1 ΑΝΘΡΩΠΙΝΑ ΔΙΚΤΥΑ ΕΡΕΥΝΗΤΙΚΗΣ ΚΑΙ ΤΕΧΝΟΛΟΓΙΚΗΣ ΕΠΙΜΟΡΦΩΣΗΣ «ΤΕΧΝΟΛΟΓΙΚΟ ΔΥΝΑΜΙΚΟ ΓΙΑ ΤΗΝ ΜΕΙΩΣΗ ΤΩΝ ΕΚΠΟΜΠΩΝ ΔΙΟΞΕΙΔΙΟΥ ΤΟΥ ΑΝΘΡΑΚΑ ΔΥΝΑΤΟΤΗΤΕΣ ΠΡΟΟΠΤΙΚΕΣ ΤΩΝ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΩΝ ΕΠΙΧΕΙΡΗΣΕΩΝ» Overview Δρ. Ν. Κούκουζας Πτολεμαΐδα, Δεκέμβριος 2007
2 CO2 emissions and CCS potential in Greece EU Energy Policy Reduce GHG emissions EU Kyoto Commitment: 8% reduction in GHG emissions by compared to Much deeper reductions required for post-kyoto period. Maintain Security of Supply Green Paper of March 2006 on a Common Energy Policy for Europe: A European Strategy for Sustainable, Competitive and Secure Energy Promote Competitiveness of the EU Industry Lisbon process: aiming to make the EU the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-driven driven economy by 2010
4 ENERGY SUPPLY SECTOR IN GREECE Lignite production- 92% of which is used for electricity generation. Refineries - Annual refining capacity 20.1 Mt of crude oil. Transport and distribution of Natural Gas. Imports of Natural gas from Russia through pipeline system and from f Algeria in liquefied form. Planned interconnection of the Greek gas network with Italy and Turkey PPC's S.A. Installed Capacity (GW) Inter.System Autonomous islands LIGNITE OIL GAS HYDRO RES Electricity generation capacity 97 PPC s S.A. power plants in 2005 (12GW), capacity increased by 40% compared to thermal and hydroelectric units and 3 wind parks connected to the central grid (10.5 GW) 60 independent stations located on Greek islands (1,5 GW) Independent producers-res (460 MW) Auto-producers (257 MW)
5 Lignite Reserves Greece is the second lignite producer in the EU and the sixth worldwide. In million tons of lignite were mined. The Public Power Corporation S.A. exploits about 63% of lignite reserves. Based on planned exploitation rates, the geological reserves are sufficient for the next 45 years. Greek lignites are characterized by low calorific value and high moisture content.
6 In 2003 gross electricity production reached a total of 58 TWh and increased by about 65% compared to 1990 level (35 TWh). 100% 90% Fuel mix for electricity generation ( ) Continuous increase of electricity production in Greece at average annual rate of 4% for the period. Electricity generation relies mainly on fossil fuels combustion (about 90% of electricity production in 2003). 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% RES- mainly Hydro (%) Gas (%) Oil (%) Coal (%) 0%
7 CO 2 emissions (in Mt) from electricity and heat production for the period Increase 30% Solid fuels Gas Gas Liquid fuels Solid fuels Total emissions per electricity produced by fossil fuels decreased from 1150 kg CO 2 /MWh (1990) to 900 kg CO 2 /MWh (2003) as a result of natural gas and RES penetration and the high availability of hydropower plants.
8 Projections for GHG emissions from electricity generation (kt CO 2 eq) CO2eq CO2 CH4 N2O The average annual increase rates of GHG emissions decreases to 1.0% up to 2010 and to 0.8% in the following period due to further penetration of natural gas, RES in the power sector and as a result of refurbishment of some old lignite-fired power units
9 Εθνικό Κέντρο Έρευνας και Τεχνολογικής Ανάπτυξης / National Commitments under the Kyoto Protocol On Greece ratified the Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change (Law 3017/2002). Under the European Union (EU) Burden Sharing Agreement to the Kyoto Protocol,, the government agreed to limit the net increase in GHG emissions to 25% compared to base year emissions (1990 for CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions 1995 for F - gases) the period In order to ensure compliance with Kyoto target Greece developed and adopted in 2002 the National Plan on Climate Change ( ). 2010). Climate Change Abatement is one of the main targets of the National Strategy for Sustainable Development launched by The Ministry for the Environment, Physical Planning and Public Works launched in Action tions s and measures: Reform and diversification of energy supplies Efficient use and conservation of energy Measures for the reduction of other greenhouse gases Institutional framework reforming
10 National Climate Change Programme ( ) 2010) The further development of infrastructure for enhancing the penetration of natural gas into the Greek energy sector and the formulation of supporting policies for the further expoitation of Renewable Energy Sources(RES) ) are the major axes of the national energy policy in the 2 nd National Programme. Definition of additional domestic policies and measures (planned) required for Greece to meet it s Kyoto target: further penetration of natural gas in power generation and in all final demand sectors including cogeneration.. Operation of natural-gas power plants as base load units in the national electricity grid. promotion of renewable energy sources for electricity generation and heat production energy conservation in the industrial, tertiary and residential sectors promotion of energy-efficient efficient appliances in tertiary and residential sectors structural changes in agriculture and chemical industries transport and waste management options.
