Contents. LESSONS GRAMMAR pp. Remember 1. Remember 2

Μέγεθος: px
Εμφάνιση ξεκινά από τη σελίδα:

Download "Contents. LESSONS GRAMMAR pp. Remember 1. Remember 2"


1 Contents 2 LESSONS GRAMMAR pp. Remember 1 Remember 2 Grammalysis A2 Countable & uncountable nouns How much/many, many, much, some, any, a lot of, plenty Subject & Object pronouns Possessive adjectives & pronouns Possessive case - Prepositions of place Remember 3 Present Simple Adverbs of frequency - time expressions Remember 4 Present Continuous Present Continuous vs. Present Simple Lesson 1 Non continuous verbs Lesson 2 be going to + verb Lesson 3 Future Simple Vocabulary 1 My Sitting Room Lesson 4 Future Simple vs. be going to + verb Lesson 5 Future Continuous Lesson 6 Can - be able to / Must - have to Vocabulary 2 Jobs in the House Writing 1 My school subjects & activities this year 34 Writing 2 My favourite superhero 35 REVISION 1 (Lessons 1-6 Vocabulary 1-2) Lesson 7 Was/were - Could <> was/were able to Lesson 8 Past Simple (1): regular verbs Lesson 9 Past Simple (2): irregular verbs Vocabulary 3 Eating out Lesson 10 Used to - Had to / didn t have to Lesson 11 Past Continuous Lesson 12 Past Continuous vs. Past Simple Vocabulary 4 In the Town Writing 3 My first day of school this year 56 Writing 4 My favourite celebration 57 REVISION 2 (Lessons 7-12 Vocabulary 3-4) Lesson 13 Adjectives: comparative & superlative Lesson 14 Adverbs: comparative & superlative Lesson 15 Present Perfect (1): regular verbs Key words (1) Vocabulary 5 Travel Lesson 16 Present Perfect (2): irregular verbs Key words (2) Lesson 17 Present Perfect vs. Past Simple Lesson 18 Present Perfect Continuous Vocabulary 6 Free time activities at Home Writing 5 My self-image 78 Writing 6 My busy month 79 REVISION 3 (Lessons Vocabulary 5-6) Lesson 19 May - might - should Lesson 20 Past Perfect Simple Lesson 21 Past Perfect Continuous Vocabulary 7 Feelings Lesson 22 First and zero conditionals Lesson 23 Second conditional Lesson 24 Third conditional Vocabulary 8 Jobs Writing 7 My personal funny story 100 Writing 8 My expert advice to you 101 REVISION 4 (Lessons Vocabulary 7-8)

2 LESSONS GRAMMAR pp. Lesson 25 Future Perfect Lesson 26 Wish / If only Lesson 27 Too & (not) enough Vocabulary 9 Countries & Nationalities / The Weather Lesson 28 Passive voice (1): Present & Past Simple Lesson 29 Passive voice (2): All tenses Lesson 30 Passive voice (3): The passive infinitive Vocabulary 10 Health problems Writing 9 My predictions for my future 122 Writing 10 My three wishes 123 REVISION 5 (Lessons Vocabulary 9-10) Lesson 31 Question tags Lesson 32 Relative pronouns Lesson 33 Relative clauses: defining vs. non-defining Vocabulary 11 Technology and Communication Lesson 34 Full vs. bare infinitive Lesson 35 The gerund Lesson 36 Be / Get used to Vocabulary 12 Natural disasters and Man-made problems Writing 11 About my country 144 Writing 12 My sincere apologies to you 145 REVISION 6 (Lessons Vocabulary 11-12) Lesson 37 Reflexive / Emphatic pronouns Lesson 38 Causative form Lesson 39 Modal Perfect forms Vocabulary 13 Music Lesson 40 Indirect speech (1): Statements Lesson 41 Indirect speech (2): Questions Lesson 42 Indirect speech (3): Commands / Requests Vocabulary 14 The Media Writing 13 My opinion about having chores done 166 Writing 14 My exclusive interview 167 REVISION 7 (Lessons Vocabulary 13-14) FINAL REVISION 1 Tenses: Present & Future 172 FINAL REVISION 2 Tenses: Present Perfect & Past 173 FINAL REVISION 3 Modals, semi-modals & modal perfect 174 FINAL REVISION 4 Adjectives & Adverbs: comparison 175 FINAL REVISION 5 Conditionals & Wishes 176 FINAL REVISION 6 Passive voice 177 FINAL REVISION 7 Relative pronouns & Clauses 178 FINAL REVISION 8 Infinitives & Gerund 179 FINAL REVISION 9 Reflexives & Causative form 180 FINAL REVISION 10 Indirect speech 181 Writer s guide & companion Glossary (Vocabulary 1-14) Verbs & Tenses Irregular Verbs 196 Grammalysis A2 3

3 Remember 1 Nouns: countable & uncountable How many/much...? - many - much - some - any - a lot of - plenty of Grammar Theory A Countable plural nouns: regular & irregular A1. Μετρήσιμα ουσιαστικά με ομαλό πληθυντικό Ο ομαλός πληθυντικός των μετρήσιμων ουσιαστικών σχηματίζεται με τις καταλήξεις -s, -es, -ies ή -ves, ανάλογα με την περίπτωση. 1. Κατάληξη -s: για τα περισσότερα ουσιαστικά, π.χ. book books, apple apples. 2. Κατάληξη -es: για ουσιαστικά που λήγουν σε -s, -ss, -sh, -ch, -x, -o, π.χ. bus buses, class classes, brush brushes, church churches, box boxes, potato potatoes. Εξαιρέσεις: ουσιαστικά σε -o ξένης προέλευσης, π.χ. photo photos, piano pianos, kilo kilos, video videos. 3. Κατάληξη -ies: για ουσιαστικά που λήγουν σε σύμφωνο + y, π.χ. baby babies, party parties. ΑΛΛΑ: boy boys. 4. Κατάληξη -ves: για ουσιαστικά που λήγουν σε -f και -fe, π.χ. leaf leaves, life lives. Εξαίρεση: roof roofs. A2. Μετρήσιμα ουσιαστικά με ανώμαλο πληθυντικό Τα μετρήσιμα ουσιαστικά που έχουν ανώμαλο πληθυντικό δεν παίρνουν καμία από τις καταλήξεις των ομαλών. 1. Είτε παραμένουν ίδια, π.χ. sheep = πρόβατο/-τα fish = ψάρι /-ια deer = ελάφι / -ια species = είδος / -η 2. Είτε αλλάζει ένα γράμμα ή δύο, π.χ. man - men woman - women tooth - teeth foot - feet goose - geese 3. Είτε μπαίνει άλλη κατάληξη, π.χ. child - children ox - oxen = βόδι / βόδια 4. Είτε αλλάζουν εντελώς, π.χ. mouse - mice person - people = άνθρωπος / άνθρωποι 1 Fill in with the plural forms of the nouns: dish - diary - fox - radio - knife - toy - wolf - city - person - photo - glass - species loaf - woman - potato - lady - peach - wife - goose - company - kilo - story - sheep -s -es -ies -ves irregular radios dishes diaries knives people toys foxes cities wolves species photos glasses ladies loaves women kilos potatoes companies wives geese peaches stories sheep ΘΥΜΗΣΟΥ ότι πριν από μετρήσιμα ουσιαστικά πληθυντικού: Βάζουμε How many...? How many churches are there in your city? How many people are there in London? Βάζουμε a lot of, plenty of & some (στην κατάφαση) We ve got a lot of / plenty of / some geese in our garden. Βάζουμε many & any (στην ερώτηση και την άρνηση) Are there many / any boys in your class? She hasn t got many / any friends at school. 2 Fill in with: many - any - a lot of - some 1. I haven't got many friends at school. Just two. 2. I live in a very big city and there are a lot of people in it. 3. How many pen friends have you got? 4. Don't be afraid. There aren't any mice in the house. 5. Let's buy some flowers for mum today. Four or five roses for example. 6. There aren't many oranges in the fridge. Just three. 3 Circle a, b or c. 4 Rewrite in the plural using: some - any 1. Are there lions in this zoo? a. any b. plenty of c. some 2. We haven't got boys in our class. a. some b. a lot of c. many 3. How fish are there in that tank? a. a lot of b. many c. any 4. He's very popular, so he's got fans. a. many b. plenty of c. any 5. Let's have pancakes for breakfast. a. any b. many c. some 1. There isn't a church in that city. There aren't any churches in those cities. 2. Has your neighbour got a goose in her yard? Have your neighbours got any geese in their yards? 3. There is a wild sheep and a small deer over there. There are some wild sheep and some small deer over there. 4. There is a man and a child in that photo. There are some men and some children in those photos. Grammalysis A2 5

