ /! «,##-/»! / +/ */ 9.#&/ ' (, $( " '" «&/» #/#. '(. -. #+ "% /% ( ('/( $ /#//!/" "% $/"%,1%

195 $/ 13: 0 $#/% +'/% / (* () ( (-% (-% -!(/ #,' '/-"# "% */1%,,1%. ('$ "% #,/"1%,,1% -! # (,#-/" #1.# % ( "# Curie) $(!/"#,/1 ".,,1 " ( (1,/ : () "!1.#/ # - #" Laser.,/"$ /'8 $ bits "/ +.(/ " ( /! :" 0 (9) " - #" Laser &/ "/!1, +" / - "/ '$"-+.(/ " */ bits ( /!+/ " :" 1 (,) -/ - # 99&/ $ ",,1 -,/ *. </ "!/', -: / (/ ($!/ % '-%,. # (+.(/", -/, $. #*.! #,'%!$/% $ 9 "%, % ( (-%. 0 CD (COMPACT DISC) 9#"!/1,*,1 */ */ CDs - '+ $ / $ # /!///,/* #% */, 9/('(. "'1, & " "#(, #% #''1% #1%, " " (/-! ('$ ( ( (&/ #-/. ('$ */ CDs,. (*.+/ #-/ ' $ -// '(9/+ ( &#% #-( 120 mm (( 4.75 / %)!(% #$'% 1.2 mm (',$ $ 1/20 "% / %)

196 $/ 14: / /$% + ( (CD-ROM) #,-.(/ " 1:6000 & 91# '$/ "% 9#"!/1%,*,1%, / " "#(, "% #1% (glass master) $ :" #-/. $ ($,!" # -/%,('/% %, *#-/% # # 1 *(."" & ". $/ 15: "#(, "% #1% :" #-/!8/ /* /,!" #&/% #! (:"'1%!+% / laser (!(1 $ (1 (!" #+# #"!/ #$ /,/* "% ( CD-player), '-,! $ -/ "'/$ (', 1, ( # " ( /8, " * 1 '1 */ :"&/ #-/*/. /, '$, () '# " "% "#(,% "% #1%, $ (#*% $ ",,1. -% "% %, -!(/ (*. " #1 :" #-/, ($ " #1 */,/* &/ # &/ /" */ '1*/ "/ '( " /'&//,, /,/ /.1 " / " ( #%. "/,#$", "!1 (1 #1!" # (.% # */ //&/ */ CDs, $, /', # / $, "%,*,1% (! $9% " #1 /.. 3 $ "/!1 (8/ ''% (+( % #1%,, (.%!1 " " 9#"!/1,*,

197 $/ 16:,,1% */ #-/*/ "/ / "% #1% /, CDs CD-ROMs,/ #, # "% #1% '(9/$ ('$ ( (&/ % '$"% % /" % " * 1 (%.- " /*., #, '(9/, ( / /1, &/ # -/ '$ &# '(#/(,, / / "/ /,(' 1, & / # / /' " - #" ( laser / 98/ #-/. $#/, / # 91 '% /* $ '(#/, "/ ( #''( $./1 9* " " (. -'%, (&/ / " - 1!" $!- # % ' -% #.$(% #)(% '.,%. $% $ #% / (/" $ " '( ( ( # #-/ / ",#$" " /*. &# ( ( # #-/ 9 9&% * $ "/ - #"!/ #$% /,/* "% 98 $ * #-%, # / 8 laser #- ( ( ( &#%!(% 1,2 mm. ($% / '$,%, ( * #-% ( ( # / -! #-%, (/-%,!*% / "#(, 9'1# "!1 " ( (, '+/ 9-9 #$ "/ ( laser, '' / "(#8(/" "/ / # % '"%. $ "/ ''" '(,, (/-% "/ /* '( ( ( #+/ / - (/ '*% $ "/ (1 / ( '(#/(, 1//%.#-/" "/ / # % '"%,!" +/% (#*% /. CDs *% '$ =$/ / /.,!*% $#*% ($ / "#/ $ / -/. -, '$/, / # # / $ (!8$# (' (# (% (%. CDs - "/ /# CD-ROM,## "RO" ("'&/(/ $ -/% ($% ",$% CD-ROM / # ( (1 ( # #$/ / 9 (RO: Read Only) $ -/ CD-ROM / -! " (/$" /,:. $, /-% $ % */ ",&/ CD-ROM (", CD-R, ", CD-RW) -!(/ " (/$", "/,,1 #-/*/. '1 /,/* "% / -/ % + (#-% -% /#8 pickup), ( #/ #1% #% % (!8 $ -/ ( ( CD-ROM )(', % )*

198 #-" "% /% (. 0*,, / (/# $% '(,% /$% (+ ",+ CD-ROM: / *$% "#(, $ #.1 laser (.+/ % -/ /' $.-". /' $%.-"% / / *#*#-/% /* "/ '1 /,/* "%.,$#/" / /' $ /.-" # "/ 91. /$% + + (.+/ (,#-/ "# /* "/ / ( (. /, + + /* "/ / ( ( CD-ROM /' / #-. $" "% /-,% ( /' * ) $ "# $ ( "% "% #$#/"% /% /* "/ / ( ( CD-ROM. '+9 (pits-'$") "/ / ( ( CD-ROM ("'&/ -/ #"/$ "0", /& " ( '+9% (land-/" ) #1% "% % ("'&/-/ "1". $ (''-%,.-% +% +% ( *+(/ (.+/(/ "/ /'&#/" / -// /!/(1 */1% - #"% (photodetector). /!/(1% */1% - #"% #- "/ $" "% */1% /-,% "'1 /-,. $" "%,$#/"% "'1% /-,% ) $ "/ $" "% */1% /-,%, ( - " /'&#/" / "'1 /-, #- # "/ 91. &/ ('*#*/ :"$ 1# ('(. */ #"/&/). $/ 17: /' " "% /% laser <' #"!/ #-" /$% (+ ",+ CD-ROM /., $% $ / /' $.-" "/ '1 /,/* "%. "%, + ( CD-ROM -!(/ #$/ # /,,1% #-/*/, (! #$/ # '

199 /,/* "%, /. " # $ (#9/ (% '"+% (%. $ "/,#1 ( " '1 /,/* "% / $ #-, '' $ 9'1# ( -!(/!- " # % #,/"-% '-% +,/. 1 " '1 /,/* "% / -! 1 # "/ / ( ( CD-ROM / (!., /. " # $ (#9/ (% +#(% (%. / "#/$, $ ",#1 (!" # # / *$%, #/ ( ) */ #-/*/,/ $'" " / ( ( CD-ROM / / ".1" $ 1 % "9*#%". $/ 18: /,/* "% $ -// $ 0 0. ('$ -! ( # $" "% #1%. '1 -, "!" #&/% #1" +#%, / (/1 " (" " ('&/ # "#/1 99$", $#" $/ $, '+ #1 $" ( ('+. #!" # "/ -(/ ( #$,,/% # 1 /9'. / -/ $ 9,' "/ -(/ "% #1% "% +'"%. *% Laser //(, " #, )% ( ',!$#/( #1(% +#%. #1 % # *% Laser -!(/ '+ '1 1 /$". < (,#-/ (,/* $) / #1% +#% "% /9'%, $ 9- " / " " */ &/ ('&/ -/ #$ ## +'"%. # / (,,/$% '% "% *-!"#%, "% 1#"% */!"#&/ #9'&/ ( '/ *%. 0,# /: () #+ # ( -#% $/. / 1' (9)" * +/. " ( (,) " "% $ "% $ + ( #9'" 1!&/ () '"$%. #$%, # (."" #-.%, "/ (,!/ '1 -, " &/ #*/. #-/ /,

200 . #-.% (1!" # (!/ "/ 1, "/ /!/( " (" " /#//*/!/&/-#*/. 4 H7 %,/* &/, (! "!- " (( / /) (/#% #8%-/-,%:. / " "% % =$/ -!(/ ',$" #8 $ /$/, '(.&/ /-,, $" +/#" "% % " #8. / #/ #8%, " $" "% /-,% ( '(.&/ "/ ("/1 +/")" / ##+ -% #,'+" $ "/ /-, ( '(.&/,/% -' 1 9(/. 9$#9 (,$/( /,# «,*,1%» /-,% $ +/")", ( / / ',!$#/". 1#/%.+/ $#" / 9(/ $(% #''( "% (1% "% % $"% /-,%. 0("/1 +/")" ('% (1/% (//&// -// 9+) (#9/ # ( $ $ / 1' '' -. / '(,1 -/% / 1% ("/1% +/")"%. - / (/-!(/ #-/% (/.1%:.- #% +' ),&,#% &% +'% / 9 8 ("/1 / " # #,'"./$" /,#". / '(.&/ #,'" $" /-,% / / " / # / ) '. ( 9&/ /+/*/ " $'" / / '1 % 9''/,/1 #" " / *% -/% -% / 1%. #+ / '+ $9'"#!1% /-,% % "/ /.*$", ($ /+/ #,'!"# ($/ / #-. 0$, «.1» /-, " &" +'" (.!. (- (D) $ ( (,$/( ( (! /+ (*% /$) # +' /!. /1 $". + $ % / % ("/1% +/")"%. #+ / /: () (9) / (,(.+/ + (1/% (#$. #-/) - / )(*.+/ #)+ (% * -% (/#%. 3/% $% / "!1 "!(/1.!(/1% $#*%, 9 #-/ *# #,' /-,%, / '(,1 " $ 1 ( / #

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asers 3! 9.-(',. $, / "". -/ ' #, $% "% (:"'1%.# %, / / 1 Lawson ( '- $,/$#/ «(/$"!$/» - / / #,'+ #% #1%. ()//% "/ (/$" "% &"% +'"%. #+ / "%!$/% 1" "% ( ' #% (,#-/!&. $/ 18: 41 " Lasers, / #$ ( ' #%. 1,1 "% % -! *% )1%: () «+ #». *$ + -'((%-:('% (9) " 1 /.#/!+ '+ (:"'1.# (,) " 1 / )!/&/ /&/,1, % -)* () / / ", "#(, #,'" " % -/ "% % () " (# " ()/ ".# ( + #(.(#"$ (1 /-, "% )"% */ 1014 Joule!$/ 10-9sec. ($ / $ # Laser (! # " Laser C2, # (/!8/ # Laser Nd-('(),, (9), «9#98(/» )* ('' #8) " 1 :('

202 0 0 / (/"1. "#(,% '#&/ Lasers % ( ('-(. #,-% (%. 9".1 (/ + (*% #%: () " #'-" '+,1,*/ &/ (. #+/ / *8/ / /"#,+/ (9) "/ 1 /*/,.$ /. #+/ / '+/ $ '# / ($', "'1 (/$" '" 67 <' # /+/, -!(/.#1 /-, $/ ".# / #,'+" $ $'( #"-/ ( ).!#"'-%.# %, / (/$/ / /"".+/ # # " 91. "% 1% */*/ /9'% Laser. </ " - #" */*/ (.(/. /. % - #" $#*/, *$/ #. ''"' (/ # $ & # / 1 (/ *$/, " /-, */ */*/ (( ) $ " (!/$" (%) / / " # "/ (/,1) /,&/ -*/ */ $#*/. </ # /, '$,* ( /#-/( Doppler, «9'-» ', 1 " (!/$" ( */( ( '" 8. 4" #&/% $% - #% */*/ # /.% (.+/ %, / $ *$/ / /"1 (/ #. (!/$" "% - #"% Laser '-, - & / 9 '+ / " (!/$" ( #, '' $! $'( ".. ( # )/ # +.(/ " # - #" Laser, /$#/ Doppler ' "/ $" " "% /9'% $ #, $ # - "/!1 (.- ". 0 ''"' # "/ +'" # +% +% #"!/ #+%. #'-" */ #"!/ #&/ (&/ / '' (!$#/ (/"$,.-# 1% ($ "% ( Laser # +% $ "/,/1 #"!/1),.&% ), % ('&/ " 9#"!/. ",/1 #"!/1 $!% / / #9'".+/ ',!$#/ $"% */,/*/ # -#9 " #$ ( DNA, #- / (1/ */ 9',&/ (*/. LASER

203 0 LASER 0 (/"$, 1 "% 0'#1% % ( -( )$ ( " " #/ PHASR (Personnel Halting and Stimulation Response = / " /"" "% -, "% 0 *+), " # / ('& # - #" laser. #/ #8 $ / #/$ $, *% #"./"$ $', # $ "!1 " #' $#*/, /& + *$( -!(/ ', #-% 9 % ( -)% "% 8/. 0./$ " - #" '-8 ( -# PHASR -!!#"'$"!+ & / #"/ ' #$/#" +'* ", / /%!#"'1%!+% # / / /-% / 9':(/ / #9'" 1 /!" #".+/ $ #1 $ " 1, ''1 &. % '! % '"% ( -!(/ '(., 0/,*/ / '$,, -/ $#, $ "!+% ( $'( *% (.#8 ($# /', # "/ $ " $ $!. ( (1!" # '-8 + #1" +#%, & / / $# (,(' ( /! #-/ / +/ # (,#-/" (!/$"., 1 "% %! /+) / $ # $' Sabre 203, # ( (1 (. * $ # //1 #/ #+ / 8' /!.$ # # - #" '-8 $ $ " 300 #-*/. Sabre 203!" #1." $ % #/-% (/#% " #' 1995, ' $#*%,'." '$,* /" (!&/, "/ ' '' "/ ' #$" (. #:% ( '-#( <0 LASER & «$' (.(/$#/"% /-,%» */ 0!" # 1" "% #!"%, "/ )(-* " 9#9&/, /& '' #(/. $' '-8 (:"'$"%!+% 9 / "% /()"%, 1. & Laser (!" # $ / #/$ $ /# " % % #1/ (.+ ( )$/8 (/+%. O % / &/ ''!" # (*%, / ' "/ -")" 9#9&/ ( / -!(/ $ '1 $ " 300 #-*/. $/ -/ - $' 9 1#!1 " $% */ 0 / -! '+: #!"% 9. / $#*%! (!"#-/. '(.1 (/ # $# #- -/!$/. #/1 Raytheon /+ #)+ -/ +/. + "#: Laser ( #+/ / -:(/ / -!$#/% 9'-% (9'+ #&/ (+'*/, % /8/ -, # /."1% (+.*/

204 $' LADS (Laser Area Defence System, + "# -8 0 % 0!1%) '/!- " # (#9$ + "# Phalanx "% % %, / "/ ('!" #&/% 9'1# ( #' '').!1 " '''&/ 9'"#*/ /98 (9' $ %, /& * " #8!$#/*/ (&/ + "# (/ / /)-'.. 3/ /! + "# /*/ Laser. 1/."/$ ' #$ ( / #"/ (! 1 +#%). 3/ /', $' /+ " Boeing, ', #$ */ #/&/ /$'*/ (/#*/. 0''"', " " " "#1% 0(('1% 2#(/% */ 0 '8 / -! -# 2009 Joint High Power Solid State Laser (/$ Laser % "% :"'1% /-,%,! ", "/ 1 (+'*/. <#*% '$) $' Laser / #$#/ -8 (ABL), ( /+ # /) #/&/ &/ (Boeing, Lockheed Martin, Northrop Grumman). $' / '(, # "' #$ ($*%.!. LADS), '' /' "/ /-,, "/!(1 / $!"#-% / %. </ $'.". " #+" /$% #*#-/( Boeing 747, " /. # / -!$#/(% (+'(% ', # "/ $)( 1 (%, $ $ " &/ /*/!'#-*/. &% #-% -!(/,/ - )$ ' ( 2008,##8 / '(.1 " &" ''"*#-/" #1 :"% (+'( (. )(. $ /! "% '$/. $% $#*% $ #(/, /+ /. $' '-8. '-/ )',#-/.* #$#/ ATL (Advanced Tactical Laser, 0",#-/ $ Laser), -/ $#!"#$ '-8 ( /+ " */ 0 (/, # " Boeing. /! #-// '1,(% $!(% (!1#,.#+% "'/*/&/..) $ (:$# &/!'#-*/,./&% / )/&/!. #. Laser, ' #, #+#: $' (.(/$#/"% /-,% /+ #/$ 0/,*/ &" Laser ( '+(/ (% '+% #+% /& 1/(/ "/ (% /+#/% / '(,+/, $' #(#*/ ( «8#8(/» (%!.+% - #% ' #% ( /"+/!1# '#9// #$ ' ( 0/,&/(. #+% #1/% $ 1#, 0 '- /, "% HSV Technologies, # - / -,,.!+ -/ $ '-8 # $(' (../ #-#/ '(9 (%. / $' / +#*/ #!-, "'$ (. "#(,". $ " - #". '+ $ (%, /& ' #+% "% % */ /(#$/*/, ( '(,+/ 1 (!/$",. #/(/ /"-. 3/ $# $' «(.(/$#/"% /-,%», #-,.% #/%, /+, #/$ /($ $ "/ Xtreme Alternative Defense Systems. "#(,

205 "'$ $ $ ", $! # '-8, '' # # - #" / #-/( (, 1 ' #%. $' -! '''-%!1 %: / '+ (%!.+%, $*% Laser ( '- /,, 1 / #1 " '(, */ "'/&/ ( "#*/ /+#/!1#. "% / (1 $ $ " "+% #"!/ #+%. «'#, " (/$" / -//8(# "/ '/$" */ (!-*/ "&/ (!" #+/ 1#»!'8 $% "% Xtreme Alternative Defense Systems 0. + "# /,+ 2/" "% (/"$, 1 "% #/1% % - )$, " Raytheon (" (##-! " /- "#1 /(('1 */ 0, NMD) /-() «+ "# /,+ /" "%» (Active Denial System, ADS), -/ $' #(#*/. ADS, ($ #"./"$, *. (%!.+% 8 //% #$ /+ -# (%, / +/ #(#*/. 0$' ( #+# / '+/ #$/#% 9'9%, $/% / $ -//% & /% / /-! / #/ "/ / "% ( $'(. «&.% / / / * -# (»!'8 *$% %, -/% $ (% /% (''1'(% ( + ( -!." /,/ #$8*, ADS. <' ADS / *#*#-/!1# Humvee.! (/ / #8/ $'% % *-% (" % */ 0. #"./"$ $' (.(/$#/"% /-,% *% // #$ $./"$ (#9 $'.!1 " (% /./ /,( $./% (#*/%. (1 1 # "#+.#+ / '-/,#$". /-,, " '(, ( # "'+% (''-%. / (/1 " (1 $#" #,'+*/ "'&/ (''&/ "# # $! "/ '1 /-,% % ",". "'$% (''-"% #- "/ "'1 /-, "' #$. "'1 /-, # / -'/ "," # " #1 "'#,/"&/ (#*/ Laser. "'$% (''-"% "# # / -! '+ #,'" /. -% (/.1% /. "8(/ " '(, (. "# / (! + #$% "% /'',1% #--/+!. 4*% "/ #9'1 ( &#% "% #$ %, " $ " ( "'+ (''-" "#. / '+ '+". 9 " "% /9'% Laser "/ #$ / ('$" $.!. #+#, 1 " - #" / (,/*#-/", "'1 " #1." #1, $#" '+ #,'% %. $" " "% Laser

206 "/ #$ # / #*. «"#/» /,/ * 1 ',1 ( «+» #1(% +#%. 0 LASER,( $ / -/ $,/ ( 9". / /' #$ "#.,( $ -!(/ #"!/ $#/(% +'(% "!1 '(,% (% / " 1" " "%,*/1% 1%. $% "% ( -! /.1 +.(/ ", $ / - ($' &# (,( $(. #"!/$,( $ /,&%!18 (/1" "%.,( $ '(,+/ # 9 " /$#/ $, $/ -/ "'#,/"$ +# / ' 1 #1 ( 9'' (,#-/"!1, "8 $ ",*/1!+" ( ( 1#% ( #-! (1/ "/! #% Laser /+/ # /.% (.+/ % "/ ('1 #1. 1 '',1 / /' #$ ( ( 1#%. '- #1% % + - #%. (#9'$# / (/1 " /!/( " $#" /."*/ #9'&/, "'1,( $ Laser / '+ (." $,/.,( $ Laser # / -! ('1 '$" 1 / '(, -' 1% /%. - - A )+ */ (#9&/ #,&/ ( Laser / " '+,1," *," ". "!1 " /$% '#+ Laser Ruby #+# / (# '#&/ % nsecs ( -!(/ #)+ (% ##secs. 3 % ( )+(/ #!+" 200m/sec -!(/ *,"., #,1 "% - #"% ( Laser Ruby ( /' $ ". " *," " #- $ # $ Laser - '+ #,'+" #,-.(/ ".1 $/!*%!*# '#,,# '+!1 #, "/ * " *," "% 9',+ ('+ $( " 1/ "% $/% / #,' $9'"#

207 $/ 19:/ Laser- *," "! # "/ ', &, - / +# $ (1 /'+." '+ / LASER, 1948 $ / D. Gabor (1 99 Nobel ( 1% 1972,' (1 ( "/ /'(:"). $/ # "/ /'(:" ( Laser $#*%, /+!." '+,, $ #$/ " /,",!1 " ",1% #/!*#+ *$% 91 "/ '1" '+ " "%. 1#, " ', # /!". / # $ % /-( %!-% #,1% */ LASER, $! #$/, #+# / "9'-(#" *,% &/ */, '' '+ $, #% / " (/$" "#(,% #% 1% #/1#"% 1 " (/$" '-,!( $*/ ('&/ 1 (&/!*% "/ /," 1% (%. *!1# / -/% $ (% $(% (1% /$% ',1#%. *% "% - #"% Laser *8 /#/$ #%, # " - 1 ( - /* # *,1 '. -% "% - #"% ( Laser!" # / / /% - "/ *,1 ' ' (./. ( */ ( +# (#9''(/ "#(,+/ # '+'" $/ (#9'1% (, " *,1 '. $ '+'". / " $/ (#9'1% ) $ $ '+' / /#/$ #%. / /#/ / # " /, ',"#. ' $ # ''1'*/ &/. / /#/$ #% / # "' $ ',"#. / / # $ ('(%. / # " *,1, "% '% ( -!,: (% +% (#9'1%, " * (# #' -/ Laser $# #' ($ ( "#+," ',"#, $./(# "/ "/ (1" "% $/% ( /#/( #%.. ""1%. 9'- $ # '1", " $/ ( /#/( ( (. # / % $:% # '1 '',1 ( "#( 1" "%. '+ "#/1 $" ( ',1#% / $ "!1 # " #/" '" -! '*. ' '$'"" "/ / (. 3 / $# (# " *,1 ' + ## #+# / / ( (# /#/$ #%!" #&/% 1 $ + ## (. 2''" "#/1 $" ( ',1#% / $ -'% "% /% ( / "#(,+/ /-/ $9'"# "/ / (1 (

208 /#-/(, 1 /#/ /!"#, "/ "/ (1" ( /* ',"#, $*% (#9/ " (#91 *,. $/ 20: / Laser- ',"# $/.!(/ '' ( /(/ "/ ', '+ /-(,!/',-% 1 #"!/',-% #,-%,.!. " (/$",1% ''&/ ',"#*/, /* # #/1 '. ($,/ # / ''8. " +.(/ " "% - #"% /%!- " # "/ ' ( ',1#%. "/ "/ (1",. +.(/ " "% - #"% Laser. /! $ -/ $ ',"#. 3 / " ' ( -! ',1# - # #.1 - #" LASER, -/%.$% ""1%. 9'- ''-% / (-%, " # $#*% # "/ ''". - (1 / " (/$",1% #,'( + '"% # #$/ *,1 '. % /-( % #,-% "% ',% '#9/ " 1" " #&/ #& */ 1 '&/ /$% /#-/( 1 #% (1%. '( 8 '+ -% "!1 " "% '#1% ',% 9% "% 1%. "/ * " "% '#1% ',%!" #+/ Laser (:"'1%!+% ( "/ )",&/(/ "/ /" " /$% /#-/( -(/ " *," 1 (

209 2.11 LASER - Lasers / /+.!$/."#/!$# / # #,'*/ #&/ "#*/ 1 + #, $( *-% Laser «98(/» =$/ /+/ " #1 ( "/ $)". % Laser «('+(/»."#/.( % '% (/*/. «(##-/%» - #% Laser,8/ (*&% (*-% (*% ( (-% /,*,1% :"&/ #-/*/ #( 1% (CD).!($ Laser (//#, 1 ( 1% #"!/1#. 0$( '% /-#(/ % ( (-% Laser #% /', # % $"% "% /9'% (%: #1% +#%!+% )$( '#&/ '. ( $( / #$8/. ',!$/,.&%,/& %, #% /-% #,-% ''' 8/. Laser #1%!+% " + 9'9", ( (! /(/% / (#9, / /.'#$. 4 LASER *% Laser / "'#,/"1 /9' " ( # /$ *% /: "#/!*#$" ( "#,'" (/$"!+% (-/ " / #/."% /%) " (# $" ( (, "/ $#*% / (!(/,/* -% 9',-% %) " " ( *$% Laser, $*%, /$ *%,!+(/: " #,/-% #- / (.+,##" $/ - / + #- (,. (#9: /' ": ' 1 ($ * " ' /,,*/ $ * "% " #,*/ /' "% " - #" #-/ (,/*#-/")!-( ($ * " 1 / " - #" /', '' 8).' " (" - #"!* + #- /, '' ''8 " +.(/ 1 "% (/$#% ( Snell). ".' " ' " (,'/( 1 '/( (# */ &/ ( ") */ #*/

210 LASER *% Laser / "'#,/"1 /9', '' #" /8(. $// /% 4, / "'#,/"-% /8( %, 1 -!(/ '+ #$ #1% +#%.,/-%,##-% " 9',$ $ # % +% #"!/ #+%: /' " 9 " $" " $ (##!1% "%. % '$ «-' #» ) $ % $"% "% % ( +. +% #"!/ #$% $'" "% 9'9"% / $ / " $" ". Laser ( # / '- :.#1 " [.- '/* "-$/" " #$ ( 9',+ +,.#$". 9'9" (#/ $ #( * " "% '(*#/"% #-! -,(# ()# ")].#-( 1 " ( $/ " Laser -! " #1!(&/ +/#*/ -#$*/ ( ms- '#&/. /.-#/" #,'" /-, ' '+ (:"'1 1 +)" " "%.# %, # -' # "/! )# " ( +% "/ -")" ( (() *!"#1 " ( (#9/ $/ #1% +#% "% Laser 8 # "/ +#/" /-,--/( #!"#1% / "% #)+ (,#-/*/,/&/ #*/) '(!$/ /'+."/ /)% #" / &/ #9'&/ 9',$ $ # $ #-/" -. 1 ( Laser!#"'1%!+% # #1" +#% ( #-! $.* *% / '+/ %. LASER.'#$% / «( #-/%» - & / -! *%. #-/*% / /1% $,,+% (-(. #1# ( #%. /.&/%.'#$% -! #"!/ #$ "% ( /% *$% /* + ( #9'" 1!&/.!+% "% # $ "!- " #)+ #-( "% % #-( "%!"#8$#/"% */1% "'% / #9'" 1. '1 #% / % )% #,-.(% #$", "'1 #9$/ #&/ 6 )% #,-.(% 1 " (/$"!+% "% # / ()".,/ 106. ($ "#/ *% Laser!+% milli-watt 8 / #9'" 1 "!+% ( - /%!'% watts / mm2, "'1 /$( -,(#. (/1.*% " 9'9" /,/."1 / '+ #1% /%, / $#*% ( *(1..'#% &/ -,(# #.'# $

211 $/ 21: * #$% ( #9'" &/ $ # #1 '#, $ / 1' $ -/ Laser. 4 LASER (+.(/% - / )", / /"#&/, (% /+/(% (.!.!': (%.","-% (% #."-%). <' - / +,(/ / )(/ (.% " */1 - #". - #" Laser - / /9 #$// $ / -! #(/. $ "/ "%. /'& / (. #+ / "/ ",1 % /.+#"% (.+/ %.!1 " 1% 1#/ "% ()/ "/ (/." " ( /+/( (% $/%. 0- / +,. -#9 "-$ (1% "% ( (1% Laser, $! #$/ $ / '(,, '' $ / (/#-/" # "'$ +#. 0 LASER./$ 5(# 0+*/ "% #1% (ANSI) Laser - % ",% /', # / /(/ ( #-!(/ "!1 " (%.. $#/" ", ($ "/ "/ V) +/ $. #- '-,!( % (!1 " */ $/*/. #$#/" /9' ($ " ( (1 Laser) ( # / '- 8"#-9'9".8 $ + #-(%: /,#-.( )$( "% - #"% "/ $ " $ " ( (1 "/,# "#-" " ()

212 .8(/ " #-, " $" /9'% "/ # /.*% /. # '. 8 J/cm2 1 W/cm2 ) $: #1% +#% "% " -. "% " (!/$" */ #$#/*/ '#&/ " + " "% -. "% ( (,/*#-/" - #" 1!(") '-/,, "/ 1, ", /.'#$, (',8 $ "/ '1 /-, 1!+ ( # / #- $ "/ '1" '1 ( # #-/" ), "'1 #-( 7 mm ($ /,#%). /. (/"$% /(/% - / (',. " #-, " /-, 1!+% ( # / -'. $ $ /,#. "/ (-(." 1 (&" $ /,#%.* 1 mm. </!" # $ + "# (.!. (') $ /,#% '#9/ *% 50 mm.!(/ + $#" # ( +/ "/ '1!1 " */ Laser: ".*"1 «$ " 1% 9'9"%»,. + Laser " 1 (/$" ('+ (, "/ (.'#+ 0-! $' Laser, * $ ( ',-% (/.1%, %, / #+/ / -#:(/ /9' /1 / '- 9'9". "/ )" ( Laser '+/ «Laser '1, /.'#$» 9'(/ /, $#" / ) (.% " - #", 8 &% /)" $ #1% +#%.,#, " #-, "!+% Laser He Ne ( /1 "/ ", 0,4 #W. / T Laser (1% "% ",% / #+/ / -#:(/ /9' ( / )/ $ "% 0-! $' Laser!#"'1%!+% (,(/ /' $ "% % / '/, / -: /.'#$.!$/% "% /' 1% / "% / 0,25 ( ('-(. Laser "% ",% -#(/ #,'+"!+, '' $ "% /-,% ( -! /.'#$ 8 $ ' # "% %. #-, "!+% (/!+% + Laser "% ",% / ''"', # ( 1% #."-%. / 1mW. ( Laser / #1% +#% /1 #" $ " Laser )/ $ "% ",%, $ (.% "/ ",

213 9 "/ ", /1(/ $' Laser ( -#(/ /9' ( / 9' / /.* # ( ',1 '(,.'#+ (/' 1 / " "% %). ", -! $' Laser #- "%!+% # -) #) %!($" "% ",%, /', # " "% -. "%. /!" #+/ ( 1# ($*% ('),, "/ 1" " "% - #"% Laser, #/ '". 9'9" /.'#$. Laser He Ne Laser $*/ $, "#-, " $#/"!+% / 5 mwatts. ", 9 -! $' Laser ( / /1(/ % ",% 1 -!(/ #1% +#% ($ 1 #") /$ / '- 9'9" /.'#$ ( ""1, $#"!*% "!1 " &/ 9"."&/ )"#*/. #-, "!+% */ Laser "% ",% 9 / 0,5 Watt (/+/ / & (/ $ $ 125 mj 0,25 ($'. IV 0-! $' Laser ( / /1(/ % ",+#/% ",%. *+/ Laser #,'"%!+%. /9' (% # / '- : 9'9" /.'#$ $#" $ #-/" - #" 9'9" -# (, 1 Laser #!+ )$( #,'+" ( 0,5 Watt /1 "/ ", IV. 4 LASER $'(/ " "% #$ % (!&( $: 0=$/ ( ( 1#% */ ( laser (/,$ -, + "# :+)"%,,*,..) /+%!$#/(% $ "/ /.* " 1 "/ $#" " ()# ") &/, + %!(,-% #,-% /(/ $ "' ( 1# ( laser ' $,,+#,./%( (:"'1%!+%, ( *(-%, "'- ( 1#, #*-%.'..) /(/ $ (% (,/+% :+% */ )*/ laser ((,$ 8*,(,$ 1' / " '+/ + /) /(/ (,% ( + "# (/*&/, -")" +'*/ */ 1 '(&/, $% "' #$% ' +% *'1/%, ( 1# 1% /'" "%,.'..),

214

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c/f $( c / "!+" ( *$% f " (!/$". *% -! (:"'$" (!/$" #$ #1% +#% $ (/". #-/ AM FM +#. $ *% -! -/ +% $ 380 //$# (nm), $ 9.+ 9', #-! 750 //$# (nm), #-! 9.+ $/. (&"% /9' -! #,'+ #1% +#% $ $ *%. $ ( 1# &/ /&/ ('+(/ #(-(. *%, ##1" +#% /# nm. *% $% $ +# # /.*". / +/' *#*/, # )!* 1 #/ /-,%, ''!*% #8, *$/. $ /-,% ( -! -/ *$/ ) $ "/ (!/$" (. < #,'+" / " (!/$" $

216 #,'+" " /-,. /-,,, joules, ( -! -/ *$/ / $ "/!- ": E = h*f $( f / " (!/$" z h ". ( Plank, ( / 6.63 x joule-seconds.!1 " */ + 1*/ ( *$% % -% /% / '+ "#/1.,#, ''-% $"% "% 1% ''8(/ /', # #1% +#%, #-/*%!" # ".&" " ( +#%. (." */ &/ /!/(&/ )", '+ # ".* */ *#*/ ( *$% !4(" &7(4$,(', " &" +'" "% 1% /% #/ ", &" ( +#*/ # $,/*8(# 1#),+* ;" $ " *#=1!1,!/%!/ "/ -!/" ), % (,('+ $ ' & / (8(/ /% $ ($ ('$! #-/*%,.*"&% ('! /, "!/1 (#1, % -% /% (1! $ /*%... /% $#*% -" (% &/% ( '+." / /!" #1 ($ ('$, # " ( *$%, $ 1" $ -'" ( 18( &/,,///.% # "% ( *$% #,'% %, # $ "/ /*/. 0.%, (, $#*%, / $" / # (/- / #/(/, % '$'"% " /*/ ( //( (1) #(% #% *1% )"% ( -,/ "#$ $ / $ '$ John Tyndall. Tyndall,!" #&/% # (/" '-9, ( - $ -/! % -/ '' # - #" *$%, -) $ *% /'&// *,, / '(.1 "/ (,#-/" #1 "% (/"% '-9%..&% /$ - $ *'1/ ( &(!(, Tyndall "+.(/ # - #" *$% "/ "% (/"% '-9%. *% $*% #+ / /$, '(.+ #.' #-/" *$ "% (/"% '-9%. ($ '$ #, ( /8!1# 1, 1/ & 91# "% -(/%, "/ (.(/$#/" #1 *$%. William Wheeling." - $ # ( Tyndall, $/ 1880!+* # #-. #% *$%, "/ /$# "piping light" (*% #- ( *'1/*/). Wheeling ( $!" #&/% *'1/% #.-%, (. )/+ / $ # '1 ",1 *$%,.!. "'$ /.1,. '8// "/ ),. #+ / ' *% +%!&(%, # / $ ( /$ #- #- ( */ ( *'1/*/. ) % $#*% "% ( '%,#" "% "% -% (,, "% ($!/"% /'(:"% ( '#1 (* "% $ / Edison, " #-.% "% #% ( *$% #- ( *'1/*/ / ('1." -. 0''-% /*% */-% % )'(.+/ / /+(/ /-/, "/ - ( (/!8(/ %.%, "/ ('" 1 "%, "8$#/% "/ )-')" "%!/',% /$%, -!/% / $! "/ )/$#" " /-,% -(

217 4 %0($!4* John Tyndall /!$/ Alexander Graham Bell /-() -/ $ + "# # "% */1%, /$# *$*/. % / $ / $ (, *$*/!" #" $ *%, / #- "/ /.&/" */1 200 #- #.."#-/.-% /'+ / "'$ *% -/,#, 1/ # #-/ $# ( *$*/(. '', (/#-/" # -/ 9'$, (1! # \ */ " '"/(. */ " 1/ (/#-/" # # #, " # " "% (/$/ # -// "'*/$ -". / % #'+ *$*/, $ * #-/,# '/*/$/, -'//% % $"% *$% "/ */ ". #9''$#/" -/ " ( *$% #-9' "/ #1 "% / "% " # "/ "% - i '+ #9'1 "% -/ "% ( +#% ( /+ $ / -", ) % "/ (/-! #- *% */1.!/',, "/ ( 1)" "% + "% /. 1/.- #",!$/, '' Bell ( $ " + " ( 1/ ($" $ "/ + " ( "'&/(, 1 / +//,*, +/ "% #)+ #+ -". "/,#$" 1/ " &" / $ # 1 8+)" # #$* " '% (- AMPLITUDE MODULATION).!/', */ &/ /&/,/&, /()" + # $ ( 20( &/. (! 1. "/ ( 1950, #8 # "/ /()" ( / (. (1 " ( (1 #1% $/%, "!" #+ "/ &" 1 / ( #-/" ) ''1( $,(', /1." $ /+ $ (% Brian O'Brien "% % American Optical Company,, $ / Narrinder Kapany (% (/,% ( (,8// Imperial College ofscience and Technology ( //(. (0,#, Narrinder Kapany &% /$" / $ "fiber optics" 1956). / $,1, 91 #,1 / -',! (,''1 */ *$ */ )#/&/ */ / 1*/ (%.'#(% + "% */ #"!/&/ */

218 '/*/.&% -% #,-%.!/', ( / $( )'!." #!$/,, / / " ' $" " -/ $ #,' +,# ( 200( &/. /()" "%!/',% laser 1/ $#/ "#/$ 91# "/,.( " "% 9#"!/% */ &/ /&/. $/ " % laser 1, "!#"'1% (!+% *-#( % (LED),! " (/$" /, - #" ( *$% - ( / /!1 #", % -% /%. 1957, Gordon Gould "# " "/ - "%!1 "% laser, $/ / #(!$% ( 1% / 1# COLUMBIA -,: laser / -//" ",1 *$%. 0'+ +/# Charles Townes Arthur Schawlow */, "*/ Bell ( 1)/ laser (% "#/+% +'(%. laser - / $, (#'#9/$#/"% "% /()"% ( laser (#/( ( laser '( - -( -% laser "#,*,&/ ( "/, &" 1962, "#&/% "/ -/)" "% (%!1 "% (% % -% /*/%. -% /% (1)/ # / 1 /'(:", / )')% +/#. % ) (/, / / -!(/ / 1".!$% (%,. / /% */&/ ( ''*/ (1 */-% /%), ( ($!/ #* " ( $ (%!/1 (!1 8"1#. ', )8 *% / /-(# $.","1% ( MIT ( * # / 3''"/%,.. *//$('%! #74/!4*.!2) ( ' ( (// *% " " (.8 $ ".' "% ( ('+ #-. "%.' "% /#8 '$,% "%!+"% ( *$% /$, ( / " #,'+" (/1!+" "% "'#,/"1% /9'%, % "/!+" #- "%.!+" ( *$% ('$ / / #$" $ (1 /$ /! (/' 1%.' "% */ $*/ ('&/ / #,'+% $ ($/ ( /+. "/ )" " #-" ",/ # 9 " ".' "% ( *$% / - $! /$.*&/% $ + / # 1. " ( *$% (', $ /$# ( Snell ( 8 %,*/% /' "%.' "% 9 //%!1 " ( '$,( */ &/.' "%. /$#% ( Snell!/ $ $/ *% % -/ ('$ # #$ ".' "% ",*/ $ * "%,/ #,'" /.,#"..' " '' '1 /' ".!" 1,*/, "/ (#9/ ($ /$#/ /#8 1,*/. ($ /$#/, ( -! / -' # " (/!$#/" " ( *$% ('$, ' "/!1 '(,% */ &/ /&/, #- % % *% '$,* */ (/!&/ /' */ ( (#9/(/ *$ (%. 1,*/, "/ (#9/ '1 /' " "!* 1 / #)+ + ('&/.8 $ ".' "% */ + (&/ ('&/

219 "/ * " */ &/ /&/ " 1,*/ /! -// &/ %.8 $.#"$ /,# () "% /%. () / "#/ "% #-, "%,*/% $( #% /% *$% & (1 /. #- "/ 1 / # '1 /' ".,*/!1% #% /% / " # 1,*/ ( &/( *$% ( # / - /* "/ 1 / / /' '..#"$ /,# #% /%,*/%!1%!" #+/, /!"8(/ "/ $" */ #&/ */ /!/(&/. </ )*$%!&% / -%, $ n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