11 Implemented/Adopted - Planned Policies & Measures and CO2 emissions reduction potential in the power sector by 2010 Policies & Measures Natural gas in electricity generation CO 2 emissions reduction potential (kt( CO 2 ) Implemented/Adopted Planned Improvement in the conventional electricity generation systems Not estimated Not estimated Wind Energy Hydroelectric plants Photovoltaic Units 2 21 Biomass 353 Total:
12 National Climate Change Programme ( ) 2010) The total realistic GHG emissions reduction potential from the implemented and adopted measures is estimated at 28.3 Mt CO2eq while the planned measures will contribute to a further reduction potential of 11.1 Mt CO2eq for As a result the total GHG emissions increase will be limited to 24,9% in 2010 enabling Greece to reach its Kyoto Protocol target with domestic policies and measures. Taking into account: a) the cost induced from the implementation of the planned measures and b) the restriction of the estimated GHG emissions reduction potential resulted from the concurrent implementation of the various policies and measures: The use of credits from the KP Flexible Mechanisms should also be included as a cost-effective option supplemental to domestic actions in order to assure sure the national target fulfillment under the Kyoto Protocol.
13 43 MAJOR INDUSTRIAL SOURCES EMITTING MORE THAN 100,000 t CO2
14 Major CO2 point sources in Greece Region of Western Macedonia 70% of the total electricity production 80 % of the total annual CO2 emissions from the Greek electricity generation sector Power Plant TPS Ag. Dimittriou Kozani Power TPS plants Kardias Capacity (M W e) St. TPS Dimitrios 1,586 Ptolemaidas Kardia 1,200 Ptolemaida 620 Aminteo 600 TPS Amyndaiou Total 4,006 TPS Florinas TPS Liptol Arcadia Power plant Capacity (M W e) M egalopoli 850 Capacity Emissions (kt CO2/yr) 1595 MW 13, MW 9, MW 3, MW 5, MW 1, MW 358 Total 34,371 Power Plant TPS Megalopolis A and B (I, II, III) Capacity Emissions (kt CO2/yr) 850 MW 8,669
15 Second in the range is the wide basin of Attica. In this region except the two PPC s power plants, big cement plants and the biggest refineries of Hellenic Petroleum and Motor Oil in Greece are located. The amount of the CO2 emissions in this region is about 10,241 kt per year generated only by the industry sector. The rest of regions emit smaller amounts of CO2, like Evia near Attica with 4,120 kt, Volos in the prefecture of Magnisia with 2,800 kt and the basin of Thessaloniki in north Greece with 1,171 kt per year.
17 CO2 emissions and CCS potential in Greece GESTCO PROJECT Oil field (10 6 t CO2) Total storage capacity (10 6 t CO2) Annual point source CO2 emissions (10 6 t CO2) Number of years storage capacity from current point sources (approx.) The approximate number of years storage capacity is based on 1.3 times the current emissions because extra CO2 will be generated by the capture process.
18 CO2 emissions and CCS potential in Greece Furthermore, the offshore oil field in the Katakolon area and the onshore gas field in Epanomi area are proven deposits that have not yet been developed. Therefore, these fields could also be considered as prospective areas for CO2 underground storage in the long term. In addition there are considerable prospects for hydrocarbon reserves erves in Western Greece based on a tectonic connection between the proven fields in neighbouring countries around Greece (Albania) and the potential of the explored areas in Greece (significant gas potential tial in the Mesohellenic basin).
