1 16ο ΔΙΕΘΝΕΣ ΣΥΝΕΔΡΙΟ Ε.Ψ.Ψ.Ε.Π. Συνεδριακή σειρά (6): Νευροψυχιατρικές, Ψυχολογικές & Κοινωνικές Εξελίξεις & Προκλήσεις ΜΑΪΟΥ 2011 ΞΕΝΟΔΟΧΕΙΟ ΧΙΛΤΟΝ ΑΘΗΝΑ Κατάθεση προτάσεων έως 10/1/2011 Προεγγραφές έως 10/12/2010 Ε.Ψ.Ψ.Ε.Π. ΕΠΙΚΟΙΝΩΝΙΑ Αιγιαλείας 18, Παράδεισος Αμαρουσίου Τηλ.: Φαξ: Ιστοσελίδα: Χριστουγεννιάτικο BAZAAR της Εταιρείας Προστασίας Ατόμων με Πολλαπλές Ειδικές Ανάγκες & διαδραστική εισήγηση 15:00-20:00 στις 15 και 16 Δεκεμβρίου στα γραφεία της Ε.Ψ.Ψ.Ε.Π. Σε συνεργασία με την ΠΕΡΙΕΧΟΜΕΝΑ Διαπροσωπικές Σχέσεις Εφήβων και Συναισθηματική Νοημοσύνη Εταιρεία Δισχιδούς Ράχεως & Υδροκεφαλίας Παιδί και Πένθος Συναισθηματική Νοημοσύνη και Διατροφικές Διαταραχές Αυτισμός και Σύνδρομο Asperger s Δεκτική Μουσικοθεραπεία ως Κλινική Προσέγγιση Εννοιολογικές Προσεγγίσεις στα Κοινωνικά Γνωστικά Πεδία A.P.P.A.C. Archives, Vol. 17, No. 3 A.P.P.A.C.:25 years celebration!
2 INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS OF ADOLESCENTS AS A DETERMINANT OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE Farheen Nasir and Seema Munaf Institute of Clinical Psychology, University of Karachi, Karachi, PAKISTAN ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to determine the relationship of emotional intelligence of adolescents with their interpersonal relationships. It was hypothesized that there would be positive correlation of interpersonal relationships and emotional intelligence scores of adolescents. Participants included 188 adolescents of secondary classes of different schools of Karachi, Pakistan. With the permission of the principals, adolescents were approached in group settings. After introduction to participants they were requested to sign the informed consent form, followed by the administration of demographic information form, Emotional Quotient Inventory Youth Version (BarOn & Parker, 2000) and Clinical Assessment of Interpersonal Relationships (Bracken, 2006). The tests were scored according to the standard procedures and Pearson product moment correlation was applied which indicated significant positive correlation between interpersonal relationships and emotional intelligence scores (r =.231, p<.01). Further relationship of emotional intelligence scores of adolescents with the interpersonal relationship variables of relationship with father, relationship with male peers and relationship with teachers were significantly positive; however relationship with mother and relationship with female peers were insignificant. Thus the present research was done keeping in focus the opportunity to give workshops on emotional intelligence which can also improve the interpersonal relationships of adolescents, as both are positively related. INTRODUCTION: We often come across people who had not been an above average student in school life but have succeeded extraordinarily well in their practical lives. So, what could be there other than intelligence or high Intelligence Quotient (IQ) which has helped them to achieve better than their counterparts? The answer to this question is the Emotional Intelligence (EI) of a person. The first attempt to define EI was made by Salovey and Mayer (1990) who defined EI as the ability to monitor one s own and others feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them and to use this information to guide one s thinking and actions. Thus the central components of emotional intelligence are the ability to understand other s emotions and the ability to regulate and harness one s own emotions adaptively; one would expect persons with higher emotional intelligence to be more socially adept and to display better social skills (Schutte et al. 2001). Social skills are the lubricants of social life that help individuals interact in mutually balance ways (Malouff & Schutte, 1998). Further more, social skills tend to be reciprocal; persons who display good social skills tend to receive good treatment in return (Gouldner, 1960) and to be liked by others (Anderson, 1968). In his book Goleman (1996) has discussed about a massive survey of parents and teachers and shows a