220 %4&%"!$! %4&%"!$! -% /% / / / 1# " '+" '+ " #- # "% ($, '/1#, ( ( 8(/,!- " # '' #- / "#/. -% /%.-(/ '+ #,' +% 8&/"% (!/1*/, # -' # / (,!// (:"'-%!+"% # "% ("% )"% */ Gbps). (/1.%!+"% # "% / (-% */ 2 10 Gbps, /& -!(/ "% /(!. ( 1# */ 20,40 50 Gbps. * " '(')% # " #1(% +#%,!+"%./(/ # Tbps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

221 '! ".+/ &'%. <#*%, " $% "%!/',%, ( -! "#*. '(!$/ "/!1 */ &/ /&/, /#& # (! "/ /* ( ', # -' # / / (/1 "!1 " (%, (/- % "#( % '' "#. 0$' (, "!1 " (% -% (/- % / -! $#" (-*% )'*., '$,* ( ()"#-/( $ (%, ( ( 8(/ - ( 1#. (# # '$/: 0'/1#,'"!*"$" "% )"% */ Gbps /1# ( ' " +/ ", # (/- "/ /," +)"% -)*/, &/ /-%!/-% '(')% # " #1(% +#% (Wave ( ' +/ "% ''&/ division Multiplexing)!" &/ /* -/ '& (,!//!+"% "% )"% */ Tbps. $ #-,.% 9% 9-%, #-% % 4#"'1 ).-/" " - $ 9'"" 9''/',-% #9'-% - :"'1 ' - ( ' ('-% % -,'%, % #&/(/ $ %

222 1.2 (+') %!4*(0)!"-& &-& "/ /$" " */ '**/ &/ /&/, ( -% (%!/ -// "#/$ $!: / #"/ (! 1 *$% )*$ /$% '*(, (.! *% -' # "/ &' #-/*/ '' $#" 9'1#. '$, ($ - / 9. -/% $% & $'" " */1 /-, / #-/ *$ ( '*( / /!*% ).-/ " / #$ "%.!1 '(,% /$% + '*( / " '1 *1 //' " (TIR - Total Internal Reflection) 9 8,,/$% $ $/ *% //' )''1( -// ' $ *$!&, # / )+ #,'% %,!*% / #*. " -/ 1 (. % +(, -/ $ '&, " # */ &/ /&/ ' $ ('$ ( //' * $' *%, ) '8/% - +,#: 1) "/ '1 *1 //' ", (. -: "/ '" /. /''*" #,'% % 2) "/ (,1 1% *$% )*$ ( '*( / '$, ($, *%!+ *$ "% 1% /% ($ (,#-/",*/,& / (!. " ''"'" //' " (. -: "/ 1 */1% /-,%. -! /. / #$ "%, " */1 - #" (/1.*%,#!'% 1 ##+ //' % *$ "% 1% /%. 0/*% &'%!+% "% */1% /-,% /. * " /$(%, $#" "/ '1 *1 //' " ( *$% "+/ (*% " # " */ #-/*/ % ''&/!'#-*/. ($ ' #-% -'% ( #- ( #%, ( / / '' $,('..$" ( '(( /./ - 100%, # -' # "!+% ( *$% / )./. /', #!% ( '*(, &'% #+/ /. (/ $#" 20% /!'$#, * $ # +,!/ '&, -!(/#*. 5-10%. +! ( 1#% #% 8+)"% #-/*/ 1% /% / #$%, -"% /% " " 1 /..! 8 "#/$ $' "/ $" "% # "%. 0- / '".+/ 9-% %, 9 #-/% '(,-% #-(%,,.! ( ( 1#% / - / (!. (:"'1% $"% # ". 8"1# "% $ "%, "% $"% "%!+"%.8(/ (% 9 +% #+% #,1%. ',1 */,&/ "%. 9.#% -! # "!- " # ($' #-" ( ( 1#%.,#, " ',1 ( /!/(1. " "/ (." ( -", (. " # " "% "/ ""!+ )$( ( #+. $, "!+% )$( "8 / + ( #+ ( -# *%, %. " / + "% /% / + ( (/1 (.!" #".+/. 0/&%,! #$% #% 8+)"% 1% /% / / 1#/%, (!(/, * $, ',-% #-. ( '(.+/. 3/% $% / / /'(. & (', #$% "%!+% "% 8+)"% "% 1% /%, ( /#8 "%(', #$% "% &'% "% 1% 8+)"%

223 0'',/% "8(/ $ # # / #& % #- * /%. "#/$,/% /: 1!+% )$( ( #+. #1% +#% '(,%. ).-/" " "% /%. +% 8&/"% "% /%. 1 (." ( -" $2)!4* +(2&4* &274* (', #$% &'% 1% 8+)"% /'+ " 8+)", / ) ' $ /.- #" 1!+%, - & / // % /,% #% #-/"% #,1%. <#*%, (1 "!+% / -/ #$/ #-% */ >.- */ "% 8+)"%. '' #-% / +% 8&/"% 1!$/% /$(.! "% 8+)"% - / -!(/,1," $ " " "% /% - / /!#"'1& / '"+/ >.- % ( +(% 8&/"% "% #,1%. / +' / 9'. +% 8&/"% ''-% #,-% 1% /%, '' / (#9/ / ($. / ) ' ''"' +% 8&/"%, -/ + "# # " "#(, /$% (', #+ (!$/( /$(. /, #"!/ # -!(/ -/ #-/!$/ / "% % $(%. )1# / /,(/ '/(/.!$/ /$(.$(.8(/ (/'$!$/ $ "% +% 8&/"%. </ / +% 8&/"% /$% )1#%, 10% -90% (!$/('(,%#/ +: $: tr =0.35/Bw $(: tr =!$/% /$( Bw = +% 8&/"%. (1 " ) * " )", "/ '+" "/ /. (', #$% (!$/( /$( - "% / '#9/ (%!$/(% /$( ( #+ ( -". / -", '$,% (!$/( /$( % +% 8&/"% # / 8 $!$/ /$( */!*/ $ +% 8&/"% "%.%!$/( RC. 1 (/1%, (8+% /& % / "8(/ "/!+" ( ( 1#%, /!8 / )",".+/ / (', #$ (!$/( /$( &#1*/!/) %*,/0)

224 /'( " "% (." %.8 "/ '! " 1!+ ( - / (! -", - & / (!.+/ $ "% ( +/, -/ #-/ + "#.,/% (. " (/ (1/ "/ /'( " /: -/ " "% ",1%.+9(. /-.$(9 ( "#(, $ LED 1 laser (!(/ $(9% "%, " % % + &/ (# &/ (!*8/!/ -!(/ $ $ +#. </ # +, " */ + &/!/ #.1 "%, +# / +#*/..1% "%,/ ",1.+9(..$(9% '(% ' $ " #1% laser.!+% (.+9( ()/ # "/ ()/$#/" 1!+, / -/ /& $ ( *'( " (/-!./ (:"'$!+%..$(9% "% /%.!8 #.$(9 ( $( /#1%. -/ '+ '-8, $' #1% (.# '+"% "% 9 / (/,*/ #$, '&/% "/!/ )"#-/" #1 /#1 $! "/ //1 /#1 #- (!$/(. 1. # $ (+% (% (/,*/8$#/(% (.#+% /! -/!&#, "!*#1 "% /%!*8 1 /-# (+% (% (.#+%, '&/% #* " ( +(% 8&/"% ( ( 1#% ()"#-/.$(9. (1 " " / (! # #/$" /, $' ( -/ '' /$#/, /#8.$(9% ( $( "% # / "#(,1 $#% ( '%, $/ laser!" #+/ ##/$% /%..$(9% ( -". *%, / "% #1% /!(1% (#9''(/.$(9 ( -"..$(9% 9'1% / +% +%.+9( ( -"..$(9% 9'1% -!!- " # " 1 )" */ */*/ / /!/(1 ' $ (!% (#/ % ( +#% ( +(/ $ " 1 + " */ "'/*/..$(9% ( -" / (.-*% /',% # +% 8&/"% ( -". $ / " 1 "'/*/ / # (!, # /!" #". # '1 ) * " (', 1% 1%, / (', #$ ( -( (.+9(..+9( /!$/ # "/,*/1 8 (.#+ */ "'/*/ ( -(/ / #/!$/(. $ / -/ "'$/ -! l,6xl0~19cb, 1 #- +#% / " 1 6,25!1018 "'/*/ / ($'..$(9% ( (!8 # (1/ " 1 / 2,5xl09 "'$/ / ($' 1 0,4. -,, " # /!" #"., / (', #$ '.(% (!,#, $*% (,##1 % "% /1%,/&#"%. / (##-!(/ # (,##-" " 625 #,.& '.(% / 25 # 1 4% ( (/$'(.!/1 '/* " (#9'1 0#9'1.!/1 '/* " / # 9!($. #" #9'1 1. " /$%. #-/( 1#%. (#9'1 #9'1 / -' # ''*/ (&/ :"*/ ( #9''/ ($ :" ( #% /-. <(.$(9% ( -" / /',% % +% 8&/"%, " (#9'1 #9'1 / / $*% /'," % +% 8&/"%.,## (.'#+ / -/% '$% $%, / +# % % "%!/1% '/* "% "% (#9'1% #9'1%

225 (.#$% 1% /. #-/*/ bits. (.#$% 1% '/. #-/*/ bits (BER) / + 1 $"%, -/ :"$ + "# # "%. 1 $ (%,/% ( (!(/ "/ /'( " "% (." % # / '- '/. #-/ bits ) $!4) (4),2(*64 '$,% 1#% %.$(9 / -/% /$% $% #/ "% "% $"% ( 1#% /$% ( 1#%. / '$,% #% #- "%!+% 1#% ( (/'+.+9( # /, *% )1%: SNR = S/N ' ($/ '$,, 1# (S) / *+ "/ '" (. #., /&.$(9% () / +/' $'*/ */ (/' &/.+9( #- * ( (/'+ +(% 8&/"% ( ( 1#%. #-/" / #-', " ) * " # /, *%: SNR(dB)=10log10(S/N) (.#$% 1% '.&/ (&/ :"*/ (BER) '$,% 1#% %.$(9 (SNR) ''"'!8/, -/% '+% SNR / -// '+ BER. 1 /-, ( / "", / (!. -/% #-/% SNR, #-/*% -/% #-/% BER, /#8 (." ( -".,#, -/% '$,% 1#% %.$(9 11 db. -/ -/ BER ( 9. '&//% / SNR ',$ $ 1dB 11,75dB, 9'&/ BER % %!- " #)+ ( SNR ( BER ' /', # " #-. *" "% */ #-/*/. (1 "!- " ''"')" "%, / (1, NRZ #-/ (( / /#"/8/)

226 1.2.4 %+&"') $2(./) "% # "% '"&/ #- * "% /*/1% 8+)"% '#9/ ( : *" " "% '"%, # " "% '"% *" " "% '"%. *" " / " ( "/ '", - & / # / #. $ /*/$ #-. $ /*/ ( 1# / *#&/(/,, ''+% '$,(%, % *" "%. #-/% & % 9'&/ "/ $" "% # "%, ''% & % - / '.+/ $% '"% / #/!$/(, #-/% & % $% *" "% #''+ +/#" ( /*/+ #- ( 1 (/ +#*/" (/#. +* " "% *" "% /#8 $% #$* "%.!(/ '' "#'% $ #$* "%. #-/% / '+.#'&%!/-%, /& ''% / #,'+% 1 #$% '',-% (&/ */ 9 &/.#*/. - % / $ #$* "% / " #$* " (!/$"% (FM), " #$* " '(% (AM), " '#*1 #$* " (PCM) " :"1 *" ". #$* " (!/$"% (FM). #$* " (!/$"%, ( /#8 FM, / -/ ' % #$* "%. 8 % +#*/% $"% "% 1% /%.&% " '1"% #$* " */ *"#-/*/ "#*/ #$/ " #-" " ( (,!/ #+ */ '"&/, ( / # $ % (/#% "% /%. To FM, "%, / "8 $ % #9'-% '(% ( '+/ $ "/ 1 &', ( / # $ % (/#% "% /%. ( FM #*1 -,+* $ # -( (:"'1% (!/$"%. /, '$/, / '') '% "% -( %, ''8 " (!/$" "% -( % +#*/ # % -% '% ( 1#%. 3/ '/-"# */ FM ( "#*/ 9 % #."#-% /'+ % (!/(/ $ '$,% 1#% %.$(9 / -" # / 9'*. ()//% " +#/ " "% -( %.,#, % (.- (# $ $ / #. -/ 1# video $ -! +% 8&/"% 5MHz. /!" #1 (# # -( (!/$" 708 '- (# # +#/ " 58 #$8/% 1# video, $ -!(# # +)" "!$/ 5dB '$, 1#% %.$(9 ( -"!- " # -/ AM + "#. / ()1 (# " +#/ " "% -( % (!/$"% 10MHz, $ ()/ " 9'* " 15,6dB. ($ / -/ $ " "#/! */ FM. 3/ $# "#/$ '/-"# */ FM / $ )' "/ /,", (:"',##! ( +/, AM ( 1#. (!/, ( 1# (!" #+/ FM *" " /-/ "/!/1 *% '#1 #$* " (!/$"% (PFM). ($ "#/ ' $ FM 1# 8 (#- :" 0 1) / #. #- * "% /%. -' # /. /, #*1%!8 - & "

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db #)+ ( #+ ( -", -"%. (/+ $ ".#" ( 1#% / 10%. 4*% '' #-, -"% / # / / % #9'-% "%.#"% ( 1#% $ % #9'-% "% 1% &'%. / ' AM # " #- ( 1% /% "#(, #!/1, "/ /.# " "% &'% ( (/- # "/ /. ($ $9'"# # / '(. # + $(%: # "/ #''( " % (,#-/"% $"% "% (##1% $( (, video, '#$% (,!/ #+ / #.1 ( # /!" #"., " " "% 1% &'% $ " #9'1 ( -( 1#%) 1 # "!1 " #%!/1% ( - / #"/(. ".#" ( 1#% /)" $ "/ 1 &'. 3/% $%, / (!. ($ / / ' -/% ",$% $/% (:"'1 (!/$" ( / /* 1 * $ " (!/$" */ '"&/ ( *+/. /," (:"',##&/ (/ * &/ # / )': '' $ '/1# */ AM -// ''*/!/&/ )% ( $ (% (, "/ ()" (:"',##&/ LED. 0$'% % ( '% ( /-."/

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

229 # / # /',1 / "#/$, "/ "'/1 /*/. 3/% '#$% -! -/ +!" '% / +:% ( '#+.!$/% /$( (/+!$/ (, / )/1 '#$% / (!$/% (, / )/1 '#$% / (!$/% (, / ()". '% $ 10% 90%.!$/% /$( / "#/$%,.- /& $!+"% ( ( 1#%.!+" "/ #+/ )/+/ '#.8 /,1, (.#$ / #+/ /!"# +/ '#.!$/% & "% / /. (!$/( /$( / *+!$/ (, / #1 '#$%. +% ( '#+ / +%, 8$#/!$/, ( '#+ 50% ( '(% (. /$% bit /!$/% (, /,: '#$% -// '1" +'. $ :" ( 1# / (,!/ #-/, '# - /!"#8/!$/ ( 8 $ + "#, /$% bit. '$ / # #9'"" '#&/ ( - (,!/ #$ 8/% % $(% */ bit $ " +("!/(!"#!"-& &-& 1 / ' $ % 9 -%!-%. 0(1/% (Core) $( 9 -/ "% /%. (1 "!1 "/,#$" #- *%. #% ( (#/ $ 9 #$# -*% 100 #$# % /% (!" #+/ $. 09'"# (cladding) /#8 ('$ $( 9'' / (1/. ($ #-% "% /% /' *% * / (1/. 9'"# ( -! # 125 #$# #$#. 3/! $!" $, ', $'*/

230 */ &/ /&/ / $ "%.' "% ( (1/ / (:"'$% $ / ".' "% ( 9'1#%. (, (1/% 9'"#, / #,# ('&/,('+, 1 ' + ((:"'1%.$"%). /!( " 1 #/*1% (coating) ' " )*1!1 "% /%. #/*1%, ( / -/ ' $ ('$, ( -! " "/ /!1 (,('+ "% /%. ( #, / #/*1 / 250, 500, 900 #$# "# 4!") 0&) 1 / (8 $ % +(% ('&/: (' 0' $ 2'' 0 $ $ 99% $ $'% % -% /% (!" #+/, '"-% /*/% / $ #!// $,(' 1 ' $. ", "2''" '#9/ )* (' $*% ( 1 GaAs,!" #+/, -% #,-% #(-(. 1 (&% *%.,(' -! /&% -% $"% (, # ' $, '' / 9$, ( '$ / -% (/- % (. /,('+ (/1.*%!" #, " '"&/ (:"'1% (!/$"% #,'"% $ "%, -% #,-% 1 # / *. #-/ /"- $ *# (,. #$(% (.#+% # "% '"&/ % #$% $ 100 #-, ' -% -% /% / "/-%, +'% / # #$ / +/,'

231 1.3.2 (2 4 %" 4$ ) " $%!#74/)!) 4!"') 0&%) #1 ( + 1#% 1 /,/ $ ",1 LED (light Emmiting Diode) 1 LASER (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission off Radiation), #1" +#% ( *$%, ( " 1 / /! #-/" / #-, '(/ $ 800nm #-! 1500nm. -% /% +/, '!1/, $ / $ # "% ( 1#% (-%. &" 9 1 " / #)+ */ '+*/ #/$*/ &/ /&/..0'+% -% /% (Multimode fiber optics) $% /% */ #,.&/, % -% /% / / /-(# & " # ( (1/ (,('+) " (/-! " # "% * "% (cladding). #1 % */ /* #,.&/,// 10-6 #-. '+% -% /% -!(/ ( #,-." 50#m/ 125#m, 62,5/125, 85/ /140. (/".- % +%, % (', / 62,5/125. '1 #% "% 1% /% (#'#9/#-/*/ */ /!(&/ (/.&/ /&/ ( )*+ 9'1#% / 900#m.!1 # "% '+" 1 / / $ % /% ( + 1#% /', # "/ (% "/ 1 / )+(/ /'&#/% ($ -%,*/%, $*% /!1# 2,3. ($% $% # "% /#8 '+% (multimode), 1 -!(# ''+% $#(% # "%, ( /!+/ % -%,*/% /' "%. '+% -% /% // ( ",%: % + 91#% (step index) % 9.#( 91#% (graded index). 1 / + " (step index) % /% (-% (#9/ $#" #9'1 ( ".' "% #)+ "% /1% /% ( ('+ * "%. "/ * " (1, " */ /*/ #/8!1# 2. 1 / 9.#( " (graded index) /% (-%!"8/ $ 9.# #9'1 ( ".' "% ( ('+ "% /1% /%. (#9/ 9.# #* " $ #(/$# $ -/ % "/ )*1 / (,('+. */ /&/ # - / / (1, ( /!1#

232 ./$% -% /% (single mode fiber optics). % #/$% -% /% " #% "% /1% /% / '+ #1 '" 8 ( ( #1(% +#% ( #$#/( 1#%. "/ * " (1, -!(# -// #$/ (/$ $ # "% ( + 1#%, / )/$. */ /&/ # - 1 / /!1# 4. /1 / % #/$% -% /% -! # $ 5#m -*% 10#m # (/".- " #1 8,3 #m

233 1.4!"%* 4!"-& &-&!(/ + 9 -%!/-% (!" #+/, "/ (1 &/ /&/: 1) /% #+/ / -'.(/ # $ '*#-/ #-'' (( 2))* " "% #+. '1 #-.%!/&/ (Double crucible method) '1 #-.%!/&/ # /!" #"., / "#(,".+/ /%,('+ (( ',$/*/.!/1 / '1. 9%,('+,/ $ % $/% ((, / (1/ #, "/ -/( ". 9!" #+/ - *% -!"#1% 9#"!/%,. # $ % + #$/%!/%. *1 -! '*#-/ (1/, /& " )*1 -! "/ -/( ". # (/!1, " / -! $ '*#-/. #/-"# (1% "% #.$( / $ # / '- #'+/ % " "% 1)"% #-.% / $'(.!1#. )* " "% #+ (Vapor phase oxidation) # ", / + ' / "#(,".+/.-% #,/% /% #-/*% (1 " #-.% /!" # (/1.*%. % )* "% "% #+ -!(/!. '+%. (-% %,// (/1.*% + 91#:

234 1)0# (!"# #+. 2)! #$% "% /%. 0# (!"# #+!"# #$% / -/% +'/% (( # 10 -*% 25!' # ( 60 -*% 120 #%. ($%!"# #$% ' $ -// (1/ ( 9'' $ # -/( " # -/.(#"$!,##, # (,#-/ ".' "% ''!". '' '$,, ($ / #.(#"1 1 /, '' '+ #,'+" '#. +% '$,% ( -/%!"# #$% #8 /, / -!(# -/ ('$ ( /.$,!#"'$ " (,-/* " OH,!#"'$ (% #''+%- /+% #'( #+%,/%,."/$. 0''-%!/-% -!(/ /(!., / # (/ (+% (%!"# #+%. -% /-% #!" #"#-/% #-. /: Outside Vapor-Deposition Modified Chemical Vapor Deposition Vapor Phase Axial Deposition Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition!"# #$%,/ $ "/ " )* "% #+, "/ + -, SiCl4 2, /#,/+/ (:"'1.#, /,,(/ ) (( (SiO2) ) ((, 1.$ (, '#9/ (/1.*% ($ #1 #&/ #*/ (( 0.1 #) '+#/ " soot"(.'"). (1 ".'". " 9 1 *'1/.. " "%.'"% ((, &# /* &#, #&/ -/ #,/-% /-% ('$ -/( "%. / '') "%.' "% "% -/" "%!" #+/ #-/ ('. 0,#%!/,.$ (f)!" #, / #& ".' "%..'", ('$ (1/*/,/ # " #)" &/ */: SiCl4, GeCl4, 2 ( ", -/ #,# SiO2 GeO2. 9.#$% $ #)"% '-,! # ' / '') $ ( GeCl4 (. #,#.!1!" #, " $ #)" ''*/ ('&/. $ ",#1 ( " $. ",/ $ "/ #,1 */ *#*/ (( -/ /* '', ( 1% # / '-,) 9-% $ ('&/ $ #)"% (.. &#, '-,!/% (/- ".' "%. Outside Vapor-Deposition )*1 $. " #+ (OVD), '+#/ "% " soot process", /+!."! $ Corning Incorporated. (1 " / 1/ " &" # &' ',$ - 20dB/km. + 91# ( '#9// / laydown, consolidation drawing. " laydown, (' $*% SiCl4, GeCl4, BCl3 2 /+/ # (1 '$,, /,(/.'"

235 .'". " (/-! # $#/" #1 9,/* 1 *% mandrel.! ('$ ( (1/., '(.+#/ $ "/ -/( "..'" /!+ " 9, &# # &#, -/% ('/$%!"# #$% "#(,. "/ # (!"# #+, ''!" $*% " +/. " (,('+, "%.' "%, % ( (1/ "% -/( "% #+/ / ',!.+/. 3,.#-/%!"# #$% $ " 9. -// +/." "%. ($% (:"'1%.# % +/% 1 (#$ ( # / (! /!"# #$. +/ =$/ / -/ $, (/$, /$,('. $'(.!1# / $'" ". )/1 $. " "% #+ (Vapor phase axial deposition) ''" $# #-.% ( 1%!"# #+ / )/1 $. " "% #+ (VAD). " VAD, SiO2 #$ #&// # / $ $*% "/ OVD. #$./ /* # 9,('+, " / " (/-! (/#-/" $..- " # # #"!/1. 3/% &"%!"# #$% "#(, )/&% #-/( $ # #"!/1 - " 9 9&/% "/ % /*.!"# #$%,/ - # 9% # 1)".!"# #$% / -#% / (. # /. (1 " #-.%,/ /'&% #- # ' 1.( $. "%. #-/*% -! '/-"# /$%.+ 9''/%. "%, / (! # /1 + ( "#(,, $*% (#9/, OVD. -'%, " VAD -!!. /#&% 1 1!"# #$% # /,/ (/!1 #1". #-.% ( 8 $#/!1#

236 "#-/" $. "!"#+ #+ (Modified Chemical Vapor Deposition) "#-/" $. "!"#+ #+, 1 MCVD, / # ( /+!." $ "/ AT&T Bell Laboratories ;/ $ (!-% ( " AT&T!" #", /,, #8 -% /% ! # ' #- (:"'1% $"% -% /%. MCVD - $ "/ OVD #-/( $ " $. " #/8 #- -// *'1/ use-quartz / )*$, *% +( $% ""#-/"". '(, *% )1%: /$/ (2 SiCl4+),/ $ " # '( /$% $#/( *'1/ /& # )# " 9 '' -'%. 3/% ( 1% ( 9/ - &. #1% ( #1(% ( *'1/ (#(/&/.#-/ SiO2 #$ -/ &#,('+. </.(#"$!% (,!/, # 9'9 '/, / #1 " 1 */ /&/*/. -'%, ".# ( ( 1 ()/ - & " 9% / - / "#(, -/% $%!"# #$%. 3/ '/-"# (1% "% #.$( / $ / #,,/&%.1 #-/( $ " / " #/8 #- *'1/. +#*/ # $!/',% Lightwave, (1 " #-.%, (:"'$ $ =$/ ($ (% $(%, */. 2'' '/-"# ( (1 " #-.% -! / " (/$" /!. #8 " /,1,!-!" #&/% / )' #$. #-.% ( 8 $#/!1#

237 $. "!"#+ #+ ' #% (Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition) 1#/% "/ Phillips Research /'(:/ "/ $. "!"#+ #+ ' #%, 1 PCVD..$,(' / "%.'"%. "% #- -// *'1/ (( $*%,/ " MCVD. #"- $.# ' # # (!/$"% #(#*/ (2.45GHz)!" # / /$% /+ 1 #% '$,%. ' # / "/ / " /!*1 ( C. ($ ", '+ ' &# /./ #- *'1/. / (1 " #-.% #% - / ()/(# &#!!#"'-%.# %, $ $. "% /,$ +, " # ''% #.$(%. #-.% (1 ( 8 $#/!1#.!"#1 / " #%!" 1% %! #+!"# #$%. +/, $( " &" ".#/ #-! / 1)". ($ '*#-/ ##!8 / -, #&//% # / # 125#" )*1 #. ',$% )' #$% "% #-( '-,! "/,#1 # */ /&/. '/1% &#% #$8 -/ *# - $ "/ -/( ". *# /!1# ( $ (% (&% '#1% 1 ''" ",1.#$"%. ( 8 $#/!1#

238

239 1.5 (#4&!%)!/& % 14 $) 4!") 0&) 0'',/% - / '".+/ ($:" "/ ',1 #% 1% /%, # #-/" #,1. ( /: -,.% (1/ /% / 9'1#% (.!. 50/ 125 #m) '$ /% (1 (.!.,('/% (1/% /,('/ 9'"#) ).-/" " /% #"#-/" db/km /$#/ $ "- +% 8&/"% #"#-/ MHz.km 09''/,/% (.!..# ) &'% /% / -/% "#/$%,/%, "/ ',1 #% 1% /%. &'% )&/ $ #1% +#% '(,%. -% /% -!(/ % #$% &'% 1550nm % #,'+% nm. (#$/ 4 #1" +#% / "#/ : 780,850, nm). +% 8&/"% #% /% / # ''" #" #%..8 / #-, (.#$ # / #-/ #+/ / #.+/ !"-& &-& '& '+/ $ # 1 $% -% /% 1 '(:" ( /8, " "/ /!1 "%,('/"% 1% /% $ % 9''/-% '',-%, #"!/-% % *,#-%. $,* */ 1*/ (&/ #-*/ ( - /.+/, $ % */ &/ '**/ / (!/ #,'+ $ ($ */!'/*/. 1 % % /!1% /$% + '*(.8/ $: /!1 - " '"$" 9''/1 /!1 8*1% (#:!1# #-,.% 9% ',1 ( ''"'(. '*( ) $ "/ #,1 + /-/ '& / / ( #-/, / /1 % 1 % $'*/ */!1 */. + #1# "% #1% /$% + '*( /: 0*+( '(:" (buffer) 5/% 9' 1 #"% (Kevlar fibers) 2# #1#(Strength member) (+( '(:" (buffer) )*$ 9'"# (jacket) *-% '+:%!" #+/, / -:(/. / 1 +/' (% $ #. # #1#, / ()1 "/ /!1 (

240 '*( "/.-" " (. )*$ #1# -! $ /$, )- "/ (, # / ' $ $ ( /$% &#. #1(/ " "% 1% /% / '+ #1.&% " )*1 "% #% / #1. / #. # " (9",#), #,'!/$ "# $#, * ( (.+ "% "% /%, " /./ # #$/#" #$* " # (/- "/ +)" " */ *'&/ ( 1#%. </ '$/!8(# (8(# -/ '& - / '#9// $'% (')% ( +/, / (')(/ "/ / $ #$/#% #& % ( / -' # -!(/ # "% /% $ ##:% $(. -!(# +)" " */ *'&/. '& &/ /&/ -!(/ $ 1 -*% 36 -% /%. (/". #-/ / '& # 8(,$.#$ &/ /&/, "/ /*/ */ full-duplex ('*#*/. )!* (# ( +(% &/ /&/ *% % "/ (1 (%. "/ &" * ", -!(#. 1 / )* $ "/ * " (/.-% /% )*$ #/*$ 9'"#. - '& (!(/ ''-% -% /%, $( ". / ' -/ )!* $ '&. - '& -!/ $% $ '& &/ /&/ '&,!" #+(/, /!( ",,('" " ( $'(!1#%. <' ( '&, -'%, '/ $ )*$ 9'"#. (1 " (1 /,/* 1 / Tight Buffer.!1# 5 #/8 /'," (1 '*( &/ /&/. 0$#% (1% '/ +# '&, (!" #+#, " +/ " # / /,$ )' #$ (Optical patch cords). ( '+/ $ ( '& /*#-/ )*$ (%,. -/ $ -! 1 / $ ' $.!1# 6 #/8 -/ $ '& +/ "%

241 "/ +" * ", -!(# % -% /% # "/ * " (% / /."#-/% '+. #- '& '/ $ )*$ 9'"#, + &.". #- '& * " $ (/.-% /%, "/ /.$" ( '*(. (1 " (1 /,/* 1 / Loose Buffer.!1# 7 #/8 /'," (1 '*( &/ /&/

242 1.5.2 /$4*(0 "1704* #/ -% /% / "#(,+/ $,(',. - / / $#*% $,(' ($ / # / (,., *% % "/.$" (, # /$,(' ( (//# /#/,+* #%. + " */ #-/*/ ( #/,.&% #,'% % ( '+(/ '& (, +/ ('$ (1% (% / / '+*% /-%. ( ($ / / $ $ 100% ($% / '$,%, / "!+% ( */+ 1#% #&/. "#(, #% 1% /%,# 91#, ( /!"# #$% /$%!+ ('/( ('/(, " #1 */ /&/ $ / +'/ ($,.&% " #1, "/ /!1 (%, '', "/ * 1 '(, (%. &,,// $'% "%!"#-% %, /!"# #$ (.+,('+, /& $% )' #$% /'#9/ / #+/ $ / ('/ +'/ $' )-/ &#, (.!/ *% -' # " #* " "% $ "% "% 1% /%. <*% /'#9/ +' /%, $, ($ 91#, " "#(, */ &/ /&/. + "#(,".!$% +'/%, " (/-!. # ( (1 " -!!1# +,( /'#9/ " "#(, */ # &/ /&/. +,% ($% '&/,('.# ( #&/ ' ( " (/-! ($ - $( $ #-% -%, $ :+!, & / "/ '1 #1 1% /%. #"!/ # '-,!(/ / * $ "%!"# #$, /& ) '8(/ $ " #$% "% /. ) ( ',$ $. * #-% ( +,(, (//# #!' ( /'#9/ "/ -')" "% 1% /% ('/(%. '$, " 1 / / $ -/ +/' '-,!*/ ( ) '8(/ $ /.- " /. %!1 ",!*% / )/".+/ (!$/ 9'1# "!1 " "%. ( '#9/ -',!% /!1% /!$#/"%.+ "%, * $ "%!1# '' " #-" " "% /%,.&% $ (1 ) " * 1 # " ( */+ 1#%., "% " #-, "!+" # "% #-/*/, " (# "% 1% /% #1" +#% (!&#) ( *$% ( #,.&%.# % 9''/% % % +/ (1 / '(,1 *. </ $' ( -',! ''"*.+/ (!&%, " 1 / '-/. #$,!1 " $ % %!1% "'/*/&/ (" &/

243 1.5.3!/4(0%) '& &/ /&/ // % )1% ",%: "' '&. / '& +/ #'' #-". ($ '& -! "'#,/"-% % - # /!" #". ' '& /-,% 1 */+%.#+% 1!-% ( '1/ $ (/+% 1 (1 ''+ (!!($ "'#,/"$. '& *'"/& */. / '&.+/ #- *'1/% '+/ $ /$ -'!%,% /% #"%, " #"!/1 /!1 ( '*( -'% $ -/ #/+ '(#/(, "/ $ (, $ # )*1 ' 1 -/( ". '& ' #-/. / '& (.+/ (./ #- -%. $ '& *'"/& */ / $./ + /% $ #'$!'(9, "/ #"!/1 /!1 */ '**/. 9+! '&. (9+! '& (,/$#/ # /* '& -! % )1% -%: (/1.*% -/ #,' / #1%. 1# "!/', - " (1 (9(!*/ '**/!*% /,//"1 #-! 600Km. 3! # ()"#-/" #"!/1 /!1 & / /-! #,'+% (/#% '( #+ (,!/ # ' #$ " +#% /(#-/ # ' 1 -/( ", /1, - / /-! #,'% ( -% - % ( ) '8/ # -/ #/+ $ #'+9 1!'$ 1 '(#/. (1 ( (9(!( '*( - /', # "!1 " (, / "'1!" #, "! 1, 9. /. "! - / -! # #"!/1 & / /-! $!(1# /#-/*/ ( -(/ 9(.$ /$% -( / /-! % /1 % ( '+/ +#. ($ '$, (9+! '& "# */,'& */ -/ 9.%.' "% ( 15m.9/ 9(.$ 9.% ( 1.5 m. 9. / (9+! '& - / /-! # /( " ( ' $ " &" " ( #1" 5-8Km "% - / /-! % ( -% - % ( (!(/ 9.% 5-8 Km. -% /% 1 $*% /-." / ($/ "'#,/"-% %,!" #+/ "/ (1 +/.*/ '**/ $( (/(!(/ '& /-,% # % -% /%. (1 +/.*/ '**/ ", #* " (!&(, *% ( '*( " ", " (/'1 #* " "% #1% ( '*(. ''" #,1 */ +/.*/ '**/ / /,*,$,& *% */ /-*/,##&/

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digital) "'/*/%.!1 " (% - "/ / "!& ($, (% '$,(% ( /-(# *: "/ 91. #% /% #+# / #-(# ($!/!*% #9'-%!'% "'*/1#, % #-% "'&/ /'&/ #,'.#$ #-/*/ (', &/. % */ '**/ */ &/ /&/ 9% (% / '+ #$ $ /! (!'+. $,(!", -/ '& &/ /&/ # / / 1!'/ '& ' %, (, #-( /' (, (, 9(%. " # */ '"&/ / -!(#. / '+ + '" " ('1 (.-" " &/ ) 1 " (/$ "

245 /!8/,* ". +/ /!.+/ $.!& # (/- "/ )" 1 "% $!&% (,(/!'$. 3 (,!/!/',1!( ". "/ '' (!(/,,*,1% &/ /&/, "'1 ), % ( )( ( ((, # &" +'" "/ ##. "/ '' -! / 1 #-! 1# -/ #,' #-% ( '+ +( ( # ( &/ /&/. /-(# "% $ -% /%!" #+/ +,!/ "#/ $,/ /!/( "% #& */, "%,.# % (" */ ("/&/ / 1*/),.&% ''*/ #,.&/. ''/ /(", /'8/ "/ (1 &/, /, #''$ 9'"#,. -!(/ 9'"# $ -% /% '(#1. 3 #- * */ &/ /&/ '$%. /"#&/ (/!&%, "/ " ( (% (,, "/ " ( -!, ".#. "# (,,./1 #$* " '. ( +/ "'1 " # -# (./. 1.7 %114&!"') #%) $9':" ( #-''/% (1) / # $'" " (/1.*% -/,!"#!*% (!. 0& % )(# % +% % ( "8(/ "/ 9#"!/ */ &/ /&/: - " #8-%,-% * " $ (% '+" ( " */ / (/#!" &/ 1 (1 /,*/ -%!/',% ( (-% #81%,*,1% 0$( - (' '-(/ "!/',% -!/', +% *.1 % "/ 9#"!/ &/ /&/ 1# '+/ $ & -.-# *% -9# )&/ $ =$/ "/, ( ( /-/. $ (!'+/ #,/*, #-''/ 8(/ % -:% (% /.#$ -, % /-%!/',%. '1. / $.+# "% "#/1% -(/%, (/", 1 / #+/ ( / " (/ "/ 9#"!/ &/ /&/, # ('! /..-# -/ + ",/(/ #8. #-%. #+ / / /!#"'-% /,#+// #,' $, (=$/*/), '' #,' $, / #+/ /,#".+/ #-! /!#"'& (/ #-%.,#, '+ #,'%, '!"#+#/% % &/ /&/!$" / %!-% (

246 (9+/% "/ #,1 */ &/ /&/ "/ (FTTH: Fiber-to-thehome) ( $ / /(:*..,#1. <#*% ($ / (/-9", #-! & / -! (#9. % )(#. -/ $ - "# ( ( 8/ # '#- & / '9(# # '+" $/ ( (#9/ /./$ / (#9. - " #8-%,-%. * $% (/( #$% */ /,&/ 1 */ 1 */ "%,%, (" % (. #+ / / 9'.+/, "!/',!"#1 % / -!(/ $#" 9.. '1 '+ " ( 9'1#% # / '#9/ 1 $! % -% /% ( '#. -% /% -!(/ 9, $' (, #,-%, #8-%,-% ''+% ''(% #%. "'*/1 9#"!/ #,'*/ */ / -/% #-% ( -! '!&%,' % -% /%. 0$% # / / -// - #/&/ */ / (!- $ " (!" # "/!/1 */!'/*/ '**/, +% '$,(%. -% /% "/ -( (% 9#"!/ / / '-/ -/ '/-"# */ *'1 */ '' " /,$". 9#"!/ CATV!" #" -% /% #-/ "/ (1 + "# /#1% "% '*1% /. + (,#, " /" " % % -% /% 1/ # " ( 1." # (!. -% /% $ / "/."/$" '+ ", "% "/ '+" '+ ". "#*. $ / '-# ' $ -% /% 1/."/$% '+%, '' '-# $ 1/ "."/$" " '+" '+ ". /#1 / '+ '1, '' / -/ '' "# ( -! '/ ''+% #''/'$,(%. 2''% 9#"!/%, $*% " 9#"!/ */&/ #&/, -!(/! & / '(/ % -% /% '' '/1# / / $ #/1. # " /',&/ "#*/ video #&/ /*/ &/ ( / -!(/ "/ $" studio / -/ +' -,, /!'$. 0$, " 1 / / # / (/,*/ $ % #' -/ ## 1 -&/ #)/$!'/ '&. 9*%, -% /% -(/ '+" $" 1#%, #$ 9%, /"- % $ EMI '', '' /!'$% ', 1110 ( $ (% */ &/ /&/,!'$%. '- "/ ',1. 9#"!/ */&/ "'&/ #&/ -! % '',-% / # 8/ (. #+ / / #9''(/ "/. &" '',1 / " /" " % "/ HDTV, ". 1 '+ #,'+ +% 8&/"%. +" / " /" " % :""#-/ video, /, $ $ + ' / #. #- ( #,'*/#"&/!'/( #)/+ '*(!- "# /',$ video. ( (-% % "/ 9#"!/ #1% "#/(/ $ "!1 */ &/ /&/. ()"..&% " '',1 % % /-%!/',% -!,/ 1. -% /%. '- (/ -// '+ #,',/ /()"% "% #1% $ studio, '' $'% (% "/ #81 /#1 ( video "/ / / $,(%. :"1 (# " */ "#*/ video / ($%,/% ( - ''%!/',%, $#"!'/ '&, / (/,*/ ' # ' (1/ "/,. 2''% #,-% $*% " '-,!(!/ 9'. / /-%, % -% /%, ' (1/ "/, $#" #$'% ( -!(/!*1 -%