19 CO2 emissions and CCS potential in Greece GESTCO PROJECT Aquifer CO2 storage capacity in saline aquifers Position Storage capacity (Mt CO2) Prinos W. Thessaloniki W. Thessaloniki sandstone Alexandria Mesohellenic basin offshore 1343 onshore 459 onshore 145 onshore 34 onshore 360 Total 2345
20 Mesohellenic Trough Basal clastic sequences This Tertiary basin hosts thick sequences of conglomerates and sandstones, which seem to provide the necessary space and seal in order to store significant quantities of CO2. Many of the turbidite sandstones have about 15% porosity, reaching 25% in some samples. Interbedded shales provide potential topseals. Main challenge: Its proximity to the the Kozani Ptolemais lignite-fired power stations The Tertiary Thessaloniki basin contains thick sequences of sediments with the adequate volume to store big quantities of CO2 from the nearby-located sources (refineries, fertilizers and cement plants).
21 Olivine Εθνικό Κέντρο Έρευνας και Τεχνολογικής Ανάπτυξης / Mineral Carbonation potential for the region of Western Macedonia Mg3Si2O5(OH)4 (serpentine) (s) + 3CO2 (g) 3MgCO3 (s) + 2SiO2 (s) + 2H2O (l) (Hr = -64kJ/mol) Mg2SiO4 (s) (olivine) + 2CO2 (g) 2MgCO3 (s) + SiO2 (s) (Hr = -90kJ/mol) Key issue: Carbonation rate too slow!!! Serpentinite
22 Magnesium silicates in W. Macedonia Vourinos Ophiolite Complex Area of about 450 Km 2 Hartzburgites with interlaminated dunites in equal proportions comprise about 85% of Vourinos Complex
23 Olivine, chromite,, and orthopyroxene (average content 8%) are the main mineralogical phases of these deposits TPS Ag. Dimitriou and TPS Kardias at favoured distance of 50 Km Only the serpentinized dunites and harzburgites body at Xerolivado alone could dispose of all the regional CO2 emissions for over 100 years Range of the chemical composition (in wt%) of ultramafic rocks from Vourinos complex (IGME) SiO 2 40,64-42,78 Al 2 O 3 0, Fe 2 O 3 8,00-8,72 CaO 0,28-0,98 MgO 43,52-46,52 K 2 O 0,01 Na 2 O 0,03 MnO 0,10-0,13 TiO 2 0,01 Cr 2 O 3 0,34-1,59 NiO 0,31-0,34 LOI 1,50-3,37
24 Operational Programme Competitiveness (OPC) The development of OPC activities for R&D is implemented and coordinated by the General Secretariat for Research and Technology (GSRT) under the Ministry of Development. Priority Axis 4: Technological Innovation and Research Bilateral Bilateral collaboration of Greece (Centre for Research & Technology ogy Hellas / Institute for Solid Fuel Technology & Applications, PPC S.A.) and d USA (Los Alamos National Laboratory) Characterisation of the composition and quality of various samples from regional silicate deposits through a series of mineralogy and chemical analyses Laboratory carbonation tests will be carried out in order to get some basic data about the carbonation reactivity of these samples in a range of different temperatures and pressures.
25 Future Activities Assessing the actual scale of the minerals required for an industrial trial- scale operation Evaluating the economic feasibility of mineral carbonation at regional level taking into account the energy requirements as well as the production of value-added added by-products, such as silicon, chrome bound as chromite, magnesite etc. that may offset the carbonation costs Adressing the potential environmental issues such as the large-scale open pit mining impact, the extra emissions due to the increased energy consumption, and the disposal of tailings.