worldwide trend of present generation to be more emotionally disturbed than the last: more lonely and depressed, more angry and unruly, more nervous and prone to worry, and more impulsive and aggressive. Cited in Woodfolk (2004), emotional intelligence consists of four broad abilities: perceiving, integrating, understanding, and managing emotions (Mayer & Cobb, 2000). If one can t perceive what he/ she is feeling, how can one make good choices about jobs, relationships, time management, or even entertainment (Baron, 1998)? Individuals who can perceive and understand emotions in others (usually by reading nonverbal cues) and respond appropriately are more successful in working with people and often emerge as leaders (Wood & Wood, 1999). According to BarOn (2002), emotional intelligence (EI) is an array of noncognitive capabilities, competencies, and skills that influence one s ability to succeed in the coping with environmental demands and pressures. Emotional intelligence addresses the emotional, personal, and social dimensions of intelligence (p.1). He defines emotional intelligence as being involved with effectively understanding oneself and others, relating well to people, and adapting to and coping with the immediate surroundings to be more successful in dealing with environmental demands. BarOn posits that EI develops with time and that it can be improved through training, programming, and therapy. BarOn hypothesizes that those individuals with higher than average Emotional Quotient (EQ), are in general more successful in meeting environmental demands and pressures. He points out that lack of success and the existence of emotional problems can be related to a deficiency in EI. Difficulty in coping with the environmental issues is mostly found among those individuals who lack in reality testing, problem solving, stress tolerance, and impulse control. In general, BarOn considers a person s general intelligence to be influenced by emotional intelligence and cognitive intelligence, which then offers an indication of one s potential to success in life. It also highly influences interpersonal relations of individuals. An interpersonal relation is the unique and relatively stable behavioural pattern that exists or develops between two or more people as a result of individual and extra-individual influences. Factors that influence relationships include (a) ease or difficulty of communication; (b) feelings and affective interactions; (c) feelings of acceptance and rejection; (d) sharing of values, knowledge, and opinions; (e) the absence or presence of conflict; (f) mutual or directional identification; and (g) the existence or absence of trust. The impact of healthy relationships cannot be ignored in one s life as an individual s functioning can be directly linked to his/her social support factors. Good relationships fulfill basic needs for belonging and nurturance; the social support provided by relationship buffers the negative impact of life stressors (House, Robins, Metzner, 1982; Oxman, Berkman, Kasl, Freeman & Barrett, 1992; Pilisuk & Parks 1986). Individuals who reported higher levels of maternal and paternal attachment, they reported lower levels of perceived stress and greater confidence in their ability to attend to and regulate negative moods and they also relied less on the use of suppression to cope with their feelings (McCarthy, Moller, & Fouladi, 2001). Vorbach, and Foster (2003) suggested that emotional competence is composed of a set of skills, and talking about those skills independently provides a more accurate portrayal and assessment of an individual. Control over one s emotions is considered as important in maintaining positive social interactions. Those who did better at recognizing others emotions were rated by their ΑΡΧΕΙΑ Ε.Ψ.Ψ.Ε.Π - Τριμηνιαία έκδοση της Εταιρείας Ψυχολογικής Ψυχιατρικής Ενηλίκου & Παιδιού Τόμος 17 Τεύχος 3, Αυγ-Οκτ A.P.P.A.C. ARCHIVES Quarterly Journal published by the Association of Psychology & Psychiatry for Adults & Children, Vol. 17 No3, Aug-Oct 2010 Εκδότης Δ/ντής:Ι.