4 Grammar Theory B Uncountable nouns Τα μη μετρήσιμα ουσιαστικά ΔΕΝ έχουν πληθυντικό διότι δεν μπορούμε να τα αριθμήσουμε, π.χ. δεν μπορούμε να πούμε one water, two waters. Είναι πάντα στον ενικό, ΔΕΝ παίρνουν a/an και συνοδεύονται από ρήματα στον ενικό. Μη μετρήσιμα είναι αρκετά τρόφιμα και ποτά όπως: cheese, ham, butter, bread, meat, flour, milk, water, juice, coffee, coke, beer, etc. Όταν θέλουμε να μιλήσουμε συγκεκριμένα για την ποσότητα τους, βάζουμε πριν από αυτά άλλα ουσιαστικά που είναι μετρήσιμα και δείχνουν το βάρος τους, τη συσκευασία τους, κτλ. Θυμήσου ότι ενδιάμεσα μπαίνει πάντα η πρόθεση of. Παραδείγματα: a slice of cheese μία φέτα τυρί a bag of flour μία σακούλα αλεύρι a kilo of meat ένα κιλό κρέας a packet of spaghetti ένα πακέτο μακαρόνια a loaf of bread μία φραντζόλα ψωμί a bar of chocolate μία πλάκα σοκολάτας a piece of cake ένα κομμάτι κέικ a bowl of sugar ένα μπολάκι ζάχαρη a can of beer a carton of milk a jar of honey a glass of lemonade a bottle of juice a litre of water a cup of coffee ένα "αλουμινένιο" κουτί μπύρα ένα χαρτόκουτο γάλα ένα βαζάκι μέλι ένα ποτήρι λεμονάδα ένα μπουκάλι χυμός ένα λίτρο νερό ένα φλιτζάνι καφές 5 Fill in the shopping list. 6 Circle a or b and fill in. loaf/-ves carton(s) slice(s) packet(s) jar(s) bag(s) can(s) kilo(s) 1. Two kilos of meat. 2. One carton of juice. 3. Four cans of beer. 4. One loaf of bread. 5. Three packets of spaghetti. 6. One bag of sugar. 7. Ten slices of ham. 8. One jar of jam. 1. Can I have a piece of cake, please? a. loaf b. piece 2. Is there a bottle of water in the fridge? a. bottle b. bowl 3. Where's my cup of tea? a. glass b. cup 4. Let's buy a bar of chocolate for Liz. a. bag b. bar 5. Have we got enough loaves of bread? a. loaves b. litres 6. Please, give me the bowl of sugar. a. bowl b. bar 7. Drink at least one litre of water a day. a. kilo b. litre 8. Let's get two cans of beef, too. a. cans b. bars ΘΥΜΗΣΟΥ ότι πριν από μη μετρήσιμα ουσιαστικά: Βάζουμε How much...? How much orange juice have we got? How much milk is there in the fridge? Βάζουμε a lot of, plenty of & some (στην κατάφαση) We ve got a lot of / plenty of / some juice in our fridge. Βάζουμε much & any (στην ερώτηση και την άρνηση) Is there much / any sugar in the bowl? There isn t much / any honey in the jar. 7 Fill in with: much - any - plenty of - some 1. There isn't much orange juice left. Only a glass or two. 2. Let's make some spaghetti for dinner. There's half a packet left in the cupboard. 3. Isn't there any milk left? Oh, no! I can't drink my coffee black! 4. We've got plenty of beer left. Ten cans at least! 5. How much lemonade is there in the fridge? 8 Circle a, b or c. 9 Write sentences with: There is / isn t + 1. There isn't cheese in the fridge. a. plenty of b. much c. some 2. Have we got jam for the pancakes? a. some b. a lot of c. any 3. I like spaghetti with butter in it. a. much b. any c. plenty of 4. Let's have pizza for lunch. a. some b. much c. any 5. Don't worry! We've got bread left. a. much b. a lot of c. any There is a lot of beer. There isn't much chocolate. There isn't much milk. There is a lot of honey. There isn't any jam. There isn't any apple juice HONEY HONEY 1. a lot of - much - any Jam 6. 6 Grammalysis A2

5 ΠΡΟΣΕΞΕ ότι μη μετρήσιμα ουσιαστικά είναι κι άλλες λέξεις που έχεις μάθει (εκτός από τρόφιμα και ποτά), όπως: money (χρήματα) homework (εργασίες για το σπίτι) housework (δουλειές του σπιτιού) information (πληροφορίες) furniture (έπιπλα) Κι ενώ στα ελληνικά έχουν και ενικό και πληθυντικό, στα αγγλικά έχουν μόνο ενικό, αλλά με σημασία πληθυντικού. Π.χ. λέμε: I've got plenty of homework (όχι homeworks) - We've got some new furniture (όχι furnitures) - There isn't much money left (όχι There aren't many moneys). 10 Rewrite the sentences correctly. 1. There are plenty of moneys in my bag. There is plenty of money in my bag. 2. Can you give me some informations? Can you give me some information? 3. I like your furnitures. Are they new? I like your furniture. Is it new? 4. I hate houseworks. They are tiring. I hate housework. It is tiring. 5. Are all these homeworks for tomorrow? Is all this homework for tomorrow? 11 Fill in with: How much - How many + a noun from the list. (singular or plural) 12 What can you see in the picture? butter peach glass cheese story money tooth brush How much How many butter peaches 1. have we got? 2. can you eat? 3. How many glasses of wine can I drink? 4. How much cheese would you like? 5. How many stories can you tell us? 6. How much money have you got? 7. How many teeth has the baby got? 8. How many brushes do you need? I can see one loaf of bread,... three eggs, two pieces of cheese, one jar of jam, one bar of chocolate, two glasses of milk, and three tomatoes. 13 Circle a, b or c. 14 Choose and fill in with the words: 1. I would like tea, please. a. any b. a cup of c. many 2. How many of ham are there? a. loaves b. bars c. slices 3. Have you got money left? a. many b. much c. plenty of 4. Have we got any left? a. flours b. bag of flour c. flour 5. What lovely furniture! expensive? a. Is it b. Are they c. Are you 6. Are you afraid of? a. mice b. mouse c. mouses 7. How many have sharks got? a. tooth b. teeth c. tooths 8. There are cars in the city centre. a. a lot of b. much c. any 9. Let's buy from the supermarket. a. milks b. some milk c. a milk Dear diary, any - slices - much - many - cans - plenty of - cartons We've got a party tonight, so there are 1. plenty of drinks from the supermarket in the kitchen. There is beer and wine, but also ten 2. cartons of juice and twelve 3. cans of coke. We've also got 4. slices of cheese and ham for the pizzas, but not 5. many and there isn't 6. much flour either, only half a bag! Mum says it's enough, but I'm not so sure. And I hope we've got tomatoes in the fridge, or else we can't make 7. any sauce! Anyway, I'm very excited and can't wait to have lots of fun tonight. Grammalysis A2 7