247 /%. ; $ ', " /,",/% $ (% 1," /!'/ '&. $ "/ ''" '(, /-%,-% $*% " $ $ " ( ", ( + (1! / #!$/, #/8/ / 8(/ '+ ' % -% /%. $ "/ '( */ :"&/, -% /% '#9/(/ # +)( "# % /*/% # (', -%. 0$( $*% /' 1% /% -!(/. ' (1 "/ /()". ($%!1 % ( - / /.+/ / /*/% (', &/ (:"'-%!+"%. '' (', -% -!(/,/ $!% ( " &" ($" #,1 */ &/ /&/ #- / (', 1 #/ " "/,. /-% ((' 1% rtn */ (/"&/, "*/ Cray!" # (:"'1% $ "% (/- % &/ /&/ /+!." $ "/ Force Incorporated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laser, LED (% /!/(-% - # 1 (.#$ 5 *% 20 %. 1 / $ #$/" "% -! '').#",# ( ' # -'':" /$"%, '' / -/ #$ #-% ( $ (% /$% '1(% ( 1#%. (/1% &/ /&/ (/!8(/ / /(/ #,' '# "/ #* " ( $ (% ( ' /# '"#-/!- "/,*,1 /-*/ ('&/. " (1 #''/. (/! $#/!$/. #* " ( $ (% / '+"% (. -: % -% /% / /".+/ #-/%,-%. '+" ( " */ / (/#!" &/. <*% (#9/ # $'% % /-%!/',%, ''!1 % 9+/ % '',-%.! /!(1 " */ $./ / "".!+/. &%. -% /% 9+/, + (*% '$,(%. $!1 % - / + '(% +% & ( /

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chip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video /* $ 1!'$# /$% '*(. # ( $#/ 8+,%,*,&/. 1#, ($ # /,/, ($ -! #+/ ''-% $ % (% */ &/ /&/. 2''% 9'& % % /,*/ -%!/',%. (/! (/ /,// #-''/, '' +#( '/1# "% /%. (/! (/ / "/ /(/ # ( 1!/',

249 ( (-% #81%,*,1%. #,'+ #-% "% #* "% $ (% + -! (!. )1# ( 1# &/ /&/, ' "/ #81 (1 )"#*/. $'% 15!$/ /, -/ '1% $"% laser, -% /%. $ 8 10,000 '. 1#, -# laser #+#1(% +#% $*% ( (!" #+/ CD players 8(/ ( $ "% /* #1%. / / $ '+ "!/', $ $,% (,*,1%). laser */ 10,000 '*/,/$/ $,(% */ - ##&/ #1/. CD */ 50 '*/ ( "/ $,(% ( 1 ##+ ## #1/. 9 $ chip ( laser "/,#$" # /',, ',$ $ 1 '. $. $ % ' / $ "/ 9 "% (.(,## "% (, / # " ( (1 /%. "'*/1 9#"!/ 1/ (+.(/", "/ (1 */ &*/ )"#*/ &/ /&/ -#*/,!1 ". < $ )1# &/ /&/,/ #8, #-%. - (/ #. * -, ($ (!." $ )1# */ 1300 nm 8(/ $ $ )1# */850 nm )1# */ 1550 nm 8(/ $#" $. #,'+ $ #" #% ' (% $,(% ( (/-/ # )1# (. / )1# */ 1550 nm!/!. (% (% $,(% $*% )1# */ 850 nm, #-% /. 1/ '+ -%. 0$(. $(!/ / -// )-!/ $' "/ 9#"!/ */ &/ /&/. -!$/ /, " 9#"!/ (- $,,/$% $ (1!/ $ ', $(. 1#, ## "% 9#"!/% (- $ '' $( 1 ''!*#-/ "#'1 $(. (#91 /- $ "!/',.,/ 1 #$/ " 9 " "% #81%,*,1% $/ $(..+/ (+. /, #-! &, -! /(!. "#/!*% +/' */ +*/ / / /"#-/ #-/ ( '#. ($ (#9/ / #- 1 -% /% / -/ '+ "#/$ ', $ ''-% -%,-% ( /-/ $( /. #+ / '8 $. #. 0'' $( ( / & (-*% #-/, $*% 62.5/125 #s '+% /% /,/*8/ */,#*/ / $( ( -!/ &!$/ $ /$ (!/ $ /,*/ #$ /!& "%,%. 1# / (!(/ '' /.* ( /.(#+/ $ / $!$/ " # *.+, '+ $( / 85/125 µm /& " ''" *.+ / #-,.% /% 62.5/125 µm. '( - " / #,-.(% 85/125 µm / / # #(1 #/1#". $( / "% + ' / '"& (/ % (!& % (% # 9#"!/ ( / $,1, $ " 9#"!/ */ &/ /&/. & FDDI $( (',1." "/!1 ( -,/,*,1 (. / )/"# "% %, "/ /()" ( +( FDDI, 125 Mb/s /$/ / -/% '$% (.#$% #-/*/ # /"1 (:"'1!+". "/!1 ( # " $(, #!$/,$, 125 Mb /s 1/ $, ( '+ /,-'. $( / "#/, #-''/ */ &/ /&/, '' ''-% $ % #8-% #,-%./$/ / (#9+/ # 1!*% (

250 - ('. % &% "#-% */ &/ /&/, )1#!/ "/ " /!" #+/ 9 )* ('. (/1% */ &/ /&/!!" #+ / #''$ :(' $ /)*!'(9 1 $#" # 9 ("#-/ #/, / (!. " (.(,## ".,$, $ (/1% '')/ -,// #. 1#, (/1% &/ /&/ # ' -% :('% #/8/, -/ #" /"$ $.*# #$'% # /. 2'' )1# &/ /&/ -!(/ /(!. #- $ '%.* #-/% (/- % laser, #"$ $, #-/!#"'$ $ %, #", #-/. '& % "/ 9''/1 /!1 */ 9 &/ )"#*/ -!(/ & ( "/ (/$" / :"+/! # '! "% " "%. <'% (-% '',-% -!(/ & "/ (/$" #&/ '#*/ "/ '! " " ( $ (%. (-%.*1 % / '$ / (/! +/. (!1 " */ ' &/ )1# &/ /&/ (/1*/. (/!. ) -)/ (/(*#-/ 9'-## '' ( 1# &/ /&/. 1#, 9'& % ) -// / /''-% '+ %.* #-/% (/- % laser % #,-%. '-(/ "!/',%. </ #!/', '" 8 ".#" "% *#$"% ( " 9#"!/ &/ /&/ -! '", 9'& % "/!/', /(/ /,/(/#''/ /() /. ($ "#/ $ #-% ()"-% '',-% 9'& %.,// =$/.,/%,# $ ( #8 '+ "/ 9#"!/ (/1*/.!$/ # $ *% $ (/##-/!- laser -!/ +,(/. #1% ( $#(!#!- Fabry-Perot, '! #-/!-,!- DFB ''. 1/ ' -% -% (,1, 9* / $ -'':" 1% "/ /1,. ("#-" /!"# / "/ 9 ", 9'*#-/!-. 1# / "!1 */ MQW ('(9/&/ */) 1asers. / # $ % #-% 9'& % "/!/', */ 1aser ( ( "/ "/ '(. '/1# (% / $!( (!$/. ( 1% / $ # /' " % ( ',$ $ -/!$/. <! #$/ $ % (% / '+%, ''!8/ % (:"'-%.# % '+, ( 8(/ (:"'$%,*,-% - /."/$. MQW /# 91".,/(/#$//-/ "# "% $#, $#" '+%! %. <',# '1."/ ($:", (1 " / 1 )" / '1, "/ 9#"!/ &/ /&/.&%, (% '% (%.,# /.' '')(/ $,1, ( ( -% / #" #+/ / - (/ $ % "% /()"% 1 '% / #+/ / )'(.1 (/ / /(/ # "/!/',. 0/* $ 90% */ ( "#*/ &/ /&/ (. /(!.+/ "/ $#/". 9 "/!/', ( / 1" 1# "%,*,1%. 3/ #,' $ */,#&/ /#&/.,/(/ ( 1#%, $!, "/ (- "!/', )"#*/. ) CD p1ayers. 1asers (1!/,!$/ $*% -!(/!/-%, :""#-/ 1!, ''.-/% $' (! #8, " "#(, ( CD p1ayer 1/ /.. (#9 "/ 9#"!/ &/ /&/

251 -!/',. /- # #( & "%!/',% / #$/ ( '#9/(/ #1/(# (/,8/ # #/( #-/(% /(-% (/#+% '%. "/,#$",./$/ #$/ 10% 1 ',$ */ "/* #&/" 9,/(/ - -)* $, 1. / -/% /* #$% / - '+% $ %!#"'$ $ %,../. %!-% "% % ( 1980."1% &/ /&/ -,// /#/ (/",( / # '+ " #" 9'1# ( $ #(. ' &, ($% ( -8" 1/ -/% '+ 9(%, #$%, / "% EMI."1%. $9'"# 1/ $ $ /.* ( /-( / -(%."1% /!/ # -, #+ / / /(/ 1" (!( %!/',% /& " 9#"!/."1*/ &/ /&/,*/8$/ /,#1 -//."1 "% (. #+ / +! # 9 1 %,!-%.# % $ O C *% 40 C, ',$ $ 1,000 ',.-/% #+ /', -//."1 "% # 1!/1, 200 ' (,,($/ % $ -20 C *% +700C.! # "/ 1 */ #,'*/ #"&/ +#%, ".* "'&/ $ / #% /.- % '(, # / #1% +#% */ 3 #m *% 4 #m, #''/ 1.3 #m #m #1" +#% (!" #+/ ' 1#, &'% "% /%. #+ / / - (/ O.OO1dB/km. ($ "#/ $ " '1 (/!1% / ( / #1% ( "#/+. -! # &' #$/ 40 db, ( # /,#".!*% "/!1 " */ /#&/.!(/ / +% 9 9'1#.,(', -% /% / # 9 ".( #''/ # 9 " ((. ( (!&% /$. "/ / (1 / )+, " "#(, (/- */ / //(. $ #.&/, (/"-% / #$ / / '" (/ "/.*"1 &' */ db/m ( (:&/ 9-% #9'%, "/ (/$" $.* 1% (%. '' $9'"# / $ laser, LEDs, /!/(-% #''/. - /'(,+/.# % (,+ 8&(. 2''" #!/', # (/#1 / ( 1# '(')% (/+ #1(% +#%. $ $ $ ( 8/ '"-% /-%, -), & 1 $#" #1" +#% ( -'// "/,#1 #- ( #% '1% /%, ()//% "/ /$" "% $ / ($,/..* / 9 / 1, '' / (!(/ ( 1#. +% #$% / ", lasers */ -), & 1 /&/ #"&/ +#%. +)" "% */ lasers / / $ 91%. 9*%, #/ '!.+/ #- ( $ lasers / 9.+/ -) # #1" +#% (!8/, -/ + "#, '' %. 1/.- " / '1 '' 94 laser. 0$. /*, "&/% #1% +#% "% $#/"% /!1%.$"% (&/ */ #"&/ +#% 1 nm #,'+"%!/1% % $ $.# % / + '!*% / -! 9.+.+'. 5 *%.&% " /()"% */ lasers,/ $ 91%, ( 1# ( #+//,/(/. +#*/% /*/% -!(/ 1" /". / #-''/ */ &/ /&/. + "# ($, #$% ( laser -# *% # (!/$" ( / #*#-/"!" #&/% #$* " '(% (!/$"% 1 "%, $ 1#. 1# ( '#9/ -'%, *% / /##,#-/ # *%

252 $ -/ + laser, " /# " (!/$" /!/+ #- -/ 1# )$(. )" +,.$(9 ( (// # # " /!/( ", //% -" (."./1 1#, # " (% ()/(/ "/ 1 1 &' #)+ ( #+ ( -". #,'+" (." +#*/% /*/%. - '+ #,'+(% (.#+% #-/*/ $ % #" +#*/% /*/% (!" #+/ 1#. ()"#-/" (." "#/ $ -"% ',$ *$/ *$%, "/ /!/( " ( + 1#%. 3/ $9'"# ( ( 8 "/ )" (+ ( (% # "% / $ " "#/1 "'/1 / # / -),1,, / '9 '1% '/-"# "%!/1%. / * #)+, / µ",+/ #"- +#*/% /*/%. (/! / /+!$/ #!$/ '#9//% # '/1# */ 9'& */ "'/ )1# '' #-" "%!/',%. / -' #, $#/ $ */ +#*/*/ /*/&/.#*..!/1 ( -!.,!$/ / " $#/" #,'" $% / " )*1 #$* ". 3/% )*$% #*1% / / -/% "'/$% '-% ( # /!" #". " #$* " ( *$% ( / /. $ ( 1# gigabit ( 1#!" #+/ # " #$* " laser. )* #*-% / (. /& $ )'(/ ( 9'1# */ laser $*% # */ laser (+/ #. $#", -/% #$% &/ /&/ (!" # )*1 #$* " -/ laser, - /. 8 $ / "#(,". $ -/ # #*#-/ + "#. </ )* #*-% 1!." /, &", # # "% #$* "% 1/ #''/ #-/. / / (!+ (/ "/, # /.(''&" $, )* #*-% "#+," / /,*/ #$ ( 1," / ( 1# # "% #$* "% / 9'*.+/. &, )* #*-%!" #+/ ' (% #+% laser '+ (:"'1%!+%, " -(/ (/!8. ''"*#-/ ( 1#, #+/ (-*% /.+/ +!/',%,,(. )(/ -/ "#/$ #-% #-''/ */ &/ /&/. &"!/', / " ''1* " */ #&/ *$% /!/(-% /* ($ *# ( # 1 $' ('&# ), % 1#%. ($ -! *.". / $%, #-''/,!$/ # '' - $#" 1 % "%,%. / $ " " / / :"' *% ( # / (!. # (!/ )1#. -! "% - 9'1# ( -!(/ ",1 :"' $ %, $ % /()"% / (:"'$. 5 *% ( #$. (/".+/ #-''/, '' (1 "!/', - /("1 "/./( #+'" #1% ( & '(. $ #-/ "'/!-. + % */ ''"*#-/*/ &/ ( "#*/ / " "#(, &/!* &/ WDM's '$ ($ *#. ($ - "#/ $ % -%!/-% ( &( "% (!" #+/ % $% ( (-%. ', "!/', (1 # 8 $ "/ " 9'1#,*,1%. / +%,.&% ( '%,*,1% (/+/, ( IOC's.,/(/, (, (:"'1%!+"% ( (!/(/ "/ '", (/"$# #,'"%!+"%

253 #-''/ */ &/ /&/. /,( '"$. "#/1 /-!/',. / #''/ #-% 1 % "% (!( %!/',%, '' (-%!/',% ( / $#", 1 #+/ $#" / )"1 (/ / /-%,#1 #% #,-%. /% %. "#(,1 (/,#-% '',-% " 9#"!/ # 99$" / /% %. -(/ '+% $ %!#"'$ $ % $ % (!( % /,*/ -%!/',%. <*% % $% & %,!$/%. )

254 2-2.1 DSS /-% #,-% '(#- */, //-%."#/-% %!*/ #-/*/.+/ % /-% 1 % ( 1#.1( "% ( '(#- /-/ "/ -/)" ( #-/(, ( 1!(, $# */ $/*/, ( 9/, */,&/ # +'!1 #" :"1 )"). ($ %,,*/ 10 -*% % " #,'1"!*"$" (1 ( $ (#9 -,,.,## '(#- */ &/ -/ #,' $ (!&(.1( "%.. ($' "% '1(% /" "%, '1% 9/.$/"% 30 ' */ "'&/ '"&/ $!$/ /$% #,# (MB) */!*/ (', &/ / '. ($ / ( 30 */ '"&/ / ($', gigabyte (GB) / '$. ($ $ / /,/ -.- #, " ( 1#, / $ '$% #-% (1/ "/ 9#"!/ # $ "/ " % " #," " (% (#,- (% (', -%. -! &, ".1( " '(#- */ -! (!.!" #&/% "/!/1 '+#/" «(# "», " ' $ "/ *" " */!*/ ',$ ## ( //!8/,, /!&.1( "% 1!$/ # "%. )(#-/ ', #$ ($# (#-8 (#-8!. /+% ', "/ (:"'1% $"% /,*,1 1!( '(#- */ / " (/!1% (.#$ " ( (/!1% #) */ '"&/. 4*% ($, '!// " "% +''":"% "% /,*,1% 1!(. -' # / 1 $",*,1% ($ #1 blips,!#-/*/ ' */ #(' #% (Barr, 1993). ($/ ''(% '$,(%,,*, (+.(/, "/ /()" '(#- */ -!(/ #. / /+ (/ -// (,1 9 #$ "/!/',.1( "% (', &/..1( " / $ ''+% " 9#"!/ *% " #"!/',, / -: ''-% /-% #,-% '(#- */ / ) (/,1, ()/$#/% 1 % "% / ', / - % (81" " (1/ "/ /-!/',. (1/ "/, (1 ".1( " -! $ % #,/"-% -%!/',%, % / -% $(% (-% %!/',%, ( # (/'+/ " #-/" '1:" */!*/ % (#9-% (#"!/-%) $#/% ( (-%. 0,#%!/, " 9 #-/" /.1( "!" # /+#/ #-" ( ),(/ '" # # #-/"!+", " -* $% "/!/', CD-Rom /#*8 -/.#'&% $: '&# ( *+/ % '"%, "/ / /$% Compact-Disk #+/ / / $! #$ $ #1% +#% "% /% '-8 (!" #, /

255 0/&%, $#/,,/ '# " #,'"!*"$"!*/ (', &/. - / -'. $ ''+. "/,#$", " ()/$#/" " ", "#/ $"!*"$" ( (/- # "/ /()" "% (% '% */ #,&/ -! ',1 " (/$" (&/ */ ( "#*/.1( "%. /& ($! # #8 */ "/ #/ " */ '(#- */, (! #,1, ()/$#/" ", -!/',. :" ''&/ ",&/ 9#"!/% / $,!/', & # '+ " -!/ $9'"# #,'"%!*"$"%. )( "/,.1( "% '"&/ ( #-''/%. (/# ( 1# '(#- */ +/ (:"'1% (/$"%, /' #-, "/ ':" */ #&/ (%. (-% #,-% ''(/ $ "/!1 $* " ( ', #+, % ( % '(#- */, "/ '1 ( 1)" */!*/ ( 9 / " ( (1.,/!" */ ( (&/.1( "%, 9''/ =$/*/ '(#- */ /: a..1( " '"&/ # #1 ( # /! +' $ "/ "'/1. b. /(/".1( " */ &/ */ '"&/,!", $ $!' gigabits - & / #+/ / (/"".+/ $ *%!. c. 1 #-% */."(#-/*/ '"&/ # / 9 1 / '') 1,#1 # "/ $ +/#"./1.( -" " (,, / /#! ( #/8/ "/ ),, / /!" 1 msec 1 ',$%. d. 4#"'1%!+% /'* " (#- % $% 1 Watt) e. 4#"'$ $ % / #,# "% #/1#"% (',$ $ -/ ' / ) /- 1!/',, '+#/" «',1.1( "» # / - % (/ -% (/$"%, "/ ($! " "% +)"% "% /#$"% '+ "% % 1 %.1( "% */ '(#- */ (',8/% $ 1 (!( 1 9''$#/"!/',. /-!/1 - "/.1( " */ :"&/ '"&/ &% ( ) ',##..1( " " /" " */!*/ *%!- ( *$%, 1 */ '*/, -// $# ( *(."( ( ''(, -!(/ " 9 ", "/ ',1!/',.1( "%.,/&//%! '% / */ ##/*#-/*/ ##&/ (bits), "!1 " */ '-8, -! " $ 9 "!+"% #,-." #,'1 $ % $#/% ( (-% ( 1# ( ( (-% #81%.1( "% -!(/!" #1 #,/" #- ( / ($ -',! /$% '(,+ ( 1#% */). 0,#%!/,",$%#,/"$% %.- #% 1#!8 /* $ 5 &% / #- $, # ',1 ( (1.1( "%. #+.*" / #- 1 ($'. ($ "#/ $ # +' /! "/ " " ( computing # % $/%, 1 '(#-. (1 "!/', / 9 #-/" "/!/-% *-.' 1% (!1 " /% / "% "'1% /-,% $*% % -% /%) ',1%.1( "% $,( (PVHS) /./ ),1, #/+#/ #-. ',-% ( (-%.1( "% / # '1 ',1, ( 1# ( - / -!(/ "

256 ,1," (! -' ", "/,1 "/ /,*,1 "% :"1% $/% 1!(, (:"'1% (.#$ "% (/'',1-), % ( "#*/ (- ",1," $ 9 " %."(#-/% '"%)!#"'$ $ %. 1#, " ',1!/', / $*% -/ '/ -#" /,*., (''-,/% "/ #1, -/ '# ( ($! / #% -/ /- 9''/ '"%. '' $'% (/=-%!/-% )')% " //',1./ "% ',%, / / - #$/ (% / -!(/ ".- " "% + %!/',% ( " /, "'/-% '"% +/. < $,//$*%!&%.1( "%, $ '( $", $ '#1% $" / " 9 " #-/*/. #81.1( " 8 (/1.*% *% #- (/1" "% */,#-/*/ '"&/ */ (', &/,, "/ $#/"!1 " 1 "/ /" ". '"% -!(/, -/ ',#-/ #- / ( 1 1!"#1 " (!(/ '') ($ "/ 1 "% /-,% "#*/ (1 /*/,:#%). '',#-/" " -/ #- #/"#$/( "% -! # "/,*,1 "% ''"'"%!1 "% #% 1 $&/ $ %!" -% $"-% ( (.#1,!"#1, "'1, #,/"1, ' 1, 1,.'.). /,/* " */."(#-/*/ '"&/ ''"&/ # "/ /'":" "% '',#-/"% "%!" #&/% # ''"'"!/1, 91 # */ '"&/ (,!/!" #&/% - #- $*% "', #,/" 1, #$/ (% ''"' (/( #$. (/$" /."(+/ / (9'".+/ ), '"% # (% /-(% $(% / ( 1 "/ $ "% /.*$"%. $ / $*,($ ( #- * ( +( ( Gutenberg(, ( + ( 1#% Dewey ', " ',1!/',, "%.1( "% '"&/ / '+"%, $' $ +/.!/',, "#/ /*/ ( 1#. +,!/" 1#" / ' (/#-/" "/ ), '"&/ # "/ (! # #1 (#9* "%. "#/-% $ -!(/ -: "/.1( ", "/ /" " "/ ), / $*/ '"&/, % " (/-!, 91." / /,,(/ % -% ( 1."/, % -* $(%. $ -" -!(/ 99& # "#/1 +)" " "/ "'/1! " */ '"&/. (,,#-/ '' + '"&/ (.*1."/ /',, $*% $/% 1!%, (9''/ ), &!" #+/ # :"1 #1. (1 " $% -!

257 # % (% '1 %, '" ( 1# (, / '+:(/ '+ % /,% */!" &/ '"&/ - /! +/ % '"% '(#- */ $ ( $ ' #$. 0''-% 9#"!/%, #)+ */ */ (1 */ '(#- */, :!/(/ /($#/, % /-% /''-% '+ % -!/ ( 1#.1( 1% (%,.&% % 9 % #-/*/ (%, /& 1 %.1( "%,// #,'+% #,'+% %3'13/!/) 4,"%*/) * 414!-& $#" / $ (% &(% #+% "'/+% (', -% #/ " 1951 (# UNIVAC) " #81.1( ", / #$" $ "#/ $(, 1/ # /,". $ #- (1800», % 1 */!" #1."/, / -!(/ "/,*,1 (% $*(% (', -% ''% #"!/-%. - " ( '40!" #1."/ / *'1/%, "/.1( " #-! ', ", /&/ ( "1 $ 9 ")! / / /. +/ % % 1 */ %!-% "% % ( '50. -",$, #,/" +#/ #/ "/, 1957, &% '"$% % 1!." *% ( $ ( Ramac 350 "% IBM. & '" ((! -' ") 1/,&% 9 "/ (% /+% (', -% %, % #/(', &/. / " ( *+ / %!-% "% % ( '80 '') $' (, /,,-''/% "/,*,1 */ #$*/ '"&/ */,.*% "% -% #,/"-% /%!" #" / #,-% (', &/ -% (!" #1."/ ( 1# video-!/&/. "/ /()" ( *+ (', 1 $#*% "/ #/ " */ '(#- */, 1." #,'+".1( " '"&/. CD-Rom 1!." 8/% "/ -/" "#$", "/ /$" ( (#-! 650 ), ", "/ $" (#,-% #-,.%. #- #/"#$/( "%, " #81.1( " '#9/(/ (% '"+% (%, % -%, " flash memory, (% +% (%, (% #,/"-+% (%, " #,/"1 /, " #/1#" (#/*/, "/ ("#-/" # "1 #"!/1 / ( (/1.*% +%) "/ ',1 #/1#" (#1)

258 2.2.2 % &#!/!& 41*$'& / / '+, / (/"1 /% $ (-% -//% / *+(/ '1.% */ ''"' */ /.&(-(', 1 ( $ /$#% /1 % -!(/ /(!.,!$/, #$/ ( &!8(/ / / + ". (-% -//% / *#&// % '+% /-% #,-% (', &/, %. 1 (/ #1 " "/, $'*/ */,,'#&/ /*/% " ( '90. / (1/ (1% "% / "% */ '(#- */ / "!(//1 #$ " $ ('1% '"% #- - (#'#9/#-/( (,,(, "% *,1% /%, */ ( &/ &/ "% #,/"/%- % 9 #-/% (', 1 #& % /*/ */ #- */. ($ ''"&/ #- * ($ ( /#8(# :"" " (:"1 /',1 #'',1), " ' $ #!"# #$ $'*/ */ &/ '"&/ -/ #$# + "# 9 #-/ + $(%, ( :" 0 1, % % (/$"% */ (/ #&/ (%. (1 "!/1 -! - # #$ ",#% " 9#"!/ "'/1%, #-/( $ - "./1 " (#9$" */ &/ &/ '"%. 1!%, 9/, #/,/ # :"1 #1, -'// - #- * */ :"&/ #-*/ /*/%, /,/*8(/ - #"/+# *% ## "% '"% % (% ( -% -% #-%. "/, "/ :"1 +,' " $#*%,,## '(#- */ &/ /* -/ #,' $!$(.1( "%: 0( 10 -*% % " #,'"!*"$" ( $ '' (#9 -,,.. ($' "% '1(% /" "%, '1% :""#-/, "/.$/" 9/,,#%!/, 30 ' */ "'&/ '"&/,. ' -/ #,# "%.1( "% (', &/. ($ #8 ( 30 #,# '"% / ($', gigabyte / '$ ( '-%!/-% (# "% #+/ / -(/ 12 M-byte / '$ ( 9/). "/,#$", '(#- " $'(." '"##+ */ #-/*/ -!(/ ()1 #-% /" (!%, "/.1( " (', &/, $ (.+/ =$/ "'/1% '"%. (1/ "/ (1 ".1( " -! $ + 9 +% +(%."+ "%:,/"$% %.1( "% $% %.1( "%

259 2.2.4 &/!"2) 70"4) 4,"%*/) (+ #-/" ( (1 (+( %.1( "% / 1# #,/"$% %. ($ '#9/ (% '"+% (% % #/+#/% -%. ",$% '"&/ */: ", '"&/ */ / $ /$% +% ( (1%.1( "%!!#"'$ $ %, "/ (:"'1!+" "! #,'"!*"$" (%. '"."+(/ /+/ :"! #,:# "% '"% *% #,/"&/ (#/ */, -// # ( /+/ # -/ #,/" )/, $ ('$. 3/% #,/"$% % *% %/'$. /& # '1 /,/* "%-,1% ',$ $ 100 nm /* $ #,/"$ &# ( (. '1,! $ / # "/ ',1 /$% #,/"+ ( (,, 98! # "/ /'":" */ '&/ '',&/ #,/"$. '"%."+/ #$/!(' 1 % #-%. $ " /$% '"+ ( #- $ +! 1: 1. /!$/ $ 9 ", % / "#/$ ( $ (!$/( ( /,/ -! (! -' " # #/ */!*/ #-/*/, 2. $ #%, /.#$% :"'-)*/(bytes) ( / ($' # / 9 $ 1 /, # #/ (.!$/% $ 9 "% ) $ "/!+" /81" "% ( #"!/ #+ /" "% "% '1% "/ 1!+" ( (. O!" $%!/$% $ -' "% / #)+ % 10 20ms. $ #% #-/*/ ) -/ #,' #-% $ "/ /- (/$", /.#$ ##&/ ( '#9// / / */ #- */, "/ 1!+" ( (.!" #% #-/*/ / 4 -*% 16 MB/s.,# #&/ #/% ( / $ 25 / 1 / #,#, /', # "/ /$", #-,.% / ( 1. ( 1#.1( "% '"&/ */ ( +/, % #,-% '(#- */ /.- #, -(/ % (:"'-% /$"%,!" /* $ 1 G (#$%, 1993). -%: -% -!/ # + +!1#, 5.25 (% (% 3.5 / &/ !." / $ "/ Shugart Associates 1976 (!" /,1, #/+#/-+#/ #-, / *$ /, -*% 1981 $/ 1,, " Sony!1#% 3.5 / &/ ( 1/, /* -!$/ $ / #/+#/ #- #/"#$/( "%, *+% / #+/ / 1 (/ 2.88 */!*/. 0'/1#: #,/" -(/ # " $ 9 "! (#/1#" (!% -' "%). ($ (% /,",$(% $ (% ",+% /&/,,#%!/, % -!(/ % #/1#%!1% 1 "1% $ -' "%. (1 "!+" - "/ /()" */ (.% +/#-/*/ ( "#*/ '"&/. -(/ "% % ''"')1 % #)+ */ #-/*/ (!8/!.1( "%. - # / / #,1-/"#* "!*/ (update) / '') ''! (,!$/*%. % $(% "/!/',

260 '(!$/, $ #,'% ( gigabytes) ',$ 9-% ( (-% / &.- #%. /1#: / ('* 9''/ #,/"-% #9'-%. /& / #$ /+ 1 /.&/ #'' # / '- (/ 9 8"# "/ '1 /,/* "%-,1%. +/ -/.$.$ 9''/ !"2) 70"4) 4,"%*/) 3/ '-8!" #, / : # '&# (% (%. ( '&#!" #+/, /."+ (/ % #,'% $"% */!*/ (#'#9/#-/*/ */ $/*/, ( 1!( */ '1*/ /1 */ 9/.! / $ #!#"'1%!+% / '-8. (/".-,/* -% -% ( (-% -%.1( "% / CD- Rom, #,/"-, DVD % Blu-ray. CD-Rom: CD-Rom / #$/ /,/* "% ( #+/ / 1 (/ ( '% ( #-/( 1 ( #-/*/,!$/ 300 -% (1 #% -% (:"'1% (/$"%. /.- # #$/, /,/* " #/1#"(ROM) (,8,,#-/" /.! #+/ #$/ / /".+/ '' / #"/.+/ 1 / #"/.+/. / "%.- # Write Once Read Many (WORM) ( -!" #"#-/"!!*/,/ 9 ''-% -% #-''/. #- "%% ( '90, # /) ( &/ /-() " +",/ ( + (, DVD. $% % "%,/% /+!." , & -, /"#,( 9,1/ (% blu-ray / +/ ( blu-/ " ' -// (:('1% (/% $'# )*/ &/ */ -// -/ /,*/ $!1#, HD DVD. 3/% ("#-/% % blu-ray # / 1 ( 25 G */!*/, -/ DVD, 4.7 G, CD ( 700.,/"-1.1( ": 3/ #,/"-$ + "# #8 # # '1 /" " / %, '' /!+ /-."/ *% «-%» ( /. $.$ '"$, #+/ /.+/. #,/"- ( 1# (/(8(/ +!/',%: " #,/"1 "/ 1. #,/"."+(/ % '"%, 98/ $ -/ '*#-/ '-8 ( /!/+ #,/" #$. M.O. -(/ (:"'1 /$" ), '' / /"$ $ (% ",+% '"&/ */ 1 ( 1# % */. 0-!(/ "% ",1," $ 9 " #" (.% +/ "!*/ / -/ '/-"# (%!1 % '(#- */ ( #/ - / #-(/! $ -/ + "# -/ '' 1 /!" #1 (/ #,'!

261 0'/1#: $% % -! " (/$" /."+ % #,'% $"% */!*/ -/ #$ "#. - $#! / #-/ +' ''%.- % -/% "% (:"'1% $"%.1( " ( 1!( ( 9/. /1#: /,/* "% #$/!" $,/& # ( CD-Rom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

262 2.2.6 /."2) 21%$4) *5/1) %*"(0&) #-.1( "%!*/ / # #1 (!"#-/" * "..!$/ *'+/ ##+,,:# /,,:# $' / $ #!$/.,-/ (!-/%(', 1% # -// ",$ CD-ROM 1 CD-R. "# "#-/!- "% 9#"!/;!/(/ #''/ =$/ DVD /,,8(/ % /$"% '" / 100 G -/ #%!*/ / (9/(/ 300 Mb/s. -% (:"'-% /$"% (,!// # "!" #" " '+ (:"'+.#"+ /,#% (numerical aperture-na) 1%,%,! /,/* "%!,,1% /* / $. #' '-8 (,!/(/ #,-." "'*/ #&/ /*/ #$#*/, ( -!(/ "/ /$" /."+/ ( 25 G #-/*/ / &#. (,##-/ - &#, +. '(, ()/ " (/$".1( "%!$/ 100 G /. / 9'& (/ -*!*"$"% #%, % ',-% /.- #% (#'#9/#-/*/ "% +)" "% ( NA - $ 0,85, "% #* "% ( #1(% +#% * $ 400 NM, 1 "%.1"% $*/ *#*/ /. <' /* $#*% ( 8(/ "#/ #$. $.% 9'& % NA +/ /"$ '$ ( 1#, -/ $. -% 40-50% NA, ( ", ' #$ "%!*"$"%. /+ '-8 #1(% +#% / / #.- # +/ (' ( / /1 * $ 400 NM. +)" " (.#+ *#*/ /+ "% + '", '(% '$,(%, "#/$% ( / " '('$" "% #,1%, #-, "/ 1,,!$ #"!/$ + "#, "/ /#1 "/ ". 9#"!/, #-/*%, -! (/1 % /-% #.$(%, "/ /()" */ &/ #- */.1( "% #-/*/, /* $ 100 G /. + '$ (:1%!/',% /,1 //+-#- " ',.%,, % "%,1% //+-#-, NA "% 1%,%,/ #,'+ $ -/, # (/- " '+ #1 "' / )/# % % -,, "% ',$ $ 100 NM. /,#". ($. - " 1 '1 / 9 '+ / /,#. + '" "/ (') */ #- */. "# "% / / / $ $, ( " /1,,+" #)+ "% 1% '1% ( (, (. removability */ #- */ ( '$, #-/( $ #,/% ''* "% ( #- ( #+/ / '- (/ % #9'-% #)+ */ +. '/1# "%,1% //+- #- / " (/$" ()"% ) (:"'&/ &/ (/1*/, '' % 9% "% #"!/1% '('$"% # #$" (/$" '',1% "%,,##-/"% '"% #)+ */ ''*/. 0% &/, / 9-9 /. '!. $ "/ 1 9#"!/.1( "% ",1 //+-#- 1 " ',.&%

263 !/',% '+/ -// /-/. +#*/ # "/ " ', #,-% all-solid-state #/1#"% -! ) +/#(%!$/(% $ 9 "%, /(8/% ' # #,'! # I/O ( (! #)+ "% solidstate memory */ '"&/ */, '+,$" $ " #*/ "/ $ " */ ( "#*/.3 ',-% #/1#%. #+/ / /,*/ +/ % 1" (!( % ( (% #,/"1%.1( "%. ',-% #/1#%. #+ / "% /!" #".+/ % #,'% 9 % #-/*/ / ('+/(/ "/ $"! " */ 9 */ */ "% /#)"% #-/*/ $ ''+%!1 %. ', '$/ $ $ / / # '( 1 -,, ", #''/ ( 1#.1( "%

264 2.3 ; $ '' -" -(/% /()"%, " ',1.1( " ( "%,/* 1 *% $,%-',$%-.1( ") / ' $.( /,/ #,#$". -% $ % *1 %, "/ ', ( -!/ / #%!'1 (/ #- *% /!" #+ (/ *% # '1 " /: / -/ '$,##; &% " ', '(,; $ ',## " ', '."/ $ Dennis Gabor (-/%,//"#-/% "/ (,, ( $% /"1% 99( $#', "%,/* $% *% -% "% ',%) '-)% «'%» ''"/, «+/', '$'"» «,##» "#/,:#! "%,1% (#$8). "/! '', /+%,,##!" #1." "% *%.#$% 1 + "#, " #-" " */ &/ /$ */, $*% " '-)" «!'$,##», " / "#/ # 9% '' "/ /$" ( #&/ $!'%,##. 3 / «,##» (/+ "/ /$" «holos», +/', " '-)" «'$,##» "#/ "/ /$" ( (/$'(.&% "% "/ '"$" "% /$"%. +# '$/ / +# $% «',» /- "/,1 '$'""% "% '"% H 414(.0 Dennis Gabor 1/ &% ( 1( "/ ', 1948.&/% / 9'& "/ $" */ $/*/ "'/&/ # */. "/ ',, + (/% /%, # ' / /% ''" / / '+#/*/ "#*/ (( 8 $ /#/),, / #&!- -#9 "%. +*/!- -#9 "% -! +% % '"% "% ( /#-/(. -/ " (!( -#9 "% # /, # "/.-" " /$% ''"'( *(."( #- ( ("'., *,$ lm 1 photorefractive + '') "/!1 "% -#9 "%. ($,##-/!- 1,'*#.*( /- *% '$,##.,##-/ '$,## $/ *8 $ "/ / /% #.' *% "/ +.(/ " "% /% /#-/(..'#-/" / -! % + '"% "% +(% "%!1% /% /#-/(. & "% ',%, #$/ # /!" #1.", / * /#/ '#.($% +% ',##% '1.",/ Gabor +% 1 (.+,## '$,##. 3/ #/-"# ( ',##% Gabor-+*/ 1/ $,# / #1# $/% /"#(,1."/ ($!/ #1% "% % +.(/ "% # " 99. /

265 /%. ', ( Gabor " % /% '# (!" #+/ -// '#1 $)*/ (,+( *% ",1 *$% ',##!/ % 9'& % # )-/" (#" $/. 9&% $*% "/ * " NLO, 1/ #$/ # $ "/ + " ( '-8 $ "% ',% )'1!. Leith Upatnieks 1962 $// -/!-, / /.# (/ "/ +.(/ " "% * "% "% /% /% #-/( /!* +/!&.- % */ /"#(,"#-/*/ $/*/. "/ 4" #" " "% $% )/!/1%, " $" */ /"#(,"#-/*/ $/*/ /$% ( /#-/( 9'&." (. *1, (% 1," "/ (" " */ )' #&/ (!" #1."/, / /(/ ',##. ''" "#/1 $% "/ ', )"% #/ " 1968 $/ Stephen. Benton -"( "/ "-' ', # "% /& (/+ "/ ',1 "'$ " (/", 1 Polaroid. '($ '+ '$,##. #+ / /#*.!" #&/% # (/". #-/" (*#-/" '# *$%. " "#/$" "% + "% Benton 1/ "!/1 +* "% /,'( ( 1," " #81,*,1 */ ',##*/. (*#-/ /,'( ',##!" #+/ & $ " 1# ", "/ - ", % 8-% 9#"!/%, (% '-,!(% '%.' (.0!2$4* ( 2"4*) '$,## (."+" % '-% *,-% /% 1/ (! + ( #/1#. '!%, '$'"" " (!"# #+ ',##*/ " $#/" /()" 1/!/9$%, - /. #+ /!" #". 1 #,1,#+!$/(.-(, " + " #"!/&/ '/ #% ( ',##% (," " '1 / / ( 1) ",*/1 '$"..* "% 1%.1( "% '"&/, # $ V/1 3 (/$"%, -." #$% / van Heerden 1963, % -. *% "# $ ",1 (!( #9 */ #- $ #- # /!" #". *% #-, "/.1( " '"&/ "/ /" ". -% 1968, Chen ''. $// " (/$"!" #" "% ( LiNbO3 *% #- #/"#$/( "%. $#/ -", " ',1,1 /,/* "!." "% '' *.' ('. /. $ *,$ '#, "-#(" '$" Bragg "/ ', $,(, - "/.1( " "/ /" " */ ''' */ ',##*/. (/-, " #,'"!*"$" '"&/ # / ()". '+ $ "/ ', $,(. $ "/ /$" " #&/!" &/ "% ',% /. ",!8 " 1" " #&/ $ % ''% 9 -% -% #)+ "% ',% "% *,%.!1/, - / '9(# $, / '1 # " *,, '$,## / / # $/ " ', / / & #!/1 (1% $/%. 3/ '$,## / ( "8 "/,*,1 #% $/%. ($ ( /,# / 9&% / ' " '(, /$% +, #$/ / )/.' " *% # -//