Κούρος Πρόεδρος ΕΨΨΕΠ Chief Editor:J.Kouros APPAC Chairman Ιδιοκτήτης: ΕΨΨΕΠ Αιγιαλείας 18, Παράδεισος Αμαρουσίου Τηλ: Φαξ: Website: Δ.Σ. ΕΨΨΕΠ Επ. Πρόεδροι: Γ.Λυκέτσος APPAC BOARD Honor. President: G.Lyketsos Ph. Mazet Ph. Mazet Πρόεδρος: Ι. Κούρος Αντιπρόεδρος: Τ. Σιδηροπούλου Γ.Γραμματέας: Π. Μπερεδήμας Ταμίας: Θ. Χαρίση Επ.Γρ. Σύνταξης: Ντ. Κόττα Μέλος: Γ. Φρέρης Chairman: J. Kouros G.Secretary: P. Beredimas Sc. Editing Secr.: D. Kotta Vice Chairman: T. Sidiropoulou Treasurer: Th. Harissi Member: G. Freris Τιμητική Συντακτική Επιτροπή - Honorary Editing Committee (GR) Κ. Αλεξανδρόπουλος Α. Αυγουστίδης Ι. Βιδάλης Δ. Γεωργιάδης Ν. Δέγλερης Α. Δημακοπούλου Α. Κανιστράς Γ. Καραντάνος Ν. Κατσάνου Κ. Κατσαφούρος Κ. Κόντης A. Mπότσης Π. Λυμπέρης Α. Λυράκος Ν. Μανούσης Π. Πατεράκης Ι. Ρόντος Ν. Σινούρης Ε. Σιούτη Π. Στοφόρος Ε. Τζεμπελίκος Α. Φόρτος Α. Φωτιάδου Ι.Χ ιωάννου Διεθνής Επιστημονική Επιτροπή International Scientific Committee G. Alevizopoulos (GR) V. Alevizos (GR) S. Baloyiannis (GR) K. Ballas (GR) G.Christodoulou (GR) E. Dimitriou(GR) M.Economou (GR) Μ. Εlkaim (BE) Ι. Hatzimanolis (GR) H. Ierodiakonou (GR) G. Kaprinis (GR) A. Karageorgiou (GR) Η. Κataki (GR) A. Kazis (GR) V. Kontaxakis (GR) A. Koutselinis (GR) A. Liakos (GR) T. Lemperiere (FR) K. Lyketsos (USA) I. Liappas (GR) A. Mailis (GR) M. Malliori (GR) K. Matsa (GR) I. Mavromatis (GR) T. Nathan (FR) J. Papadatos (GR) G.Papadimitriou (GR) Th. Papapetropoulos(GR) A. Paraschos (GR) N. Paritsis (GR) A. Rabavilas (GR) I. Papakostas (GR) R. Perron (FR) V. Riga (GR) G. Rigatos (GR) K. Stefanis (GR) K. Soldatos (GR) P. Sakelaropoulos (GR) G. Simos (GR) L. Stavrou (GR) S.Theodoropoulou(GR) V.Tomaras (GR) J. Tsegos (GR) M. Tsolaki (GR) N. Tsopelas (USA) N. Tzavaras (GR) Α. Tzavaras (GR) G. Varouchakis (GR) J. Velin (FR) N. Zahariadis (GR) D. Vassilopoulos(GR) Για τα αποστελλόμενα έντυπα, κείμενα, φωτογραφίες, ο εκδοτικός οίκος αποκτά αυτόματα το δικαίωμα της δημοσίευσης. Κείμενα και φωτογραφίες που αποστέλλονται στο περιοδικό προς δημοσίευση δεν επιστρέφονται. Απαγορεύεται η αναδημοσίευση, η αναπαραγωγή ή μετάδοση όλου ή μέρους του περιοδικού χωρίς την έγγραφη άδεια του εκδότη. Η άποψη των συντακτών δεν ταυτίζεται απαραίτητα με την άποψη της Διεύθυνσης του περιοδικού. All Rights Reserved. 2 A.P.P.A.C. Archives, Vol. 17, No. 3
3 peers as warmer, friendly and less aggressive. Research has shown people high in emotional awareness are less likely to allow moods to bias their judgments in mood congruent directions, and higher levels of social well beings. Ciarrochi et al. (2003) found that emotionally aware adults have a higher number of social support. People s capacity for empathy is reflected from their use of emotions to facilitate their thoughts, which can be utilized to appreciate the emotional differences of complex interpersonal situations. Bower (1972) referred to schools as society s humanizing agents like something where older generation shows youth the path into adulthood. But in today s world this role seems to be taken over by mass media and mass culture because schools have narrowed their attention only on academic skills and parents are in the race of economic and personal agenda (Zins, Weissberg, Wang, & Walberg, 2004). Schools must recognize the fact that education should address the whole child and not just his academic skillfulness, and in order to do that we need social-emotional intelligence with ethical guidance to make our children not just knowledgeable, but responsible and caring, nonviolent and drug free. Primary principle of emotional intelligence which is required in current settings of education is that a caring relationship should be provided for the foundation of a genuine and enduring learning. Emotional intelligence is considered as teachable, which enhances with time through training. Such training is highly crucial for adolescents, as adolescence is a transitional state where children get prepare to enter adulthood and if they are not properly equipped with emotionally and socially intelligent perceptions than in future