6 Remember 2 Subject & Object pronouns - Possessive adjectives & pronouns Possessive case - Prepositions of place Grammar Theory A Subject & Object pronouns Προσωπικές αντωνυμίες (υποκείμενα & αντικείμενα ρημάτων) Ξέρεις ήδη ότι τα subject pronouns είναι οι προσωπικές αντωνυμίες που βάζουμε ΠΡΙΝ από τα ρήματα. Οι αντωνυμίες αυτές είναι τα υποκείμενα των ρημάτων. Δείχνουν ποιος κάνει αυτό που λέει το ρήμα. Παραδείγματα: I hate geography. / You are my best friend. / He is worried. She likes zoology. / It is cold. / We have got a dog. / They live in the UK. Για κάθε subject pronoun, υπάρχει αντίστοιχο object pronoun. Τα object pronouns είναι προσωπικές αντωνυμίες που βάζουμε ΜΕΤΑ τα ρήματα και λέγονται αντικείμενα των ρημάτων. Δείχνουν σε ποιον (ή σε τι) πηγαίνει η ενέργεια του ρήματος. I (εγώ) you (εσύ) he (αυτός) she (αυτή) it (αυτό) we (εμείς) you (εσείς) they (αυτοί, ές, ά) me (εμένα, με) you (εσένα, σε) him (αυτόν, τον) her (αυτήν, την) it (αυτό, το) us (εμάς, μας) you (εσάς, σας) them (αυτούς, ές, ά / τους, τις, τα) Παραδείγματα: Can you help me? - Of course I can help you. / Give him your book. / You can call her Chris or Christine. Where's my book? I can't find it. / We're here. Can't you see us? / We can call them English or British. Τα object pronouns μπαίνουν επίσης μετά από προθέσεις. Π.χ. Can you study with me? / Some of them are English. Can you cook for us? / I've got a present for her. / Don't worry about us. 1 Choose and circle Sandra is online. Let's send it / her a short You and Jean are my best friends and I trust you / us. 3. That rubber is ours. Give it back to them / us, please. 4. What a cute little cat! Can I touch it / them? 5. Those ducks look very hungry. Let's feed him / them. 6. Our teacher talks too quickly. We don t understand her / us. 7. Jim hasn t got any money. Let s give it / him some. 2 Fill in with: 1. Where is Sophie? Mum is worried about her. 2. Dad! Our bikes are broken. Can you fix them, please? 3. I don't hate apple juice! I just don't like it. 4. Do you and Ron have problems? I can help you. 5. I m so thirsty! Can you give me some water, please? 6. Rick and Pat are my friends and I love them. 7. It's Sam's birthday today. Let's buy him a present. 8. Your mum and I are going to bed now. Don t wake us up! 3 Choose and fill in. me - you - him - her - it - us - them 1. We can't come to the party tonight. (We / Us) 2. Give me back my book, please! (I / me) 3. They are flying to Paris tomorrow. (They / Them) 4. Does she often chat online? (she / her) 5. He often tells us funny stories. (we / us) 6. Ted isn't English. He is from Ireland. (He / Him) 7. Does anyone here like them? (they / them) 8. There is Betty. Let s talk to her. (she / her) Rewrite the sentences as in the example. 1. This flower shop belongs to Mr Watson. It belongs to him. 2. My sister and I often go out with our classmates. We often go out with them. 3. My uncle sometimes visits me and my family. He sometimes visits us. 4. Miss Kent doesn't like the cake. She doesn't like it. 5. Your parents are talking to Mrs Black. They are talking to her. 6. That dog is eating our hamburgers! It is eating them! 5 Circle a, b or c and fill in. 1. What is Tania talking about? I don t understand. a. she b. him c. her 2. Bob is late again. I'm sure is still sleeping. a. he b. she c. him 3. Why don t you tell about your problem? a. we b. me c. you 4. What's wrong with? Why do you look so sad? a. she b. you c. us 5. I can t do my homework. Can you help me with? a. him b. them c. it 6. Your friends are very nice. are also very funny. a. They b. You c. Them 8 Grammalysis A2

7 Grammar Theory B Possessive adjectives & Possessive pronouns Κτητικά επίθετα Θυμήσου ότι μπαίνουν πριν τα ουσιαστικά. Δε μπορούμε να τα βάλουμε μετά τα ουσιαστικά, όπως στα ελληνικά. Λέμε my name (το όνομά μου) και όχι name my. Μπαίνουν στη θέση των άρθρων. Γι αυτό δε βάζουμε a, an ή the όταν τα χρησιμοποιούμε πριν τα ουσιαστικά. Λέμε my name (το όνομά μου) και όχι the my name. Κάθε κτητικό επίθετο μας δείχνει σε ποιον ανήκει κάτι. Γι αυτό και είναι διαφορετικά για κάθε πρόσωπο, όπως βλέπεις στο παρακάτω πινακάκι: I my name (το όνομά μου) you your name (το όνομά σου) he his name (το όνομά του) she her name (το όνομά της) it its name (το όνομά του/της*) we our house (το σπίτι μας) you your house (το σπίτι σας) they their house (το σπίτι τους) * για πράγματα (άψυχα), φυτά ή ζώα Κτητικές αντωνυμίες Σε κάθε κτητικό επίθετο, αντιστοιχεί μία κτητική αντωνυμία. Η καθεμία από αυτές τις αντωνυμίες, όπως το λέει και η λέξη, χρησιμοποιείται αντί του "ονόματος", δηλαδή στη θέση του ουσιαστικού που ανήκει σε κάποιον. Οι κτητικές αντωνυμίες χρησιμοποιούνται λοιπόν, για να ΜΗΝ επαναλάβουμε ένα ουσιαστικό που αναφέρθηκε προηγουμένως και που ανήκει σε κάποιον. Π.χ. Is this your car? - Yes, it s mine. (Ναι, είναι δικό μου - όπου mine εδώ σημαίνει: my car). Έτσι λοιπόν, οι κτητικές αντωνυμίες ΔΕΝ ακολουθούνται ποτέ από ουσιαστικό (αυτό ισχύει μόνο για τα κτητικά επίθετα), διότι το ουσιαστικό (noun) εννοείται. Δες εδώ και μελέτησε τον πίνακα αντιστοιχίας κτητικών επιθέτων και αντωνυμιών: * δεν αντιστοιχεί κτητική αντωνυμία στο επίθετο its. my (+ noun) your (+ noun) his (+ noun) her (+ noun) its (+ noun) our (+ noun) your (+ noun) their (+ noun) mine yours his hers --- * ours yours theirs (δικός μου) (δικός σου) (δικός του) (δικός της) (δικός μας) (δικός σας) (δικός τους) 6 Fill in with: my - his - her - its - our - your - their 7 Fill in with: mine - yours - his - hers - ours - theirs 1. You and Kim have got new cars. Your cars are fast. 2. Where is that girl from? What s her name? 3. Here comes Mr Brown with his big fat dog! 4. Those guys are not funny. Their jokes are very silly! 5. The city of Las Vegas is famous for its casinos. 6. We haven t got enough money to fix our car. 7. I live in Australia and my house is near Sydney Do these books belong to Linda? - Yes, they re hers Whose is that bike? Your brother s? - Yes, it s his. 3. This isn t my jacket. Mine is the new brown one Do you like our new shop? - Wow! Is it really yours? 5. - Lisa s got a kilt! - It s not hers, silly! It s her dad s! 6. - Are these toys yours, children? - No, they re not ours. 7. Look at all those cats they ve got! Are they all theirs? 8 Choose and circle Is this Samantha s room? - No, it isn t her / hers The Scotts are driving a Porsche! - Yes, but it isn t their / theirs Are these kids yours? - Of course they re my / mine kids Is this my cup of tea? - No, it isn t your / yours You ve got fantastic furniture! - Yes, but it s not our / ours Is this your laptop? - No, my / mine is over there Does this diary belong to Liz? - Yes, it s her / hers diary. 9 Circle a, b or c and fill in. A: Is this mobile phone (1) yours? a. your b. yours c. you B: No, it isn't (2) mine. a. me b. my c. mine It's (3) my little sister's. a. I b. me c. my And that s (4) her laptop. a. her b. hers c. she A: How old is (5) your sister? a. you b. your c. hers B: (6) She is 8 years old! a. She b. Her c. Hers C: Hey! Look at (7) them! a. they b. theirs c. them They are driving a car that looks like (8) ours! a. ours b. our c. us D: But, that car isn't (9) theirs! a. you b. my c. theirs It s (10) our car! Help! a. us b. our c. ours E: That's (11) my boyfriend. a. mine b. my c. me (12) He is from Africa. a. Him b. He c. His F: Oh! What's (13) his name? a. his b. me c. hers E: Sayd, and (14) it means happy. a. her b. its c. it Grammalysis A2 9