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abor "! / ()1 "/! 1 /$" */ "'/&/# */. 999#-/% # $#' ( $% -) ".* ( $! # # - #" "'/*/ '' # # ' (#" (/1) / *$%. -' # 1/ & '$,## ( -,/ -. $* ',## 1/ (/,/* '' #'+/."/ # ''-% -'% 1 Gabor /! " * 1 ",1 *$%, / /., 1 ',## $*% #+# 1#. ($ / -/% $ (% '$,(% ( " /'(:1 ( / #1." '1*% #-! " ( '60 $/ 1!." & '-8, #-/( $ ',## #$ / /,#".+/ #$/!" #&/% (# $ *%. $ $, " ', -!,/ # $ % /&% /-( % ''-%!/-% # % % "!/', -!!- ", ''&/ " :" / &./1 /,/ )!1 #" ''-% /.&/%.%, / /) -// (+ /- 8/, #-''/. '+ ",1 "% ',% / ",1 # '-8. '' '$,, " ', / "!/', "%,1% */ '"&/ (##1% (*/$ +#),*,1 */ /"#(,"#-/*/ (##&/ $ /% %,-%.! */ '"&/

267 (##1% ' '$,##. 1 /$#/ "% (##1% $*% #+# 1 ( +# / (:1, "/ #,1 */!&/ "% ',%. /,: -/ '$,##, # / '-8 /!* #-/" + /%,. # -'/ #1% #%!* 1% % $.-%. /, " / /#-/(, *8 /#//" "/1 (,. +" /, " / /%, (.+/,*/*%, /! % % / (,( # *% ( /8$#/( /#/( $ "/ / /#-/(. / $ / * (# ' /#/$ #% # " / '-8 / (# # *,, $#.,# #$/ % -% / % *$% ( /#-/( /.!# (''9 1 '", " " */ */&/ (#*/ # $ "/ /1" " $ /#/. $ " / /% #/ " #- ". ",1 /%. #% -: /,:(# " "% ( */+ +#% / (''9(# - % '"% ( -!(/ % 8*1% "# % % 9.% ( /#-/(. #1 #- (,1%, $*% " /, -/ *-.' $ '(#-% &# 1 -/ + '', # 9/#. $ "# "% -#9 "%.!- -#9 "%,. <*% /-." /, * #$% - / ''"*. # *% /$% #$/ #1(% +#%, $*% '-8,, / "#(,1 -/ 9-%!- -#9 "%. /. # $/ ",!' ( #,-.(% ( -(/ # 1#" '#/", -'//%. -/ #$/ +#. <( +# '+(/, (! -#9 ". $ +# (8(/ -/ '' ()", '' (&/(/ -/ '' -)*. ($ /$ *%!-.*( */!" &/ -#9 "% ( /#-/(,. *%, ( -! -/ #,# #"&/ +#% (!' + #,-.(%), / (! /-/ 9-%!-.*( ( "#(, $/ #9/(/ /%. </ / /(,#-/, "/ * " "% /%,!- -#9 "% /,, # " & " ( # # / '-8, ( /"#(, " "/1 1 /#/. / "#(,".+/ ',## ( #/8/ / /+/, $*% / (!" #+/ " 1# ",.-#. # 1 ' ( -.&%.-# ",/ '$'"% % /1 % (. $/% (''#9// *% -8% -%,, ''"*#-/ =$/, /-% 8&/% ( ',##% ( 8/.1,. -/% #.-# # '&% 1.- ". 1#, #+# / +# ',##, % % $/%, % *-% %, "#$ -,,, '+:% &/,.- % -!/"%. $# $#*% (1 " #/1 #-.%,1% "% '"% # '-8 - " 1#" "% ',% - -! ''-% $% #,-% 9#"!/$ $ # / $.( / '') 8 "/!/',.1( "%!*/ #-/*/ ' $ "/ )-(#

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ompact- Disk (CD) :"$% ( # % % (DVD) -!(/.& #-! & / )("1 (/ % "% 1 % /". /+%, # /''1 -,, " 9 #-/" "/!/',.1( "% $,( # / )("1 '+, % #''/-% /,% ) % "% '+ #,'"% (/$"%.1( "%!*/ "% (>1 Tbits/cm3) */ ),1,*/ &/ #% #-/*/ (>1 Gbits/s). -(/ "/ ',1.1( "!*/! -'" % ( '60!-% "% % ( '70. $ "/ 1 1, " /()" ( ',+ ( 1#%.1( "%!*/ / / '+ */1. 3/ #,' #-% (+ # /. "/ -'':" ($'(/ "% */!/',&/ (.!., ''"'" ",1 '-8,1% ('1, #/!*#1 # "/ /"1 +/#", 2 $% (/.-"% '*/, -% /!/(&/) "/!1 ". $/ # $ "/ #/ " "% "'/1% */ 9#"!/&/ - "%, " /'*1,, (,-% )% ( ''(!*#-/% (/#-/% ( (-% -,// +'.- #%. '(% - % % ',!/% '+(/ (%!-% "% -(/% ( ),/ "/ ',1.1( "!*/. "#/-% (/ -% '#9/(/ -,,, ".*"1 /'( ", /-%!/-%, ( #!- ( "#*/, /-% '''-%!/-%, #,1 ( /'+ & #$* "%, /()" */ /-*/ ('&/.1( "% + "# " 1 #$* " *+(

269 (1/ "/ /-!/',,!,.' + '' *% ',##. 1 $' ',## -!(/ "/ /'":", % % $/%, /./&% " / )",". 9&% "#/ % (% $(%.1( "%!*/. ($!, *% / 1 */ «"#» % % '%, # % '% ( *(#-/% " # /* "/ ''" #- -/ *(." + ''. " ( &( " */ '*/ "#(, "/ " "..1( " */!*/ $' / $, ( #- (,1% / #$/ "/ / / -/ $ +!" '/1# "% ',1%!/',%.1( "% #-/*/. + '' #%!"#1% -/* "% '+#/"% $/-9-niobate!" #+/ (!/$ *% #-,1% 1 (/(8(/ "/ (:"'1 (." # " (:"'1!+". "'/!- /&/ ( "#(,+/ $ "/ -#9 " + /*/ '-8!" #+/,/ "#(,1 (/ ',##. ""! «!». + * #%!. $ 9 ( 1#, *% $ # ",1 '-8 / #- * /$%.+ " /*/ ( "/ / /!*/ / -#9 "%. / /%.!" #". ', / "#(,1!- -#9 "%. (.+/ # ( '#9/ -// - $'* "% -/ + "# 1% '-)- "% (li, 1994). (.+/ # ( '#9/ -// - $'* "% -/ + "# 1% '- (.(/ $" "%. /!*/, ' -(, / #- -/ $ + "# ( / "/ / (+ ( ' «(/.-"% '*/»(page composer), #$8 *%!*$%-*$%-#*1% (spatial-light-modulator)slm. :"$! 9'' "/. /!" #&/% SLM. $/% #/8/ *% / 1 ' "# /', # "/ ) */ :"&/!*/. $ (/.-" '*/, " /!*/ #-!" #&/% "/ 1 #!"# #+ (-. $, 8 " #1 ( ''" (. 1 '$,##. ($ "# " /!*/ " / /% /&// ', # +/!- -#9 "% *-.' $ ('$. ($ " (/-!, % -% $"% ( ('+ ( ( ''( # -/ "'/$

270 !- /&/. 0''' ',##."+/ -/ / + '' # "/ '',1 "%,*/% "/ /% -!/ + ''. / +' /,/* "%, /' (+, " /!*/ '/, -/% #$/ "/ / /% / + ''..- " "% /% /%.8 $ % (,"#-/% '% % /,/* ". / *8,'*# 1!- -#9 "% ( /."(#-/ (1/ "/.- ", # (/- "/ /"#(, (!+ */(-- /+!( "#*/.!- 98 $ # charge-coupled ( (1 ( #- / */ "# )/ :" "'/!. ',1!/', (, /*-*,.* $ ''+% " 9#"!/ *% /1, "/ #,1.1( "% (', &/, $*%, "!1 " "/ :"1 high definition TV, 9/, / 1!. /## '/"#*/ "% ',1%.1( "% / ) +/#!$/ $ 9 "%, ',$ $ 50, ),1,,*,1% ),*,1%, ( (9/(/ 10 Gb/s,.&% "% % % /$"% /81" "%, "/ + " "% unindexed '"% % 9 % #-/*/ ( (9/(/ 100 Gb/s, '+,1, $ -!/ ( 1#.1( "% #,/"&/ */. ( '/1# +(/ $ "/.1( " */!*/ #.- " ($ #1 '*/!*/ ( -!(/ % /%!'% */ bits. all-solid-state #/1#"%. #+ / -! gigabytes '"% 1 #($', / - /8"1 % */!" &/,/* #*/ "/ /,/& "% $/%!*%. '' '/1# "% ',1%.1( "% -!(/ (/1 % -(/% /()"% (1% "%!/',%. < '' ',##!" #+/, #- - / -!(/ ",#1.$",!#"'1, (:"'1 (.", "/,1 - / / +' "/ (1 (%. 9 ( $*% (/.-"% '*/ (composer) " /!/(&/ /,/* "% - / / (:"'1% $ "%, "'1 / -!(/ #,'.#$ $ pixels / -!(/,1, ' */ ( frame rates).#$ ( /!'% frames / ($', % '% ( -!(/ /%!'% bits. (." ( /!/(1. - / / (:"'1, #-/( $ " /$. " */ ',##*/ #&/ "/ -/ " */.'&#/*/ '*/!*/ $/ $' $% '%."+/ "/.- ". < ()/ "!*"$", $ #/ 1# /,/* "% & (! # $'" ", "/ 9' " " "% $ "% */ ( "#*/

271 /## '/"#*/ "% ',1%.1( "% / ) +/#!$/ $ 9 "%, ',$ $ 50, ),1,,*,1% ),*,1%, ( (9/(/ 10 Gb/s,.&% "% % % /$"% /81" "%, "/ + " "% unindexed '"% % 9 % #-/*/ ( (9/(/ 100 Gb/s, '+,1, $ -!/ ( 1#.1( "% #,/"&/ */. ( '/1# +(/ $ "/.1( " */!*/ #.- " ($ #1 '*/!*/ ( -!(/ % /%!'% */ bits %4&%"!$!!& 414(."-& $&/$-& 418 *5/1!+8!/! &#&/)-(.)!+8!/!: /' #-/" % " ' + " */ ',&/ #/"#&/ -!, /,/ 1 /&/ ''"', "'., # '$'"" '!*/ ( '#9/ - $ ##+ bit # /, 1 / 9 ($!/. ($ / " (/$" #% #-/*/ / / '+ (:"' $*% 1 Gb/s. /., " 1 (##- ) /,/* ",1!*/ / % % % (#9-%#/1#%/ / '+ $,-%. (4(4) +(2&4) (26/): ",#-/% ',-% #/1#%. "8/ " #/" " "% '% /%!" #&/% '+,1,% ( (-% $*% deflectors 1,'9/$# ( 1%. (-% ( (-% -!(/ / '+ +/#!$/ $ 9 "% " 10 #s 1 ms. '-/, ",*/ #% /% /% # / (.# #, / 9 -/ (,#-/ '$,## $ -// *$!'*/ ',##*/!*% "/ /," #% '(.%. (#9 ( 1# #/"#&/,!$/% $ 9 "% '! $ "/ / ( ' $ " ( 1 /" " "% '1% /,/* "%-,1%. 5/1 *"&2!/!: ',1.1( " # /,: #-! '%!*/ / $#.. " '!*/ # / -! # /$" - $ -/ ##+ # / '. 9''$#/" (/$"!*/ "%.1( "% $,( / $ (:"'1 $*% 100 # #s 2, (9/ # "/ (/$" (#9 (.!., 2.5 ##s 2 DVDs) #- #/"#$/( "%. *10 %&#&!!4,2(*64: % (#9-% ( (-%.1( "% $*% '"$% % floppy, CD 1 DVD,. ##!*/ -! # #/1.- " "/ / ( #- (

272 - ##!*/ # / / *(. $ # 1 '',1 % *#1% $"% ( #- (. 1 8"# #- # / '- -/ #'"" &'!( $ (-% %.- %. % ',-% #/1#%, / (! -/ % -/ /! #)+ ( ##+!*/ "%.- "%.1( "% #-.,,/1% + " ( ',##% - % '"%,. ##!*/, / /#".+/ $' / $,,1% ( #- (. 1 -' #- # / '- " #1 #* " ( 1#% "/ /', '' '"% #+/ $# / /".+/. *&%($" &#"!//: / (/$ / # +/ #-%!(-% /-% /$"% /81" "% 9 #-/% % -%!/-% (! #+ % ',-% #/1#%. / ',## '('-/ -/ #-, $/ " $".' "% /$% /"#(,"#-/( ',##% ) $ "/ #$" #)+ "% /% /,/* "% */!&/ /*/,1%. " (/#1 /" ",-/% *$% */ ',##*/ *8 $ # / /,/* "% ( -/ $( /81" "%. 3/!- 1 $( /81" "% '#9/ # #1 # "%!1% $/% ( $ / /8"". #)+ */ ',##*/.. '$,## )/.' " $ ( *$% "/ +.(/ " "%!1% /% /%. +/#". #% /"#(,"#-/"% /% / /'," % 9.#$ (! #+ #)+ (!( /81" "% (!#-/( "% '%..' #-/*/ /*/ # 8 / /8 /* / /!/(1 CCD, "/ -* ),. / (:"'$"% -/ "% /!!+"# /81" "%. #-/( $ (! #$% ', " ''"'" '(, /81" "%,/ ),1,".!" $,/& # / #/$ % ',-% #/1#% / -! /-/ /', (/". #-/ + "#.1( "%!*/. all-solid-state #/1#"%. #+ / -! gigabytes '"% 1 #($', / - /8"1 % */!" &/,/* #*/ "/ /,/& "% $/%!*%. '' '/1# "% ',1%.1( "% -!(/ (/1 % -(/% /()"% (1% "%!/',%. < '' ',##!" #+/, #- - / -!(/ ",#1.$",!#"'1, (:"'1 (.", "/,1 - / / +' "/ (1 (%. 9 ( $*% (/.-"% '*/ (composer) " /!/(&/ /,/* "% - / / (:"'1% $ "%, "'1 / -!(/ #,'.#$ $ pixels / -!(/,1, ' */ ( frame rates).#$ ( /!'% frames / ($', % '% ( -!(/ /%!'% bits. (." ( /!/(1. - / / (:"'1, #-/( $ " /$. " */ ',##*/ #&/ "/ -/ " */.'&#/*/ '*/!*/ $/ $' $% '%."+/ "/.- ". < ()/ "!*"$", $ #/ 1# /,/* "% & (! # $'" ", "/ 9' " " "% $ "% */ ( "#*/

273 . 2 #$# * &! ( 90 ), #% # " #%

274 2.6 (+!%"!4&"') 14(.") 4,"%*/)!/1 */ ',&/ ( "#*/.1( "%.8 -/ #,' #-% $ / + #- (,1%. /$, ', ('.1( "%!*/ +/ + ",%, ( 1# 9 #-/ ' (#-% /% #$#!(%) *(.",/ #-! (#!' -*% ), /$,/ *.' + ''.! + '' */ *.' &/ (photorefractive) #- */ / /, ",*#,1% "/ # / /% /#-/( / ( #-., $*% /!- 2.!" $ photorefractive + '' (!" #, / (/1 (1/ "/ #$* " / iron-doped niobate '.(. / '-8 /!* #-/" + /%, # / /% # / /#-/(.! (&// "/ / /#-/( #- * /$% (/.-" '*/ 1 SLM. /% /% /#-/( (,/&// (/(8/ #-,1%. #- / *(." -/ '$,## "%,..3 ## *!! # "!. "/ '',1 "%,*/% "% /% /%, /% ',## #+//.+/ # (,#-/".- " ( #- (. "/ * " */ + /*/ /* #- ) (/'$% $,%,1%. *8/% ## / / /%, " /!" '!*/ / " /!/(&/. - ( 1# (-!(/-!/% '+!#"'+%!$/(% $ 9 "% -!$/ #&/ */ #('-*/- ),1,*/ &/ /" "%!*/ ( (9/(/ 10 Gb/s,.&% "% all-solid-state #,-%!*% /+#/ #-". #- / /,:# '"% #+/ / #/(/ #9'"%, %!$/, / $!, &/%. 9 " %.#'&% #1 %, " /$".1( "% / / % gigabytes,!$/,,1% / $, $ (%!$/(% /,/* "% # -*% + -%. 0'1" ( 1# )"% -!(/! $ / 1# ( //, CA, Siros, "/

275 Rockwell, Thousand Oaks,CA, *% #1# */ photorefractive ('&/.1( "% '"&/ (PRISM) */,##*/ */ ',&/ ( "#*/.1( "%!*/ (HDSS) /& (/"-% (# '$/%!/',%, 0 /-/ (Caltech, Lucent ''%,/& % $' / $ # -!(/ / "% )% ( "#*/. $, ''1, -! '. Caltech /* % -%!/-% 9 #-/% LiNbO 3. $, " # ( Psaltis Caltech " # Northrop -!(/ ) /',-%,-% #,'*/.#&/ ',##*/. ( 1# 9 #-/ '(#1 #8(/ # (#9 ( 1# DVD, ( -!(/ # 1, -// #/+#/!+ (0,5-1!'.) ',$ '(#1, # '1 1 '1, $*% /!- 3.,&#/" / /#-/( / /% / (/1% #-,1%. #- / -/ *(." '(#-% &#, ( #&!/ #)+ + ''"'*/ *,&/ '&/ #!% #&/ /*/ ##-*/. 4 #% ""! (a) (b)

276 %$%1-7%) '&&4%) !(. 414($$#!&: ',##,/!" #&/% # / /% # / "#*/ '#9//%!. <*% /!- 4 ()," / /% R "/ / "#*/ S (,+/, / "#o(,". -/!-.*(, #- #-. HDSSs,,##-/ '$,## '#9/!" " #1 /$% " 1 /$%,'&#% "%. <*% /!- 4 (9), " /,/* " ''"&/ # " & " ( ',##% $ "/!1 / /%, " )/.' " (,##-/( ',##%, /!. # / "#*/ )$(. +% "'&/ */ ( +#% /% "% / *+ *%: R 0 / +/. +%, ( /+ #% (#*/ "%!*1% "%. +% "'&/ */ ( +#% "#*/ "% / *+ #*% (1) + S0 / +/. +% / /( # (#*/. #9// /+ # (#*/ "#*/ /%,(/ -/,'*# # -/ /( # (#*/,'*#*/ ( / *: (2) (3) (1 "!- " / (/ #-/"! % "$ $! "$ #") +/ '$,## / $ $'(.,'*# &/:

277 "/ $ y / ", +.(/ " "% "% 7n / -/% +/.% (/' 1% ( / $ : (4) (5) ( n 1 / ". /',$"% ( (',8 "/ / " ( ('+ * #$ I 0 / (/'$% * #$%. $".' "% : $".' "% /$%,##-/( ',##% / $: ( L /!% ( #- (, / (/' 1% $" "% ( ('+, e R e S / '& % */ /*/ /% "#*/, /!. 0- / "#*. $ " $".' "% # / '" 100%,!!( ',##.! +/ ',##, # "/ #'"- $" ", " $".' "% # / / *(. *% : (6) (7)

278 E 1%"!"2!/! Bragg: ',## (,*/ -/('$ ( -! ( $!% /+(/ # $" " /#8 '$" Bragg. '$" Bragg "#/ $ ',## (,"/ # -/,,#%!/, /( # +#% /%!/ "/!($" $".' "% "/ /,/* " # "/ / /%.!1 / /% '$,##.*+/ /!" "% Bragg. </ /( # (#% "% /% /% /,/* "% / ( $, " $".' "% / "#/ ',$". /( # +#% "% /% /% # / '') $ "/ '',1 "%,*/% "% $ * "% 1 ( #1(% +#% "% /% /%, 1 */ +. '$" Bragg, #-/*%, - ''' ',## /,+/ -/ HDSS / $, ( #- (, 1 #$/ '$,## /!" "% Bragg "/ / /,/* "% /"#(, # "/ ( 1 $".' "%. <' '' #&// (. '$" Bragg / (/ #-/"! ( # Bragg "$! /( # (#*/ /*/ 1#% /( # (#*/ /*/ /% ( i,(/ -/,'*# ',##*/ ( -! /( # (#*/ K. -/ $ #-, /+ # (#*/ ( i -!(/ /.#$ (#*/, #-/*%, /-# " Ewald. 1!$ /( # (#*/ 1#% /% / /! "% Bragg, /( #$ $ 9 " Ewald. (8) +" / /% # /( # +#% ( j )/.' " /$%,'&#% # /( # +#% K, +/ /( #$. # - $ 1#,*,1% K

279 +" / /% / /, #-/*%, Bragg /!" "%,'*#, #-/*%, )./ (. (9) </ #1% +#% / ",*/ "% /% /% ''8, $*% (#9/, "/,*/1 '('), " '$" Bragg,,8 *% + / 9'1 / )/ sin(x) = sin( x) / x. (/-, " '$" Bragg # /!" $ -// '!!* #$ */ /( #*/,'*#*/ #1% ( )/, ( / $ (10) &% #"/$% "% (/" "% sinc '#9/ ($ /( #!* #+. #-/" '(1 - " ( #- ( 98 -// $# #$ / '!!* #$ */ /( #*/,'*#*/ / + y / )/, - & /! '! /+ #!* #+ // /! $, #- +:% H '% W, /!. </ ''','&# ',##*/,/, / ()1 (/ "/ /$" /$% #- (.1( "%, " '$" Bragg ", " "#/1 ',#! #)+ */ ',##*/. <*%. ( $#/ #1#, ',-%!/-%.1( "%!*/ -!(/ *% $,/ / '! 1 (/ (1/ "/ ',#! '$,* ( #-/( #,-.(% ( #- (

280 +. 7 $& #$ Bragg ',#! #)+ */,'*#*/ /,/,*# )&#/", - / ) (# "/ -// */ (' #-/*/,'*#*/, '+#/" (!/ degeneracies Bragg.!. 7 )", &% + 8(, */ /*/ 1#% /% ( i,( i ) ( j,( j ) #+/ /,:(/,'&# ( -!(/ 9&% /( # (#*/. (1/ "/ * ", 1 '"% (."+/!" #&/% ($ /( # (#*/ 9''/, ",&/% "/,( (:"'1 ',#!. '+ " ($ $9'"# / /! #!/1, /! "/ '(:",'*#*/. ',# '#9/(/,*/1 '(') 9 #-/" -/ +/' /*/ /% ( -!(/ (/ /+ # (#*/ '(') #1(% +#% # # / /% /' #-/" #.1 +.(/ ". (. (8"".+/ '#&% $#/ #1#. '$%!/-% -!(/., +/' /*/ /%.&% "% % *"#-/%, nonplanar /% /%. (/#1!1 : </ ''' ',##,/ -/ ('$, " (/#1!1 (,'&#% &/ #)+ */ ',##*/. (1 " (/#1!1!"8 $ -/ M#, 8 *% : (11) $( N / (/'$%.#$% ',##*/ n i / " $".' "% ( i ',##%. -/ /$ ('$, M# / /)" $ N, -// #,'.#$ '''&/ ',##*/. (1/ "/ * ", M# / $ "!- " :

281 .' ". ',##% / -/ + "# '(',#-/*/ ',##*/, #-/*%, / $: (12) (13) *,/0 *1"48 " 7%$#!&: 3/ '' "#/$!" $ */ ('&/ (!" #+/ HDSSs / " (.",1%. ('1 (.", ( #-!" '" / t ~ 0, # /.!" #&/%: (14) ('1 (." ) $ % ('-% #-(% " #$* ",1% /-,/ $# / 8('. (.",#*/ # /.!" #&/% (15) + t /!$/% -. "%. (.",#*/ ) $ ('$!% /-,/,*/ $# / 8('. ( +% (." % #.% # / +:,/ $ % #/% /$#/%.) /$,/ photorefractive (' $*% niobate '.( -!(/ "/ (.",#*/ ( (#/ $ *% 0.1 cm^2/j M# ( 1-10, 1.-!,#. Polaroid ulsh-500 photopolymers -! "/ (.",#*/ ( (#/ $ 20 cm^2/j M# $ (:"'$ &% 10, 0.5!'

282 !(%,#. /()" */!($*/, $ (."*/,.$*/ ',&/ ('&/.1( "% / -/% /,$% #-% "% -(/% $2(./ $%!+/$!$48 "!# 4*(' $ Fourier # % &. (a) -!, (b) SLM (#-( #$* ", "/ ',1.1( "!*/!" # % $"% #!"# #+ Fourier /$% + +. " #$* " #!"# #+ Fourier, ( ( 8!- 8, " "#*/ '#9/ # ' "#*/ (, $ -/ SLM (. # /$ $ /$% +. ',$ ('$,1% /."#-/ /. $ ( +.!- 8 ()!/ $ " ",1 "#( i,/ -/ +# #- * ( +. /$,!- 8 (9) ( 8 -/ SLM ( -! #!*1 /#1 j (r),, /( #.- "% r, " #!"#8 -/ # */ /( #*/ (#% +#*/ # "!- ": (/-, (1/ "/ #$* ",. pixel /! -/ +# ',$ ('$.1( "%.,##-/" $/ "% '% "#*/ /8 /* # /!/(&/ (!" #+/ -// ''"' $. " #$* " #!"# #+ (-, " ' "#*/ /-# $' ',$ ('$.1( "% /, #-/*%,,1 // % -% -'% ('$. (1 " #$* " /!$/.1% % # % ( ',+ #- ( #/"#$/( "%, ($ / $ $ #-/ / /' #$. (16)

283 &8$! ""17$#!& ) "&#1!4+%0&. 9 # " #" -) /$"!*/ # / (',!" #&/% -/ $( 9.#+-'(.% 9 #-/ '+ # /+ #,'*#*/. #-/" - " /$% ',+ #- ( #/"#$/( "% 8,/ "/ /'( " */ /( #*/,'*#*/.!. 9 /8 " /'( " */ /( #*/,'*#*/,##. "/ +.(/ " "% "% "#*/," /( #1 /'( ",'*#*/ / $ :, "/. +.(/ " "% +.(/ "% "% "#*/, /+ #,'*#*/ // $:. & L, W H #1%, '%, +:%, ( #- ( /!. -/ $ #-, #-, /( #$ #1% (#*/ / $.8 # / #% /( #1% %,'*#*/ (. "# */ $#/*/ /( #*/,'*#*/. $,% (+ ( 1#% / $: (17)

284 .8/% -/ /'!*/ *% '+ # /( #,'*#*/, (/'$%.#$% */ &/ /'&/!*/ / $ Q = V k /( + y z )- & (18) $( V / $,% ( ',+ #- (,1%. (1 " $" - + /'!*/ /,*/ #$,. /' #$,'*#*/, %,/ " (/1 #$* ", /!* /'!*/. -/ /'!*/. +.(/ ",'*#*/, (/'$%.#$% */ &/ /'&/!*/ / $ [26] [28] (19) ) * " (19)!/ $ -/ ('$ # -// " "%.' "% 2.5, $*% niobate '.(, -! # (/$" /'&/ 2*10 15 '+ # /+ #,'*#*/. # 1 #,1,.#$% 9.#+ '(.% #&/ $ -//,/ '$#/% #-/ NA #% /% 1#% #% #-/"%,*/1% )$#" "% "% /% /%. -/ HDSS, 9 # /'!*/ Q / =$/ (.#+ '*/ N (.#+ /!*/ / ' P..-(# & $ & / -/, 1, # '' '$,, $ / (! /-/ $. overhead ( (/- # "/.1" */ bits.& */ '.(% */ bits /'&/ *" "%. "/ )" ($ /!+, $ & / #$ $ -/,!" ( $'%. (# /.#$ /'&/!*/, #+#-/ (', (# " (/'1 /$" #- * ( /$#( ( Shannon, "'1, # / ''' #$ ( (/'+.#+ */ /'&/ # "/ /$" /$% /( /'+ ( N /.#$% '*/ P /.#$% /!*/ / ', SNR!/ "/ /', 1#% %.$(9. -/,( /$ $(.+9(, '#9//% ($:" / #$ "%.1% +/#"% '-8,, ".1 (/'1 $".' "%, SNR #&/ # / ()/$#/.#$ /!*/ / ' (SNR ~ 1/P). (,!$/*%, '$,* #% #-/"% (/#1%!1%, " (/'1 $".' "% #&/ 1/N 2, ",&/% # /!" (# ( SNR (SNR ~ 1/N 2 ). (/-, (! # /'',1 #)+ ( SNR (.#+ '*/ ( #+/ / 9'".+/. (20)

285 (/-, '#9//% ($:" % #-(% ( ( 1#% (+/#" '-8, 1 $ ", "'/$%.$(9% /!/( "%, #- M# $!*/), (! -/% 9-' %.#$% '*/ ( - /,+/ # /.- " ( $#( "% ',1% #/1#"%, "/ " /$" C total #, (!. 10). % ' -% #-(% "%.1( "% niobate '.( 90,*#% + "# ( P = 10 6, M# = 1, +/#" '-8 1 W).*"$ /& $ 9-'.#$ '*/ (',8, / / ~2500, # " (/'1 -, " /$" /.- ".1( "% ~ 2.5 * 10 9 b. )8 / "#*. $ " /$" ( (',8 /*-* / #$/ /*,# "%.*% "% '"% / )8 '- # "% #* "% ( SNR '$,* "% #" /1% $/ "% 1 "% interpixel "% interpage ',#!%. )" "% $( "% :"1%,1% ',##*/ ",*# 90 niobate '.( #,#" # /$" */ 10 9 /(*/ /.- ".1( "% ("'., 1000 ',## */ 1 megapixel $/*/). +( -, " (/$" /'&/ */ ~350b/$m 2 ((', #-/" *% /', "% /$"% "%!1% ( '#9/ $ ',## $ * $*/ ( ( ''(.1( "%) / *+, /+%, #$/ ~1.08% $.*"$,#$ $ (/$"% 1/ ! &$ #!"! (.. Neifeld, '). "!! & #!" $ & #

286 * 1%"!"')!%+&"') 1) : "/,*/1 '+')" ',##. +# /% ' $ -/ +# ( (,,/$% #1(% +#% # 1,*/. / /% '-, $ +/' (#*/ /% (!" #+/, / '('-) ',## -%,*/% / $: $( l / "% "% /% /%, ( l / /( # (#*/, ( l / ) $ l, w / ",*/1 (!/$", t /!$/%, A l / +% ( ( +#%. (21). 11. ## *!!!- 11 ( 8 -/,##,*/1% '+')"%.! *+/ # / "#*/!" #&/% -/ 1# '(% SLM ( 1# ALSM). ''"'!-!*/ &/ /* 1# ALSM #- * #% ''"'"% "'/1% 1% -// (', 1 1 -/ $ + "#. 1# ALSM /."#-/ # /$ $ #-% /$% +, #*#-/ 1# ',$ #- # #$* " #!"# #+ (-.. /( # /%. -// $ * "% (. - & /% /% -/ (#'#9/$#/ /( # (#*/ "/ / "#*/ / 9 / / $, $*% /! /!* $ '$,##, #. +# /%, # (/- % '(',#-/% ',-% '%!*/. '!*/ 98 # " & " ( ',+ #- ( # # $ % /% /%. ' #-/*/ )$( 8 / /!/(1 )$( #&/ - $ ''"' "'/ #

287 . pixel (."+ $ / /% # /.*". -/!* $ /'!*/.,*/1 '$" #,, 1# /+ # (#*/ /% ( (/. % /% ( ',+ #- ( #/"#$/( "%. '(#-% 1# % /% /% " $".' "% 8/ &%: + ( / " #- ",*/ "% &"% +"% /% /% "% $ * "% "% /% "#*/. '! ",*/!* #+ 8 *% " &" )':" "% '(,% sinc, " #/8 &%: (22) (1/ "/ - ", ",*/!* #+ /! ",*/ #- ('$, ".' " "/ / */ ('&/ ( -!(/ (:"'$ ".' "%. ()1." "/ '! ",*/!* #+. ',## # "%, /% "#*/ /% (/ "/ '( ( ('+, ",*/ #)+ */ /*/ "#*/ /% /! #1, #- ( /+(/ -// (:"'$ " "%.' "% ",*/1 '$" / #- -*% ',1.,*/1 '$" / " (:"'$" "/.",*#, "/ /% "#*/ /% (/. "/ / /$% ',+ #- ( #/"#$/( "%. )" " "%,*/%!* #+!- " # %,*/% */ /*/ "#*/ /% ( 8!- 12. "/.",*#," '! ",*/!* #+-)* $ ',$ ('$ / $ : (23) (24) -/ ',$ ('$.1( "% $*% niobate '.( ( -!!% 1., ",*/1 '$" / 50 #rad '+. "#, #1" +#%,1%//,/* "% 500 nm, "/.",*#. (/-, ',## #+/ /,, +/ # #,*/1 "% /% /% ( 30. #" (-. (non overlapping),*/ # */ /*/ "#*/ /%, #+# /,,(# # '1 - ", / (', (# /'!*/. 3/ +# /% ( *8 (+/ $ * ( ( ''(, #-/*%, -!-//#-,.#$ 9.#+ '(.%,

288 .#$ /( #*/,'*#*/ (!*8/ $ '! /+ #!* #+: 3/ +# "#*/ ( *8 # '( -! -// #-,.#$ 9.#o+ '(.%: " x ": "/ z ". (1/ "/,*#,.#$% &/ /'&/!*/ (',8 -* '#9//% ($:",*/ +" 8&/"% "% /% ( 1#% /% (, (25) $( NA /.#"$,# (/,#) /$% // */ 1#% "/ / / ",*/1 9'1 "% /% /%, + '+. "# -)* $ ('$. -/ #1% +#% 500 nm, /$% 1#% NA 0,25, "%,*/1% 9'1% /*/ /% 30 4,.#$% /'&/!*/ / ( cm #!'! $! *$!, % # # & niobate #!& % 1., "! "&# 2,5 $ / 500 NM

289 (!): 3/ $ HDSS /+,/ "/ $' " $ (% /( #+% /$/%!* #+,'*#*/ ( 8/ /*-*. -' # / # &$ # #)+ */ '(',#-/*/ ',##*/. / '9(# / /( "% &$ #,!" #+# -/ #9( 1#%, 1-1#%, #' #$. / "#*/ '+#/" $ # ' #-/*/ # / /%,(/ -/ '$,## ( -! # */ /( #*/ (#*/ */,'*#*/. ($ # ( 8 #-/ $)!- 13, /8 -/,&/ #1# - 1#%. /, # */ /( #*/ */,'*#*/ '#9/ -/ $,&/ #1# #% %. '(',#-/ ',##,/ ''8/% "/ (,*/ "% /% /% - & /( # (#*/ / -. -' # / # /( #&/ #*/,'*#*/ ( (/+/! ! Ewald ' % *$ "$, "$ #") "$ " " ) ## *!

290 "#/1 1" "!- 14 / $ /( #$%!* #$%,'*#*/ z #)+ */ #*/ + ',##*/ / /.$% % %.- % #, - & 9-' % /( #$%!* #$%,'*#*/ /$% ''' ( ( (z)min / / %, $' /+ #,'*#*/ #. (/-, #"/ #$% "% '$"% Bragg "% (/" "% sinc / # / (//". '$'" # "#*/, # (/- "/ &$ #. (1 " -'( " "% &$ # (/8 # -// $ $! / + /( # (#*/ "#*/ ( -/ + /( # (#*/ /% ( i (/ "/.",*#. + /( # (#*/, -/%,*/$%!* #$%, '-,, / /! "/ '! " /( #1 9'1,'*#*/!* #+ z / )/ z " ## : ()! " () # ". (/-, " #-, ",*/ /,/* "%. ',##% 9 % #"/-%,*/%. -/ $ '' '(',#-/ ',##. -/ '' /( # (#*/ "#*/ q, /+%, " #-, ",*/ /,/* "% / /."#-/" % #"/-%,*/%. -/ $ '' '(',#-/ ',##, # (/- "/ &$ #!. &$ #! '! $/ /% "#*/ /% (/ %.% /% ( #- (,, " /', #)+ "% /.+#""% #9'1% ( 1#%, "/ #-/" /.+#"" #9'1 SNR, / $: (26) $( N /.#$% ',##*/ NA /.#"$ /,# "% /% "#*/. </ )!* pixel."+/ # +.# " #!"# #+ (- "!1 &$ # '#9/ " #1:

291 (27) $( Py /.#$% "'&/ */ pixel. 2) 418 1%3/ $"4*) "8$!4): '(') #1(% +#% ' $!"# #$ ',##*/ /. +# /% ' $ -/ +# /$% +,,/$% #1(% +#% "/,*/, - & : (28) $( & ( i " /!",*/1 (!/$" w i ' '' /' #$% "% ( i / %, $'% % /% /%. $/ +# /%,1% / Bragg 1matched, 1 '' ",+/ "/ bragg-#"- (/( #-/" /"#(,.!. 16 ( 8 -/,##, "/ '(') #1(% +#%..16 ## *! $ <*% # " * ",*/1% '(')%,!" # # #$* " #!"# #+ (-. /% 1#% /% / (/% % /.% '(-% ( ',+ #- (,,/* -% *% #$* " //' "%. '$" #1(% +#% #,, (#'#9/$#/ /+ # (#*/ 1#% /% ( /!+/ (.+/ % ',$ #- #/"#$/( "%

292 . 17. /#!'! $ #!! *$!, % # % LiNbO % % 1., "! "&# 2.5, ) $ 500 NM.!. 17 ( 8 ",*# "/ " / /% / (/1% // "/ / /$% #- ( " / 1#% / (/1% (,*/, $ / "/ / /%. % (#'*#-/% (copolarized) /% 1#% /%, " $".' "% 8 &%: <( v / (!/$"% #)+ "%,1% /,/* "% /% /%, c / "!+" ( *$% '+.!&,, / ",*/ #)+ /$% ( 1#% /$% +#% /% #-. ',## //' "%, " '! " (!/$"!* #+ 8 *% " &" )':" "% (/" "% sinc, " #/8 &%: (29) (30) ',## //' "%, ",*/ #)+ ( 1#% "% /% /% /,/ "#/1. '$" (!/$"% / (:"'$", " /$#/" (counterpropagating),*#, "/ " / "#*/ /% / (/1% % /.% /% /$%

293 ',+ #- (.1( "% % /.% (.+/ %. )" " "% (!/$"%!* #+ *% (/" " "%,*/% #)+ */ /*/ 1#% /% ( 8! 17. /. $#/% /% 1#% /%, " '! " (!/$"!* #+ /: (31) -/ ',$ ('$.1( "% $*% niobate '.( ( -!!% 1. " "%.' "% 2.5, " '$" (!/$"% / 6 Ghz, 500 NM #1" +#%,1%//,/* "%. (/-, /* $ ',## #+/ /,, +/ # # #1(% +#% "% /% /% $ 500 -*% 560 NM. '(') #1(% +#% /+,/ " ',#! #)+ */ '(',#-/*/ ',##*/, '$,* */ ' */ $ (% /$/% '$"% #1(% +#% ( 8/ /*-*. /( #&/ #*/,'*#*/, '(',#-/ #1% +#% ',## (/+ $ / #-/ $),##&/! 18. <*% # ",*/1 '('), /( #$%!* #$%,'*#*/ z #)+ */ #*/ + ',##*/ / /.$% % %.- % #, - & 9-' % /( #$%!* #$%,'*#*/ /$% ''' ( ( (z)min / / %, $' /+ #,'*#*/ #. (/-, #"/$% "% '$"% Bragg "% (/" "% sinc / #/ (!. $ '$'" # "#*/,# (/- " ',#! ## *! $ ',#! '! $/ /% 1#% /% / /$#/%,, % % " /', #)+ "% ',#!% ( 1#% ( #-/ SNR), / $:

294 (32) NA /.#"$ /,# "% /% "#*/. "#& $, (1/ "/ #$* ", #-/ ',#! SNR / ) $ /.#$ ''' #-/*/ ',##*/, ) % "% +.# "% #9 "#. ( 1#, " ',#! / / $%,/%. ''/, "/ '(') #1(% +#% 8 $ /.$ (// #$ ",&/ '-8 "/!(1. ', #-. /$#/" -,, ", / /#* 81"# "%. % / /!" #". #.",*#, ( -! "/ '$" #1(% +#% (, #" # " counterpropagating,*#, $*% /!. 17, % #-% /$"%, "',#! / / -/%,/%. 3) 7"4 4/$'&/).#/) 418 1%3/ ( "%-*"#-/" '(')!" # -/ SLM "%, / '-,) "/ / /% / 91 -',! "% #$* "% "% "% 1% ('',1% */!*/ "%, / '! 1 " ',#!.!/1,#%, *"#-/" "% '(') ( 8!- 19. &, -/% #!"# #$% Fourier!" #, % % */ /*/ "#*/ /%. - *"#-/" / /% '#9/ -/!- "% (.&/ $ -/ SLM. ($,#, -/ #/ (1-D) SLM /."#-/ # /$ $ #1# ( +, - & +( % /% /% ( (/ ('$ -!(/ -/ /( #$ # (#*/ # ". "!" #" " /$% (/$'(.//&/ (/1 */-'(,&/ #% ''"'"% 1% #$* "%, '(',#-/ ',## #+/ /.".+/!*% #,'" /.+#"" ',#!