there is a possibility to see a rise in mental health dilemmas. Humphrey, Curran, Morris, Farrell, and Woods (2007) suggests that if EI is to be taught, a central goal of social and emotional learning must be to change the individuals perception of reward from one of self-serving and self-seeking gratification to one where reward is gained through understanding the emotional needs of other people as well as their own. Thus the purpose of the presented research was to determine the relationship of interpersonal relationship of adolescents with emotional intelligence. So far no such intensive research has been conducted in Pakistan. The outcome of the research will help to give guidance to the school counselors, psychologists, parents and teachers to enhance the interpersonal aspects of adolescents relationships with reference to emotional intelligence. It will also be helpful to conduct EQ enhancement workshops for adolescents. Hypotheses: There would be a positive correlation of interpersonal relationships and emotional intelligence scores of adolescents. There would be positive correlation of emotional intelligence and interpersonal relationship scores of adolescents on the variables of: a) relationship with father, b) relationship with mother, c) relationship with teacher, d) relationship with male peers and e) relationship with female peers. METHODOLOGY: Participants: The sample included 188 adolescents; 105 males and 83 females. All the adolescents fell in the age range of years. They all had been the students of class 9th and 10th of different secondary schools of Karachi. Measures: Introduction to Participants and Informed Consent Form. In this form participants were introduced with the research. They were also informed that all the individuals data will be kept confidential and collected data would be used for research purpose only. Further they were requested to give their consent to voluntarily participate in the study if they are interested in it. Demographic Information Form. This form included basic information related to the participants like name, date of birth, age, sex, and grade level. Emotional Quotient Inventory, youth version [(EQ-i: YV) BarOn & Parker, 2000] is 60-items inventory, which measures 5 components which are Intrapersonal, Interpersonal, Adaptability, Stress Management and General Mood. It assesses emotionally and socially intelligent behavior of children and adolescents. It has a four point rating scale ranging from very seldom true of me to very often true of me. Reliability and Validity of EQ-i: YV: Internal reliability of BarOn EQ-i: YV was measured with Cronbach s alpha. This included all the subscales except for positive impression scale and inconsistency index and the result was more than satisfactory, showing the items measure what they are supposed to measure. In order to have construct validation the factor structure of the 40 items from the Intrapersonal, Interpersonal, Stress Management and Adaptability scales were examined using exploratory factor analysis with the normative sample of The four empirical factors that emerged closely matched the four BarOn EQ-i: YV scales that were developed to measure emotional intelligence. Correlation between the congruent scales of BarOn EQ-i: YV and BarOn EQ-i is moderate to very high (Bar-On & Parker, 2000). Operational Definition of EI: Emotional Intelligence is operationally defined as an array of emotional, personal, and interpersonal abilities influencing mutually satisfying interpersonal relationships. Clinical Assessment of Interpersonal Relationships [(CAIR) Bracken, 2006] is composed of 35 items, all of which appear on each of five scales (i.e., Mother, Father, Male Peers, Female Peers, and Teachers). It assesses youth s relationship difficulties and identifies emotional disturbance. It is measured on a four point rating scale ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree. Reliability and Validity of CAIR: CAIR reliability estimates (i.e. coefficient alpha) are above.90 at each grade level (Bracken, 1987), the