8 Grammar Theory C Possessive case Γενική κτητική 1. Όταν βάζουμε s στα κύρια ονόματα και ακολουθεί ουσιαστικό, λέμε σε ποιον ανήκει το ουσιαστικό. Π.χ. This is Mary s room (= αυτό είναι της Μαρίας το δωμάτιο). Το ίδιο γίνεται και με ουσιαστικά που περιγράφουν πρόσωπα ή ζώα. Π.χ.: the boy s bicycle ( = του αγοριού το ποδήλατο), my dog s ears ( = του σκύλου μου τα αυτιά), κτλ. 2. Αν όμως έχουμε ουσιαστικό σε πληθυντικό με κατάληξη -s, (π.χ. boys, dogs) και θέλουμε να μιλήσουμε για κάτι που τους ανήκει, βάζουμε ΜΟΝΟ την απόστροφο ΧΩΡΙΣ το s. Π.χ.: the boys bicycles = των αγοριών τα ποδήλατα, my dogs toys = των σκύλων μου τα παιχνίδια, κτλ. ΑΛΛΑ: σε περίπτωση ανωμάλων πληθυντικών χωρίς κατάληξη -s, ισχύει ο πρώτος κανόνας, π.χ.: the children s books. 3. Όταν θέλουμε να πούμε ότι κάτι ανήκει σε ΔΥΟ πρόσωπα, βάζουμε s στο ΔΕΥΤΕΡΟ πρόσωπο. Π.χ. This is Mary and John's house = σημαίνει ότι το σπίτι ανήκει και στους ΔΥΟ (και στη Mary, και στο John). 4. Όταν όμως μιλάμε για πράγματα που ανήκουν σε δύο πρόσωπα και όπου το ΚΑΘΕ πρόσωπο έχει το ΔΙΚΟ ΤΟΥ, βάζουμε s ΚΑΙ ΣΤΑ ΔΥΟ πρόσωπα. Π.χ. These are Mary s and John s cars = σημαίνει ότι ο καθένας έχει από ένα αυτοκίνητο. ΠΡΟΣΕΞΕ να μη συγχέεις το s της Γενικής Κτητικής με το s = is ή το s = has. Π.χ.: This is John s room. John s ten years old. ( s=is) John s got a cat. ( s=has) 10 Fill in with s or as in the examples. 1. Our English teacher's hair is red. (teacher) 2. Your brothers' jokes are not funny. (brothers) 3. Her boyfriend's father is Scottish. (boyfriend) 4. Do you know Paul s sister? (Paul) 5. I don t like my parents' car. (parents) 6. These girls clothes are nice. (girls) 7. Mr White s parrot doesn t talk. (Mr White) 8. Those children s toys are cheap. (children) 9. The Browns house is next to ours. (The Browns) Larry and Sally have got two children. Those are Larry and Sally's children. 2. My brother has got a blue pen and my sister has got a red one. These are my brother's and my sister's pens. 3. Dad has got a sister and mum has got a sister too. These are 4. Barry and his wife have got a beautiful house. This is Fill in using one or two s as in the examples. sisters. house. 5. Tina has got a new car but her brother has got an old one. Those are 6. Karen and Sam have both got very interesting jobs. I really like 7. Mr Fox has got hens and Mrs Penn has got sheep. Look at jobs. 8. John and his sister have got a fish tank in their house. There are goldfish in cars. animals. 9. Linda and her husband have got tulips in their garden. Let s look at dad's and mum s Barry and his wife s Tina s and her brother s Karen s and Sam s Mr Fox s and Mrs Penn s John and his sister s Linda and her husband s fish tank. tulips. 12 Fill in with is, has or P.C. (possessive case). 1. Bob's chatting online with his cousin. s= 2. That girl's eyes are very beautiful! s= 3. Who's got my rubber and my pencil? s= 4. Some people's pets are really strange. s= 5. What s making that loud noise? s= 6. My cousin Kim's feet are huge! s= 7. Our neighbour's got a sports car. s= 13 ΘΥΜΗΣΟΥ ότι όταν θέλουμε να πούμε ότι κάτι «ανήκει» σε ένα ΠΡΑΓΜΑ (ή γενικά κάτι άψυχο), δε χρησιμοποιούμε τη Γενική Κτητική των ονομάτων. Εδώ βάζουμε την πρόθεση of (με ή χωρίς άρθρο), π.χ.: the window of the car = το παράθυρο του αυτοκινήτου (και όχι the car s window) the capital of Greece = η πρωτεύουσα της Ελλάδας (και όχι Greece s capital) Rewrite with the possessive case or of (the). (attention to the ORDER of the words) 1. The baby s hands are small. (baby hands) 2. The legs of the table are short. (table legs) 3. The postman's bike is yellow. (postman bike) 4. The windows of the classroom are open. (classroom windows) 5. The teacher s clothes are funny. (teacher clothes) 6. The capital of France is Paris. (France capital) 7. The centre of the city is very noisy. (city centre) is P.C. has P.C. is P.C. has 10 Grammalysis A2

9 Grammar Theory D Οι τοπικές προθέσεις in, at, on, to Prepositions of place: in, at, on, to Για να πούμε πού βρισκόμαστε ή πού πηγαίνουμε, χρησιμοποιούμε τοπικές προθέσεις πριν από ουσιαστικά ή κύρια ονόματα. Οι προθέσεις in, at, on (= σε) δείχνουν ότι είμαστε κάπου (ΣΤΑΣΗ / ΤΟΠΟΘΕΣΙΑ), ενώ η πρόθεση to (=προς) δείχνει ότι πηγαίνουμε κάπου (ΚΙΝΗΣΗ / ΚΑΤΕΥΘΥΝΣΗ). Πρόσεξε ότι σε μερικές περιπτώσεις δε μπαίνει άρθρο μετά τις προθέσεις αυτές. Δες τώρα και θυμήσου τa παρακάτω παραδείγματα: ΣΤΑΣΗ / ΤΟΠΟΘΕΣΙΑ: I am, I m living, I m staying, I m sitting, I m lying, I m waiting... + in, at, on in + για χώρες, περιοχές, πόλεις, χωριά in + για εσωτερικό κλειστών ή περιφραγμένων χώρων in the UK, in the USA, in Greece, in France... in Scotland, in England... / in London, in Athens... in the garden, in the car, in the street, in the house, in the classroom, in the playground, in bed, in class at + συγκεκριμένα κτίρια / σημεία at + συγκεκριμένα περιβάλλοντα at the cinema, at the theatre at the museum, at the aquarium at the supermarket, at the zoo at home, at school, at work at the party on + μεταφορικά μέσα on + επιφάνειες on the bus, on the train on the plane, on the bike on the ship, on the boat on the beach, on the farm They're driving to the zoo. She's coming to the party. We're going to the beach. ΚΙΝΗΣΗ / ΚΑΤΕΥΘΥΝΣΗ: I m going, I m coming, I m flying, I m driving, I m running... + to You're driving to London. They're going to Scotland. We're flying to the UK / the USA. She's driving to work. They're running to school. He's going to bed. ΕΞΑΙΡΕΣΗ (χωρίς to) I'm going home. ΑΛΛΑ: I'm going to my house. 14 Fill in with: in - at - on 17 Circle a or b and fill in. 1. We always have fun at birthday parties. 2. My classmates aren t in the playground. 3. Look! Those kids are dancing in the street. 4. There are a lot of horses on this farm. 5. My parents are still at the theatre. 6. There are a lot of tourists on this boat. 7. Jonathan isn't here. He's still at work. 1. The kids are in the classroom. a. classroom b. class 2. Belinda is at the aquarium. a. aquarium b. school 3. We are sitting in class. a. garden b. class 4. Tom s reading in bed. a. car b. bed 5. I'm tired. Let's go home. a. home b. house 6. Ben is going to his house. a. his house b. home 7. Poppy lives in the USA. a. Greece b. USA 15 Choose and fill in. 18 Choose and fill in with: 1. Let s meet at the zoo at six. (at - to - on) 2. He is flying to the USA now. (in - to - at) 3. Ken doesn't live in England. (in - to - on) 4. Dad drives to work every day. (on - at - to) 5. The girls are at the cinema. (on - at - to) 6. Come to our house tonight. (in - at - to) 7. Are you on the train now? (on - to - at) 16 Fill in with: in - at - on - to 1. Never talk on your mobile phone in the car. 2. Mr Black is on the plane to London now. 3. Why isn t she at school today? Is she sick? 4. Come on, kids! Go to your classrooms now. 5. Where's your sister? Isn't she at home? 6. Let's not stay on the beach any longer. 7. Our dog is fighting with a cat in the garden. between - near - next to - around - in front of - behind - under ΘΥΜΗΣΟΥ εδώ και τις υπόλοιπες τοπικές προθέσεις που έχουν πάντα τις παρακάτω σημασίες και χρησιμοποιούνται όπως και στα ελληνικά: under = κάτω από near = κοντά σε next to = δίπλα σε in front of = μπροστά σε behind = πίσω από between = ανάμεσα σε around = γύρω από 1. We live near the centre of a very large city. The noise is terrible! 2. There s a fantastic green garden all around my new school. 3. My bedroom is right next to my brother s room and I can hear every sound that he makes. 4. A tall student sits in front of me in class and I can t see anything. 5. Oh, dear! I think there s someone behind us. Let s run quickly! 6. - Mum! I can t find my shoes! - Look under your bed, dear! 7. There s a supermarket between the flower shop and the post office. Grammalysis A2 11