295 . 19. HDSS ) -" % ## *!. ''' ',##,/ # # ' *&/ "% "% /% /%.. '$,##, -' # / /( #$ #,'*#*/ ( (/+ $ " #-/"!1!- 20. /. " # "/,*/1 '+')", /( # #,'*#*/. ',1 '(:" ($ ( /. '$,## /!- % "% #)+ */,##-/*/ ',##*/. Krile ##.&% Morozov -!(/,: /)" (1/ "/, ' ',##,, / (! # '$" Bragg. $,* "% '$"% "%, )8(# (1/ "/, / )",1 (# % 9 -% $"% "% *" "% "%. </ '- # $,( '#9// ($:", " '$" Bragg #&/ " /.+#"" ',#! ) -"! ## *!. ",/1 * ", -/ (2-D)!- "% # /!" #".. # " ( #- ( # #,##1 $ " / $ : (33) $(!/(/ % #-% Fourier ( 1#% "% *"#-/"% /% /!, / $ ( SLM, /. /',$"% )&#/" # 9 " '$,##. /* * #$ # "/ / /% r c,.'$#/(.'$#/o?) $ '$,## *% / $: : (34)

296 + / " / /% /,/* "%. / -/ 8(, /% "#*/ r i s i!" #, "/,1 ( i ',##%, $/ "/ /,/* "# r c -!(#: (35) &. # / /"#(,"#-/ +# /-/%. / -/ '$,##."+, ".' #-/" / ( / #- * ( #!"# #+ Fourier,/,, / / $ /!/(&/, $( ' -% * +!/(/ (! #$ " (/-')", /! / #. /',$"%.!#"1!#1 ( (!- "% #-/( / /"#(,". 1# s1. '' 8(, /#-/( (1 " - ",/+ (36) /,&/% (! #$% #)+ (% + &% /% r i r j / )$',%, $/ -!(# " "#/1 /.+#"" ',#! #)+ + $/*/ (."+/ # (+% (% &%. 3!!. $ ($% $!% # / ''"*. ' #!" #&/% (% &% Gold Carter ( /+ /, % #,-% /*/% #% "% $!#"'$ $, #-/" /.+#"" #9'1 SNR, ',## ( ''' 8/ '#- / $: (37) (38)

297 SNR # / 9'*.!" #&/% %!/-% (,/, (#'#9/#-/( ( * #+ /$%!( "% # # 1 / /%. "/ * " ( (/8!- 19, +# /%. '+/ / $ % ",-% "#( ( /!+/ -/ pixel ( SLM "%. ",*# #!"# #+ (- ( (/8 &,. ",1 "#( /! ( +# # $ $ #!"# #+ (-, - & : (39) </ # / /% #&/ " " # ", $*% /!- 19, ' $ /+ # (#*/ ( // -/ -/. '-,(# -/ "# */ #"#*/ */ (#*/ - & # */ /( #*/ (#*/ (( j ) /! /+ # (#*/ ( 9' +/,,*/1 '+')". "/ ''"'" ',1 "%,*#%, $% (/( #$% Bragg # / #'".. (1/ "/ * ", Krasnov -! ) $ )/"#-/.' #-/ 1# / $ (40) ". /',$"% ) $ % $"% ( ',+ ('+. (1/ "/ 1 * ",.8 *$ =$/ #)+ R i R j. / '! 1 (# "/ /.+#"" ',#!, +# $ +# /% /.,&/. # 1 #,1 "% *" "% "%,. -!(#!" # #$* " "/ $% (/( #$% Bragg / # / #'". /'&%, # $ '#1% /'( ", '' #+# /!" #1 (# % % ( '#9//, d c, /.+/ $ "% /#/$#/" (#% ( ( 1#%. (/', /#-/(# #-/ SNR &$ # /$%.,&/( -*"#-/(

298 '('+ ( 1#% / / (, # # "/ * " "%,*/1% '(')% *% (:"'$ $/ '/(# $ 91.,/$". # ( " (2-D) / /%, " ( "% '$"% Bragg #&/ " ',#! '$,* ( + (/( #+ Bragg, '' " /.+#"" ',#! '$,* ( (' #+ Bragg / # / 9'".. /,.(#+# -/ +/' *&/ /% r i - & " (/" " ( (!- "% / /,, #" # (/" " -' ( /. #"-/, $. 8(, */ **/ -!-//,&/ (! #$ ( /. #$% / #"-/. $/ /"#(,"#-/ 1#. -! "/ '! " /.+#"" ',#!. </ -/ SLM 1 -/% 1% "% (, "/ / /% ",*# #!"# #+ (- / + %, " "#/1 /.+#"" #9'1 #/8 '$,* */ (' */ Bragg. /, " " # / (. $ 1/ (!,. pixel, 1 " /( #1 +.(/ " (#*/ ",*# Fourier, $( # (! " '' #$# $ 0 -*% 2, (% 2-D (!(% &% "%, " &$ #! (',8*%: (41) + Mz /.#$% '+ #*/ /( #*/ (#*/ /*/ /% " " z (42) ". /!( #1#% */ (#*/ /*/ /%.8!*. "/!/1!- 19 -!/% -/ 2-D SLM /*/ /%,. pixel /! -/ ( /( # (#*/ /*/ /%. ( ( /+ # (#*/ /*/ /% #+/ / /.+/ *% 9.# '(.%.!" #1 # SNR #, #-/*%, / '". # "/!1 $*/ 9.#&/ '(.% "/ / /% $ /.#$ ',##*/. 0,#%!/, / -/!-,#%.8 # " & " /$% ( "% # /$ $ #-% /$% +, SNR 9'&/,/.&%.#$% ()/, #-!-/ $ #

299 3/ "#/$!" $,/& # "% "%-*" "% '+')"% ( / - ''% '('-%,, % / " (," " */,##-/*/!*/ (!" #+/ "/ *" " "%. /, " /$" "% *" "% "% '+')"% / (, #" # (1/ "%,*/1%/ '(')%. )% -% #,-%, /+%, -!(/ $ "/ ''"'$" */.- #*/ SLMs "%-*" "%. : "/ ',1,*# */, " '('$" #$ "% / " ''"'$" ( 1 '+ ", #-/( $ / 1 1," " /*/ 1 '',1 #1(% +#% (,!/ ' /&/% #-!- " % /% /% /#-/(, $*% (/+!- 2. '(')% #$ "% # / # # "!" #" " /$% + +#% 1, /'', /$% (!( 1 :((!(!(,#% *% / /%. '('$" #$ "% " 1 * " /*/ /% "8,,/$% $ # 1 / +*/ -! ''',*/ (, #-/*%, # #$ " */ #- */ 1 */ /*/ /% ", (#9$ $ (/( #$ Bragg. '(')% # # /,#% / 9 #-/" "/!*1 '(, ( (!- "% "% /% (!" #, "/,1. - * ", " $".' "% ( ',##%.8 $ 9.#$ (! #+ #)+ "% /%,#% (!" #, "/,1 "% "% (speckled) /% ( ( 8 "/ /,/* " (.!., # # #-/"!& - " "%!1% /%). # (! "' (Gaussian speckle), " '$" #$ "% ',##*/.8 $ "/ (/" " ( (!- "% /*/ (43) + 7 / $ #$ "% k = 2 /1, NA /.#"$ /,# "% /% /%, j 1 / " &( 9.#+ (/" " Bessel ( &( (%. '$",#% / ) $ "/ +.(/ " "% #$ "% #- */ (Bragg '$ 1 Bragg (' #-/) / /)"" $!% #- */, / " (,-/* " /.+#""% #9'1% / (/1.*% '+,",$" "/ (' #-/" Bragg +.(/ " (Bragg-degenerate) +.(/ " ( '#- ). ' (' (Thin-film-based) / /!" ''"',,*/1 '+')" '$,* "% ( '% "/ ()" "%."%,*#%. 0, " '+')",#% # / #*.!" #&/% #' #$ ( /+, "/ '+')" *" "% "% (, /*.!-,#%.,, -/ # */ (#*/ ( /. -!,/ % 9-' % $"% '$"% Bragg. ''/, " +* " (!- "% / -/ '+ $(, /,: "

300 ,,/ # #1 -,, ", / /+) # '1" 1 /'( ". /, " '$" "% '('1% #$ "% / " # #1% ( (!- "% ( #-,#%, % / 1.21 / "/ + "/ y +.(/ ". '#-% "% /.+#""% #9'1%. )".+/ $ % '#-% (!(,#% "/!/1 HDSS..&% " /.+#"" #9'1 #&/.#$% 9.#&/ '(.% ( (/-/ #!-,#% z ()/. (1/ "/,*#,.#$% &/ /'&/!*/ # / / ( (', #-/%&% $( NA /.#"$ /,# /$%,,/$% "#*/ "/ / %,*/%,1,2 / '! % #-, % (/%,*/% ( /( #+ #% (#*/ ( #-,#% "% /% /% '+. "# -)* $ ('$. (! (!(,#% ",,/ /'!*/ "#/ ',$ $ /& $. (44) /& '#-% % '+')"% (! #+ / $ +/.% $ (! *" "% "% '(')% (,/ /*, /!1 # / (,.+/ +, / '9(# % % "% /.+#""% #9'1% "/ '+')" (! #+. /, '#-% "% /.+#""% #9'1%. )".+/ $ % '#-% (!(,#% "/!/1 ( HDSS. +# / /.+# "!- " (41), / (', (# /& $ ( SNR. $, "!- " (41)!/ $ " /.+#"" #9'1 #&/.&%.#$% '+ #*/ /( #*/ (#*/ /*/ /% " z " ( (/- #!-,#% Mz ()/.,*#, "/ '+')",#% Mz / $ (45)

301 $ "/ # #-/" #"!/1 #-,.% " (/" " (! #+ "% # % "%, " $ " (! #+. % (/$"% #+/ / (!.+/ # (1/ "/ #-., $*% /! $ #%! ## 200-m - $ "! Polaroid photopolymer 500. "/ (! # "% "/ / /%, 100 ',## 9'1."/ # '1 $".' "%, $*% /!- 22. ( '- #!/(/ $ (/$"% /* $ 60 b/#m2 #+/ / (!.+/ # (1/ "/!/ & 100 # 0( 8!- 23 -/,# "% '+')"% '''&/ ',##*/ #- ( / $, ( #- (!" #&/% (1/ "/!/

302 . 23 -& # ) #$# *. 1 #!" 0,2. - #$ 200 m. ',$ + "# */ HDSS ( //, # #-!% 200$m, " '$" #$ "% ',##*/ / ( 1.0$m /! NA "% /% /% / ~ &#&/ 8<%*3/) -.#/) "#/1 -,, ", "/ /,/* " */ ',&/!*/ / /!" #". -/ (8(,#-/ "% +# /%. 3/ '$,##, $!" $, $*% /!. 24 (). # (8(,#-/" " #$* " /,/* "%, # /. $#/" (8(,#-/" " / /% / (/1% ('$, $*% /!. 24 (9). (1 " / /%, # +8()" "% "% /% "#*/, " / - % 9'& % ('$. ',#! #)+ */ '(',#-/*/ ',##*/ (.+9( ( '+/ $ %!(-% 9'& % -/ ',$ ('$.1( "% # / #*. $ "/ /,/* " # -/ (8(,#-/ " +# /%. 3/ -!- -!. $ (% (/% -! # '-% )% $)"%--//&/, (' ( /+(/ "/!(

303 . 24. #% ""! : () () -' % (8(,#-/"%- "% /,/* ", / (! # ) #:1!/1 1 # /-) (, 98 ( "+% #+% "/ $ " ( ( 1#% $ "/ :" "% )'$," "% */ /1*/ */ #- */ */ /'&/, #-/( $ " # " $/ " (!*%,:# /$% ',##%) / / (/1. +/, "!/1 +8()"%- "% ( % $% & %) "/ /$" "%,*,1% /$% - (8(,#-/( (1 "% pseudophase-' "%) /,( "% /% /% / ( " "% /,/* "%, " / #''/ ( /"", / # #,*# '(')% #$ "% (!" # # "' 1 *"#-/" " / /%. /''1 -,, " (. "/.1( " /$% (8(,#-/( " /,( "% % "% /% /%!" #&/% -/ /# '$,## [53]. 2.8 $#% HDSSs # /!" #"., / '-,1,% /8"1 %!*/ %."(#-/% '%!*/. 1 " /,/* ". ',##% ''' D #-% Fourier (" #1 (!1#% /81" "% 2-D #!"# #$% (- */."(#-/*/ $/*/), ''' 2-D (! # (',8/. </ '(',#-/ ',## $#( ( 8/ * $ SLM # /#/ /81" "% / /,,/ /"#(,"#-/% /% /%, # /! +" (% ( / /', % " +/#" (! #+ #)+ (!1#% /81" "% */."(#-/*/ '*/!*/.!+" /81" "%, / 9 #-/" $ "/ (/$",1%!*/, + "# (, *, # / $ 10 -*%100 Gb/s.,# ',##.-(/ "/ ( 1 '$" Bragg $ / % #-%,*/-% '',-% */ /*/ /,/* "% "/ Bragg-selective +.(/ ". (/-, /!- /81" "% (!"# /81" "%) #8 $ / ".- " ( # $ %."(#-/% $/%, /"#(,"#-/ 1# (! #+ /%. #*. ( '$,* ( + (/( #+ Bragg (Bragg mismatch). "/ Bragg-degenerate +.(/ ", " '$" Bragg / '+ /1, '' /"#(,"#-/ 1# /%. (,*/1 #$ " "/ Bragg-degenerate +.(/ " $ -/ $ /', % "!1 #$ " #)+ ( /#-/( /81" "% "%.- "% ( " #-/"."(#-/" $/. # #-/% /"#(,"#-/% /% /% #+// ' +/, $ /+ (! #+ CCD, / $ "/ /!/( " */ "#*/ (! #+ #-/( / ()". " ( (!- " "/ /', (!- "%

304 $,* "% -'':"%.$"% #$ "%, ', (! -% (correlators) $,( /,#-/, % /8"1 %! 1% 9 "% #-/*/ % %. ##/*#-/% #-%!*/ -! #.1 #-/".- " #-,##-/ '$,##. ',1 (/#1 #1 /81" "% ( /+ // -! "/ /$" /,: / /1 '(',#-/ ',## (,/ -/ LinBo3 + '' #,*/1 '+')", $*% /!- 25. (! #$% #% #% ',##*/ # -/ (. ' /81" "% # / /!/(. # " *,1 #"!/1 (! #+ CCD. ', #$ '-,!( - / '!. '$,## ( /! % //$%!#-% (! # " #$ "! " '. diode-pumped #%' YAG (DPSS 532), / " /,* #. #%' HeNe! &. ''' ',##,/ LinBo3 + ''!" #&/%,*# 90 # "/ 1 /$%.-",'9/#-*/ "/ /*/ /%. ",1 *$% (!" #+/! 1/ # % '-8 (/!&/ (#*/ (CW) # +/#" 400 mw #1% +#% 1 = 532nm. 3/ ##-/ nematic liquid-crystal SLM (1024*1024 pixels, #-,.% pixel 15.6*15.6 #m, video frame rate), ( /+!." $ "/, $,## HDSS!" #1." *% (/.-"% '*/. CCD *,1 #"!/1 /,/* "%!*/ ( " $ (% Dalsa, Waterloo, ON, Canada (1024*1024 pixels, pixel size 12*12 #m). -/ % -/ $/ " ''"&/ # -// (:"'1% $"% $ $/ "% ( ( " $ "/ ( Rochester Photonics Corporation, Rochester, NY,, "/ /) HDSS. / 9 "/ -/ " #-*/ (! #+ (,!" # # *,1 #"!/1 Kodak Megaplus CCD, -!/% 1008 (H) * (pixels (1018(V)pixels, 9 * 9 #,-.(% pixels, /$% center-to-center 1#% 9nm (20% fill ratio). 4" #1." -/ 8(, &/ /!/( "% F-theta, F =

305 100mm, #,*/ /!/( "% +-25, # "#*/ 12#m (!- 25). / '! ". " /.+#"" #9'1 / 9' ". ",/1 $ " */ ( "#*/, "# #)+ */ "#*/ (! #+ ()/!" # " #* " (.#+ */,##-/*/ ',##*/ 334- # "/!" #" " &/ pixel / (! # " % $ ## Kodak CCD100 #.!- 26 ( 8 -/,# ( #- (! #+ # "' $ /*/ /% &/ /!/( "% (100 ',##,"/). #$ + "#!" #1.", / ) %,1,% ''"'% /8"1 % #! 1 9 " #-/*/.! 1 9 " #-/*/ -! -,/*1 #1!*/ - & (,#-/! / 9 -/ (,#-/ #-% "%."(#-/"% ',1% '%, 9''/% (/- % ( '% ( (/-/ # "/ ',1.$" #$ "%. + "# ( Stanford, " 9 " #-/*/ )"% / #! 1 9 " #-/*/ ( -! % *-% '"%, (% /.&(%.!" 1 *"#-/" '!*/ (!" # "/ ( 8! " bitmap " "%!" *. ( bitmap! " &! SLM %.. % &! #!. & % " "% % & &% bitmap. ( # % % #! ) & $ " "%

306 /!. " ''"'" (/$" /81" "% #% ',1% (/#1% #/1#"%, 200 ',##."+"/,*# 90 Fe : LiNbO3.. '$,## / *+ -/! $ " 9 " #-/*/ )"%.,*/% /*/ /% '-!"/ - $ &. / /% " # #/1 # "% *,1% #"!/1% (! #+. 3/ # ',#-/ $,## -. "%!" #1.", / +! # #$#" /#1 $"%.' "% #)+ */ '(',#-/*/ ',##*/. ', #$ ), % #- % $(% */!" &/ -/ 9 $ bitmap! /81" "% # "!" #" " "% ''"'"% *" "% #$* "% "/ *" " "% # %.!- 27 ( 8 -/,# /81" "%!( bitmap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hardware -/,1, SLM [$*% # #& #" ( (1.&/ 1000-ft/s Texas Instruments (DMD), #+/ / 9'.+/!+"% /81" "% /*."(#-/*/ pages/s. "/ IBM -,/ # -(/ (!1# 30) +#*/ # "/ (/"-% -'")/ $ # /81" " +, " '"% 8 $

307 $ readout */ '"&/ */ (( / 25 MB/s). 0,#%!/, # /81" " /* $ 1 ##+ 1- B!. -/ ( 40s. " +, ", # "/ off-the-shelf, video-rate!/', SLM CCD, -/ ''"'! #-/ ',$ + "#. #+ / :)! #- ( 30s. +/ /,/(/ $% ''"'% /8"1 % / ($' / ). 80%! % &!

308 ) # "! ), ) "!. * % %# # '. 0 )

309 . 30. "$ ) "! # &! #!", ) #! " $& #!" # & % #!" ) % # "! ' input $. ( " $& #!" $! "* ). 2.9 / -% #,-% +/ (' '*/ 1*/, -/ /$ ('$.! #,1,"!/1 $ " (#($'),. 1/ $ $ (." $ " *,1 / (8(' /,*/$ $#),. "+ % '"% " #,'*/ $*/ (.! - -"),.! #,'( #+ +% (." % (. /$/ "/ (-(."!1 ( #%,. 1/.- #% #,'% $"% #,-." #(:"'1 1 $". $ 8 ',. 3/ - ('$,1% / (! 1#. /, (." (' -!(/ " #1 photorefractive $ " /. 0,#%!/, LiNBo3 + '' /.- # #,' #-,.%, (:"'1% 1% $"%, #!!#"'$ $ % -! #,'" '',1 &/ / "#-/ *$/.!$/% $ 1% (, /+%, / #''/,$%, "% )"% */!' &/ ( ('-( 1 #+%, /', # "/ -/ " ( *$%,1%..#$%. #$% - " #" 1 /,/* ", % $(% &/, '' (1 "!".# % ('! / 100 c, /. #$. (' Photopolymer -!(/ (/1.*% '+ (:"'$" (." '$,* */!"#&/ ' #*/ /!( "% #% (:"'1% (/#1%!1%, '' / #''/ #-/ $ "/ :" (!(% (1!'. 1 ',$). "% '(#1 &#-!(/ ()"#-/ % -// */ #/( ''&/ photorefractive ('&/,#1 -/* " /* / *'(# #$ (photopolymerization). '( " # / / *% # #-/" #- * */ #/#&/ (:"'+ #+ 9(% "% ''"'"% ',1% "% ('1%!"#%. -/* " " 8(/.- #!" #1 #!% */ photopolymers.!" -% '! % ('-% #, " 9' "#-/" ',1 $ "./ *. 0!%: L>0.5 mm (." : S>500 cm/j (SL>20cm 2 /J) (/#1!1: (M#) planeware >5.0 ((M#) image >2.0) -/* ": <0.05% (, 50#m) : <10-5 srad -1 $ " #1(% +#%: ( 532 nm 1/ */: 0,5 mrad )": 120 nm # (

310 (/'$ '.% (##1% /* */ 2 mm spot: < '/10 "#( ( (#'#9/#-/( ( ( &#%): < 10-5 srad $ " /$% HDSS ) '+ $ "/ $" % $"% ( #- (,1%. /) DARPA PRISM -! /+) -// ',1 9% "/ IBM, "/ #-" " "% $ "% &/ ',&/ #- */!" #&/% # /1 '$#. $ 1996 '' ",#-/ ', (',1% )',1."/ (,."/!" #&/% -/ /$ ' +, "%. "#/$% # '#9/(/ "/ $" $/% (9.#$% -9'* "% $/%), "/ (.", " (/#1!1, "/ 9 (!*1 /'( "), ".$", " -/* ".- #!%. 9 " '- # ( "# +/ #-! &, (!$#/ photorefractive + '' #-/(/ Fe-doped niobate '.(, /& (' Polaroid CROP / " '+" ',1 "/,-/ photopolymer.!. 31, *, ( 8 " '":" */!( &/ ',&/ 1*/ ('&/.1( "%. PRISM #-'" #% HDSS -!(/ (/1 % $"% ''&/.- #*/ ('&/ / ',1 PRISM "% IBM. '- # /+/! 32 BER #1."/, -/ #-/ ('$ *% (/" " "% % (9.(, $*%.8/ /*-*. / ) "#* $ LiNbo3 + '' / $# '+ ('$ $ "/ :" "% 1% $"% #-/ BER $' #,-." '*/. ($ $#*% / - / #% '1, #-/( $ '(#1 (' 8(/ $ *% ( ' $ "/ '',1 " "%.' "% */ ( &/ ( '+/ '(#-% &#. ( (, $*% +/ #%, #/#-% '(#-% &# +/, / "#(,1 (/ -/ '$,## #-/*%, # /'',1 #)+ "% (." % "% $"%.' "% "% %. /$,/ (' $*% LiNbo3 "% "%.' "% ' $ -//!*$ #- /&/ (space charge field) " (.&% "% " (." ) /!#"'$". (1/ "/ Aprilis InPhase 9' +/ (' (%, " '+" $ ". $ (1/ "/,1 " "% "#&/(# $ #-,.% '*/ -! # " " +)# BER. # ' ( -! 1024 KB, +)# BER / -) -%!$ ' $,, # ' 256 KB, #&//% #$/ -/ - "/ /$" / '. / 9' ". " (/'1 /$" ( 1#%, # (/'',1 #)+ ( #,-.(% '*/ ( '(',#-/(.#+ '*/. 0,#%!/, # /. #$ #% )% &*/ */, '! BER #+# /. (# " 9-' " /$", # "/ )- " (.#+ '*/ ( # / 9'".,!" #&/% -// #-/ &.& */ '.(% (ECC) $*%, #1# en/deconding

311 .31. -! #) " #) 2.10!47,1!"# *1"# *.' (Photorefractive) (',(/ ',## # "/ #- * ( *$% (!( ", ' ", *9'=1 ") //#1 #% /&/ #)+ */ 9.&/,*/ "/ $#" " /$% *+ "#+ #- /&/ (space charge fields). +( /#1 &/, '$,* "% "'1% "% (Pockels) (!- 34) / " ' */,(#-/*/ ##&/ / (/1, (#'#9/#-/*/ */ "'/*/ */ (&/. 4", "'$/ /,(#-/ -/. &/ " 8&/" ),*,1%. 4" #&/%,# (!( 4, #/$#/% 1#% /% /%,(/ -/!- -#9 "% # %!-% "% (:"'1% -/ "% "%!#"'1% -/ "%, " -! " '(,1 #1: $( m /,/% #$* "% ( ', "/ /. " (!( -#9 "%. <*% /!- 33, *$/,(/ "'$/ " 8&/" ),*,1% (:"'$% (,/& % #- %!-% "% #"1% -#9 "% $, #- %!-% "% 1% -#9 "%. '$/!+// #- * "% +.(/ " "% ' "% (,-/* "% %!-% "% 1% -#9 "%, $( "#+/ / #-"! # (46)

312 */ /,&/ 8*/&/. " /!+ # "/ ( /$% *9'=+ +#% ( 9 (', $*% niobate '.(,.,1 $/ " */!&/ ( &/ 1*/ ( (/-/ # " photorefractive " ( 8! '',1 -/ "% I + $ "/ -#9 " */ /*/ "#*/ /%. ($!-.&/ # (/$" /&/ p photorefractive ('$ (,!- -/ "% $/!/ ".1 /" #'!/ "/ /"1 /"..$ #-%, # 1 (/$" U (/- # "!( " &/ (/$"% /&/.!* #$% */ "'/*/ $.,. $/.&/ -/ "'$ E, '+#/!" space-charge #-*/, ( /, " '(,1 #1 (!( -#9 "%,#-!-//,/ "% (47) (1 " - " / 91% #$/, # 9." #$* "%, : %1 / #'"#-/% space-charge #-%, ( / *+ % $"% #&/ ( #- (. (' ( /+(/ "/,##1 "'1 " (Pockels),,#%!/, space-charge #-%, -/ $ )+ # &/ 7n /', % "'$, - & : $( n / "% "%.' "% r / ' #$% (/' 1% Pockels, %,/ ) $ Pockels tensor, "/ ' $'* " / /' #$ ( ( ''(. #-/*%, +/,'*# &/ replicates!$!- -#9 "% #-! # #$ " "%, (, -/ '$,## $,(. (48)

313 -/ ',$ #- ( / /+ " #",##1 +8()" /*/, " $".' "% / (49) To Niobate '.( / $ /$ photorefractive ('$ (!" # % )% HDSS. 2'' /$,/ (' '#9/(/ niobate 9( /( titanate 9(.,/ (' '#9/(/ / -:# photorefractive '(#1 &# ( #+/ ' / / (:1, ', ( 1#.1( "%. '(#1 Photorefractive (', /+%, +/ #,' # #-/"' " '1 (.".&% "% " #$. #".$" */,##-/*/ ',##*/ / -!(/!. $# # #) #) & ( %... Shelby, %. Almaden "

314 Photoexcitation("% ) #!! " % /!" Photorefractive *% # " *$ 1/($!"# ""17-$!!4& ",4($2 414($$#!& -/ '$ photorefractive ('$ # # -, "% (photoexcitation) -/ %,(#-/"% /"%, &% (!" #, /,: '$,##. 91!" '$,## /* "/ /,/* ". (/-,, " #$/#".1( " ''' 9 #!*% (9.# "!*/, photorefractive (' +/ #.8(.. #$% ',##*/ # / (!. # (% $(%. #-.%!" # (#'"*#,'&# /&/ /-#/%!* ( ( 1# "% #% /&/ ( / / (." *% /,/* "%.,'&# / (#'"*# ($ "/ -// $ -!(/ /." '$" #+/ / '+:(/ -/ ''.!. 35 )", #,/1 (!" # (#'"*#,'&#, /.&. ',##

315 . 35. ( *%#* # ) #", *! #!" ") $, ) #!" $, & #!", : () #!", () # #"), () & % #!" ! #$ &$ % & & % #!. ( + "# A '#9/ -/ *(-. (photoexcitable) % /&/, $*% -/,(#-/ "'$/, $*% / 35 (). 3/ coulombic,'*# (/$"% /&/ (A, ( + "# #- * "% photorefractive "%. 3/ +,'*# (/$"% /&/ (.&/ ( + "#!" #&/% # 1 # / ''"*. # "/ '',1 #% ('1% #-( 9''/% $*% ".#, "'$, 1 +% * #+, $*% / 35 (9)

316 , ',, ( "#,/%.-(/ #+% "!1 " */ (#'"*#&/,'*#*/, "/ #9'"" /,/* ". % -( % /% $/%, -/ "#/$ 81"# / " '1 ( ( ''( ".-#/ ". / ',##,/ # /(:*#-/".# 8/ -, $% Bragg. "., ",*/ "% /% /% #1% +#$% "% / ".+/, / '9(/ " #-, " $".' "%. (1 " " 98 ' $ / #- $/% ( # / /"#(,". # "/ 1 9.,, "/ $." ',#! 1 / # '$'" 1# / / Bragg /! "% ($!/ %!#"'$%.# %. / -/ 81"# ( 1#% $( ($!/%!"# #$% */ ',##*/ (:"'1.#,!"# #$% #!#"'1.# "!1 /," " */ /"&/ $/*/ (:"'1.#, / " 9-' " $ " # Arrhenius $ $& # (unscreened) : () -* % $## (, &! ") () () "! #, " Fe-doped &! " (, #!&) (") - Fe-doped "% $##. Niobate '.(,,#%!/, ( + "# # /.& #!1 "'/1 (/$" /&/ #- * "% photorefractive "% ( + "#.&/ *% (#'"*#1 (/$" /&/ #- * "% /"1% /1% #% "/ /(:*#-/".# (!. 36). /1,*,#$" (/1.*%(!# )" " arrhenius-+( ".# $( / /-, /," "% (( 1.2eV, "/. (,$/( ~1.4eV, " # " #/ ( " '.(), ni / " (/$" "% +.(/ "% */ $/*/, e / " /" "'/*/, $0!/ " $" '+.(!&( "b /. Boltzmann. /" $/ /,+/.# /+/, / '+:(/ -)* "'/$ (50)

317 ,'*#. +/ '$,##,/ '(##-/. /+%, %!#"'$%.# %, $/ -!(/!#"'$" /"$" " 8*1%,'*#*/ # / / $ #!$/ $ $, -/ "'/$,'*#. (/-,!#"'$".#, /$,'*#. / *+ # /('1 1'" (.+ ',##% /&, /* / '+ * #$, "'/$,'*#. //#"., '+/% #&%.$ /$,'*#. /$,'*# "% ' (/. -/ '+ $,$ $ ($ +% #1/% $ $ - -") /', # "/ ($'",*,#$" ".#.1( "% 9.#$ "'/1% 9'1%. + /''-%,, % (!(/, " "#(, */.&/ /&/,'*#*/ niobate '.(. "/ &" * ", "'/,'&# #&// ".# *#(.!1 -. " % /% 1#% /%, -/ "'/$,'*# ( '(. $ "/ /1 /'1* " (:"'$%.# %!*% * #$. % /(:*#-/%.# % (/* $ ( 100 C LiNbO3 + ''), $/,// /,,(/ -/ (#'"*#$,'*# ',1% ( /.#8 "!1 /" ( + $ "'/$,'*#. ( )/#"#-/ 8+,% "'/ /,'&# '+/ (#'"*#,'&# -!/ $!- /&/ # "/ /." '$". "/ :+)" ".# *#(, $/ / "#/ ',$ /" / *+(/ "/ /1 /('1 1'" (.+,'&#%. $#/" -. " &% '+.$,'*# //-#/% #&% % "'/-% /%. 0( "% -. "% &%, /$,'*# / #&% '(##-/, '' "/ * " ( LiNbO3!( *9'= +# #&/(/ "#/ " ',1.,#$% 9.#$% ',1% ) -/ #,' #-% $ "#,'*#*/, % photorefractive (,/& %. &/ (.!. Fe^2+,), "/ " "% ( ('+. " +" -,, " "'/ /,'&# #&// ($!/ # /(:*#-/".#. ($!/%!"# #$% */ "'/&/ /&/,'*#*/ ",!"!($ (#'"*#,'&# '$,* "% #9% ',1% " (!"# #+, / #,-." */ +,'*#*/ #+/ / / "#/, '' " (% #-/! #1..# % (!" #+/, (1/ "/ / ('! / 500 ',## #+/ /."(+/!" #&/% /,'&#, $"%.' "% " 2-25% -!(/ /.. % #1# "% /)% PRISM,!/',% Siros -)/!. /,'&#,/% /* $ 500 '% */ :"&/!*/ LiNbO3. " (/-!, " # Psaltis -) /. #$!'*/ ',##*/

318 ',,'&# 9 #-/ "/ //#1 /&/ (/./ /$( '$,* "% /1% "'/1%,*,#$"%. 8*1% */.&/ /&/ ',##*/ 8 $ "/ #-/" /1,*,#$" "!#"'1 ("'., *#).# (!. 37). /,'&# '+/ #&% $,(#-/ "'$/ /* "/ /,/* " (!. 36), ( #&/ "/ +( $".' "%, '' /', ()/ " 8*1%,'*#*/. "#/1 +)" " ".1 /1 8*1% ',##*/,# niobate '.( # "!#"'1 $". % (,$/(..1 8*1% ',##*/ ( + &/ ".# *#(! (*#-/ niobate '.( + ''. $,* "% #1% "'/1% 8"#* "%, ",#1 8*1% ',##*/ / '' % 9% "% $"% /"#(,%. #-/",1 "/ /(:*#-/".# ( doped niobate '.() (/1.*% ",!$/ '1*% ) "#-/,'&# # '! " 1 # "'1 (#9'1, '' # #!(1!1 &/ ( + $ " *!*#1 " '$,* "% ( 1% #$* "% % (,/& % ('+ $ #)"%. -,'&# -!(/ #-/" 8*1% (/* $ 50 -" 1 $) / +/ *%, "/ /()" !(. 84-.!4&0& $ % ( '% #.# 9"."#-/ /$. #$, "/ :"1,1 ',##*/ / $ ",1 #/8 % /(:*#-/%.# % # "/ /,/* " ".# *#(.! #-, " $".' "%, #-/*%, #&/ '$,* ( + (/( #+ Bragg. ($ $9'"#!-% '-% "%,1% % /(:*#-/%.# % #+/ / ) +/ # "/!" #" " #% #.$(,1% +-*/*/ ( % "$-!! gating! "$! IR. ",! IR! $. ( light-induced &! IR!! 100 %, # ',! gating!, "! %. #-/%!/-%,1% +-*/*/ (!- 38) -!(/ (/". $ "/!1 */ "#&/ "% -(/%, % ',-% #/1#%, $ Bell Laboratories "/ /) PRISM. / "#*/

319 /% / (/1% -/ (!" $ //$ IR) #1% +#%, / '+ #,', " *-, " "'/*/, # #$#" / -/ $ #$ #1% +#% -! " *-, " "'/*/ "/ $" " $ #,'+ #1% +#% '$,* */ 9!+9*/ "!&/,*/.,'&# #+/ - / ) +/ #"!" #&/% & #1% +#%. (1 " -! /#.1 Fe-doped, Cu-doped LiNbO3[ 80 ] KtaxNb1-xO LiTaO3.(1 " / #",##1 # "/ -/ ", 9-' '- # & # "!"1 $" "% +-*/*/.,'&# Nonresonant +/ % /,-% -% 8(' /,*/$ $# */ #-, */ / */ (,#+ */ gigawatts /,*/$ $#, /& "!",'&# +/ % % /,-% -% '' % #-, % / % (,#&/ #$/ 10MW/cm^2[ 80 ].2''", -! "/,1!" #&/% / doped ferroelectrics,* "%[ 81 ]. ( ' # "/ $*", 1/ "!#"'1 (." ( #- ( " (:"'1 +/#" */ '-8 ( 1."/, /,+/! LiNbO3. 0% -'% "% % ( '90, -! (/". ($ $9'"# # "/ " " "% +/. "% LiNbO3 # / 1 (# $!#$,.-/% Fe '' (' $ #)"%, ( (/(8/ # % 9' "#-/% ), % )* "% #* "% "% #-/()"% (postgrowth. (/-, -! /'(. # 9'* " "% (." % */ #,.&/ - $ ",+#/ '- #, (. +/ #- ( ) ( (." $ Fe-doped LiNbO3 /.!" -% '',-% (." % &/ *%'(, "%!#% ( 8/!- 39. / /-/ / "#*. $ " (.".- # (# &*/ */ / 49,5 mol% Li2O + ''. # Li2O (,-/* " 49,9%, " (/'1 ( *(#-/" +/#" (M# 1 $ */ '". &/ '',&/.' &/ &/ $'*/ */ ',##*/) ($ ('$ / '+ (:"'1, -! #". #-% */ M#~10. ($ / '+ "#/$, % #,-%.1( "%!*/, #-/( $ -! # #,'" (/#1!1, "/. " (superimposing) */ ',##*/

320 . 39. /&! "$-! ## " ) #!! undoped 9 $% ( $% #"!/ #$% "% #-/"%,1% +-*/*/ LiNbO3 ( 8!- 40.!$#/ (gating) *%, "'$/ $ % 9.-%,% (,,/% 1 )*,/%) ( / */,(#-/ "! (!" # polarons 1 "! )*,/1 (' $ #)"%). "'$/ $ "! #+/ /,.+/ $ $/ *% 1 *% "% //1% IR,1%, #&//% (/- -/ ',$,'*#. </!$#/ *% 91/, "'/$% '".( #$% "! #- * % 9.-%,%, % / +/ #,'( #1(% +#% *%,1%,. &/% (/- #- /.", -/% " #" 1 /,/* ". ' "/ ()" "% 1%,1% / "/!1 #,'"% % 8*1% ( >100ms) "'$/ "!. ($ (,!/ # "!" #" " //+-!#+ ' #*#-/( niobate '.( # "!#"'1 (,-/* " */ 9.&/,*/. 2''%,, % "8/ )*,/1 (' $ #)"% (.!., -/ 8(, Fe, ) 9-' "% (,-/* "%, / -!(/ 8(, 9.+ "!+ -( #-,(#-/! # niobate '.(. / (." */*/ //$ IR / '+ #1, -!/% (/- % (/$"%, "/ #-/" /,/* ", $*% /!- 41. </ " gating / /, ' " "% /,/* "%, '"% 91// % niobate #!&