Total Relationship Index (TRI) coefficient alpha are.96 as well as for the over all standardized sample of 2,501. This suggests that expectation of examinees item responses can be consistent within the scales which can help in important decision making about their interpersonal relationships. The factor analysis conducted by Bracken and Newman (1994) yielded strong support for the differentiated CAIR scales, with all of the scale items loading significantly (>.30) on their respective scales, except two items on the Teachers scale that had non-significant but primary loading on the Mother scale. Operational Definition of Interpersonal Relationships: Interpersonal relationships are operationally defined as relations between two or more people in the context of social, family, and academics; relating to properties that result from such interactions. Procedure: First permission from the Principals of the secondary schools in Karachi was taken to administer the research on the adolescent students of classes 9th and 10th. All the students were approached in group settings separate for classes 9th and 10th. Initially participants were introduced with the research. They were also informed that all the individuals data will be kept confidential and collected data would be used for research purpose only. Further they were requested to give their consent to voluntarily participate in the study if they are interested in it. Those who agreed to participate were required to sign up the informed consent form, which was followed by the administration of demographic information form, BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory Youth Version (BarOn EQ-i: YV) and Clinical Assessment of Interpersonal Relationships (CAIR). Both the test questionnaires were scored according to their respective standard procedure. In order to determine the relationship between the two variables of emotional intelligence and interpersonal relationship Product Moment Correlation was applied. DISCUSSION: The result in table 1 shows significant correlation of interpersonal relationships and emotional intelligence scores of adolescents (r =.231, N = 188, p<.01). This reflects an effective relation between the various forms of relationships which the adolescents practice within their immediate social circle for example with family, friends and teachers, in order to handle different types of problems and situations, this in turn brings emotional well being. This well being can be achieved through understanding, control and problem solving ability. Similar findings were reported by Vorbach and Foster (2003) that adolescents who were better at controlling their emotions, display greater friendship qualities, prosocial behaviour and were less aggressive than their those peers who were less in this adept. Control of emotions is only possible when there is an understanding of the emotions first; and for that emotional intelligence is required which comprises of noncognitive skills; like helping a person to adjust with the environmental pressures and demands along with the development of an understanding about oneself and the others to enhance one s coping. Similarly Kaur and Jaswal (2005) found that practices of skills making the various elements of emotional intelligence also gets incorporated in an adolescent s style from the environment in which his brought up is done, for example they found significant positive correlation between high performers of strategic emotional intelligence and family climate. Table 1: Correlation (C) of interpersonal relationships (R) and emotional intelligence scores of adolescents. Total EQ Total R Index Pearson C.231(**) Sig. (1-tailed).001 N 188 ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (1-tailed). Further it is clear from table 2 that there is a positive correlation between adolescents emotional intelligence and with relationship with father (r =.140, N = 188, p<.05), with relationship with male peers (r =.150, N = 188 p<.05) and significant correlation with relationship with teachers (r =.213, N = 