10 Remember 3 Present Simple- Adverbs of frequency - Time expressions Grammar Theory A Ενεστώτας απλός - κατάφαση Ο Ενεστώτας απλός χρησιμοποιείται για συνήθειες που έχουμε και δείχνει ότι κάνουμε κάτι που επαναλαμβάνεται. 1. Στην κατάφαση σχηματίζεται βάζοντας ένα ρήμα μετά από κάθε πρόσωπο. Πρόσεξε ότι στα πρόσωπα he, she, it προσθέτουμε ένα -s στην κατάληξη του ρήματος. 2. Στα ρήματα που τελειώνουν σε: -ss /-sh / -ch / -x / -o βάζουμε την κατάληξη -es στα he, she, it. Παραδείγματα: I watch he / she / it watches - I dress he / she / (it) dresses I go he / she / it goes - I do he / she / it does (="νταζ"!) 1 Write the 3rd person singular of the verbs in the Present Simple. he, she, it s he, she, it es he, she, it ies eats washes carries buys fixes flies 3 Circle a, b or c and fill in. Present Simple: affirmative I play you play he plays she plays it plays we play you play they play wash - carry - eat - buy - fly - fix - sleep - teach - cry - study - go - stay PRESENT SIMPLE - AFFIRMATIVE 1 I watch 2 you watch he watches she watches it watches we watch you watch they watch 2 I study 3 you study he studies she studies it studies we study you study they study Fill in with the Present Simple of the verbs: worry - do - have - sit - swim - tidy 1. We swim in the lake at weekends. 2. My brother Ken never sits still. 3. Mothers often worry about their kids. 4. Dad tidies the garage every month. 5. They do the dishes after lunch. 6. Sally always has a big breakfast. 1. My parents wake up at 7 o'clock every morning. a. wake up b. wakes up c. wakies up 2. The boys usually eat their dinner in the kitchen. a. My sister b. The boys c. Jimmy 3. On holidays, my family and I often stay at hotels. a. stay b. staies c. stays 4. I think Sue dresses very beautifully. a. dressies b. dress c. dresses 5. Some of my teachers speak too loudly. a. speakes b. speaks c. speak 6. Most people have meat more than twice a week. a. Most people b. This man c. Grandma Προσοχή στο ρήμα have, που σημαίνει έχω, ή τρώω ή πίνω και όπου στα he, she, it βάζουμε has και όχι haves. 3. Όταν το ρήμα τελειώνει σε σύμφωνο + y, τότε βγάζουμε το -y και στη θέση του βάζουμε την κατάληξη -ies. Παραδείγματα: I study he / she / (it) studies you cry he / she / it cries - we carry he /she/it carries - they tidy he / she / (it) tidies 4. Αν όμως υπάρχει φωνήεν πριν το -y, τότε ακολουθούμε τον πρώτο κανόνα και βάζουμε την κατάληξη -s. Παραδείγματα: I play he / she / it plays (και όχι plaies) - you buy he / she / (it) buys (και όχι buies). sleeps stays teaches goes cries studies ΛΕΞΕΙΣ - ΚΛΕΙΔΙΑ του Ενεστώτα απλού: ΘΥΜΗΣΟΥ τα λεγόμενα adverbs of frequency (επιρρήματα συχνότητας) που δείχνουν πόσο συχνά κάνουμε κάτι: always = πάντα often = συχνά usually = συνήθως sometimes = μερικές φορές never = ποτέ Τα επιρρήματα συχνότητας μπαίνουν ΠΡΙΝ το κύριο ρήμα στον ενεστώτα απλό. Π.χ. I sometimes wake up early. / He often plays tennis. We usually have breakfast. / She never watches T.V. Εξαίρεση: το ρήμα be. Τα επιρρήματα συχνότητας μπαίνουν ΜΕΤΑ τα am, is, are. Π.χ. He is always late. / I am often lazy. 12 Grammalysis A2 4 Write sentences with adverbs of frequency in the Present Simple. 1. Ron and Liz - do - the dishes together (sometimes) Ron and Liz sometimes do the dishes together. 2. My brother - be - very funny (usually) My brother is usually very funny. 3. Grandma - watch - TV with us (often) Grandma often watches TV with us. 4. I - be - hungry in the morning (never) I am never hungry in the morning. 5. The sun - shine - in summer (always) The sun always shines in summer.

11 Grammar Theory B Present Simple: interrogative & negative Ενεστώτας απλός - ερώτηση & άρνηση Ο χρόνος αυτός σχηματίζεται στην ερώτηση και την άρνηση με το βοηθητικό ρήμα do, το οποίο εδώ δεν σημαίνει "κάνω" και δεν μεταφράζεται. Πρόσεξε ότι τόσο στην ερώτηση, όσο και στην άρνηση ΔΕΝ βάζουμε πλέον στο ρήμα τις καταλήξεις -s, -es και -ies της κατάφασης στα πρόσωπα he, she, it. Δηλαδή λέμε π.χ.: Does he wash? (και όχι does he washes?) - Does she study? (και όχι does she studies?) She doesn't go (και όχι she doesn't goes) - He doesn't carry (και όχι he doesn't carries) Στον ολόκληρο τύπο της άρνησης, βάζουμε: do not (= don't) και does not (= doesn't). Σε σύντομες απαντήσεις (yes/no) μετά από ερωτήσεις, βάζουμε την προσωπική αντωνυμία που ταιριάζει και do / don't ή does / doesn't. Παραδείγματα: Do you like milk? - Yes, I do. / No, I don't. Does Tim play tennis? - Yes, he does. / No, he doesn't. PRESENT SIMPLE INTERROGATIVE - NEGATIVE do I play...? do you play...? does he play...? does she play...? does it play...? do we play...? do you play...? do they play...? I don't play you don't play he doesn't play she doesn't play it doesn't play we don't play you don't play they don't play 5 Fill in with: Do - Does and give short answers. 1. Do you often go to the cinema? Yes, I/we do. 2. Does your sister drink tea? X No, she doesn't. 3. Does Mr Green teach English? X No, he doesn't. 4. Do the kids like cartoons? Yes, they do. 5. Do vegetarians eat chicken? X No, they don't. 6. Does Mary watch horror films? Yes, she does. 6 Choose and circle. 1. Dad does / doesn't work on Saturdays. 2. What time does Peter has / have English classes? 3. Some of my classmates don't / doesn't like maths. 4. Where do she / you usually spend summer? 5. Does / Do anyone here know what this is? 6. I'm afraid Linda doesn't study / studies enough. 7 Fill in with the Present Simple. 1. Nick doesn't go (not go) shopping on weekdays. 2. Do the kids have (the kids / have) lunch at school? 3. My neighbours don't make (not make) any noise. 4. Does Mrs Ray speak (Mrs Ray / speak) Italian well? 5. Why does it rain (it / rain) so much in England? 6. Do kangaroos live (kangaroos / live) in Australia? 7. My sisters don't take (not take) the bus to school. 8. How much (this hat / cost)? does this hat cost ΧΡΟΝΙΚΕΣ ΕΚΦΡΑΣΕΙΣ - ΚΛΕΙΔΙΑ του Ενεστώτα απλού: ΘΥΜΗΣΟΥ ότι κάποιες χρονικές εκφράσεις που δείχνουν κάθε πότε κάνουμε κάτι μπορεί επίσης να συνοδεύουν τον Ενεστώτα απλό. Παραδείγματα: every day / week / month / year... once / twice / three times a week / a month / a year in the morning / afternoon / evening in (the) summer / autumn / spring / winter in January / March / August... on Mondays / Tuesdays... on Wednesday afternoons / on Friday evenings at night / Christmas / Easter at noon / midnight / ten o clock / half past eight at the weekend / at weekends Τέτοιες εκφράσεις μπαίνουν είτε στην αρχή, είτε στο τέλος των προτάσεων, π.χ. I go to school every day. At weekends we meet our friends in the park. Για να ρωτήσουμε πόσο συχνά γίνεται κάτι χρησιμοποιούμε το How often...?, π.χ. How often do you travel abroad? 8 Fill in the questions with do / does and answer with time expressions. 1. What time do you take the bus to school? 8.30 I take the bus to school at half past eight. 2. When does Helen study for school? She studies for school in the evening. evening 3. How often does Mr Brown eat fast food? He eats fast food on Mondays and Fridays / twice a week. 4. When do the Smiths go to the beach? They go to the beach in (the) summer. 5. When does your dad wash the car? He washes the car at the weekend / at weekends. Mo + Fr summer weekend Grammalysis A2 13