321 % "$-!,, *#, gating! niobate #!&.. 42., $ #$ & "$-!. :!" L: RS: ". # ( Stanford -! #$ -/ + "# :"1%,1%!" #&/% * #$ +-*/*/, $*% /!- 42.3/ 1-W Ti : '-8 ( ( /'1." $ -/ '''&/,##&/ '-8,+!" #1.", / * # #!*#(-,('+ (chrome-on-glass ) ( -! :"!.!$#/ *% $ -/ '' '-8,+ 476 NM + '' $ # 1 /.!- # &/! 512*512, 18*18#m,*/ (! bis!*/ (,/,# #% 100%) (.(,## " crosshairs, '' / -'9 &% #$* "% 1 ECCs. 3/% off-the-shelf ''&/!*/ $% ( 9' 1.", "/ -/ % -/ $/ "!," pixels # &/ /* CCD pixels. 18*18#m SLM pixels / /."#-/ / 9*9#m,*/ CCD pixels, / #& (/ "/ /.+#"" #9'1 /!'& (/ % /!-% #" (.(,## "%. 9''/ #" /, CCD pixels /,+/ *%!1 (% ( / +/#" # -// #$,/./%, /-/ /!" #, postprocessing. crosshairs!" #1."/ " "%!*/1% (.(,## "%, "/ 91 +.# " "% ' "% "% /!( "%. -',!% ' &/ 9$,!*/ "% *,1% #"!/1% CCD!- y ".- "! " '1 (.(,## " (~1!'.) */ crosshairs / $ "/ /,/* ". 3/ (." 1-!'.-!+ #&% #*#-/ + '' LiNbO3 +-*/*/ "% near-stoichiometric ([Li2O] = mol%) +/. "%!" #1." #. :" ',## "% # %,"/ #1" +#% ",*# # "% #- * */ ) '*#-/*/ /*/ $ -/ (/#/ '-8 100mW/cm^2 gating ( *$% (!-42). '1% ''"' #$% ( ( ''( ' % 9'& % -/ CCD pixel - $ " ', % /.# "/ $ "/ (#"#-/" /(.(,## " "% *,1% #"!/1% crosshairs /& '$,## /!/+." "/ /,/* ". -/."(#-/ '$,## 256-kb, '

322 #" " BER 9, / / 8*10^-5 (!-), / -%, /,,(". -/ BER!" &/ 10^-12 $/ #$8/.*#-/ &% #$* "% ECCs % bits! # % # 256-KB #$ crosshairs. ( # % " ) #-% &! % #!. ( #, #!' %! )! BER. C. # $ ! %. (/" '- # /(/ $.,'&# ',##*/ #+/ "% / (!.+/!" #&/% + '' #

323 + ", /.& (/ / '+:(/ -/ (#'"*#$,'*# # 8*1% $ #!$/ $ -/!$ +,'*#, #$'%.*. -/ #$9 (#'"*#$,'*#, #$"% % 8*1%,'&# -/ + #+/ /.+/ / 91 (/!*% "#/1 )':" ( (#'"*#+,'&#%. (1 "!/1 -!!" #".,,#+!$/( '1%--. "% #9''# "/ " $/%. " "#/ #!$/ -. ", /+%, (#'"*#$,'*#. (/., '' #/-!# 8*1% */ #,.&/ $ #!$/ $ +,'*#. 0$#% #,-% -!(/!., "##$/# *!*#,'&#. o Ta(1-x)NbxO3 -! (, /!.+/. ',##,,'&# (.&// "/ / (##1 "'1 (paraelectric) " # /(:*#-/".# ( 8/ - #- * "% #9 "% "% # ""'1 ". ( #+/ / '/ " (##!1 + photoactive &/ " (!"# #+,'*#*/ "/ /," " ( /$% # $ " #9 " "%. 3/% ''% #"!/ #$%, /.&.,'&# ',##*/! # (#'"*#,'&# "8 % $"% */ #9 */ "% "' (ferroelectrics). /,*,1 "% photorefractive space-charge (/$"% (,!/ #- * "% (.$#""% #$* "% $'* "% niobate 9( /( (SBN: 75) titanate 9( (BaTiO3). (/-,,'*# ',##*/ (! % '',-% "/ 1 (.$#"" $'* " /$% #" / (#+ (noncentrosymmetic) ( ''( ($ #1 #!&/ (microdomains) */ */ # ((/$" #- #1%) (!8/ # "/!1 "'/1!*1 /". (1 " -,, " / ' #1 (/1.*%, (' " */ */ ""'1.# (( / / ".# *#( (.!. Ba0.25Sr0.75NbO6, BaTiO3). 4" #&/% (1/ "/!/1, 1000 $/% $#/*/ (''#":"&/) ',#*/ '('-!"/,*/. "/ CE-doped SBN: 75. ''" #1% +#%-)&#/" #" 1!/1 /,/* "% "8 " #1 /" " /$% photorefractive #- (. ' ',## */ (#*/ (,/ -/#1% +#% #+// 9 +/ $ Bragg-/! "% *% /$% ''( #1(% +#%, / #- / / photoactive #1% +#% /,/* "%, " /'#9/$#/" #" 1 /,/* " / (/1. -/ ',## $/%, /+%, *% #1% +#% /,/* "% / # / /,/ Bragg /! "% $' ( ( 1#%. /"#(, # % -% (##-% -! ( 9'*#-/ '- #, -!(/ /(!. ",-%, /. (/ " 9-' " /"#(, */ (##&/. $% $ %!/-%. #+ ( "8/ % $"% */ ('&/, (!(/!/-% /$" "% ( /8*,/+/ "+/ ',## " "%!1 "% (%. 4" #&/% #!/1, ',## /,/ $/ #&/ " $".' 1% (% * $ -/ #-/. ',## #+/ "% / ('1 (/ #)+ + photorefractive ( ''*/ # " # */

324 !*/ $ / -/ / '' + / 9".+/ ',## / & " "% /,/* "%, - / 1 */ $'*/ */ ( ''*/. (,!/8-'*#-/" (," " # / (!. # "/,*,1 #% +8()"% */ /*/ 1#% /% " "% /,/* "%, /8*,/&/% # ($/ / $ '$,## $*% 98. $ # ''"!/1, # '*# "%, ',## #+/ (/# /,+/, / 9 +/, / /"#*.+/, / /8*,/".+/!" #&/% "'/1 # $'-1 /$" " 9$!(,!*1.-" " (thresholding) $ /+ # -/ photorefractive + '', $*% -!!. #- LiNbO3 BaTiO3. -'%, " #-/" /,/* " # / (!. # " & " /$% ('+.1( "% # # / /%,!#"'1%--/ "%, " "% /,/* "% "% /!( "% ( 1#%,*,1%!" #&/% -// $ /!( (*64) % Photorefractive " 911 ' $% 4 " #&!// / LiNbO3 '' photorefractive #-.-(/!#"'!".+9(, $*% / / / +, "%!- 31, '': "% "#/1% '% -. "%,.$(9% /!+ '$,* "% (/!+% (." % #-.-/% # 1 /" ",.&% "% % *,-% /% photopolymers. & (8"# "/ * ", LiNbO3 #-/( $ -! #'". '. 0,#%!/ LiNbO3 $/ $' $ ',##,/ "/.- ",##/ ( " */ /&/ "/ +.(/ " ( *9'=+ +#% /!+ % -% (,/& % /&/ ( ",+/ -% 9'& % */ &/ #-. ' % "/ /,/* " % /%!*/ ",+/ - '/. #-/ bit. $( 9''/ #-% /% ',##, (1 " " +#%-.+9( # /,/ "#/1 8 "/ -*.1" */ ',##*/ "/.- ", # ($/ / $ 8 " (/$".1( "%. (1 " " /- (!/ *% 1 1 *9'=1 8"#. -% $"%.+9( ( 8/!- 44, $( " (." " '',1 &/!8/ *% '(, ( /+ #%,'*#*/, "'., "'(,#%. "/ :"1 ',1.1( ", "!" #1 #" (/#1!1 ( Fe: LiNbO3 $*% 8 $ "/ 1 8"# / (M#) usable = '+ " " #* " (1% "% '+#/"% *9'=1% 8"#% / / #*. " (/!1% /" " ( #- (. ' #1 #-.% LiNbO3 / " 1 $'* " */ ""'&/!&/. 0,#%!/, % #8-% LiNbO3 /% /!+/ % ( ( ''( $/ *8 $ #,( /1 /, $*% /!- 45 ($ ' % 9'& % ( $!( #1% (."+ + '' ( (1/ "/ * " -/!($ '$,##,, ' $# '- # $*% "/. " ''&/ +/*/ ',##*/)

325 "/ /'',1 "% +.(/ "% */ *#*/ */ ""'&/!&/, " " (/!+% 8"#% #&/ "#/, $*% /!- 46. ' #, " '(, #% -! #1 ), %!#"'-%!*-% (!/$"%, #-/( $ /. /' #-/%!-% -(/ "/!(1 (,-/* " */.&/ /&/ ( #4!" ## LiNbO3 # % ") % '! " #) & %! " # LiNbO3 ) #4 '!

326 2.11 $* *'(#1 8$#/, % ',-% #,-% /+!."/ &, "/ )" */ /*/ $/*/ 1/ / -/ (+ # ' */. % #,-%.1( "%!*/, /+%, &/ ( "-% 1 %. (.", " -/* " ',##*/ " ('1.$" / $ # 8"1# ( /#*8/ HDSSs 9 #-/ *'(#1 #-. -/* " / "#/1 1 9'&/,'&# Bragg (."+(/ ',!. 1 $% *'(#-% % / / / -:#%, *'(#1 ( 1# / ''"'$, % WORM #,-% / *'(#1 #- #/"#$/( "% / +/. ( 1# ( '#9/(/ ( -!(/ )1%!" : #/#1 1/ ',#1 (oligomers), -/ ( + "# / "% (photoinitiation) -/!"# //,$ ( $. ( + "# photoinitiation # -* / '9 -/ photosensitizer ( '-, (,#-/, / (."1 '(#-% &# -/ (,#-/ '+ #. "/ -. " ( *$%, ( + "# photoinitiation '#9/ *$/ ' # / " ( #- #/#1 1/ ',#1 '(#1 &#. '(# #$% ",,/ -% '',-% " ( 1 (/$"!"# //,$ ( $, '+#/ (!/ +/ #, # /!(. /', # % '',-% "/ (/$". (!/, +/ #% -! (,#-/% -% $"% ( 8(/ $' "/,*,1 "%!1% &/, #$%, '$,##,,#%!/, +/ #% # / -! $ " "%.' "% $ #/#-%. *'(#1 #- #/"#$/( "% #+/ "% / '9(/ -/ *$ '(#-% *# (!" #+,/ /!+ "/.$" /#& "/ -/* " /$% ('+. 8(# & -/ (,#-/,# /$% *'(#+%, / )",1 (# % 9 -% >.- %, "/ ',1.1( "!*/. Polaroid -! /+) -/ + "# *'(#+%, ULSH-500, -! '-% $"% -/* "%. ($ + "#!" # (,#-/ #/#1 ( '(#8(/,!" #&/% -/ /+ #"!/ #+!('-/,#% (ring-opening). ( + "# / "% (photoinitiation) '#9/ photosensitizer # $)/",//1. Photosensitizer '#9/ *% (!" #, /,: -/ '$,## #- "/ /-, # $)/",//1. +/ *$/ ' " '(# #+, "!* $/ -/ #/#-% / # )+,/ /) -/#$!(' -// #$ -/,/$ '(#-% &#, (, -/ $. *$/. (1 " / "!* -*% $(./ #. '1)"%. 3/ '/-"# (+ ( *'(#+% ( 1#% / $ /,# /$%!('+ #/#&/ /.#8 #&% " -/* " ( #/8 " "% % '(# #

327 . 47 *%#* ) # ) #", "! # $ #") p p, #!" "% p B, "n "! "&# " "%,1% ',##*/, #/#1 / '(# #-/ %!-% "% (:"'1% -/ "%, # (/- % ' % #/#&/ #)+ */!&/ "% (:"'1% "%!#"'1% -/ "%. ($ / (/ #-/!- 47, ( 8 " /#1 -/ "% +/,'*# '(#+% (/$"% ( p. #/#1 -!+// %!-% "% (:"'1% -/ "%, -!/% $. #-, / '(# #$, # (/- -/,'*# (/$"% (/- #*/ ( B. +( '(#1% #1 /+ # ' " " "%.' "%'$,* &/,$/*/: # '',1 "/ "'/1 #1 ( #/#+% /* / '(# #$, '+#/" #1 '',1.' "%, '',-% (/$"% *% -' # "%!( "% #/#&/ %!-% "% (:"'1% -/ "% # % '',-% */.' &/ &/ '$,* ( #+!* #+ ( #/#+% ( (/- #( ( -!(/ "#/ +% %.' "%. $'%.*. -/,'*# &/, 1 ($' #/#-% / '(# #-/, / ) ' $ #/#-% +/ #%. #-/(/!* #-/. #,1 ( ULSH-500 -/ HDSS ''"&/,/!" #&/% "/ $'(.". *'(#1 #-./ #)+ + */ /&/,!" + ( &#,('+,!*8/ $ / 1#.!% */ *'(#&/ / ( $m ( (:"'$!" #+/ / (!.+/ '',/ +/ #* " "/ (,-/* " (."&/ ( &/ #-/*% "/!+",1%,, / "1 (/ "!" #1 #" 1 (/$"). 0/ $ / '(# #$, #- / -/ #- ( $ )&(%.!1 preexposure, #-/*%,, /.& # #1 photopolymer, 1 *#,, / -! "/ "" ('1.$" / $ "/,1. / "/ -. " # / ''"*. #.#-% ), %

328 $ "/ -. " *%. ('$ #- -/ ''-% ('$ #+/ /,+/ ',##. $(, '$ '$,##, # postexposure # / #, / '(# 1 ($' #/#-%, 9'&//% - "/.$" ( ('+. /% $"%.' "% ',##*/ #+/ / '" (/ 100%,$*% # /$,/ (' '#9/ "#/ ',$" $".' "% / '$,##, '(',#-/ ',##. (." %,1% #+// / ( 3 cm/mj, *% #1% +#% 514,5 nm /- % -. "% ( 50 mj/cm2 #+/ / ",1 (/ $"%.' "% /(-',##% ( 80%, 100$m! *'(#1 #-. (:"'1 (." "% CROP photopolymer / #$/ '$,* "% '( *1% "% "% ($*% /!1# 48 49).&% "%! :"'$ #$ 9% */ #/#&/ # $!" "" #!"!" Polaroid CROP photopolymer # Polaroid CROP

329 3/ # $9'"#!$ # *'(#1 #- / " -/* ". </ #-. *% ''8 $ # ''1 ( -/ $ ' $. (/-, " (/$" */ #- */ ()/$/ volume #/. -' #, "#,'*#*/ */ ",(#-/*/,,##-/*/!*/ ''8 $/./ $ ',##. ($ ", / $ (/( #$ Bragg,.&% /( # (#*/,'*#*/ ()/ '$,* "% -/* "%. (/-, " / /,/* "% - / '') #-/( / /". $% Bragg, "/ 1 /,/* ". "/ )", #1% +#% /,/* "% ",*/ /*/ /,/* "% - / '')(/ (, # "/ /% /% (!" #, "/,1. (/1.*% ''8(/ +. /+% / #+/ (/1.*% / / ($!/ Bragg matched $' /+ #,'*#*/ (/-/ 98 #$/ # # "% '%!*/. ($, (, ", /!#-/*% #,' '."!*/ - / (!.. "/ )", ($ # / (!. # " 9' " " ( ( 1#%, -/ #-/ $ /1% -/* "% #-. "/ /'',1 "% (." %,1% # #- /,/ /$, " -/* " #&/, '' #&/ "% ".- #" (/#1!1 - #!#"'$" (." $' ',$ ',## #+/ /,+/ - &/ $ #!$/!$/ -. "% (:"'$% (/#%,1%. #-/( $ (' CROP.-(/ "!#"'$" -/* " / $, #/*/, # #-/" (." $ free-radical #-, -!(/!. ( '+ #-, "/ ',1.1( "!*/. -% $"-% (% 9' +/, -/ ',$ + "#.1( "% $ "/ '" +/. " */ ( &/ */ *'(#&/ #"#*/.,/1 $ " ( "#*/ 9' # "/ 1 )- " $'( ( ( 1#% */!" &/ */ #- */.&% "% /. #$ "% 9-' "% /$"% -/ #-/ $ #%!*/. 3/ HDSS 9 #-/ *'(#1 #$8!"!" #&/% -// $#/,.&% ($ -! -/ ''"'!1#, "!" #" " */ #"!/&/ ( "#*/ ( /+ /, ''(% +(% &/ #- */.1( "%. '('-%!/-% #$8/ '+ #!/1 9 #-/" (disk-based architecture) '#9/#-/( "% 1% '+')"% (rotational multiplexing ( / $# # "/ shift multiplexing), ( / 9 #-/ # / /% # (-% (##-%, "/ speckle multiplexing, " / 9 #-/" # / /% # -/!-,#%. 0 -/% #-!8 "/ / /%!- " #,##-/ '$,##, -/% (/- / '('!. ' -/% /. ($% +% *'(#+% ( 1#% -! # HDSSs (, '#- *-*. 0' '' *'(#1 ( 1# / ($ /()", (:1 HDSSs ('.,# -!(/ /+) -/ free-radical *'(#-% + "# (!" # + /)" '(# # (#9!"# ( ( 1#. 3/ ( + "#.8 -/ *# '(#&/ #"&/!" #&/%! (% '(#% precursors!#"'&/ &/. '' ( + "#

330 , ',##!" #&/% #/#1 (:"'&/-&/, #-/(/. # $ / '(# #$ ( &( ( ( 1#%. '(#-% *# /!+ ".$" ( ('+ ( - / #*. '!!1#. # Lucent -!.- "/ #,1 (+ ( +( *'(#+% ( 1#% # shiftmultiplexing!/1, /,: ( 4000 ',## # #$* " ( -! # (/$" ( 1 Gb!*/, / +/# ( 50 gigabytes "% /$"%!" &/ -// /.-(/ $#*% #-% BER -. +/ "/ )'$," " "% /$"%.1( "% (&/ */ #*/ *% + '". 2.12!- HDSSs -! #'". $ ''+% (/%, $!-% "% % ( '70 #-! $. &# -,,,#%!/, ) "/ '- # */ &/ #&/ " #,'"!*"$" '"&/,/*#-/ block, 9 #-/*/ '% ( "#*/ #/1#"%. / -'9 ($:" "/ ''(') */!*/ #-/( / ". SNR (:"'$ -) $ " (/$" ( ( % 8 $ (%,*#+% #+% Fourier "% 1% $/ "%. 1 (/$" '"&/ D (-, "),, "/ ',1.1( ", # /,, *% =$/ */ ##/*#-/*/!$/*/ (/$"% ',##*/ /.#$ ',##*/ N (51) + D / #-,.% ( SLM, 1 / #1% +#% ( *$%, F / $ #1% "% 1% $/ "%, < / # " #% (,#$ #-,.% ',##*/ $ Nyquist (!" -% #-% (!" #+/ ', ( 1#.1( "% / #- " $ 1.1 -*% 1.6, /', # % -% 1 % $/%)..#$% ',##*/ ( # / 9'". 8 $ '% #-(% $*% " $ #% ("'., >', #$% */*/), " ('1 (/#1!1 ("'.,M#), ", " ',#! */ '"&/. 0#-/( / (!. (:"'1 (/$".1( "%, /, #-/*%, "#/$ / (!. " (:"'1 (/$"!*/ / '$,##, +#*/ # (51) -/ (:"'$ NA, "/ 1 $/ ". $ / * + #+# / (', (# #-,.#$ '*/ /,/& #*/ # -/ #-/ SNR: (52)

331 + M# / # #9'"1 9 #-/" + "# % #-(% ('&/, q /.#$% */*/ / Watt / ($', QE / " 9/1 $" "% % /!/(&/, n(opt) / " 1 $" ( ( 1#% /,/* "%, n(fix) / ".8( $", t(read) / 9 #-/%!$/% */ (/.(# #-/*/!*/, PxPy /.#$% /(*/ " '!*/, pmin!/ /.#$ *"'/*/ ( +/, / (/ -/ 20-dB SNR, P / " +/#" "% /% /,/* "%.. $,# bit / "#-/ (/ ($ / / " / (#9) #-/% # $ /+ # ' ON # OFF. $ (1/ "/ ) * ", " /'',1 #)+ "% /$"% ( =$/ (."(#-/(.#+ '*/, ( + &, (.#+ bits / ') ( + #% #-/*/ (.#$% bits /!$/(% '*/ $ & ( #-!!$/ /,/* "%).8 -/ + "# #-/*/ */*/. # 8"#% ',#!% / )8/. "/ )", /+%, " 1 8"# / (!/ / "/ /$".1( "%, '' # / #*. "#/ $ "/,1 /(:*#-/%.# % 1 # "!" #" " '*#-/*/ #- */. ) * " (52) -! -/ /* $ ## *$ $ %!.! "! MO 2 Gb/in^2 40 Mb/s. $ %! $!" * /Siros Gb/s, ) $# (! %# ) "! % # "!" * HDSS. VI. - -/ + "#.1( "%!*/, $!% "% *" "%.& */ '.(%, "% #$* "%!*/ "% ), % 1#% / /#*.+/ BER -/!#"'$ (,!//% -(% "#/+%.#+% )% $*% (:"'1 (/$" (:"'$ $!*/.!" $,/& # "% :"1% ',1%.1( "%!*/ / $ (1 "!/', #!8. ##/*#-/ /+ ( ',##% *% /'!*/ '$'"" "/ $/ / -/ +/' /'&/!*/. ($ - %!/-% *" "% #$* "% ), % 1#% / 9'& (/ "/ $ " ( ( 1#% - & / (!-/!#"'$ $ $ '.(%

332 *" " " ), 1#% #+/ / '9(/ (!. +'% */!*/!" &/ $ "/,*,1 "/,*,1 # / '9 "/ *" ".& */ '.(%, #9'1 '(&/ '*/, *" " #$* "%, ), "#*/,.1( "!*/ ',$ + "#, /" " ',##*/, /!/( " /',&/ "#*/ " (1 :"1 /',1 #'',1 (!" #&/% -% /!/(&/ CCD 1 CMOS), *" " /'&/ ECC *" " */ (&/!*/..51.:0! 3/ '$,# #% % "#*/ -/ HDSS ( 8!- 51. #-/ $( (9''/ ),, /,,(/ (%,#+%!*/ # "/ *" ".& */ '.(%.! #9''/ # '(-% '% #)+ */,#&/, / /#(/ '." -")"% #)+ */ ''' */,#&/. 3 ($/ -// & #$* "% ( #- (! (,#-/!1# #$* "%, /,+/ -/ ',$ ('$. ',$.#%.& */ '.(% #$8, /.& 1 $# / '.%, (,(/ #-/ )$(. $% "% *" "% #$* "% / / '". " /!/( " */ #&/ /',&/ "#*/ $ " /!/(&/. &% #$* "% 8(/,/.- #!-, " #" " */!*/ -/ ( +/' ( / ',$./$ / ''*.+/ " "%,1%, "%.1( "% "% /,/* "%. ($% #$% (,!/!"!" #&/% +(%!*/!*/ ( #+/ / #/ +/. 3/% "#-/% #$% /#*8 81"# "% '',1% "#*/ # '!*/. -/ + "# # ( /', ($ 81"# /#*8 # "/ ) ' " $ -/%.$%.#$% $ OFF ON pixels (#"-/ -/, /!) #/8 -//,#$ /$% #-/( #,-.(%

333 '+!- /!/( "% / " 1 /!/( " &*/ */, "/ '-, # (,#-/" ) &*/ */: 1 CCD pixel # -/ " /* $ & $ "'&/ *% -/, /& ($' "'&/ *% #"-/. / $' ',## -!(/ " $".' "%, # -/ " &*/ */ # / '!, / / ON pixels $ OFF pixels. "#& (# *%!" #+# ON OFF $/ /$# SLM 1 CCD pixels «#"-/» 0 «-/» $/ /$# ## '"&/ (bits). 0,#%!/, "./$" /$% '.(% #-/( $ -/ #"-/ 998 -/ + "# /!/( "% &*/ */ / $ / * + (.-/% -/ $( ( $.( (.+9( ( / /)"% $ pixel pixel (53) $( L / #- +% */ OFF pixels " CCD, / ".1 $' " (.+9(, / " ) &*/ */ (. *% $!%, "/ " " */ ON OFF #&/, 1,,/$" * " */ &/ &/, (% (% #"/. 0( "% '',1% " +/#" "#*/ # '!*/, ($ '$!- / /" 1 " 9-' " ) ( &( (,/ )&#/" $ ".- " #- " '. 3/% &% #$* "% ( 8 *% $*" /''1 '+ " "/ -,, " &*/ */ HDSSs / -/% "#-/% #$%,/* $% *% 1 *" " "/. #"-/ -/ $! *+/ # #1 #% #% + #/*/ pixels a b, -/ -/ OFF. "/ /!/( " "/ #$* ", / " -/ " ( /(( / "!#"'$", ##!*/ "'&/ *% #"-/ / " -/ " ( /(( 9 / "!#"'$", ##!*/ "'&/ *% -/. '-/% # # ''" # # 0-1 '(. / *+ -/ #"/$ bit (0) # 1-0 '(. / *+-/#/ bit (1)

334 ./$" /$% '.(% -/ $ + "# /!/( "% # / $..$(9 / $: (54) $( H / *+ #- +% */ ON pixels. $, $ '.(% / /)" $ "/ ',1 "% )% &*/ */,. &/% (/- " 1 *" " '+,1 '+ +'" / #.. 3/ '' '/-"# " 1!/1 *" "% / $ # /!" #". $/ /"#(,+/ '% nonuniformly (# #",##1 #9'1). (1 ",##1 #9'1 # / +: $ " *!1 '(:" */ /*/ "#*/ /% + '', $ / /#$# * #$ ( SLM, 1 $ "/,*,1 */.**/ -#9 "% '$,* */ ''' */ //' */ $ + "#. 3/ "#/$ #/-"# (1% "% -,, "% / "! (:"'1 *" " ( ',,/$% ( #+ "%!1 "% + pixels / *1 -/ / ##!*/. $ & # / 9'*. # "/ +)" " ( #,-.(% % "/ (.-" " $ #."#1% :"% #% '$"% ",1% *" "% *" "%. $ ",#-/ "#-/ &% #$* "% -!(/ 1 thresholding /$"! (:"' & (75% (:"'$). 3/,# / 6: 8 &%, / '%!*/ +/ 2 * 4 -%, ( ". # -! 9&% - ON - OFF pixels. "/ * " */ **/,#&/, " /!/( " / 9 #-/" #!/1 )/$#" "% 1 (! #+, "/ /!/(#-/%,#$% */ pixels (,/ # +/' */ -,(*/ '-)*/ & "'&/, / / # (,#-/" '-)" & 9 #-/" 1 #-, "% #$"%. $ ",#-/ &% /'&/ # #,' *"#-/ #,-." % -!(/ "% "/ /$".& */ '.(% '$,* "% 1% *" "%, " - " $.* " /$% #-/(.#+ pixels # " ( 91#% *" "% */ /'&/. 3/,# /$% & # -/ #,' *"#-/ #-,.% % / o 8: 12 &%

335 $ misregistration # / /!" #&/% (% '(% ',.#(% #9'1% 9 #-/(% % '#9/$#/% '%!*/ 1 # #"#-%!/-% ), %.& */. 2''%!/-%, / #*.+/ /"-% & % */ (#9$'*/ -#9 "% "/ /!/( " '*/ '#9/(/ (% ',.#(% Vitterbi "/ (/-')" $/% "/ /!/( " / ' # " "%,1%. ''" -,, " / /!" #".+/ passband &% ( 9''(/ #-/!-!*/ ( (.+//, "/ (:"'1 (!/$" ( '.(%!*/ '$,* */ (#9$'*/ -#9 "%. To ECC.- -// '/ #$! #-/( /!. " $ % % ",-%.+9(. ECC-*"#-/! #9''/ '(-% '% - #-/ % -// *"1 #$* "%, $/,/ SLM."+/ #-,1%. $ "/ '( /" "%, CCD - :(/',-% :"-% #-%!*/, % (9''/ - -/ 91# #), % (.!., (/-')") #-/( / /.# '-*# */ &/ "#*/ '$,* "% -9'* "% $/% "% '(,%.' "%. */ ), #-/*/ :"&/!*/ / #- / *"1 #$* "%, % ' "/ / " '(, $ "/ *" " #$* "% ' / *"1 ECC. $% "% #9'1% '(&/ '*/!*/ / " #* " */.*#-/*/ BER ("'., # $ "/ *" " ECC) # / 1 $ '.(% */ :"&/!*/ / $ *" " ECC #$#. $#" # / "#-/ & #$* "%, BER #+/ / #"/ / #$# "/ '. (/-, # "/ ''* " */ &/ #&/ ( ( (,#+ ECC % -%.- % " ', " #$#" /#1 BER #)+ */ &/ ECC,#&/ # / (!., '! &/% (/' BER # $ " ECC *" "..&% " -(/ HDSSs!*, $' $ '+%,, % #+/ / / *#*.+/ 9 #-/% % $(% %.1( "%!*/ % 9#"!/% /*/&/

336 .52.:HDSS (#! # ) 2.13 $% "% )(#-/"% "'/1% ), % / /!. " ',1 *" " /'&/, ECC decoding,,/$% (,!/ #$% ( "#*/, $' (:"'!*/ (1 Gb/s). ($ / # / ''"*. (# (% (!/% (', -%) ', #$ '$,* */ #&/ "%!+"% ( (,!/ #+ ), %. '(, (1,/ # 9 " ( &( / # #-/( ( 1#% hardware ( /+ $ Siros Technologies //, "/ /) HDSS. "'/1 HDSS / 9 #-/" "/ field-programmable!/', % ('&/ (FPGA) # / /,##!" #&/% #- software hardware. HDSS *" "- /'+ ' $ % +(%,#+% ), %: (% ',+% *"-% /'&/, -// '('-" -// ECC Reed-Solomon /. 9 91# ), % ( 8/!- 52. (/-')" ( pixel ' % -, % #-% 8-b ( pixel. 3*3 (1/% (',8/ ', #$ -!(/ %.& % pixel, / #& (/ % 9'& % ( ( 1#% $/ "%, ()//% (/- SNR "% $/%,*,1%. /% *"&/ -!(/ 6:8 *" ". 3/% '$% 6:8 &% ("'., 8 pixel /!+/ 6 b */!*/, (#'#9/#-/*/ ECC bits) '-!", ',$ + "# */ HDSS 1 -! -/ (:"'$ (75%) $ & -!!#"'1 '('$",

337 / / '- #" ('$. $ ",#-/ &% (.!., 8 : 12 strip code) -!(/ *% '+" $ " $ / to BER "/ /$".1( "%, '' / '+ $ '+', #,1 hardware. $% "% #9'1% '(&/ '*/!*/ /, "/ #* " */.*#-/*/ ("'., # $ ECC) BER. SNR */ $/*/ ",1% / / (/1.*% #$# #1# "% $/%. " /#1 */!*/ #1# "% $/% *"#-/!, # / +! #$# BERs $'% % ECC '(.% / $ " '(,.& */ '.(%, #&//% (/- $ '.(% */!*/.!-% # (:"'$ BER (SNR<~2.0) '/ (/1.*% $ " '. '(, masking ' "% $ "/ "'/1 '('&/. deinterleaving '($#/ (masking) /%,/ $ ', #$, 9 #-/ " /#1 ',##*/ SNR ($*% (1 ( ( 8!- 53 #&// " ( 91#% -/)"%"'/1%. " "%,1% "% /,/* "% ',##*/, " "'/1 (,!/ #+ -! (%!/#"#-/(% (,#+% SLM, "/ CCD camera, '-8 +#*/ # / / (.+/ */, % #&/ / $!1 "% '(,% #,'%!+"%. "'/1 *" "% HDSS ' ($# $ " CCD camera # $. -. " "% #%..53. SNR

338 3-3.1 LCD (LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY) *%!, $ '#1%. #+ ( 9 / * $ "/.$/" (.+/ % (% (,+% ( ''(%. '(!$/! ". " "/, "' */ LCD (!" #+/ *-#( % $(% (LED), /, '#1%. #+ *% ",-% *$%,.&% -(/ "#/ '/1#, $*% ()"#-/!*#$ +%, #,'" 8*1% 9.+ #+. (, + '' '(,+/ *% *%.8(/ $ ( *$% (. #- ( "%.$/"% % /.1. '. (-! (subpixel) /(/ 9!&# (/( #$% (% "#(, /!*# #$ ( /!( (pixel). (8/ % %, # /1,# $ 10 / % -*% 70, /& #-/". " 1 *% 1 %!/',% (!(/ ( (-% ( )/+/ % 100 / %. 4"8/ $ #,'" */$", ) '1 (1 '! " /9' (2) (8!114) (, + '' (liquid crystals, ) / # % #)+ ( ''&/ &/ &/ (,&/. #/8/ ( 1# #*/ ( 8(/ (##. (1 " (## /-!1# (% "/ (.(/$" "/ #/8(/ $ / % #-% ''"' % % % (##-!(/. (## *% %!1# #/8(/,,# 9$# (rod-like) 1 $# (disc-like) #$

339 '$,% #)+ ( #1(% % " # '$,% #)+ "% #-( (!(% /! / ( % # 5 1 #,'+%. (, + '' / #-/*% ( ( 8(/ / - " % ( -% $"% (% /& #/8(/ ) $ :" #1% )"%, ('! / # $ % % % (!&( )", #&/ /' #&/ 1.- */, ('! / # +.(/ " #%) (,( '' ( 1# /', # "/ 91 + " (% #/8(/ + 1 $% $ % * -% %. $" " / $# # (1 /$% '+ (,+, / (! "'1 # (!- " #)+ */ #*/ $ / / /' #$ (% %.- % ( " /"#1 " (nematic phase) #$ #/8(/ )" *% % / /' #$ (% # (.(,## " */ +*/ #&/ )$/*/ #1% #% )!( % +.(/ "% '' ) *% % %.- % (%. +.(/ " (1 /#8 (.(/1% (director). "# # -// (.(/1 $( / (/".- /#8/ #/)/ $'%.% # ($/ (.+/ %.*+/ +/#% #)+ (%. /: # $. " #"1 " (smectic-a phase, sma phase) #$ $% $ )"

340 *% % / /' #$ #/8(/ #1 )" *% % %.- % (% # - $ & /!"#8(/ &#. " +.(/ " ( (.(/1. #$ #+/ / /".+/ #- / $,. &#% $*% -/ (,$. "/ * " ( (.(/1%!"#8,*/ " */ 90 #&/ # */ *#*/ /$# " #"1 " C (smectic-c phase, smc phase). /: # sma /: # smc " ( ''1 1 " #-%.- % # /' # /. #-/.. "/ /1 " (columnar phase) #$!"#8(/ (.+,##% 1'% /& 1'% (-% / (/ $! # ( "$ $). */ $/*/,!"#8/% # " #1. #$ #+/ / /+/!*% #+% #1% "% +.(/ "% */ $/*/. / "#9 "#)+ */ (,( ''&/ */ % % #$'%,:#,/ # " " "%.# %, (,$% + ''% /#8.#$% (thermotropic). $" (1 - (% (,+% ( ''(% /!" #+/ $#" *% '.#$#. +" ", (,&/ ( ''*/ / '( (lyotropic). "#(,+/ $ /#)"

341 &/ 1 $*/ ( &/. #1 #)+ */ */,/ $ &/% " (,-/* " */ ( &/ ( '+#%. (+% (,+% ( ''(% (/1.*% '+/ #' #$ ''"' '+" ($4') $,/* -%!/',-% #,-% */ (,&/ ( ''*/ +/ %.$/% "'/&/ (', &/, "'&/ &/, ( (&/ /"1% "'*/% '.&% "8(/ %!$#/% H ( */-% /%. #1 (-,/* " $( #/8(/ '-/ (,( '' ( 1# ) "/ (1 +/.*/ ('&/ # /% $( (:"'&/ /' #$% "% /!(1% "% (,,# "/ * " */ #&/ /&/, kevlar) 1 *%#1%, "/ /()" ''*/ // &/ #&/. -'%, $% $!/',$ /-/, /$#/ (- (/#'$," "% (,&/ ( ''*/ /-(/, "/ /$" " $*/ 9',&/ ( "#*/ $*%,,# " ' #1##9/"" / % (,+ ( ''(. /: 5 $## (liquid crystal) () () ()

342 / ()()(): " ) ##

343 3.1.3 (PIXEL) /! 1 )' (pixel, $ PICture ELement =! $/%) / -/ " "#" #% $/% ( #/8 "/.$/" /$% (', + ( 1#%, "'1,, (', $ + "#, -/,# '"%. / (', 1 " $/ / ($ " #1 ":"*+". /! /, ', # :" ( :"*+ (+, *% +(,.* *% #$ '1%,# #% $/%. "/.$/" /$% (', 1 $/% / &/ # "( "" "%.$/"% -/ / # 1'%,##-%.. "'" -/ - / / -/ /!..#$% */ (- */ / &% #,'%, $ & /.&/ # / #" # / / -/ /! $ '' / 9'- "/ $/ /.. #$% */ /!*/ / )&#/% $ #,&/: # ' *,1 #"!/1 #.$/" -/ *1 (scanner) /'( " /$% #- ( # / /! / #/ #1(%,,,# 2400 )' / / (ppi). "# / / (dpi) /! / / (ppi)!" #+/ #-% -% /'', '',.&% 8(/ -% -//%, ($ / '#. $, / #- (*&/, " #/ dpi ' #- "% (/% ( # / +! (*1% (.!. (/$",/*/ #'/"%). < $ / /! (!" #+/, / / *+ (/ # $/, $ '+ -' # #8 #,#$..#$% /!*/ # $/ ' #-% -% /'( ", / "-// (1 -! (,#-/ #$

344 #-% /'( "% /! #+/ / +/ *% /%.#$%, $*% # :"1 *,1 #"!/1,.!. «3 megapixel». ($ "#/ $ " #"!/1 -! /# ##+ /!, 1 *% 8+,%.#&/, $*%,.!. $/ " ". - " (1 "#/ $ " $/ -! 640 /! #1% 480.' +:% #-/*% (/'$.#$ 640 x 480 = /! (1 0,3 megapixels). M'%,4) %"4&4!4+%04* 4,2&/) #-,.% /$% /!(.$/"%.8 $ "/ /'( " "%.$/"% "/,&/ "%.$/"%.,#: /'( ".$/"%: 1024x768,,&/ #-,.%: 19 ",#-,.% /!(: 0.377mm /'( ".$/"%: 800x600,,&/ #-,.%: 17 ",#-,.% /!(: mm /'( ".$/"%: 640x480,,&/ #-,.%: 15 ",#-,.% /!(: mm * " '&&! 14") &!!4+0) %"4&4!4+%0& % 4,2&%)!8 4* LCD.$/% +( LCD (8/ # (,#-/" /'( ", /', # "/.$/". (1/ "/ /'( ", " $" $/%, ( (/, / " #-, " (/1. "/ * ", $#*%, ( 9'' # $/ */ 800x600 )'.$/" /'( "% 1280x1024 )', / (! 91% /! /!( % /!. 3, #&/" $" "% $/%. 24) 7#!/) /! # / -!(/!1#.,&/,*/. 3/%.#$% '+#/% '$,% "%, $ '" 8 -/ //$,*/ /!. 0,#%!/, '$,% "% 1.25:1 "#/ $. /! / 1,25 -% '+!- " # +:% (. '$,( "% ($/ "%) / " 9 1 ( #-% -% $/% / (', 1 #/8/ #*#-/%, %.$/% #.1 /'( "

345 &#1*/ (,$2) 03%1 24) 7#!/) 320x200 64,000 8:5 640x ,200 4:3 800x ,000 4:3 1024x ,432 4:3 1280x1024 1,310,720 5:4 1600x1200 1,920,000 4:3!%&2!/!. /! # #/!*#1 $/ -! # #1 */$"%..#"1 / &( " #"/$% (/1.*% / *+ #+ " #-, " #1 / *+ '($. 0,#%!/, # $/ & (&/ :"*/ (bits), " #-, " #1 ( # / /. $ ( / 2 8 =256, / " #1 (!" #, '($ " #1 0, #+. # -,!*#" $/,. /! # /,!" #&/% "/ $!* ", / #$ "%, " */$" ( (hue, saturation, and value:

346 HSV) '' / *+ (/1.*% $ #-%, $/, /, #' (RGB) TFT (THIN FILM TRANSISTOR)!/', thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) / # '',1 "%!/',./&/ (,&/ ( ''*/ (liquid crystal display (LCD)) "!" # "/!/', /8 '+ (#/( (thin film transistor (TFT)), "/ 9'* " "% $"% "% $/%.!/', TFT-LCD / -/% +% active matrix LCD.&% $'%.$/% LCD 9 8/ (.(/ $" " active matrix.!/', TFT LCD!" # % "' %,.$/% (', &/,./% /"&/ (', -%,!/#"!/-%!$%, ( 1# navigation, 8-% ' $ #$! #%.$/"% (,&/ ( ''*/ / (,$% + ''%. < / +, )+#*, + -/% + ''% -. #+ /!" (,$%, (!(/ (' " + " 9 / # /# " ", "'1 / #+/ /.*".+/ + (, '' +. /: /! TFT

347 $ " # #$ (% #+/ / /".+/ '+. $*% (,, /& $ "/ ''" /' #$% (% #-/ %, $*%. $,* "% #1% (% #1%, (, + '' -!(/ "/ $" / ''8(/ "/ '$" ( *$% ( / $ #- (%, /', # "/ " ( "'+ +#% ( #$8 (+%. (/&%, *'/% -/ &# (,&/ ( ''*/ #)+ + '*/ 8$/% $'* "% ( *$%, / /' #-/ & / #"/ 1/(/ " -'( " (, / $ / ',!. " $" ( *$% (. " )" (1 /', # "/ "'1 " ( #$8 &# */ (,&/ ( ''*/. 3 #.$/" (,&/ ( ''*/ / / $ $ -/ - «/(%» '*&/ '*/ (,&/ ( ''*/. /: + pixel TFT 1 $#*% (, + '' / -#(/ *%,.$/% (,&/ ( ''*/ *8/ $ )*1 ",1 *$%, " "/ * " */./&/ (,&/ ( ''*/ (!" #+/ (% /,/ # #1 '#.( * $ «/(%», " (/+ $ # /!( "% ( *$%, "/ $ " /#1 "% */$"% $'" "/ / "%.$/"%

348 /: #)! TFT $/!"#8 /', # "'$ ( (% (,+% ( ''(%, $ -/ '-,# # &/ "'*/ %.$/% +( LCD, % -!(/ " ) ",*,1 (% -! '!, $ # (! "#,*,&/ (/8 ) %.$/% +( TFT, % '+/ "/ '-/ 1 $ " $/ "% # " 91. (,&/ ( ''*/. /: ( #! ) ## & pixel tft %!"