188, p<.01), but surprisingly insignificant positive correlation appears between emotional intelligence and the relationship with mother (r =.055, N = 188, P>.05) and relationship with female peers (r = -041, N = 188, P>.05). Table 2: Correlation of emotional intelligence and the variables of interpersonal relationships (R). R-M: Relationship with Mother R-F: Relationship with Father R-MP: Relationship with Male Peers R-FP: Relationship with Female Peers R-T: Relationship with Teacher R-M R-F R-MP R-FP R-T Total EQ Pearson C (*).150(*) (**) Sig. (1-tailed) N * Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (1-tailed). ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (1-tailed). A.P.P.A.C. Archives, Vol. 17, No. 3 3
4 Hence it is indicated that the perception of one s family environment also plays a crucial role in an individual s understanding of the emotions and to deal with his/her psycho-social and emotional issues. Nagaraja (1977) research work predicted that parent-child relationship is the most important predictor of emotional development in children. As emotional lessons of childhood can leave great impact on the temperaments; they either enhances or hinders innate potentials. Anshu (1986) revealed that family environment plays a single most role for emotional adjustment of the adolescents irrespective of their locality and sex. Therefore due to the significant positive correlation between interpersonal relationship and emotional intelligence, we can also say that there appears significant correlation between EI and various variables of interpersonal relationships which are important for overall functioning of adolescents in the society. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that the interpersonal relationships and the emotional intelligence of adolescent appears to be connected. It is further clear that EI is also related to other variables of interpersonal relationships. The results have positive implications and can be used to give suggestions to the parents, teachers and counselors. So in order to improve the interpersonal element of the adolescents training programs for emotional competence can be established at school level. Such programs will not only enhance the relationships of the students with family, peers and the teacher but will also equip them to understand themselves well emotionally in order to adjust with today s environmental demands and pressures through increased coping and informed decision making. Limitation of the research, avenue for future research and recommendations: Future research can be conducted on a larger sample which can help in the generalization of the findings. We have seen the correlation of interpersonal relationships of adolescents with emotional intelligence, in future its correlation can be found in combination with other factors as well. Cross cultural studies can also be conducted in order to develop an understanding about the effect of interpersonal relationships and emotional intelligence on different cultures. The research can be conducted on different age ranged people apart from adolescents in order to find the relation of interpersonal relationships and emotional intelligence on different age groups as well. Workshops on emotional competence can be arranged which apart from enhancing one s social skills will also enhance people s self-understanding in relation to emotions, and coping. REFERENCES Anshu (1986). The effect of family climate in level of aspiration, achievement, motivation and adjustment of adolescents. Retrieved on January 4, com/02-journals/t-anth/anth web/ Anth Abst-PDF/Anth Kaur-R/Anth Kaur-R.pdf Baron 1998, In A. Woodfolk (2004). Educational Psychology. Pearson Education, Inc. Ed: 9th, Pp: 521 Bar-On, R. (2002). EQ-I: Bar-On emotional quotient inventory technical manual. Toronto, Canada: Multi-Health Systems. Retrieved on February 2, 2008 from org/joe/2006august/iw3.shtml Bar-On, R., & Parker, J. D. A. (2000). Development of a reliable and valid measure of emotional Intelligence: A scale for children and adolescents. Unpublished manuscript. In R. Bar-On, & J. D. A. Parker, (2000). BarOn emotional quotient inventory: Youth Version. Technical Manual. Multi Health Systems. Canada. Pp: 42, 50. Bracken, B. A. (1987). Limitations of preschool instruments and standards for minimal levels of technical adequacy. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 5, In B. A. Bracken (2006). Clinical Assessment of Interpersonal Relationships. Professional Manual. Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc. Pp: Bracken, B. A., & Newman, V. L. (1994). Child and adolescent interpersonal relations with parents, peers, and teachers: a factor analytic investigation. In B. A. Bracken (2006). Clinical Assessment of Interpersonal Relationships. Professional Manual. Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc. Pp: 47 Bower, E. (1972). Education as a humanizing process. In Ciarrochi, J., Forgas, J.P. & Mayer, J. D. (2006). Emotional intelligence in everyday life. Psychology Press, NY. Ed: 2nd Ciarrochi, J., Caputi, P., & Mayer, J. D. (2003). The distinctiveness and utility of a measure of trait emotional awareness. In Ciarrochi, J., Forgas, J.P. & Mayer, J. D. (2006). Emotional intelligence in everyday life. Psychology Press, NY. Ed: 2nd Goleman, D., (1996). Emotional intelligence: Why it can matter more than IQ. New York. Bantam Books. Gouldner, A. (1960). The norm of reciprocity: A preliminary statement. American Sociologist, 25, Retrieved on February 5, Interpersonal%20Relations.pdf House, J. S., Robbins, C. & Metzner, H. L. (1982). The association of social relationships and activities with mortality: Prospective evidence from the Tecumseh Community Health Study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 116, Retrieved on February 5, and%20interpersonal%20relations.pdf Humphrey, N., Curran, A., Morris, E., Farrell, P., & Woods, K. (2007). Emotional intelligence and education: A critical review. Educational Psychology, 27(2), Retrieved on January 29, acrobat/ei%20lit%20review%202007%20final.pdf Kaur, R. & Jaswal, S. (2005). Relationship between strategic emotional intelligence and family climate of Punjabi adolescents. Retrieved on January 10, 2010 from krepublishers.com/02-journals/t-anth/anth Web/Anth Abst-PDF/Anth Kaur-R/Anth Kaur-R-Abstract.pdf Malouff, J. M., & Schutte, N. S. (1998). Games to enhance social and emotional skills. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas. In A. Farooq. (2003). The effect of emotional intelligence on academic performance. Unpublished dissertation, Institute of Clinical Psychology, University of Karachi, Pakistan. Mayer & Cobb, In A. Woodfolk (2004). Educational Psychology. Pearson Education, Inc. Ed: 9th, Pp: 521 McCarthy, C. I., Moller, N. P., & Fouladi, R. T. (2000). Continued attachment to parents: Its relationship to affect regulation and perceived stress among college students. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, v33 i4 Pp: 128. In A. Farooq. (2003). The effect of emotional intelligence on academic performance. Unpublished dissertation, Institute of Clinical Psychology, University of Karachi, Pakistan. Nagaraja, J. (1977). The failing students. The growing minds, 2. Retrieved in January 2010 from Anth Abst-PDF/Anth Kaur-R/Anth Kaur-R- Abstract.pdf Oxman, J. S., Berkman, L. E., Kasl, S., Freeman, D. H., & Barrett, J. (1992). Social support and depressive symptoms in the elderly. American Journal of Epidemiology, 135, Retrieved on February 5, 2010 from articles/ei%20and%20interpersonal%20relations.pdf Pilisuk, M., & Parks, S. H. (1986). The healing web. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England. Retrieved on February 5, Salovey, P. & Mayer, J.D. (1990). Emotional Intelligence Imagination, Cognition, and Personality, 9, Retrieved on February 2, 2008 from wiki/emotionalintelligence Schutte, N. S., Malouff, J. M., Bobik, C., Coston, T. D., Greeson, C., Jedlica, C., Rhodes, E., & Wendorf, G. (2001). Emotional intelligence and interpersonal relationships. Journal of Social Psychology, 141(4) Pp: 523. Info Trac Article A In A. Farooq. (2003). The effect of emotional intelligence on academic performance. Unpublished dissertation, Institute of Clinical Psychology, University of Karachi, Pakistan. Vorbach, A. M., & Foster, S. F. (2003). The relationship between emotional competence and social competence in early adolescence. Paper presented at the biennial meeting of the society for research in child development. Retrieved on January 29, Wood & Wood, In A. Woodfolk (2004). Educational Psychology. Pearson Education, Inc. Ed: 9th, Pp: 521 Woodfolk A. (2004). Educational Psychology. Pearson Education, Inc. Ed: 9th, Pp: 521 Zins, J. E., Weissberg, R. P., Wang, M. C. & Walberg, H. J. (Eds). (2004). Building school success through social and emotional learning. In Ciarrochi, J., Forgas, J.P. & Mayer, J. D. (2006). Emotional intelligence in everyday life. Psychology Press, NY. Ed: 2n ΠΑΙΔΙ ΚΑΙ ΠΕΝΘΟΣ Μαρία Χατζίκου Νηπιαγωγός, Τμήμα Προσχολικής Εκπαίδευσης του Πανεπιστημίου Θεσσαλίας ΕΙΣΑΓΩΓΗ: Πένθος: Λύπη, θλίψη που προέρχεται συνήθως από μεγάλη συμφορά ή μεγάλη απώλεια και προ πάντων από θάνατο. Σε όλους τους αρχαίους και τους νεώτερους λαούς, το πένθος δεν περιορίζεται μόνο στη βαθιά θλίψη για την απώλεια ενός αγαπημένου προσώπου, αλλά ακολουθείται και από μια σειρά έθιμα διαφορετικά από λαό σε λαό και από εποχή σε εποχή. Όπως ο Αχιλλέας μετά το θάνατο του Πάτροκλου, χτυπούσε τους μηρούς του, έμεινε νηστικός, κυλιόταν στο χώμα, κλπ, έτσι και οι σύγχρονες Ελληνίδες μοιρολογούσαν, χτυπούσαν τα στήθη τους, έτρωγαν νηστίσιμα φαγητά, φορούσαν μαύρα, οι άντρες δεν κούρευαν τα μαλλιά τους και δεν ξυρίζονταν. Οι Αιγύπτιοι αντί να αφήνουν μαλλιά και γένια, ξύριζαν τα κεφάλια τους ή αντί για μαύρα ρούχα φορούσαν λευκά. Σε πρωτόγονες κοινωνίες το πένθος εκδηλωνόταν και με ανθρωποθυσίες στον τάφο του νεκρού. Με τα έθιμα αυτά γινόταν προσπάθεια να εξωτερικευτεί η λύπη, καθώς και η λατρεία των πενθούντων προς το νεκρό. Γιατί όμως οι άνθρωποι πενθούν, αφού γνωρίζουν ότι όσοι γεννιούνται κάποια μέρα θα πεθάνουν; Στα αρχαία χρόνια πίστευαν ότι ο φυσικός θάνατος ενός ανθρώπου ή ενός ζώου σήμαινε το τέλος της ζωής του πάνω στη Γη και τη συνέχισή της στη μετά θάνατον ζωή και θεωρούσαν το νεκρό σώμα ιερό. Σύμφωνα με την Bacqué (2001), δεν είχαν πεισθεί ότι ο θάνατος νεκρώνει εντελώς όλες τις αισθήσεις και δεν τον αντιμετώπιζαν σαν κάτι οριστικό. Σέβονταν τους νεκρούς, αλλά φοβούνταν μήπως επιστρέψουν (σαν όνειρα ή φαντάσματα) και, σαν κριτές κατατρέχουν τους ζωντανούς για να ζητήσουν δικαίωση και για να επιβάλλουν την τάξη. Γι αυτό έθαβαν ή έκαιγαν μαζί με τους νεκρούς τα αγαπημένα τους αντικείμενα, τα όπλα τους, να τους συντροφεύουν στο ταξίδι στον άλλο κόσμο και να τους αποτρέψουν να γυρίσουν για να τα πάρουν. Η τελετή της ταφής ήταν συμβολικό δείγμα μιας προσπάθειας του ανθρώπου να επικοινωνήσει με τον «άλλο κόσμο». Από τον Αριστοτέλη και μετά, η ανθρωπότητα άρχισε να ξεχωρίζει το νεκρό σώμα από την ψυχή. Σιγά- σιγά οι άνθρωποι εξοικειώνονται με την ιδέα ότι είμαστε θνητοί και ότι ο θάνατος είναι κάτι οριστικό. Τους τελευταίους αιώνες, με την ανάπτυξη της επιστήμης και της τεχνολογίας, η ανθρωπότητα έχασε την πίστη της στη μετά θάνατο ζωή και οι άνθρωποι άρχισαν να φοβούνται τον «άγνωστο» θάνατο. Έτσι, ιδιαίτερα στις δυτικές κοινωνίες, ο θάνατος άρχισε να αποτελεί ένα σοβαρό υπαρξιακό πρόβλημα του ανθρώπου και θέμα ταμπού. Τα τελευταία χρόνια οι επιστήμονες προσπαθούν να ερμηνεύσουν το φόβο των ανθρώπων και την άρνηση απέναντι στο θάνατο (Λεονταρή, 2006). Οι άνθρωποι είναι κοινωνικά όντα, ζουν σε οργανωμένες κοινωνίες και νοιώθουν την ανάγκη να αναπτύξουν δυνατούς συναισθηματικούς δεσμούς (με την οικογένεια, φίλους, συνεργάτες) και συχνά στηρίζονται σ αυτούς για να μπορέσουν να αναπτύξουν την προσωπικότητά τους και να διατηρήσουν την εσωτερική τους ισορροπία. Η απώλεια ενός τέτοιου ισχυρού δεσμού, οδηγεί σε κατάσταση «πένθους». Σύμφωνα με τον Herbert (2004): «Πένθος είναι η κατάσταση ενός ατόμου που έχει χάσει ένα πρόσωπο με το οποίο είχε σχέση προσκόλλησης. Οι ψυχολογικές και συναισθηματικές αντιδράσεις στο πέν- 4 A.P.P.A.C. Archives, Vol. 17, No. 3