12 9 Look at the pictures and correct the sentences as in the example. 1 Jane 2 My sisters 3 Mr Black 4 Mum 5 My parents 6 Grandpa go to the cinema have ballet classes sleep late tidy our rooms watch TV go jogging 1. Jane plays basketball at the weekend. She doesn't play basketball at the weekend. She goes to the cinema. 2. My sisters go to the gym on Mondays. My sisters don't go to the gym on Mondays. They have ballet classes. 3. Mr Black wakes up early on Sundays. Mr Black doesn't wake up early on Sundays. He sleeps late. 4. Mum relaxes on the couch on Saturdays. Mum doesn't relax on the couch on Saturdays. She tidies our rooms. 5. My parents read books in the evening. My parents don't read books in the evening. They watch TV. 6. Grandpa rides his bicycle every day. Grandpa doesn't ride his bicycle every day. He goes jogging. 10 Ask When - questions and answer as in the example. Ted - have lunch - noon the girls - tidy up - Saturdays the boys - wake up - 7 o clock Mrs Pitt - drive home - evening you - get together - weekends Mike - study for school - night 1. When does Ted have lunch? - He has lunch at noon. 2. When do the girls tidy up? - They tidy up on Saturdays. 3. When do the boys wake up? - They wake up at 7 o'clock. 4. When does Mrs Pitt drive home? - She drives home in the evening. 5. When do you get together? - We get together at weekends. 6. When does Mike study for school? - He studies for school at night. 11 Fill in the dialogue with the Present Simple of the verbs: 12 Read the dialogue again and give short answers. enjoy - go - find - send - stay - download - do - love - chat - play love Ted: I just (1) weekends! I always (2) do plenty of interesting things then. Ken: What do you usually do? (3) Do you go out with friends? Ted: Well, not exactly. I (4) stay at home and (5) play some cool computer games online. Ken: Oh, no! (6) Do you really find this interesting? Ted: Of course I do. Everyone in my family (7) enjoys spending lots of time on the Internet at weekends. My sister (8) chats with her friends from Australia, my mum (9) downloads new recipes and my dad (10) sends s to his business partners. Ken: Oh, dear! What a family! 14 Grammalysis A2 1. Does Ted go out at the weekend? No, he doesn't. 2. Does Ted stay at home at the weekend? Yes, he does. 3. Does Ted's sister download new recipes? No, she doesn't. 4. Does Ted's family spend much time online? Yes, they do. 5. Does Ken like Ted's family? No, he doesn't.

13 Remember 4 Present Continuous - Present Continuous vs. Present Simple Grammar Theory A Present Continuous: affirmative Ενεστώτας διαρκείας - κατάφαση Ο Ενεστώτας διαρκείας χρησιμοποιείται όταν μιλάμε για πράγματα που κάνουμε τώρα ή προσωρινά. Για να τον σχηματίσουμε κλίνουμε στον ενεστώτα το βοηθητικό ρήμα be (δεν μεταφράζεται "είμαι") και ακολουθεί το βασικό μας ρήμα με την κατάληξη -ing, π.χ. play + ing = playing. PRESENT CONTINUOUS - AFFIRMATIVE Full form I am playing you are playing he is playing she is playing it is playing we are playing you are playing they are playing Short form I'm playing you're playing he's playing she's playing it's playing we're playing you're playing they're playing ΘΥΜΗΣΟΥ τους υπόλοιπους κανόνες σχηματισμού της "-ing form": 1. Εάν το κύριο ρήμα είναι μονοσύλλαβο και τελειώνει σε ένα φωνήεν + ένα σύμφωνο, τότε διπλασιάζεται το τελευταίο σύμφωνο πριν το -ing. Π.χ. run you are running (όχι runing) / cut he is cutting / jog we are jogging ΠΡΟΣΟΧΗ: δε διπλασιάζονται τα γράμματα x, w, z και y. Ο κανόνας αυτός ισχύει και για δισύλλαβα ρήματα που τονίζονται στη λήγουσα ή που λήγουν σε -l, π.χ. forget he is forgetting, travel we are travelling. 2. Εάν το κύριο ρήμα τελειώνει σε -e, το βγάζουμε πριν βάλουμε την κατάληξη -ing. Π.χ. come I am coming (όχι comeing) / write I am writing (όχι writeing) 3. Εάν το κύριο ρήμα τελειώνει σε -ie, φεύγουν τα δύο αυτά γράμματα και στη θέση τους μπαίνει ένα y πριν το -ing. Π.χ. lie he is lying (όχι lieing) Xρονικές EΚΦΡΑΣΕΙΣ-ΚΛΕΙΔΙΑ του Ενεστώτα διαρκείας: now, right now, at the moment, today, tonight, this week, this month, this year,... και οτιδήποτε άλλο μας δείχνει ότι κάτι γίνεται τώρα, τη στιγμή που μιλάμε και / ή ότι είναι μια προσωρινή κατάσταση. 1 Fill in with the Present Continuous of the verbs: 1. come I 2. put You 3. show He 4. study She 5. run It 6. make We 7. lie You 8. eat They am coming are putting is showing is studying is running are making are lying are eating 9. relax I 10. hide You 11. drive He 12. wear She 13. begin It 14. stand We 15. win You 16. hold They am relaxing are hiding is driving is wearing is beginning are standing are winning are holding Yes, mum! I am coming home now! 2 Choose and circle. I'm in the park opposite my house now and I am (1) sitting / siting on a bench under a tree. It is a beautiful day and there are a lot of people here. Some of them (2) is / are walking and talking quietly and some others are (3) joging / jogging around the lake. Two boys are (4) feeding / feedding the ducks and the ducks are (5) fighting / fight with one another to get the food. They are (6) makeing / making a lot of noise too! It is so funny that everybody (7) is / are laughing now. An old woman (8) is joinning / joining the boys and she (9) throwing / is throwing some bread into the lake too! More hungry ducks are (10) comeing / coming now and there's even more noise. The ducks are (11) having / have a food fight today! 3 Fill in with the Present Continuous of the verbs: sleep - read - play - have - watch - do It is a quiet evening in Ricky's house tonight. 1. Ricky is doing his homework. 2. His parents are watching TV. 3. His cat is sleeping on the sofa. 4. His sisters are playing board games. 5. His grandpa is reading a book. But... wait a minute! What's that noise?... Oh, no! 6. His neighbours are having a party! Grammalysis A2 15