349 /: & '! # $! (thin film transistor TFT) #% " &! $ ## %4&%"!$! 1 /'* ""'1% /-,% (/-',$"-'( ".#$"% $ " ( (1 / 9''/!&..$/" TFT */ 15 / &/ /'&/,+* 35 watt "'1% /-,%, /& " /'* "#% /!"% CRT (#/,+* 90. -#(/ '+ ',""'#,/"1 /9'. $ 9% '+ #$% $,%. 4"8/ (*% $ '+ #$ (%!%, ( ''-% & % # / (,. # ($ /$% (. / " -#(' "/ $/ (%, + (1 /!"#8 $ # / ( &/ "/ / "%.$/"% ''-% -% ($'. /.-*% " $/ (!"#8 #-/ *% -! #-! (1 / //*. # /+,. / ( 8(/,*#-% #& % "/ $/. (.,##1 /8 *% (.,##1. $" (1, $*%. +# *, -: "/ (1./&/ "% 1% $/ "%, % -(/ -// 1 $(%!1 % / /'".+/,#$ 9.%,!*% "!1 " &/,('&/ 1 ''*/ ( (&/. *-'#"!1 $/ "% / " # #-,.% "%.$/"%.,#, #.$/" CRT 17 / &/ #-, #-,.% $/ "% (

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

351 /" " ( 8 /-/ $9'"#. 0$' ( $#*%, " 1 -,!*#" $/ " # '1 (2D).$/" (,&/ ( ''*/,!" #&/%,(' "'/+,#%, / $# +/". 9-%, +, "# %.$/% +( CRT TFT TN / 1: & TFT 1."/1.$/" (twisted nematic) / " (/". #-/" /'*1.$/". /$ " ( pixel /- /' TN /,1," & / #"/ (#9/(/ /$#/ shadow-trail ghosting artifacts!- " # '$% $ % (+ ( +(.$/"%.,1," /$ "!" #1.", "# +% +% / ($ / / *+ "/ $ " #1% $'( ( +(% */!*#&/ '',&/..$/% (-(/ $ #-/",*/.- "%, *% % "/." +.(/ "

352 IPS +% IPS (in-plane switching) /+!." $ "/ Hitachi to 1996 # $ / 9'& "/,*/.- "% "/ /$ " (!&#% (!/ TN.$/%. 0$' ( " $/ " (!&#% '" 8 (1 */./&/ CRT, (/#$ +% /!#"'$ '' ($ 9'&." # - # */!$/*/.!/1 Fringe Field Switching!" #1.", "/ 9'* " "%,*/%.- "% #1%, % IPS.$/%.!/', IPS!" # (+ panel #,-.(% 20 / &/ -*% 30 / &/ LCD TV 17 / &/ -*% 52 / &/. MVA +% MVA(multi-domain vertical alignment) "#(,1." 1998 $ "/ Fujitsu & / /,*/ % IPS. /$ " pixel 1/,",$",",*/.- "% 1/ '+". "%! (:"'1 /. "# $ % "/ */$"!&#. +,!/% MVA.$/% #+/ / -(/ #,' +%,*/%.- "%, '$ 9.% ( #+(, '1!*#1 /,*,1 9.%,,1," $ "# "/!1 "!/',&/ RTC. PVA +% PVA (patterned vertical alignment) S-PVA (super patterned vertical alignment) / /''-% $ % "%!/',% MVA ( - $ "/ SAMSUNG. /+!" /)" - $#!" # "/ MVA, '' # (:"'$ '$, /. "% /* $ 3000:1.!/', PVA / /#1 (!/!" #+/ FRC.&% " S-PVA!" # ('! / 8 bit /!&# /!" # #.$(% #* "%!&#%

353 ASV +% ASV (Advanced Super View) ( "% ' Axially Symmetric Vertical Alignment /+!." $ "/ Sharp / -/ VA mode $( #$ */ (,&/ ( ''*/ /'8/ $( # ($ *# " off. To (-pixel "% 9 "% / (/!&% '(##-/ # "'$.&% /* -!#$"!1 "'( -/ ( (-pixel. </ / On #$ ( ''(!8(/ / #/+/ % -/ */ (-Pixel '$,* ( "'+ (. 8#(.1,*/ #% (/!&% # -' # "/ ",*/.- "%

354 3.3. PLASMA "'/1 $/ "!/',% ' #% 1/ # + " ( / "#( ( ''/$% "% #1% " $ / " (1 #% ( (1% $/ "% ". '+// $ -/ / '+ #&/ '#1*/ /-(, -//,. /! ( ", 1 " &"!" 1 ( (1 $/ "% # /'( " /!!&#% '. $ $ #-! 1#, " )-')" -! 1 "/!/', ' #% /1 $, "/ $/ " $/*/ (:"'1% (/%, $, "/ ' 1 $ " */!*#*/, /& "/,#1.* # $ % '+% '+ %, "/ (1 */ '&/./&/ #,'(#,-.(%. 0'+ '$,%,/ % #-% #%, " /-!/',!& */./&/, "/ /#8$#/" PLASMA, ( #8 # ''% ($*% LCD, TFT, FED, LCoS, LEP, PALC) -!(/ *% $! / 9'(/ #% ( (-% $/ "% #!" "/ #,'" $/ (#-! 60 / %), #$ 9.% (6 / %, "'1 ( 15 ), "/ '+ '1,*# $/% " #,'",*/.- "%. "/ /# (%.$/% plasma "/ '(/ $ -/ - " / #+, /#8 plasma. $/ %.$/% ' #%!"#8 $!'% # +% '#1%. #+, / % +!&#% 8(/ -/ /!.. -/% $ (% '#1% (+% / -/%,('/%.'#%, ( ( -/ $ % -)" '(-% / *#-/% # &!&#% $/(, /( 1 #', /& " -" '( / /" # /' #$ "/ 1 / "%.$/"%..'# ( -!(/ # #)" (,/&/ */ (/- )-/) ($!#"'1 ". </!( (+% (%.'#(% "'1 /-, (:"'1% "%, $ (,/1 -,/ -#(/ (&" /9'. '($#/" (&" /9' # " "%, #$ ( * $( ( 9!&# */.'#*/, '&/% - "/ #1 *$% ( /!(!&#%# ($ ( * $(

355 PLASMA % (#9-% "' % -/ #,' '1.% $ * 8( % (% ( pixels), *9'+/ +#*/ # % /'-% ( /(/ $ 1# video. $ ( 1# (!(/ $*% # /* 9!&#. pixel "%.$/"%, /, #' $/ # +/. " (&/ */!*#*/ % / %,, $'!*#$ # , "/ $/ " # ' # / /!"# " $/ $ *% ( -#(/ # -% ",-% # " 91. ( /#-/( (. #+. /$! /$#/ ($ (. #+ / -/ ' #, "'1 - ( ' $ (/" $/, $ '+. "'$/. $%,*,1% ' #% / $'(.%. (/". #-/ - ( ' *%,/* $/ $ (- #, /!.+/ '+. "'$/ # (,!$/*% # ", '+. "'$/!+// $ "/ "'1 ", (,+/ # #, # % + % (-% '(.&/(/ '' "'$/ ( $#(. 3 #-/(/. #-/ $/ (+ -!(/! "'$/), /& "'$/ ( '(.&."/ -/ *% '+.. ' # #- $ / "'$ +#, /" #-/ *#, /+/ % %!-% ( ' #% #.$, /&. #-/ *#, /+/ % % /" #-/%!-%. % #/1 % (-%, *# (,+/ (/!&% -/# ''. (,+ % (-%,(/ # ( ( ' # (:"'$% /,-%.#%, $/ ' (,/ -#(/ $ *%. '- "/ /* $/. # */!*/ 7-// -/, / ( (!" #+/ %.$/% ' #%, -#(/ (*% *$/ "%!1% ( (&(% $/,/. *$/ ( / $ #, '' #+/ # " (% / '- (/ /-%,- % % ",+/ ' #1 + *$%, $*%. +# *

356 //-% (/.1% -/ - ' (*% $ #!*%. ($ (#9/,. # '#9/.#$ */*/ (. #-/*/ *#*/ / (1/ ( $#() "'/*/ (/" #-/*/ *#*/,+* $ / (1/). "'$/ -/ ''-%!-%,+* $ / (1/ ( $#( ( /#8/ 9%. # 9 -! (,#-/".#" /-,%. </ -/ "'$/ ( 9 # *1 9!#"'1% /-,% 1 '-/ /-, (# #,1 "'1% "% 1 $ ( " # '' *# 1 # ".#$"%) $ #" 9 #,'+"% /-,%. 1 $#*% " ( 1 (.- " / 9!#"'$"% /-,%,,#1. -: (! 9 $/, '(.&//% $#*% '-/ $ /-,% (! '9, # " #1 */(, "'1 */1% /9'%. /:

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

358 /" "/!1. '$, ($ "!1 " */./&/ ' #% # / (/, + (!(/ ''-%!-% $( /8 #, #,'!/$ "#. 8*1% (% #&/ $/ '(,+/ #-, "% */$"% (%. -% (1% ".$/" / #" ( #" (/&%!" ". 9$% $# $ % /!%.$/% (,&/ ( ''*/. $ #,-." #,'+ */ 32 / &/ "/ #1 ), +,*,1 #,'( #,-.(%./&/ (,&/ ( ''*/ / $# ' PLASMA.$/% ' #% (8/ $ + '%,('+ $ " ',*/!' &/ /# (%, #,# /&/ */ ($*% )-/, /-,,$, 1')!#"'1 ". ''"'!* # +/ "/.$/" # ' 1 /! (pixels) (.-/ -! " 1 ( $" #,#% */. /1 "'$ /+/ "% /# %,('/% '% $ % ( #-% */ '&/. 3 "#(, -/% /"$% /% # (/,#-/%,. -/ '. "'$ 9''/ $ #/*$ "'$ ('$ $ -/ ($ &# $ ) ( #,/" (. "/ /," ". '+ " */ /!*/ "'*/, ( 8$/( ( $(( ( / $ (,#-/ '. </ + ( "'$ ".+/ # " - ( 9 #- ' /8 " (/-!, (&"% /9' (, & ( (! *$ #-% ( '+ % "/ )*1 # (,('/( /'. 3 (,/&% $ / / #$ ( * $(, $ *% ( 9'-.1%. % -,!*#%.$/% ' #%. ' ( - ', -/,. 9 $!&#: $/ R, / G #'.. ( - ' -! $ ( & ( /9' "/ /!"!*#1 /9' (

359 "'$, $ "/ ''"'" " */ */ "#(, (/( #$% $/(, /( #', /$% / / 1!&# ($*% / "/ /* $/) PLASMA </ ( # (:"'1 (/#+ /# #$% * "'$ -!(# # "'1 -/* ", (, (&" /9', " /% /* (% * $(%, (%,. " -, " ( -#(/!" $ (% *%, $*%,/ " (/". #-/" * " "%,/* 1% #%.1% '(!/%. -/ " ( *$% ( -# $. ( (.#8 # " "% -/* "%, " # # " "% / '-,! # + $(%. &% / " 1," " C $( % (% / # '# /& */ "% %, /', # /.#$ */ */ + "-/ " ( *$%. +% $% / " 1," " DC $( '#$% -, "% / (/!1%.8 " "% -/* "%. '',1 ( /* /$#/(

360 PDP(Plasma Display Panel) / "!/', LC(Plasma Addressed Liquid Crystal) ( )/" $ "/ ektronix #$8 $ " S (/, # " SR " ILIPS. (1!" # (,+% ( ''(% / /9(/ #"'1 1," " '' # 1," " $ -/* " ( # -' #/ '( + " (1. $% $ % /* '',-% (!(/ L(Electroluminescent) FED(Field Emission Display). 0- $#*% $ %!/',-% /#% % %,(/.$/% ' #% (-% -!/ $# 16:9, "'1 # '$, '(&/ 1.78:1, % #&/ '+ /.&/ $,# ()/ "/ $'( " "% $/%. "% -/ '' '+ *!" $ */ /-*/./&/ /!% (% / )/ 16,# #% / ''-% (')% "/.-" " (% #-!&. ",+#/ 75!$/, " #,'" ':" */ "' */ -!! # 9 " "/!/', */ *'1/*/.&/ /*/ (CRT ). 1# $#*% (! ".$/" ' #% # # 1!/',. # "'$ " CRT, -/ (9$' "'/*/ )+ # - #" "'/*/, #- -/,('/ $/ *'1/. "'$/!(+/ # * 8( &/ ( &/ 9 / # /$ #-% ( *'1/, "/.$/",,(/. "/ -, " */ $#*/ ( * 8(/ -# $ *%. "'1 $/, $ / * #$ ( -# $ #1# "% * 8( % '(:"% "%.$/"%..!&"%!1 "%.$/"% -! * 8/% $(% ( /!+/ 9!&# /, #' $/. (/( #$% (&/ */ &/ 9 &/!*#*/ ( -#/ +% (/( #+% / */, "/ (/'1-,!*#" $/.. *'1/%,(/ (% $/% '' -!(/ -/ "#/$ #/-"#. /,&%. 0#-/( /H()1 (# +% "%.$/"%, - "% /H ()1 (# #1% ( *'1/, & / & (# " - #" */ "'/*/ / "!& / $' "# "%.$/"%. (/&%. "'$ " CRT # #,'".$/",. - / 8(,8 '+ / / '+ #,'( $,(

361 0$ #/ " # /- /''1 '+ ". ".$/" ' #%. "' % (+ ( +(, -!(/ #,'%.$/% ''!% (% / #$'% 15 cm "0!/) %"2&/) - 7-// -/ # "'$ " ' #% -!/ /%!'% #!4+%0, ( /."#-/% #)+ +,('/*/ '&/. #1" "'$ / "% #((#-/ / /(=% #)+ */ '&/ % + '(-% */ (:'*/. /1%"!(27 7%8,*&/) 9 / * $! #1% "%.%,('/"% '%. /1 /1%"!(27 %"2&/) 9''/ $ -/ #/*$ 7/1%"!("2 *1"2 '+/ $ (4!!%*!"2!(-$ 43%704*!4* $&/04*,.+/ /* $!, #1% "% # /1%,('/"% '%. + +/' "'*/ // #1% '% '$'""% "%.$/"%. "'$ $/ "% /,#-/ 8$/% -%

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

Το άτομο του Υδρογόνου

Το άτομο του Υδρογόνου Το άτομο του Υδρογόνου Δυναμικό Coulomb Εξίσωση Schrödinger h e (, r, ) (, r, ) E (, r, ) m ψ θφ r ψ θφ = ψ θφ Συνθήκες ψ(, r θφ, ) = πεπερασμένη ψ( r ) = 0 ψ(, r θφ, ) =ψ(, r θφ+, ) π Επιτρεπτές ενέργειες

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Αλληλεπίδραση ακτίνων-χ με την ύλη

Αλληλεπίδραση ακτίνων-χ με την ύλη Άσκηση 8 Αλληλεπίδραση ακτίνων-χ με την ύλη Δ. Φ. Αναγνωστόπουλος Τμήμα Μηχανικών Επιστήμης Υλικών Πανεπιστήμιο Ιωαννίνων Ιωάννινα 2013 Άσκηση 8 ii Αλληλεπίδραση ακτίνων-χ με την ύλη Πίνακας περιεχομένων

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΠΗΓΕΣ ΦΩΤΟΣ. Φωτεινές πηγές µε βαση ηµιαγώγιµαυλικά. Αρχές ηµιαγώγιµων laser και LED:

ΠΗΓΕΣ ΦΩΤΟΣ. Φωτεινές πηγές µε βαση ηµιαγώγιµαυλικά. Αρχές ηµιαγώγιµων laser και LED: ΠΗΓΕΣ ΦΩΤΟΣ Φωτεινές πηγές µε βαση ηµιαγώγιµαυλικά Αρχές ηµιαγώγιµων laser και LED: Laser diode Distributed Feedback (DFB) Distributed Bragg Reflector (DBR) Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Light (VCSEL)

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΓΗ ΚΑΙ ΣΥΜΠΑΝ. Εικόνα 1. Φωτογραφία του γαλαξία μας (από αρχείο της NASA)

ΓΗ ΚΑΙ ΣΥΜΠΑΝ. Εικόνα 1. Φωτογραφία του γαλαξία μας (από αρχείο της NASA) ΓΗ ΚΑΙ ΣΥΜΠΑΝ Φύση του σύμπαντος Η γη είναι μία μονάδα μέσα στο ηλιακό μας σύστημα, το οποίο αποτελείται από τον ήλιο, τους πλανήτες μαζί με τους δορυφόρους τους, τους κομήτες, τα αστεροειδή και τους μετεωρίτες.

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

H επεξεργασία πληροφορίας απαιτεί ανίχνευση πληροφορίας

H επεξεργασία πληροφορίας απαιτεί ανίχνευση πληροφορίας Ανιχνευτές οπτοηλεκτρονικής H επεξεργασία πληροφορίας απαιτεί ανίχνευση πληροφορίας Ανίχνευση σημάτων με οπτικές συχνότητες (10 14 Hz) το φώς ηλεκτρικό σήμα ενίσχυση + ανίχνευση με FET, διπολικά τρανζίστορ,

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Το πυρίτιο είναι ο πιο σημαντικός ημιαγωγός για τα ηλεκτρονικά στοιχεία σήμερα

Το πυρίτιο είναι ο πιο σημαντικός ημιαγωγός για τα ηλεκτρονικά στοιχεία σήμερα Τα Hμιαγώγιμα υλικά Το πυρίτιο είναι ο πιο σημαντικός ημιαγωγός για τα ηλεκτρονικά στοιχεία σήμερα 200 mm and 300 mm Si wafers. GaAs χρησιμοποιείται σε ηλεκτρονικές και οπτοηλεκτρονικές εφαρμογές υψηλής

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Tunable Diode Lasers. Turning Laser Diodes into Diode Lasers. Mode selection. Laser diodes

Tunable Diode Lasers. Turning Laser Diodes into Diode Lasers. Mode selection. Laser diodes Tunable Diode Lasers Turning Laser Diodes into Diode Lasers Laser diodes Mode selection FP diodes high power at low cost AR diodes for best performance Compact and robust Littrow setup Highest power from

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Appendix B Table of Radionuclides Γ Container 1 Posting Level cm per (mci) mci

Appendix B Table of Radionuclides Γ Container 1 Posting Level cm per (mci) mci 3 H 12.35 Y β Low 80 1 - - Betas: 19 (100%) 11 C 20.38 M β+, EC Low 400 1 5.97 13.7 13 N 9.97 M β+ Low 1 5.97 13.7 Positrons: 960 (99.7%) Gaas: 511 (199.5%) Positrons: 1,199 (99.8%) Gaas: 511 (199.6%)

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Νόµοςπεριοδικότητας του Moseley:Η χηµική συµπεριφορά (οι ιδιότητες) των στοιχείων είναι περιοδική συνάρτηση του ατοµικού τους αριθµού.

Νόµοςπεριοδικότητας του Moseley:Η χηµική συµπεριφορά (οι ιδιότητες) των στοιχείων είναι περιοδική συνάρτηση του ατοµικού τους αριθµού. Νόµοςπεριοδικότητας του Moseley:Η χηµική συµπεριφορά (οι ιδιότητες) των στοιχείων είναι περιοδική συνάρτηση του ατοµικού τους αριθµού. Περιοδικός πίνακας: α. Είναι µια ταξινόµηση των στοιχείων κατά αύξοντα

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΜΕΛΕΤΗ ΚΑΙ ΠΡΟΣΟΜΟΙΩΣΗ ΙΑΜΟΡΦΩΣΕΩΝ ΣΕ ΨΗΦΙΑΚΑ ΣΥΣΤΗΜΑΤΑ ΕΠΙΚΟΙΝΩΝΙΩΝ.

ΜΕΛΕΤΗ ΚΑΙ ΠΡΟΣΟΜΟΙΩΣΗ ΙΑΜΟΡΦΩΣΕΩΝ ΣΕ ΨΗΦΙΑΚΑ ΣΥΣΤΗΜΑΤΑ ΕΠΙΚΟΙΝΩΝΙΩΝ. Τµήµα Ηλεκτρονικής ΜΕΛΕΤΗ ΚΑΙ ΠΡΟΣΟΜΟΙΩΣΗ ΙΑΜΟΡΦΩΣΕΩΝ ΣΕ ΨΗΦΙΑΚΑ ΣΥΣΤΗΜΑΤΑ ΕΠΙΚΟΙΝΩΝΙΩΝ. Σπουδαστής: Γαρεφαλάκης Ιωσήφ Α.Μ. 3501 Επιβλέπων καθηγητής : Ασκορδαλάκης Παντελής. -Χανιά 2010- ΠΕΡΙΛΗΨΗ : Η παρούσα

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Δίκτυα Απευθείας Ζεύξης

Δίκτυα Απευθείας Ζεύξης Δίκτυα Απευθείας Ζεύξης Επικοινωνία μεταξύ δύο υπολογιστώνοιοποίοιείναι απευθείας συνδεδεμένοι Φυσικό Επίπεδο. Περίληψη Ζεύξεις σημείου προς σημείο (point-to-point links) Ανάλυση σημάτων Μέγιστη χωρητικότητα

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

GENEVA Sound System. Model M - L - XL GENEVA. www.apopsissound.gr 1

GENEVA Sound System. Model M - L - XL GENEVA. www.apopsissound.gr 1 GENEVA Sound System Model M - L - XL GENEVA www.apopsissound.gr 1 . : μ, μ, μ μ. μ μ. μ 1). 2). 3). 4). 5) μ. 6) μ μ μ. 7) μ. μ μ. 8) μ μ μ, μ, μ, ( μ μ μ ) μ. 9) μ μ μ μ. 10) μ μ. 11) μ μ μ μ. 12) μ,

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Οπτικές Ιδιότητες των Υλικών

Οπτικές Ιδιότητες των Υλικών Οπτικές Ιδιότητες των Υλικών -Προέρχονται από την επίδραση της Ηλεκτρομαγνητικής Ακτινοβολίας με τα Υλικά -Οπτικά φαινόμενα είναι: Απορρόφηση, διάθλαση, Εκπομπή φωτός (φθορισμός φωσφορισμός), αλλαγή της

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΒΕΣ 04: Συµπίεση και Μετάδοση Πολυµέσων. Βίντεο (Video) Περιεχόµενα. Βιβλιογραφία. Καγιάφας [2000]: Κεφάλαιο 5, [link]

ΒΕΣ 04: Συµπίεση και Μετάδοση Πολυµέσων. Βίντεο (Video) Περιεχόµενα. Βιβλιογραφία. Καγιάφας [2000]: Κεφάλαιο 5, [link] ΒΕΣ 04: Συµπίεση και Μετάδοση Πολυµέσων Βίντεο (Video) Περιεχόµενα Εισαγωγή Βίντεο και πολυµεσικές εφαρµογές Αναπαράσταση Βίντεο Πρότυπα αναλογικού βίντεο Ψηφιακό βίντεο Πρότυπα ελεγκτών αναπαράστασης

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΤΕΧΝΙΚΕΣ ΠΡΟ ΙΑΓΡΑΦΕΣ ΕΞΟΠΛΙΣΜΟΥ

ΤΕΧΝΙΚΕΣ ΠΡΟ ΙΑΓΡΑΦΕΣ ΕΞΟΠΛΙΣΜΟΥ ΤΕΧΝΙΚΕΣ ΠΡΟ ΙΑΓΡΑΦΕΣ ΕΞΟΠΛΙΣΜΟΥ Α. κεντρικός εξυπηρετητής τεµάχια : 5 (πέντε) Ολα τα µέρη του προσφερόµενου εξοπλισµού να είναι του ιδίου κατασκευαστή. Αριθµός µονάδων. 5 Τα τµήµατα που συνθέτουν το σύστηµα

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΗ ΔΗΜΟΚΡΑΤΙΑ Ν. Φιλ/φεια: 27 /11/2015 ΠΕΡΙΦΕΡΕΙΑ ΑΤΤΙΚΗΣ Αριθμ. Πρωτ: 24142 ΔΗΜΟΣ ΦΙΛΑΔΕΛΦΕΙΑΣ-ΧΑΛΚΗΔΟΝΟΣ Α Ν Α Κ Ο Ι Ν Ω Σ Η

ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΗ ΔΗΜΟΚΡΑΤΙΑ Ν. Φιλ/φεια: 27 /11/2015 ΠΕΡΙΦΕΡΕΙΑ ΑΤΤΙΚΗΣ Αριθμ. Πρωτ: 24142 ΔΗΜΟΣ ΦΙΛΑΔΕΛΦΕΙΑΣ-ΧΑΛΚΗΔΟΝΟΣ Α Ν Α Κ Ο Ι Ν Ω Σ Η ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΗ ΔΗΜΟΚΡΑΤΙΑ Ν. Φιλ/φεια: 27 /11/2015 ΠΕΡΙΦΕΡΕΙΑ ΑΤΤΙΚΗΣ Αριθμ. Πρωτ: 24142 ΔΗΜΟΣ ΦΙΛΑΔΕΛΦΕΙΑΣ-ΧΑΛΚΗΔΟΝΟΣ Α Ν Α Κ Ο Ι Ν Ω Σ Η Διενέργειας για την εκτέλεση προμήθειας < ΕΞΟΠΛΙΣΜΟΥ ΕΙΚΑΣΤΙΚΟΥ ΕΡΓΑΣΤΗΡΙΟΥ>

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Overview of optoelectronic devices

Overview of optoelectronic devices Overview of optoelectronic devices LEDs Laser diodes Optical amplifiers Photodetectors Photovoltaics-Solar Cells Light Modulators ίοδος εκποµπής φωτός ιάταξη που εκπέµπει αυθόρµητα φως λόγω έγχυσης των

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Διεργασίες Παραγωγής Ηλεκτρονικών Υλικών Ενότητα 1: Εισαγωγή-Ημιαγωγοί-Ολοκληρωμένα Κυκλώματα

Διεργασίες Παραγωγής Ηλεκτρονικών Υλικών Ενότητα 1: Εισαγωγή-Ημιαγωγοί-Ολοκληρωμένα Κυκλώματα Διεργασίες Παραγωγής Ηλεκτρονικών Υλικών Ενότητα 1: Εισαγωγή-Ημιαγωγοί-Ολοκληρωμένα Κυκλώματα Δημήτριος Ματαράς Πολυτεχνική Σχολή Τμήμα Χημικών Μηχανικών Λίγη Ιστορία 1905 Δίοδος Λυχνία Κενού (J. Ambrose

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΠΡΟΔΙΑΓΡΑΦΕ ΕΞΟΠΛΙΜΟΥ ΠΡΟ ΠΡΟΜΗΘΕΙΑ ΠΙΝΑΚΑ ΠΡΟΥΠΟΛΟΓΙΜΟΥ

ΠΡΟΔΙΑΓΡΑΦΕ ΕΞΟΠΛΙΜΟΥ ΠΡΟ ΠΡΟΜΗΘΕΙΑ ΠΙΝΑΚΑ ΠΡΟΥΠΟΛΟΓΙΜΟΥ ΠΡΟΔΙΑΓΡΑΦΕ ΕΞΟΠΛΙΜΟΥ ΠΡΟ ΠΡΟΜΗΘΕΙΑ ΠΙΝΑΚΑ ΠΡΟΥΠΟΛΟΓΙΜΟΥ 1 ΡΟΔΙΑΓΑΦΕΣ ΕΞΟΡΛΙΣΜΟΥ ΤΠΟΛΟΓΙΣΕ (ΕΠΙΣΡΑΠΕΖΙΟΙ ΚΑΙ ΥΟΡΗΣΟΙ) ΜΗΦΑΝΕ ΓΡΑΥΕΙΟΤ/ ΤΚΕΤΕ ΗΦΟΤ ΚΑΙ ΕΙΚΟΝΑ Κωδικός 1: PC INTEL ΚΟΥΤΙ ΥΡΟΛΟΓΙΣΤΘ Θα είναι

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΝΟΜΟΣ ΤΗΣ ΠΕΡΙΟ ΙΚΟΤΗΤΑΣ : Οι ιδιότητες των χηµικών στοιχείων είναι περιοδική συνάρτηση του ατοµικού τους αριθµού.

ΝΟΜΟΣ ΤΗΣ ΠΕΡΙΟ ΙΚΟΤΗΤΑΣ : Οι ιδιότητες των χηµικών στοιχείων είναι περιοδική συνάρτηση του ατοµικού τους αριθµού. 1. Ο ΠΕΡΙΟ ΙΚΟΣ ΠΙΝΑΚΑΣ Οι άνθρωποι από την φύση τους θέλουν να πετυχαίνουν σπουδαία αποτελέσµατα καταναλώνοντας το λιγότερο δυνατό κόπο και χρόνο. Για το σκοπό αυτό προσπαθούν να οµαδοποιούν τα πράγµατα

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Electrical Specifications at T AMB =25 C DC VOLTS (V) MAXIMUM POWER (dbm) DYNAMIC RANGE IP3 (dbm) (db) Output (1 db Comp.) at 2 f U. Typ.

Electrical Specifications at T AMB =25 C DC VOLTS (V) MAXIMUM POWER (dbm) DYNAMIC RANGE IP3 (dbm) (db) Output (1 db Comp.) at 2 f U. Typ. Surface Mount Monolithic Amplifiers High Directivity, 50Ω, 0.5 to 5.9 GHz Features 3V & 5V operation micro-miniature size.1"x.1" no external biasing circuit required internal DC blocking at RF input &

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Auto Daylight Synchro (Αυτόματος Συγχρονισμός Φωτός ημέρας) Clear Photo LCD

Auto Daylight Synchro (Αυτόματος Συγχρονισμός Φωτός ημέρας) Clear Photo LCD A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 1-9 Κλείδωμα AE Τεχνολογία AGCS AR Coat (Επικάλυψη AR) Auto Review Cancel (Ακύρωση Αυτόματης ανασκόπησης) AF Illuminator (Φωτιστής ΑF) Διάφραγμα Auto

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΑΝΑΡΤΗΤΕΑ ΣΤΟ ΔΙΑΔΙΚΤΥΟ

ΑΝΑΡΤΗΤΕΑ ΣΤΟ ΔΙΑΔΙΚΤΥΟ ΔΙΚΤΥΟ ΚΟΙΝΩΝΙΚΗΣ ΑΛΛΗΛΕΓΓΥΗΣ ΝΟΜΑΡΧΙΑΣ ΞΑΝΘΗΣ 'Η ΣΤΗΡΙΞΗ' Πληροφ. κ Αλατζά Κυριακή Τηλ. 2542350120 ΕΥΡΩΠΑΪΚΗ ΕΝΩΣΗ ΕΥΡΩΠΑΪΚΗ ΕΠΙΤΡΟΠΗ ΑΝΑΡΤΗΤΕΑ ΣΤΟ ΔΙΑΔΙΚΤΥΟ The Programme is co-funded by the European

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Αξιολόγηση Ημιαγώγιμων Υμενίων Σεληνιούχου Καδμίου Σε Υπόστρωμα Νικελίου Για Φωτοβολταϊκές Εφαρμογές

Αξιολόγηση Ημιαγώγιμων Υμενίων Σεληνιούχου Καδμίου Σε Υπόστρωμα Νικελίου Για Φωτοβολταϊκές Εφαρμογές ΕΘΝΙΚΟ ΜΕΤΣΟΒΙΟ ΠΟΛΥΤΕΧΝΕΙΟ ΣΧΟΛΗ ΗΛΕΚΤΡΟΛΟΓΩΝ ΜΗΧΑΝΙΚΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΜΗΧΑΝΙΚΩΝ ΥΠΟΛΟΓΙΣΤΩΝ ΤΟΜΕΑΣ ΣΥΣΤΗΜΑΤΩΝ ΜΕΤΑΔΟΣΗΣ ΠΛΗΡΟΦΟΡΙΑΣ ΚΑΙ ΤΕΧΝΟΛΟΓΙΑΣ ΥΛΙΚΩΝ Αξιολόγηση Ημιαγώγιμων Υμενίων Σεληνιούχου Καδμίου Σε Υπόστρωμα

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

(1) Describe the process by which mercury atoms become excited in a fluorescent tube (3)

(1) Describe the process by which mercury atoms become excited in a fluorescent tube (3) Q1. (a) A fluorescent tube is filled with mercury vapour at low pressure. In order to emit electromagnetic radiation the mercury atoms must first be excited. (i) What is meant by an excited atom? (1) (ii)

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΤΕΧΝΟΛΟΓΙΑ CD-DVD Ανάπτυξη Υποστηρικτικού Εκπαιδευτικού Λογισµικού Πολυµέσων

ΤΕΧΝΟΛΟΓΙΑ CD-DVD Ανάπτυξη Υποστηρικτικού Εκπαιδευτικού Λογισµικού Πολυµέσων ΑΡΙΣΤΟΤΕΛΕΙΟ ΠΑΝΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΙΟ ΘΕΣΣΑΛΟΝΙΚΗΣ ΣΧΟΛΗ ΘΕΤΙΚΩΝ ΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΩΝ ΤΜΗΜΑ ΠΛΗΡΟΦΟΡΙΚΗΣ ΙΠΛΩΜΑΤΙΚΗ ΕΡΓΑΣΙΑ Ανθούλα Μπαµπούλη Α.Ε.Μ 512 ΤΕΧΝΟΛΟΓΙΑ CD-DVD Ανάπτυξη Υποστηρικτικού Εκπαιδευτικού Λογισµικού Πολυµέσων

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Κεφάλαιο 1 Αφαιρετικότητα και Τεχνολογία Υπολογιστών (Computer Abstractions and Technology)

Κεφάλαιο 1 Αφαιρετικότητα και Τεχνολογία Υπολογιστών (Computer Abstractions and Technology) Κεφάλαιο 1 Αφαιρετικότητα και Τεχνολογία Υπολογιστών (Computer Abstractions and Technology) 1 Υπολογιστές Οι υπολογιστές μπορούν να χωριστούν σε τρεις κατηγορίες, βάση της εφαρμογής τους: Επιτραπέζιοι

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Ι ΙΟΤΗΤΕΣ ΤΩΝ ΑΤΟΜΩΝ. Παππάς Χρήστος Επίκουρος Καθηγητής

Ι ΙΟΤΗΤΕΣ ΤΩΝ ΑΤΟΜΩΝ. Παππάς Χρήστος Επίκουρος Καθηγητής ΗΛΕΚΤΡΟΝΙΚΗ ΟΜΗ ΚΑΙ Ι ΙΟΤΗΤΕΣ ΤΩΝ ΑΤΟΜΩΝ Παππάς Χρήστος Επίκουρος Καθηγητής ΤΟ ΜΕΓΕΘΟΣ ΤΩΝ ΑΤΟΜΩΝ Ατομική ακτίνα (r) : ½ της απόστασης μεταξύ δύο ομοιοπυρηνικών ατόμων, ενωμένων με απλό ομοιοπολικό δεσμό.