14 Grammar Theory B Present Continuous: interrogative & negative Ενεστώτας διαρκείας - ερώτηση & άρνηση Η ερώτηση και η άρνηση του Ενεστώτα διαρκείας γίνεται όπως κάνουμε ερώτηση και άρνηση στο ρήμα be και πάλι εδώ ακολουθεί η "-ing form" του κύριου ρήματος. PRESENT CONTINUOUS INTERROGATIVE - NEGATIVE am I playing...? are you playing...? is he playing...? is she playing...? is it playing...? are we playing...? are you playing...? are they playing...? Σε σύντομες απαντήσεις (yes / no) μετά από ερωτήσεις σε Present Continuous, βάζουμε την προσωπική αντωνυμία που ταιριάζει και χρησιμοποιούμε μόνο το ρήμα be στο πρόσωπο που ταιριάζει. Παραδείγματα: - Are you joking? - Yes, I am. / - No, I'm not. - Is Tim learning French? - Yes, he is. / - No, he isn't. - Are the children sleeping? - Yes, they are. / No, they aren't. 5 I'm not playing you aren't playing he isn't playing she isn't playing it isn't playing we aren't playing you aren't playing they aren't playing Look at the pictures and write dialogues in the Present Continuous, as in the example. Use: watch TV - wait for the bus - ride his bike - chat online - sing 0. Connie - study - English - now -? Is Connie studying No, she isn't. English now? She's chatting online. 1. Your brother - sleep - now -? - Is your brother sleeping now? - No, he isn't. He's riding his bike. 2. The kids - have - lunch - now -? - Are the kids having lunch now? - No, they aren't. They're watching TV. 3. That woman - listen - to music -? - Is that woman listening to music? - No, she isn t. She s waiting for the bus. 4 Fill in with the Present Continuous. 1. P Sandra is talking (talk) on the phone now.? Is Sandra talking on the phone now? Sandra isn't talking on the phone now. O 2. P His cousins are staying (stay) here this month.? Are his cousins staying here this month? His cousins aren't staying here this month. O 3. P Mrs Benton is flying (fly) to London tonight.? Is Mrs Benton flying to London tonight? Mrs Benton isn't flying to London tonight. O 4. P Her sons are travelling (travel) abroad this week.? Are her sons travelling abroad this week? Her sons aren't travelling abroad this week. O 5. P That dog is drinking (drink) milk!? Is that dog drinking milk? That dog isn't drinking milk! O 6 Ask What - questions as in the example. 1. What is Sam reading? Sam is reading a sports magazine. 2. What is the baby holding? The baby is holding a pencil. 3. What are the children eating? The children are eating ice-cream. 4. What is aunt Mary making? Aunt Mary is making a cake. 5. What are those boys playing? Those boys are playing cards. 6. What is that man carrying? That man is carrying some wood. 4. These people - dance -? - Are these people dancing? - No, they aren't. They're singing. 16 Grammalysis A2

15 Grammar Theory C Present Simple: interrogative & negative C1. Η χρήση του Ενεστώτα διαρκείας (1) Ο Ενεστώτας διαρκείας χρησιμοποιείται όταν μιλάμε για πράγματα που κάνουμε τώρα ή προσωρινά και συνοδεύεται από χρονικές λέξεις και εκφράσεις που δείχνουν ότι η πράξη, είτε γίνεται τη στιγμή που μιλάμε, είτε είναι μία προσωρινή κατάσταση. Παραδείγματα: now, right now, at the moment, this week, this weekend, this month, this year, today, tonight,... Υπάρχουν όμως κι άλλες ενδείξεις για το ότι κάτι γίνεται τη στιγμή που μιλάμε, όπως: Look! Listen! κτλ. (2) Κάποιες φορές, κυρίως με ρήματα που δηλώνουν μετακίνηση, ο χρόνος αυτός χρησιμοποιείται και για πράξεις που θα γίνουν στο κοντινό μέλλον και οι οποίες είναι προγραμματισμένες και σίγουρες. Παραδείγματα: He's leaving Scotland tomorrow. - They're going to Paris this weekend. - We're flying back to London in two hours. 7 Choose and circle. 1. They are sleeping at the moment / every day. 2. Do you meet your friends this weekend / at weekends? 3. Ted snores loudly tonight / every night. 4. I'm going to a music school this year / on Fridays. 5. Are the children having breakfast now / in the morning? 6. He doesn't watch TV today / in the afternoon. 7. We are staying at a hotel this week / once a week. 8 Circle a, b or c. 1. I history at the moment. a. am studying b. study c. are studying 2. We brunch today at a. are having b. have c. has 3. the girls back home now? a. Do... come b. Is... coming c. Are... coming 4. Grandma cakes every day. a. aren't making b. isn't making c. doesn't make 5. Jimmy on a farm this month. a. is working b. works c. work 6. Our neighbours three dogs. a. has b. have c. are having 7. What you usually at weekends? a. is... doing b. do... do c. are... doing 8. Where Ted tomorrow? a. are... going b. does... go c. is... going 9 C2. Η χρήση του Ενεστώτα απλού (1) Ο Ενεστώτας απλός χρησιμοποιείται για συνήθειες που έχουμε, δείχνοντας ότι κάτι επαναλαμβάνεται τακτικά και για μόνιμες καταστάσεις. Συνοδεύεται από χρονικές λέξεις και εκφράσεις που δείχνουν πόσο συχνά ή κάθε πότε κάνουμε κάτι. Παραδείγματα: always, often, usually, sometimes, never once, twice, three times a (day / week / month / year...) every day / week / month / year..., in the morning, in the evening, on Mondays, at the weekend,... (βλ. σελ. 8) (2) Στο ρήμα have (χωρίς το got) όταν σημαίνει "έχω". Π.χ. I don't have enough money / Does he have a car? ΑΛΛΑ: όταν το ρήμα have σημαίνει "τρώω, πίνω, κάνω" και μιλάμε για πράξη που κάνουμε τώρα, θα βάλουμε Present Continuous. Π.χ. I'm having breakfast now. Present Continuous or Simple? Look at the time expressions, FIND the right tense and write. 0. Your sister - go - to church -? now - on Sundays Is your sister going to church now? Does your sister go to church on Sundays? 1. We - have - lunch at school We usually have lunch at school. We are having lunch at school today. 2. Kate - not listen - to music Kate isn't listening to music right now. Kate doesn't listen to music every day. 3. The kids - sleep - quietly -? Do the kids sleep quietly at night? Are the kids sleeping quietly tonight? 4. Mrs Green - tidy - the house Mrs Green is tidying the house this weekend. Mrs Green tidies the house at weekends. 5. I - not sit - next to Sue I don't always sit next to Sue. I'm not sitting next to Sue now. 6. Your friend - travel - abroad -? Is your friend travelling abroad this year? Does your friend travel abroad in summer? usually - today right now - every day at night - tonight this weekend - at weekends always - now this year - in summer Grammalysis A2 17

16 Lesson 1 Non continuous verbs Grammar Theory Ρήματα που δε σχηματίζουν χρόνους διαρκείας Ρήματα που δε σχηματίζουν χρόνους διαρκείας Θυμήσου ότι τα λεγόμενα Non continuous verbs, δε σχηματίζουν ποτέ Ενεστώτα διαρκείας, διότι δείχνουν ότι αυτό που λέμε είναι μια μόνιμη ή συνηθισμένη κατάσταση. Για τα ρήματα αυτά χρησιμοποιούμε τον Ενεστώτα απλό. Μερικά από τα ρήματα αυτά είναι τα εξής: 1. Ρήματα προτίμησης like = μου αρέσει love = αγαπώ want = θέλω hate = μισώ prefer = προτιμώ 3. Ρήματα αντίληψης think = νομίζω believe = πιστεύω know = ξέρω remember = θυμάμαι understand = καταλαβαίνω He's talking too fast! I don't understand him. 2. Ρήματα αίσθησης see = βλέπω hear = ακούω smell = μυρίζω taste = έχω γεύση sound = ακούγομαι 4. Άλλα ρήματα need = χρειάζομαι mean = εννοώ, σημαίνει belong (to) = ανήκω (σε) Έτσι λοιπόν, ακόμα κι αν αυτό που λέμε συμβαίνει τώρα, θα χρησιμοποιήσουμε Ενεστώτα απλό για τα παραπάνω ρήματα στη θέση του Ενεστώτα διαρκείας. Παραδείγματα: I don t understand what you are saying (και όχι I m not understanding) She wants to go out (όχι She s wanting) Do you like ice-cream? (όχι Are you liking) This soup smells great (όχι is smelling) What are you cooking, mum? It smells wonderful! I'm making some soup but I don't think it's ready yet. 18 Grammalysis A2