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

OPTO Table of Contents v TABLE OF CONTENTS

OPTO Table of Contents v TABLE OF CONTENTS OPTO Table of Contents v TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 INTRODUCTION... 1 2.0 OPTOELECTRONIC SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES... 3 2.1 Laser Diodes... 3 2.1.1 Semiconductor Laser Fundamentals... 3 2.1.2 Semiconductor Laser

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Metal Oxide Leaded Film Resistor

Metal Oxide Leaded Film Resistor Features -Excellent Long-Time stability -High surge / overload capability -Wide resistance range : 0.1Ω~22MΩ -Controlled temperature coefficient -Resistance standard tolerance: ±5% (consult factory for

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

2.5 GHz SILICON MMIC WIDE-BAND AMPLIFIER

2.5 GHz SILICON MMIC WIDE-BAND AMPLIFIER . GHz SILICON MMIC WIDE-BAND AMPLIFIER UPC79T FEATURES WIDE FREQUENCY RESPONSE:. GHz 3 GAIN vs. FREQUENCY HIGH GAIN: 3 db (UPC79T) SATURATED OUTPUT POWER: +. dbm (UPC79T) INTERNAL CURRENT REGULATION MINIMIZES

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

τροχιακά Η στιβάδα καθορίζεται από τον κύριο κβαντικό αριθµό (n) Η υποστιβάδα καθορίζεται από τους δύο πρώτους κβαντικούς αριθµούς (n, l)

τροχιακά Η στιβάδα καθορίζεται από τον κύριο κβαντικό αριθµό (n) Η υποστιβάδα καθορίζεται από τους δύο πρώτους κβαντικούς αριθµούς (n, l) ΑΤΟΜΙΚΑ ΤΡΟΧΙΑΚΑ Σχέση κβαντικών αριθµών µε στιβάδες υποστιβάδες - τροχιακά Η στιβάδα καθορίζεται από τον κύριο κβαντικό αριθµό (n) Η υποστιβάδα καθορίζεται από τους δύο πρώτους κβαντικούς αριθµούς (n,

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

SOLO. intelligent security systems

SOLO. intelligent security systems SOLO intelligent security systems ΕΝΘ.1 HIK VISION ANALOG PICADIS SYSTEM DS-2CE15C2P(N)-VFIT3Bullet 720 TVL High Resolution Vari-focal 1/3'' PICADIS,1.3 MP, DS-2CE15C2P-IR DS-2CE55C2P-IRM 1280 (H) 960

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

QUICKTRONIC PROFESSIONAL QTP5

QUICKTRONIC PROFESSIONAL QTP5 osram.com QUICKTRONIC PROFESSIONA QTP5 ECG for T5/ 16mm, T8/ 26mm, DUUX fluorescent lamps QTP5 i.e. UMIUX T5 HO ES 01 Product Features: Up to 100.000 hours lifetime 1 amp start with optimized filament

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

2 - Κάμερες και χρώμα

2 - Κάμερες και χρώμα 2 - Κάμερες και χρώμα H κάμερα Επισκόπηση Το μοντέλο σημειακής οπής (Pinhole) Ποιοτικά χαρακτηριστικά Πίνακας προοπτικής προβολής Κάμερες με φακούς Εστιακό βάθος Οπτικό πεδίο Παραμορφώσεις φακού Ψηφιακές

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

EUROPEAN TERRITORIAL COOPERATION PROGRAMME GREECE ITALY 2007-2013

EUROPEAN TERRITORIAL COOPERATION PROGRAMME GREECE ITALY 2007-2013 ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΗ ΔΗΜΟΚΡΑΣΙΑ ΠΑΝΕΠΙΣΗΜΙΟ ΠΑΣΡΩΝ ΕΙΔΙΚΟ ΛΟΓΑΡΙΑΜΟ ΚΟΝΔΤΛΙΩΝ ΕΡΕΤΝΑ Π.Δ. 432/81 ΣΗΛ: 2610/996660 FAX: 2610/996677 E-mail: rescom@upatras.gr http://research.upatras.gr Πάτρα,.26/06/2012 EUROPEAN TERRITORIAL

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Η ΦΩΤΟΛΙΘΟΓΡΑΦΙΑ & ΟΙ ΕΞΕΛΙΞΕΙΣ ΤΗΣ. Ε. Κ. Παλούρα, Καθηγήτρια ΠΜΣ «Φυσική & τεχνολογία υλικών» Τμήμα Φυσικής ΑΠΘ

Η ΦΩΤΟΛΙΘΟΓΡΑΦΙΑ & ΟΙ ΕΞΕΛΙΞΕΙΣ ΤΗΣ. Ε. Κ. Παλούρα, Καθηγήτρια ΠΜΣ «Φυσική & τεχνολογία υλικών» Τμήμα Φυσικής ΑΠΘ Η ΦΩΤΟΛΙΘΟΓΡΑΦΙΑ & ΟΙ ΕΞΕΛΙΞΕΙΣ ΤΗΣ 1 Ε. Κ. Παλούρα, Καθηγήτρια ΠΜΣ «Φυσική & τεχνολογία υλικών» Τμήμα Φυσικής ΑΠΘ ΦΩΤΟΛΙΘΟΓΡΑΦΙΑ Για την κατασκευή διατάξεων, π.χ. τρανζίστορ, απαιτείται μία σειρά από

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Εισαγωγή στη Μικροηλεκτρονική 1. Στοιχειακοί ηµιαγωγοί

Εισαγωγή στη Μικροηλεκτρονική 1. Στοιχειακοί ηµιαγωγοί Εισαγωγή στη Μικροηλεκτρονική 1 Στοιχειακοί ηµιαγωγοί Εισαγωγή στη Μικροηλεκτρονική Οµοιοπολικοί δεσµοί στο πυρίτιο Κρυσταλλική δοµή Πυριτίου ιάσταση κύβου για το Si: 0.543 nm Εισαγωγή στη Μικροηλεκτρονική

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΠΕΡΙΟΔΙΚΟΣ ΠΙΝΑΚΑΣ ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ

ΠΕΡΙΟΔΙΚΟΣ ΠΙΝΑΚΑΣ ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ΠΕΡΙΟΔΙΚΟΣ ΠΙΝΑΚΑΣ ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ Περίοδοι περιοδικού πίνακα Ο περιοδικός πίνακας αποτελείται από 7 περιόδους. Ο αριθμός των στοιχείων που περιλαμβάνει κάθε περίοδος δεν είναι σταθερός, δηλ. η περιοδικότητα

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Fundamental Physical Constants Extensive Listing Relative std. Quantity Symbol Value Unit uncert. u r

Fundamental Physical Constants Extensive Listing Relative std. Quantity Symbol Value Unit uncert. u r UNIVERSAL speed of light in vacuum c, c 0 299 792 458 m s 1 exact magnetic constant µ 0 4π 10 7 N A 2 = 12.566 370 614... 10 7 N A 2 exact electric constant 1/µ 0 c 2 ɛ 0 8.854 187 817... 10 12 F m 1 exact

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

DULUX L LUMILUX IMPROVED LIFETIME & SYSTEM GUARANTEE. DULUX L LUMILUX & QUICKTRONIC TECHNICAL INFORMATION

DULUX L LUMILUX IMPROVED LIFETIME & SYSTEM GUARANTEE. DULUX L LUMILUX & QUICKTRONIC  TECHNICAL INFORMATION www.osram.com IMPROVED LIFETIME & SYSTEM GUARANTEE QTP-M 1x26-42 1 Benefits Extremly economical Good quality of light Excellent luminous flux Improved lumen maintenance Long service life time OSRAM + Guarantee

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

HMY 333 Φωτονική Διάλεξη 01 - Εισαγωγή

HMY 333 Φωτονική Διάλεξη 01 - Εισαγωγή 1 2 HMY 333 Φωτονική Διάλεξη 01 - Εισαγωγή Εργασίες = 10% Αξιολόγηση Σταύρος Ιεζεκιήλ Τμήμα Ηλεκτρολόγων Μηχανικών και Μηχανικών Υπολογιστών iezekiel@ucy.ac.cy Green Park 111 Ενδιάμεση εξέταση = 30% Τελική

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Πωςπροέκυψαν "λάµπες" φωτισµούαπό ηµιαγωγό" -ΝόµπελΦυσικής 2014"

Πωςπροέκυψαν λάµπες φωτισµούαπό ηµιαγωγό -ΝόµπελΦυσικής 2014 Πανεπιστήµιο Κρήτης, Τµήµα Φυσικής και ΙΗ Λ, ΙΤΕ Οµάδα Μικρο & Νανο Ηλεκτρονικής (ΟΜΝΗ) Ηράκλειο, Κρήτη http://www.iesl.forth.gr/research/material/mrg/index.asp Πωςπροέκυψαν "λάµπες" φωτισµούαπό ηµιαγωγό"

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΜΑΘΗΜΑ 2 MULTIPLE CHOICE

ΜΑΘΗΜΑ 2 MULTIPLE CHOICE ΜΑΘΗΜΑ 2 MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Ποια από τις πιο κάτω δηλώσεις για την μορφοποίηση της δισκέτας την πρώτη φορά είναι αληθινή; a) Η μορφοποίηση προετοιμάζει τη δισκέτα να αποθηκεύσει δεδομένα b) Η μορφοποίηση

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Β2.5 Οθόνες. Εικόνα 46 Μια οθόνη αποτελείται από εικονοστοιχεία, το καθένα από αυτά έχει τρείς φωτεινές πηγές, για κόκκινο, πράσινο και μπλε χρώμα

Β2.5 Οθόνες. Εικόνα 46 Μια οθόνη αποτελείται από εικονοστοιχεία, το καθένα από αυτά έχει τρείς φωτεινές πηγές, για κόκκινο, πράσινο και μπλε χρώμα Β2.5 Οθόνες Τι θα μάθουμε σήμερα: Να αναγνωρίζουμε και να αναφέρουμε τα κύρια χαρακτηριστικά μιας οθόνης (τεχνολογία, ανάλυση, μέγεθος, κόστος, κ.λπ.) Να αναγνωρίζουμε και να αναφέρουμε τις μονάδες μέτρησης

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Διπλωματική Εργασία Σου φοιτητή του τμήματος Ηλεκτρολόγων Μηχανικών και Σεχνολογίας Τπολογιστών της Πολυτεχνικής χολής του Πανεπιστημίου Πατρών

Διπλωματική Εργασία Σου φοιτητή του τμήματος Ηλεκτρολόγων Μηχανικών και Σεχνολογίας Τπολογιστών της Πολυτεχνικής χολής του Πανεπιστημίου Πατρών ΠΑΝΕΠΙΣΗΜΙΟ ΠΑΣΡΩΝ ΣΜΗΜΑ ΗΛΕΚΣΡΟΛΟΓΩΝ ΜΗΧΑΝΙΚΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΣΕΧΝΟΛΟΓΙΑ ΤΠΟΛΟΓΙΣΩΝ ΣΟΜΕΑ: ΣΗΛΕΠΙΚΟΙΝΩΝΙΩΝ & ΣΕΧΝΟΛΟΓΙΑ Διπλωματική Εργασία Σου φοιτητή του τμήματος Ηλεκτρολόγων Μηχανικών και Σεχνολογίας Τπολογιστών

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΑΠΟ ΤΗΝ ΚΒΑΝΤΙΚΗ ΟΜΗ ΤΗΣ ΥΛΗΣ ΣΤΗ ΤΕΧΝΟΛΟΓΙΑ

ΑΠΟ ΤΗΝ ΚΒΑΝΤΙΚΗ ΟΜΗ ΤΗΣ ΥΛΗΣ ΣΤΗ ΤΕΧΝΟΛΟΓΙΑ ΑΠΟ ΤΗΝ ΚΒΑΝΤΙΚΗ ΟΜΗ ΤΗΣ ΥΛΗΣ ΣΤΗ ΤΕΧΝΟΛΟΓΙΑ Α. ηµουλάς Εργαστήριο ΜΒΕ Ινστιτούτο Επιστήµης Υλικών ΕΚΕΦΕ ΗΜΟΚΡΙΤΟΣ Συµβολή των ηλεκτρονικών υλικών στην ανάπτυξη των συστηµάτων πληροφορικής Τρανσίστορ :

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Φυσικό Επίπεδο Σήµατα & Κωδικοποίηση. Ενότητα Β

Φυσικό Επίπεδο Σήµατα & Κωδικοποίηση. Ενότητα Β Ιόνιο Πανεπιστήµιο Τµήµα Αρχειονοµίας - Βιβλιοθηκονοµίας ίκτυα Η/Υ Φυσικό Επίπεδο Σήµατα & Κωδικοποίηση Ενότητα Β ρ. Ε. Μάγκος Βασικές Έννοιες Σηµάτων Τα ελαστικά σώµατα υφίστανται παροδικές παραµορφώσεις

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Οπτικές Ίνες (Fiber Optics) - Καλώδια Οπτικών Ινών

Οπτικές Ίνες (Fiber Optics) - Καλώδια Οπτικών Ινών Οπτικές Ίνες (Fiber Optics) - Καλώδια Οπτικών Ινών έσµη οπτικών ινών. Ένα καλώδιο οπτικών ινών, το οποίο περιέχει µια δέσµη οπτικών ινών µπορεί να µεταφέρει εκατό τηλεοπτικά κανάλια ταυτόχρονα, χωρίς το

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Photometric Data of Lamp

Photometric Data of Lamp SSP6316-D5: Lamp Intensity Spatial Distribution of Tester Page 1/8 Photometric Data of Lamp Lamp Name: GL-66P36WW Lamp Size: Lamp Weight: Light Area: 6cm 6cm Measured Data of Lamp Voltage: 225. V Current:.287

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Metal Film Leaded Precision Resistor

Metal Film Leaded Precision Resistor Features Excellent overall stability Very tight tolerance down to ±0.05% Extremely low TCR down to ±5 PPM/ C High power rating up to 3 Watts Excellent ohmic contact Construction Applications Telecommunication

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

E. K. Παλούρα οπτοηλεκτρονική_4radiat_tr_led.doc

E. K. Παλούρα οπτοηλεκτρονική_4radiat_tr_led.doc Ακτινοβόλες μεταπτώσεις Φωταύγεια (luminescence) : εκπομπή ακτινοβολίας από ένα στερεό όταν του παρέχεται κάποιας μορφής ενέργεια. Photoluminescence οπτική διέγερση, απορρόφηση φωτονίων Cathodoluminescence

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Τρανζίστορ Επίδρασης Πεδίου Field-effect transistors (FET)

Τρανζίστορ Επίδρασης Πεδίου Field-effect transistors (FET) Τρανζίστορ Επίδρασης Πεδίου Field-effect transistors (FET) Χρησιµοποιούνται σε κλίµακα υψηλής ολοκλήρωσης VLSI Χρησιµοποιούνται και σε αναλογικούς ενισχυτές καθώς και στο στάδιο εξόδου ενισχυτών Ισχύος-

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

RDTL Electronics Department TEI of Athens. Βασικές αρχές μετάδοσης Ραδιοσημάτων. δίκτυα Fiber-Wireless (Fi-Wi)

RDTL Electronics Department TEI of Athens. Βασικές αρχές μετάδοσης Ραδιοσημάτων. δίκτυα Fiber-Wireless (Fi-Wi) RDTL Electronics Department TEI of Athens Βασικές αρχές μετάδοσης Ραδιοσημάτων μέσω Οπτικής Ίνας (Radio over Fiber) σε δίκτυα Fiber-Wireless (Fi-Wi) ρ. Καραμπέτσος Σωτήρης, Καθηγητής Εφαρμογών, Τμήμα Ηλεκτρονικής

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

LED Catalogue Main-features: slim and compact design, High light transmittance, soft light with equal distribution.

LED Catalogue Main-features: slim and compact design, High light transmittance, soft light with equal distribution. Indoor CST-8 Single Tube LED Tube CST-8 Series Main-features: slim and compact design, High light transmittance, soft light with equal distribution. Application: in residential and commercial areas (shelves,

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

1. ΧΗΜΙΚΟΙ ΕΣΜΟΙ ΣΤΑ ΣΤΕΡΕΑ

1. ΧΗΜΙΚΟΙ ΕΣΜΟΙ ΣΤΑ ΣΤΕΡΕΑ 1. ΧΗΜΙΚΟΙ ΕΣΜΟΙ ΣΤΑ ΣΤΕΡΕΑ ΓΕΝΙΚΑ Η στερεά, η υγρή και η αέρια κατάσταση αποτελούν τις τρεις, συνήθεις στο γήινο περιβάλλον, καταστάσεις της ύλης. ιαφέρουν η µία από την άλλη σε κάποια απλά γνωρίσµατα:

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΤΥΠΟΣ ΤΕΧΝΙΚΑ ΧΑΡΑΚΤΗΡΙΣΤΙΚΑ TIMH Crystal Line Crystal 35

ΤΥΠΟΣ ΤΕΧΝΙΚΑ ΧΑΡΑΚΤΗΡΙΣΤΙΚΑ TIMH Crystal Line Crystal 35 Crystal Line Crystal 35 1/1/2014 Home Cinema Video/Data Projector DLP, 1 chip DMD 1080p, Φωτεινότητα: 2500 ANSI Lumens, Contrast >30.000:1, Ανάλυση 1920x1080 pixels, Aspect Ratio 16:9 (4 aspect ratio selectable),

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

SIEMENS Squirrel Cage Induction Standard Three-phase Motors

SIEMENS Squirrel Cage Induction Standard Three-phase Motors - SIEMENS Squirrel Cage Induction Standard Three-phase Motors 2 pole 3000 rpm 50Hz Rated current Power Efficiency Rated Ratio Noise Output Frame Speed Weight 3V 400V 415V factor Class 0%Load 75%Load torque

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Thick Film Chip Resistor-SMDC Series Size: 01005/0201/0402/0603/0805/1206/1210/2010/2512. official distributor of

Thick Film Chip Resistor-SMDC Series Size: 01005/0201/0402/0603/0805/1206/1210/2010/2512. official distributor of Product: Thick Film Chip Resistor-SMDC Series Size: 01005/0201/0402/0603/0805/1206/1210/2010/2512 official distributor of Thick Film Chip Resistor-SMDC Series 1. Scope -This specification applies to all

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Ολοκληρωμένο Σύστημα (Σουΐτα)Τρισδιάστατης Ψηφιοποίησης.

Ολοκληρωμένο Σύστημα (Σουΐτα)Τρισδιάστατης Ψηφιοποίησης. Ανωτάτη Σχολή Καλών Τεχνών Μεταπτυχιακό Ψηφιακές Μορφές Τέχνης Ολοκληρωμένο Σύστημα (Σουΐτα)Τρισδιάστατης Ψηφιοποίησης. Ολοκληρωμένο Σύστημα (Σουΐτα) Τρισδιάστατης Ψηφιοποίησης επαγγελματικών προδιαγραφών

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΗ ΔΗΜΟΚΡΑΤΙΑ ΠΑΝΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΙΟ ΚΡΗΤΗΣ ΠΡΥΤΑΝΕΙΑ Ρέθυμνο 01/11/2010 Διεύθυνση :Οικονομικής Διαχείρισης Αριθ. Πρωτ.: 12183

ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΗ ΔΗΜΟΚΡΑΤΙΑ ΠΑΝΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΙΟ ΚΡΗΤΗΣ ΠΡΥΤΑΝΕΙΑ Ρέθυμνο 01/11/2010 Διεύθυνση :Οικονομικής Διαχείρισης Αριθ. Πρωτ.: 12183 ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΗ ΔΗΜΟΚΡΑΤΙΑ ΠΑΝΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΙΟ ΚΡΗΤΗΣ ΠΡΥΤΑΝΕΙΑ Ρέθυμνο 0//200 Διεύθυνση :Οικονομικής Διαχείρισης Αριθ Πρωτ: 283 Τμήμα :Προμηθειών Ταχ Δ/νση :Παν/πολη Ρεθύμνου Πληροφορίες :Σ ΧΑΤΖΗΔΑΚΗΣ Τηλέφωνο :283077929

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Digital Image Processing

Digital Image Processing Digital Image Processing Πέτρος Καρβέλης pkarvelis@gmail.com Images taken from: R. Gonzalez and R. Woods. Digital Image Processing, Prentice Hall, 2008. Παρεμβολή Εικόνας Χρησιμοποιείται σε διαδικασίες

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

5V/9V/12V Output QC2.0+USB Auto Detect+USB-PD Type-C Application Report ACT4529

5V/9V/12V Output QC2.0+USB Auto Detect+USB-PD Type-C Application Report ACT4529 FEATURES 5V/9V/12V Output QC2.0+USB Auto Detect+USB-PD Type-C Application Report ACT4529 Wide input voltage range from 6V to 32V Transparent input voltage surge up to 40V QC2.0 decoding, 5V/9V/12V output

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Συστήµατα Πολυµέσων Ενδιάµεση Εξέταση: Οκτώβριος 2004

Συστήµατα Πολυµέσων Ενδιάµεση Εξέταση: Οκτώβριος 2004 Ενδιάµεση Εξέταση: Οκτώβριος 4 ΜΕΡΟΣ Β: ΑΣΚΗΣΕΙΣ Άσκηση (25 µονάδες): Μια εικόνα αποχρώσεων του γκρι και διαστάσεων 25 x pixel έχει κωδικοποιηθεί κατά PCM µε βάθος χρώµατος 3 bits /pixel. Οι τιµές φωτεινότητας

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

p - n επαφή και εκπομπή φωτονίων

p - n επαφή και εκπομπή φωτονίων Οπτικοί πομποί Το οπτικό φέρον σήμα που εισέρχεται στις οπτικές ίνες παράγεται από: Led (Light Emission Diodes, Φωτοδίοδοι): εκπομπή ασύμφωνου (incoherent) φωτός, όπου η εκπομπή φωτονίων είναι αυθόρμητη.

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Metal Film Leaded Precision Resistor

Metal Film Leaded Precision Resistor Power ratio(%) MFR Series Features Excellent overall stability Very tight tolerance down to ±0.05% Extremely low TCR down to ±5 PPM/ C High power rating up to 3 Watts Excellent ohmic contact Applications

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)

IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) Περιεχόμενα Εισαγωγή...2 IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)...3 ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute)...4 ITU (International Telecommunication Union)...5 FCC (Federal

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΣΙΜΟΚΑΣΑΛΟΓΟ ΧΟΝΔΡΙΚΗ ΤΚΕΤΩΝ ΕΙΚΟΝΑ - ΗΧΟΤ

ΣΙΜΟΚΑΣΑΛΟΓΟ ΧΟΝΔΡΙΚΗ ΤΚΕΤΩΝ ΕΙΚΟΝΑ - ΗΧΟΤ ΣΙΜΟΚΑΣΑΛΟΓΟ AV ΕΠΣΕΜΒΡΙΟ 2011 HT-D7000/EN 8806071323596 HT-D6750W/EN 8806071344003 φςτθμα 2.1 καναλιών τεχνολογίασ 3D υνολικι ιςχφσ εξόδου 110W Cubic Design με αςφρματο subwoofer Αποκωδικοποίθςθ ιχου

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΑΚΑΔΗΜΙΑ ΕΜΠΟΡΙΚΟΥ ΝΑΥΤΙΚΟΥ ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΙΑΣ ΣΧΟΛΗ ΜΗΧΑΝΙΚΩΝ

ΑΚΑΔΗΜΙΑ ΕΜΠΟΡΙΚΟΥ ΝΑΥΤΙΚΟΥ ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΙΑΣ ΣΧΟΛΗ ΜΗΧΑΝΙΚΩΝ : : : NEA 2013 1 : : : (4507) :29-10-2013 2 Περιεχόμενα... 5 ABSTRACT... 6... 7 1:... 8 1.1 :... 8 1.2... 8 1.3... 9 1.4... 10 1.5... 11 1.5.1... 12 1.6... 13 1.6.1... 13 1.6.2 µ... 16 2:... 19 2.1 µ µ...

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Metal Film Flame-Proof Resistors

Metal Film Flame-Proof Resistors Features -Low Noise -Low TCR from ±15~100PPM/ -High Precision from ±0.1%~1% -Complete Flameproof Construction UL-1412. -Coating meets UL94V-0 Applications -Telecommunication -Medical Equipment -Consumer

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Συµπίεση Ήχου µεβάσητην Αντίληψη: Τα πρότυπα συµπίεσης MPEG-1 layer I, layer II, layer III

Συµπίεση Ήχου µεβάσητην Αντίληψη: Τα πρότυπα συµπίεσης MPEG-1 layer I, layer II, layer III ΒΕΣ 4 Συµπίεση και Μετάδοση Πολυµέσων Συµπίεση Ήχου µεβάσητην Αντίληψη: Τα πρότυπα συµπίεσης layer I, layer II, layer III Εισαγωγή Υπάρχουν πολλοί αλγόριθµοι κωδικοποίησης µε βάση την αντίληψη οι κυριότεροι

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Ο προσφερόμενος εξοπλισμός θα πρέπει να καλύπτεται από εγγύηση του κατασκευαστή τουλάχιστον 1 έτους. ΝΑΙ 13.1

Ο προσφερόμενος εξοπλισμός θα πρέπει να καλύπτεται από εγγύηση του κατασκευαστή τουλάχιστον 1 έτους. ΝΑΙ 13.1 L.1 Φορητοί Σταθμοί Εργασίας (Laptops) 15,6'' (High end) Full HD 1. Φορητοί Σταθμοί Εργασίας 2.2. Ανακοίνωση τους τελευταίους 12 μήνες 3.1. Να περιγραφεί η αρχιτεκτονική της CPU και να δοθούν: Τύπος CPU:

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ISM 868 MHz Ceramic Antenna Ground cleared under antenna, clearance area mm x 8.25 mm. Pulse Part Number: W3013

ISM 868 MHz Ceramic Antenna Ground cleared under antenna, clearance area mm x 8.25 mm. Pulse Part Number: W3013 W0 Datasheet version.. Ceramic Antenna. (0/08). Ceramic Antenna Ground cleared under antenna, clearance area 0.80 mm x 8.5 mm. Pulse Part Number: W0 Features - Omni directional radiation - Low profile

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Χρθςη 2011 ΣΔΥΝΙΚΗ ΜΔΛΔΣΗ. ΣΔΥΝΙΚΔ ΠΡΟΓΙΑΓΡΑΦΔ ΓΙΑ ΦΗΦΙΑΚΟ ΔΙΓΙΚΟ ΡΑΓΙΟΓΙΚΣΤΟ (dpmr) ΣΔΥΝΟΛΟΓΙΑ FDMA 6,25 KHz KAI ΓΙΑΥΔΙΡΙΗ ΣΙΓΜΑΣΟ Δ ΦΗΦΙΑΚΟ ΥΑΡΣΗ

Χρθςη 2011 ΣΔΥΝΙΚΗ ΜΔΛΔΣΗ. ΣΔΥΝΙΚΔ ΠΡΟΓΙΑΓΡΑΦΔ ΓΙΑ ΦΗΦΙΑΚΟ ΔΙΓΙΚΟ ΡΑΓΙΟΓΙΚΣΤΟ (dpmr) ΣΔΥΝΟΛΟΓΙΑ FDMA 6,25 KHz KAI ΓΙΑΥΔΙΡΙΗ ΣΙΓΜΑΣΟ Δ ΦΗΦΙΑΚΟ ΥΑΡΣΗ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΗ ΔΗΜΟΚΡΑΣΙΑ ΝΟΜΟ ΑΣΣΙΚΗ ΔΗΜΟ ΔΙΟΝΤΟΤ «Προμθιεια υλικϊν επικοινωνίασ ( αςφρματοι, ραδιοζεφξεισ, κλπ) για τη Βελτίωςη των Ζργο ςυνιηκϊν πρόληψησ για την αντιπυρικθ προςταςία των Δαςικϊν Εκτάςεων

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Ημιαγωγοί - Semiconductor

Ημιαγωγοί - Semiconductor Ημιαγωγοί - Semiconductor 1 Θέματα που θα καλυφθούν Αγωγοί Conductors Ημιαγωγοί Semiconductors Κρύσταλλοι πυριτίου Silicon crystals Ενδογενείς Ημιαγωγοί Intrinsic semiconductors Δύο τύποι φορέων για το

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΙΑΤΡΙΚΟΣ ΕΞΟΠΛΙΣΜΟΣ ΑΝΑΛΩΣΙΜΑ ΕΞΕΤΑΣΤΙΚΟΙ ΦΑΚΟΙ & ΦΩΤΙΣΜΟΣ

ΙΑΤΡΙΚΟΣ ΕΞΟΠΛΙΣΜΟΣ ΑΝΑΛΩΣΙΜΑ ΕΞΕΤΑΣΤΙΚΟΙ ΦΑΚΟΙ & ΦΩΤΙΣΜΟΣ ΙΑΤΡΙΚΟΣ ΕΞΟΠΛΙΣΜΟΣ ΑΝΑΛΩΣΙΜΑ ΕΞΕΤΑΣΤΙΚΟΙ ΦΑΚΟΙ & ΦΩΤΙΣΜΟΣ ZOOM Modern LE Ds lamp of cold light with a 5X magni - fication. The intensity of light can be adjusted. Its articulated arm eases the movement

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Thin Film Chip Resistors

Thin Film Chip Resistors FEATURES PRECISE TOLERANCE AND TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT EIA STANDARD CASE SIZES (0201 ~ 2512) LOW NOISE, THIN FILM (NiCr) CONSTRUCTION REFLOW SOLDERABLE (Pb FREE TERMINATION FINISH) Type Size EIA PowerRating

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Κεφάλαιο 3 Το υλικό του

Κεφάλαιο 3 Το υλικό του Κεφάλαιο 3 Το υλικό του ΗΥ 1 3.1 Η αρχιτεκτονική του ΗΥ Υλικό : οτιδήποτε έχει μια υλική - φυσική υπόσταση σε ένα υπολογιστικό σύστημα Αρχιτεκτονική του ΗΥ: η μελέτη της συμπεριφοράς και της δομής του

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Κεφάλαιο 3 Το υλικό του ΗΥ. Εφαρμογές Πληροφορικής Κεφ.3 Καραμαούνας Πολύκαρπος

Κεφάλαιο 3 Το υλικό του ΗΥ. Εφαρμογές Πληροφορικής Κεφ.3 Καραμαούνας Πολύκαρπος Κεφάλαιο 3 Το υλικό του ΗΥ 1 3.1 Η αρχιτεκτονική του ΗΥ Υλικό : οτιδήποτε έχει μια υλική - φυσική υπόσταση σε ένα υπολογιστικό σύστημα Αρχιτεκτονική του ΗΥ: η μελέτη της συμπεριφοράς και της δομής του

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Τεχνικά χαρακτηριστικά

Τεχνικά χαρακτηριστικά Τεχνικά χαρακτηριστικά Ευκολία σύνδεσης µε ένα µόνο πλήκτρο: Το ειδικό πλήκτρο Direct Link σας βοηθάει να συνδεθείτε γρήγορα στα ασύρµατα δίκτυα, ενώ οι λειτουργίες AutoShare, Social Sharing, Cloud, email,

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

SPECIFICATIONS. PRODUCT NAME: AC COB15W LED module (3120) General Customer MODEL NAME: CUSTOMER P/N: DATE: 2015-09-10

SPECIFICATIONS. PRODUCT NAME: AC COB15W LED module (3120) General Customer MODEL NAME: CUSTOMER P/N: DATE: 2015-09-10 SPECIFICATIONS PRODUCT NAME: AC COB5W LED module (320) CUSTOMER: General Customer MODEL NAME: CUSTOMER P/N: DATE: 205-09-0 APT Electronics Ltd. CUSTOMER Prepared by Checked by Approved by Approved by He

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

http://www.electronics.teipir.gr /personalpages/papageorgas/ download/3/

http://www.electronics.teipir.gr /personalpages/papageorgas/ download/3/ Δίοδος επαφής 1 http://www.electronics.teipir.gr /personalpages/papageorgas/ download/3/ 2 Θέματα που θα καλυφθούν Ορθή πόλωση Forward bias Ανάστροφη πόλωση Reverse bias Κατάρρευση Breakdown Ενεργειακά

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΘΕΩΡΙΑ ΤΩΝ ΗΜΙΑΓΩΓΩΝ ΔΕΥΤΕΡΗ ΕΝΟΤΗΤΑ ΟΜΟΓΕΝΕΙΣ ΗΜΙΑΓΩΓΟΙ ΦΑΙΝΟΜΕΝΑ ΜΕΤΑΦΟΡΑΣ

ΘΕΩΡΙΑ ΤΩΝ ΗΜΙΑΓΩΓΩΝ ΔΕΥΤΕΡΗ ΕΝΟΤΗΤΑ ΟΜΟΓΕΝΕΙΣ ΗΜΙΑΓΩΓΟΙ ΦΑΙΝΟΜΕΝΑ ΜΕΤΑΦΟΡΑΣ ΘΕΩΡΙΑ ΤΩΝ ΗΜΙΑΓΩΓΩΝ ΔΕΥΤΕΡΗ ΕΝΟΤΗΤΑ ΟΜΟΓΕΝΕΙΣ ΗΜΙΑΓΩΓΟΙ ΦΑΙΝΟΜΕΝΑ ΜΕΤΑΦΟΡΑΣ 1. Μηχανισμοί σκέδασης των φορέων (ηλεκτρόνια οπές) 2. Ηλεκτρική Αγωγιμότητα 3. Ολίσθηση φορέων (ρεύμα ολίσθησης) 4. Διάχυση

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

LP N to BD* C-C = BD C-C to BD* O-H = LP* C to LP* B =5.

LP N to BD* C-C = BD C-C to BD* O-H = LP* C to LP* B =5. Electronic Supplementary Material (ESI) for Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. This journal is the Owner Societies 2016 MS No.: CP-ART-03-2016-002134.R1 Optical Response and Gas Sequestration Properties

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Τι συσχετίζεται με τον ήχο

Τι συσχετίζεται με τον ήχο ΗΧΟΣ Τι συσχετίζεται με τον ήχο Υλικό Κάρτα ήχου Προενυσχιτής Equalizer Ενισχυτής Ηχεία Χώρος Ανθρώπινη ακοή Ψυχοακουστικά φαινόμενα Ηχητική πληροφορία Σημείο αναφοράς 20 μpa Εύρος συχνοτήτων Δειγματοληψία

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΨΗΦΙΑΚΟ ΠΕ ΙΟΜΕΤΡΟ TRIMAX SM 2500

ΨΗΦΙΑΚΟ ΠΕ ΙΟΜΕΤΡΟ TRIMAX SM 2500 ΨΗΦΙΑΚΟ ΠΕ ΙΟΜΕΤΡΟ TRIMAX SM 2500 ΤΕΧΝΙΚΟ ΕΓΧΕΙΡΙ ΙΟ www.trimaxmeters.com Παρακαλούµε διαβάστε το εγχειρίδιο αυτό προσεκτικά πριν χρησιµοποιήσετε το πεδιόµετρο για πρώτη φορά. Τα τεχνικά χαρακτηριστικά

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Περιεχόμενα διάλεξης

Περιεχόμενα διάλεξης η Διάλεξη Οπτικές ίνες Γ. Έλληνας, Διάλεξη, σελ. Περιεχόμενα διάλεξης Εισαγωγή στις οπτικές ίνες Κατασκευή οπτικών ινών Ανάλυση οπτικών ινών βηματικού δείκτη διάθλασης Γεωμετρική οπτική Τρόποι διάδοσης

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Light Emitting Diodes (LED)

Light Emitting Diodes (LED) Light Emitting Diodes (LED) ορθά πολωµένη p-n δίοδος LED ανακαλύφθηκαν το 1904 από SiC εν απαιτεί οπτική κοιλότητα και καθρέπτες, τυχαία φάση, ασύµφωνο φως Eυρος γραµµής 30-50 nm, υποστηρίζει πολλούς ρυθµούς

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

SCOPE OF ACCREDITATION TO ISO/IEC 17025:2005 & ANSI/NCSL Z540-1-1994 CALIBRATION

SCOPE OF ACCREDITATION TO ISO/IEC 17025:2005 & ANSI/NCSL Z540-1-1994 CALIBRATION SCOPE OF ACCREDITATION TO ISO/IEC 17025:2005 & ANSI/NCSL Z540-1-1994 FLUKE CORPORATION Everett Service Center 1420 75 th Street SW Everett, WA 98203 Randy Lemon Phone: 425 446 5243 CALIBRATION Valid To:

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Information Theory Θεωρία της Πληροφορίας. Vasos Vassiliou

Information Theory Θεωρία της Πληροφορίας. Vasos Vassiliou Information Theory Θεωρία της Πληροφορίας Vasos Vassiliou Network/Link Design Factors Transmission media Signals are transmitted over transmission media Examples: telephone cables, fiber optics, twisted

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Carbon Film Leaded Resistor

Carbon Film Leaded Resistor Features -The most economic industrial investment -Standard tolerance: +/-5% (available +/-2%) -Excellent long term stability -Termination: Standard solder-plated copper lead Applications -Telecommunication

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΘΕΜΑ : MULTIMEDIA & ΤΕΧΝΟΑΟΓΙΑ

ΘΕΜΑ : MULTIMEDIA & ΤΕΧΝΟΑΟΓΙΑ ΤΕΧΝΟΛΟΓΙΚΟ ΙΛΡΥΜΑ ΚΑΒΑΛΑΣ ΣΧΟΛΗ ΔΙΟΙΚΗΣΗΣ & ΟΙΚΟΝΟΜΙΑΣ ΓΜΗΜΑ ΛΟΓΙΣΤΙΚΗΣ ritwiakfi ΕΡΓΑΣΙΑ ΘΕΜΑ : MULTIMEDIA & ΤΕΧΝΟΑΟΓΙΑ ΚΛΡΑΒΕΡΒΕΡΗΣ ΓΕΩΡΓΙΟΣ ΕΙΣΗΓΗΤΗΣ : ΒΛΑΣΑΜΙΛΗΣ ΣΤΑΥΡΟΣ Κ.ΛΒΛΑΛ ΑΠΡΙΛΙΟΣ 2000 Μ, Η

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Φωτοµετρικά µεγέθη πολική κατανοµή φωτοβολίας

Φωτοµετρικά µεγέθη πολική κατανοµή φωτοβολίας Ο8 ωτοµετρικά µεγέθη πολική κατανοµή φωτοβολίας 1. Σκοπός Σκοπός της άσκησης είναι αφ ενός η κατανόηση βασικών µεγεθών και νόµων της φωτοµετρίας και αφ ετέρου η µέτρηση της πολικής κατανοµής της φωτοβολίας

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΤΙΜΟΚΑΤΑΛΟΓΟΣ Οδόραμα mobile-android 2015

ΤΙΜΟΚΑΤΑΛΟΓΟΣ Οδόραμα mobile-android 2015 ΤΙΜΟΚΑΤΑΛΟΓΟΣ Οδόραμα mobile-android 2015 Η πλατφόρμα οδόραμα mobile-android της Praxicom Software Inc. είναι η πλέον ευέλικτη, παραμετροποιήσιμη, ανοιχτή και σύγχρονη λύση για την έκδοση τιμολογίων από

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Τεχνολογίες Ψηφιακής Εικόνας

Τεχνολογίες Ψηφιακής Εικόνας Τεχνολογίες Ψηφιακής Εικόνας ΥΠΟΣΥΣΤΗΜΑ ΕΙΚΟΝΑΣ Προσαρµογέας (κάρτα) Γραφικών Οθόνες CRT Οθόνες Υγρών Κρυστάλλων (LCD) Οθόνες αφής Προσαρµογέας (κάρτα) γραφικών Graphics adapter Υποσύστηµα εικόνας Προσαρµογέας

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Westfalia Bedienungsanleitung. Nr

Westfalia Bedienungsanleitung. Nr Westfalia Bedienungsanleitung Nr. 108230 Erich Schäfer KG Tel. 02737/5010 Seite 1/8 RATED VALUES STARTING VALUES EFF 2 MOTOR OUTPUT SPEED CURRENT MOMENT CURRENT TORQUE TYPE I A / I N M A / M N Mk/ Mn %

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Επιςτιμθσ Επιφανειϊν και Τεχνολογία Λεπτϊν Υμενίων. Π. Πατςαλάσ, Αναπλ. Κακθγθτισ

Επιςτιμθσ Επιφανειϊν και Τεχνολογία Λεπτϊν Υμενίων. Π. Πατςαλάσ, Αναπλ. Κακθγθτισ Επιςτιμθσ Επιφανειϊν και Τεχνολογία Λεπτϊν Υμενίων Π. Πατςαλάσ, Αναπλ. Κακθγθτισ Στοιχεία Επικοινωνίασ Γραφείο: Γ324 & Φ3-109β Εργαςτιριο: Εργαςτιριο ΘΜΟ, Νζο Κτίριο ΤΜΕΥ, 1 οσ Προφοσ Τθλ: 9012 (Εργαςτιριο),

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Τηλ.: 22892130, Φαξ: 22756082 Η-ταχυδροµείο: cc@ucy.ac.cy, Ιστοσελίδα: http://www.ucy.ac.cy/cc Καλλιπόλεως 75, Τ.Θ. 20537, 1678 Λευκωσία, Κύπρος

Τηλ.: 22892130, Φαξ: 22756082 Η-ταχυδροµείο: cc@ucy.ac.cy, Ιστοσελίδα: http://www.ucy.ac.cy/cc Καλλιπόλεως 75, Τ.Θ. 20537, 1678 Λευκωσία, Κύπρος ΠΑΝΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΙΟ ΚΥΠΡΟΥ ΥΠΗΡΕΣΙΑ ΠΛΗΡΟΦΟΡΙΚΩΝ ΣΥΣΤΗΜΑΤΩΝ Τηλ.: 22892130, Φαξ: 22756082 Η-ταχυδροµείο: cc@ucy.ac.cy, Ιστοσελίδα: http://www.ucy.ac.cy/cc Καλλιπόλεως 75, Τ.Θ. 20537, 1678 Λευκωσία, Κύπρος ΠΡΟΣ:

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

DC-DC Constant Current Step-Down LED driver LDD-300L LDD-350L LDD-500L LDD-600L LDD-700L CURRENT RANGE

DC-DC Constant Current Step-Down LED driver LDD-300L LDD-350L LDD-500L LDD-600L LDD-700L CURRENT RANGE SPECIFICATION ORDER NO. LDD-00L LDD-0L LDD-00L LDD-00L LDD-700L CURRENT RANGE 00mA 0mA 00mA VOLTAGE RANGE Note. ~ VDC for LDD-00~700L/LW ; ~ 8VDC for LDD-00~700LS CURRENT ACCURACY (Typ.) ±% at VDC input

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

«ΜΕΛΕΤΗ ΚΑΙ ΚΑΤΑΣΚΕΥΗ ΡΑΔΙΟΦΩΝΙΚΟΥ ΣΤΑΘΜΟΥ AM ΜΕ ΤΡΑΝΖΙΣΤΟΡ»

«ΜΕΛΕΤΗ ΚΑΙ ΚΑΤΑΣΚΕΥΗ ΡΑΔΙΟΦΩΝΙΚΟΥ ΣΤΑΘΜΟΥ AM ΜΕ ΤΡΑΝΖΙΣΤΟΡ» ΤΕΧΝΟΛΟΓΙΚΟ ΕΚΠΑΙΔΕΥΤΙΚΟ ΙΔΡΥΜΑ ΙΟΝΙΩΝ ΝΗΣΩΝ ΣΧΟΛΗ ΜΟΥΣΙΚΗΣ ΤΕΧΝΟΛΟΓΙΑΣ ΤΜΗΜΑ ΤΕΧΝΟΛΟΓΙΑΣ ΗΧΟΥ ΚΑΙ ΜΟΥΣΙΚΩΝ ΟΡΓΑΝΩΝ «ΜΕΛΕΤΗ ΚΑΙ ΚΑΤΑΣΚΕΥΗ ΡΑΔΙΟΦΩΝΙΚΟΥ ΣΤΑΘΜΟΥ AM ΜΕ ΤΡΑΝΖΙΣΤΟΡ» ΠΤΥΧΙΑΚΗ ΕΡΓΑΣΙΑ ΕΥΡΙΠΙ

Διαβάστε περισσότερα