17 1 Fill in with the Present Simple or Continuous. 1. Jane is watching (watch) her favourite cartoon now. She really loves (love) cartoons! 2. We are doing (do) our exercises for tomorrow. We need (need) help to understand them. 3. Tom wants (want) to go out tonight, but his mother is asking (ask) him to stay at home. 4. I am taking (take) this book back now because it belongs (belong) to me. 5. No-one is eating (eat) these vegetables because they all prefer (prefer) pizza. 2 Fill in with the Present Simple or Continuous. 1. Who are you talking (talk) to now? 2. Does your sister believe (believe) in UFOs? 3. What do your friends think (think) of me? 4. Where is Fred driving (drive) to now? 5. Why are the kids running (run) so fast? 6. Does anyone understand (understand) this? 7. Do you know (know) this man? 4 Fill in with the Present Simple or Continuous. 1. Jim doesn't like (not like) love stories, that s why he isn't watching (not watch) this film tonight. 2. Oh, dear! They aren't joking (not joke)! They really don't know (not know) where Greece is! 3. You don't sound (not sound) very well. I hope you aren't feeling (not feel) seasick on this boat. 4. I am not staying (not stay) at home tonight because I don't want (not want) to get bored. 5. Liz isn't listening (not listen) to the teacher. I m sure she doesn't understand (not understand) him. 5 Fill in with the Present Simple or Continuous. 1. Brian is going (go) out with his friends tonight and his sister wants (want) to go with him. 2. I don t remember (not remember) this story so I am reading (read) it again. 3. Fay doesn t understand (not understand) what to do so Max is helping (help) her. 4. That bike belongs (belong) to Tommy. Why Is Nathan riding (Nathan / ride) it? 5. Anthony is cooking (cook) pizza and spaghetti tonight. He loves (love) Italian food! 3 Circle a or b. 1. What you about elephants? a. do... know b. are... knowing 2. - This cake good. - What's wrong with it? a. doesn't taste b. isn't tasting 3. We our grandparents this weekend. a. don't visit b. aren't visiting 4. I French this year and I it a lot. a. learn / am liking b. am learning / like 5. you anything from the supermarket? a. Are... needing b. Do... need 6. Where Helen to this year? a. is... moving b. does... move 6 Circle a or b. 1. mum help with the shopping? a. Does... need b. Is... needing 2. Ron and Julie to the city next year. a. move b. are moving 3. What a silly story! I one word of it! a. don t believe b. am not believing 4. Mum a cake. It great! a. is making / smells b. makes / is smelling 5. Greece like a good idea for a holiday. a. is sounding b. sounds 6. Someone a song. you it? a. is singing / Do... like b. sings / Are... liking Grammalysis A2 19

18 Lesson 2 be going to + verb Grammar Theory Be going to + verb Be going to + verb = πρόκειται να / σκοπεύω να... / θα... + ρήμα (για μελλοντικές πράξεις) Κλίνοντας το ρήμα go στον Ενεστώτα διαρκείας και βάζοντας στη συνέχεια to + ρήμα, μιλάμε για πράγματα που πρόκειται να συμβούν στο άμεσο μέλλον. Ο μέλλοντας αυτός αποδίδεται στα ελληνικά λέγοντας «πρόκειται να...», «σκοπεύω να...» ή απλά «θα...» και το ρήμα που περιγράφει την πράξη μας. Δες παρακάτω τους τρεις τύπους του με το ρήμα play. AFFIRMATIVE I'm going to play you're going to play he's going to play she's going to play it's going to play we're going to play you're going to play they're going to play INTERROGATIVE am I going to play...? are you going to play...? is he going to play...? is she going to play...? is it going to play...? are we going to play...? are we going to play...? are they going to play...? NEGATIVE I'm not going to play you aren't going to play he isn't going to play she isn't going to play it isn't going to play we aren't going to play you aren't going to play they aren't going to play Δίνουμε σύντομες απαντήσεις (yes/no) με την προσωπική αντωνυμία που ταιριάζει και μόνο το βοηθητικό ρήμα be. Παραδείγματα: - Are you going to sleep? - Yes, I am. / - No, I m not. - Is Jason going to play? - Yes, he is. / - No, he isn t. - Are the kids going to study? - Yes, they are. / No, they aren t. Oh no! He's going to fall! ΧΡΗΣΗ: 1. Οι πράξεις που εκφράζονται με be going to + verb είναι προγραμματισμένες από αυτόν που μιλάει ή σίγουρες. 2. Ο μέλλοντας αυτός χρησιμοποιείται επίσης για προβλέψεις μελλοντικές, που όμως δεν είναι αόριστες, αλλά που βασίζονται σε ΕΝΔΕΙΞΕΙΣ. Δηλαδή, βλέπουμε, ακούμε ή μαθαίνουμε κάτι (= ένδειξη) και βασιζόμαστε σε αυτό για να πούμε ότι κάτι ΘΑ γίνει. Παραδείγματα: There are clouds in the sky. (ένδειξη) It s going to rain. He looks tired. (ένδειξη) He s going to fall asleep. 20 Grammalysis A2

19 1 Fill in with be going to + verb. 1. Jim and I - not play Jim and I are not going to play tennis today. 2. Mum - not serve Mum is not going to serve dinner at 7:00pm. 3. Phil - not listen Phil is not going to listen to music. 4. I - not take I am not going to take a break after all. 5. You and Sam - not stay You and Sam are not going to stay with us tonight. 2 Fill in with be going to + verb. take - rain - land - get bored - drink - fly 1. I am going to get bored. There s nothing to do. 2. The Smiths are going to fly to Japan. 3. Our trip is going to take two weeks. 4. The kids are going to drink coca cola. 5. His flight is going to land at 6:15am. 6. It is going to rain. Look at those clouds. serve - not rain - play - take off - not pack - think 1. Our plane is going to take off in ten minutes. 2. Dad is going to think about my idea. 3. They are going to serve lunch at 2 o clock. 4. We aren t going to pack much for the trip. 5. Jack is going to play tennis tonight. 6. It isn t going to rain. We can go out. 3 Fill in these s with be going to + verb. Hi Ross! I 1 am not going to chat (not chat) online for a few days. My brother and I 2 are going to fly (fly) to Canada. It 3 is going to be (be) so exciting! We 4 are going to stay (stay) with my uncle in Vancouver. He 5 is going to take (take) us on a boat trip to see whales! I 6 am not going to miss (not miss) that! See you soon. David. Hi Pete! I 1 am not going to work (not work) next week. Jane and I 2 are going to take (take) a short holiday. We 3 are going to find (find) a small hotel by the sea. We 4 are not going to do (not do) very much. I 5 am going to lie (lie) on the beach and Jane 6 is going to swim (swim). It 7 is going to be (be) very peaceful. Love, Sarah. 4 Ask questions with be going to + verb. Then give Yes (P) or No (O) answers. 1. She - feel better soon? - Is she going to feel better soon? - (P) Yes, she is. 2. Dad - come back tonight? - Is dad going to come back tonight? - (O) No, he isn t. 3. You - jump over the wall? - Are you going to jump over the wall? - (P) Yes, I am. 4. The cat - eat that mouse? - Is the cat going to eat that mouse? - (O) No, it isn t. 5. They - get bored at home? - Are they going to get bored at home? - (P) Yes, they are. 6. Liz - visit you on Friday? - Is Liz going to visit you on Friday? - (O) No, she isn t. 7. You - work this weekend? - Are you going to work this weekend? - (O) No, I m not. / we aren t. 8. They - see the film tonight? - Are they going to see the film tonight? - (P) Yes, they are. 9. Jim - walk to school today? - Is Jim going to walk to school today? - (O) No, he isn t. 10. The bus - be late again? - Is the bus going to be late again? - (P) Yes, it is. 11. You - start piano lessons? - Are you going to start piano lessons? - (P) Yes, I am. / we are. Grammalysis A2 21