26 Project Title Participants Development of advance monitoring methods to improve boiler availability and performance (ADMONI) Assessment of options for CO2 capture and geological sequestration (ASSOCOGS) Advanced CFB for clean and efficient coal power (CLEFCO) Upgrading of high moisture, low rank coals to hydrogen and methane (C2H) Early Market Introduction of New Energy Technologies in liaison with science and industry (ΕΜΙΝΕΝΤ( ΕΜΙΝΕΝΤ) Zero dioxin releases in coal combustion and coal/organic waste co-combustion combustion processes (NoDioxComb( NoDioxComb) Advanced Biomass Gasification for High-Efficiency Power (BiGPower( BiGPower) Utility scale CFB for competitive coal power (CFB800) Enhanced Capture of CO2 (ENCAP) CERTH/ISFTA, PPC S.A. CERTH/ISFTA CERTH/ISFTA CERTH/ISFTA CERTH/ISFTA CERTH/ISFTA CERTH/ISFTA CERTH/ISFTA CERTH/ISFTA, PPC S.A. Geological Storage of CO2 from Combustion of Fossil Fuel (GESTCO) PPC S.A., IGME CO2 from Capture to Storage (CASTOR) Assessing European Capacity for Geological Storage of Carbon Dioxide ( EU GeoCapacity) PPC IGME
27 Greece is represented by GSRT and CERTH/ISFTA Promotion of an Integrated European and National R&D Initiative for Fossil Energy Technologies towards Zero Emission Power Plant- FENCO ERA-Net, started on 1/06/2005. The overall aim of FENCO-ERA ERA is to network the national R&D activities in the field of fossil energy conversion and CO2 capture and storage in order to construct a durable ERA-Net Net. The European Technology Platform for Zero Emission Fossil Fuel Power r Plants (ETP ZEFFPP) was launched on 1st December 2005 to better coordinate industry driven activities in zero emission fossil fuel power plant technologies. The Mirror Group of ETP ZEFFPP is the body representing political instit titutions from the Member States. Its role is to proactively advise the Advisory Council of the ETP ZEFFPP from a political perspective.
28 Germany FENCO-ERA ERA Partners / Affiliates Austria United Kingdom Denmark Greece Europe on Its Way to Zero Emission Fossil Fuel Power Generation Technology Spain Portugal Netherlands Norway Estonia Poland Latvia 12 Countries 16 Partners
29 FENCO CA Work Packages WP1 Co-ordination and Management FZJ PtJ, Germany WP 2 Information Exchange on National R&D Fossil Fuel Programmes FES, UK WP 3 Strategic Activities FZJ / STE and FES WP 4 Joint Actions CERTH / ISFTA GREECE Input for Planning of Identification of WP 5 Trans-national Activities SENTERNOVEM Netherlands WP 6 Dissemination and Communication Activities FCT, Portugal
30 A relevant questionnaire was designed and sent to FENCO-ERA ERA partners and to the remainder of the EU 25. Based on the completed questionnaires an Access database was established containing information and best practice on: Programme technology focus, drivers, research priorities. Programme design and management. The database will be further developed and continuously updated with additional information in order to best identify countries with common interests and priorities. Additional information will be gathered on Programmes activities outside of EU 25. A preliminary Assessment of the data gathered was undertaken related to Programme drivers and aspirations with the objective of identifying potential tial areas for collaboration.
31 Α Model of Cooperation for use in joint research activities was presented by WP4 in the Workshop < Procedure and Theme Finding Laboratory >, held in Vienna in April Based on: The best practice schemes derived from the experiences from other r ERA-NETs reports The answers gathered in the FENCO-ERA ERA Database concerning the different practices that are presently being used by the national funding organizations ons The discussions that took place during the sessions organised in Vienna s Workshop concerning the FENCO-ERA ERA Common call procedure and Themes for quick start opportunities leading to common calls and activities the required documentation is currently prepared for the launch of the first FENCO- ERA joint call (early 2008)
32 FENCO CA Progress The Call Notice, National Annexes, Application Forms and other call c documents are published on the FENCO-ERA ERA website (http://www.fenco( era.net) ) or in the websites of the partners. Within WP 5 a further evaluation related to the quality and the flexibility of the gathered information is carried out in order to assure the effective merging of national programmes into joint trans-national national R&D pilots in the area of Clean Fossil Fuels. The experience gained from the execution of these joint research activities will be the basis for the formulation of a long lasting co-operation operation framework, contributing to the European Fossil Energy Research Area A after this project is completed.
33 Conclusions & Discussion (1) The Greek energy sector is characterized by a high degree of energy imports dependency due to limited primary energy sources- apart from lignite. Fossil fuels will continue to be an important part of the national energy mix during the following decades. RES will play an increasing role in the power generation. Need to meet the growing demand for electricity under climate change constraints. The security of energy supply is achieved by the greater exploitation of RES and the diversification of supply of imported energy (natural gas). The introduced market-based mechanism ETS encourage investments in more efficient technologies or the use e of a less carbon-intensive energy source. The Greek NAP for the period allocated to power sector 156 Mt CO 2, resulting in a net demand for 11 Mt allowances, according to the BAU scenario.
34 CO2 emissions and CCS potential in Greece Conclusions & Discussion (2) The implementation of domestic implemented, adopted policies and d measures as well as of the additional measures included in the 2 nd National Climate Change Programme will enable Greece to reach its Kyoto Protocol target for the 1 st Commitment Period. The National R&D priorities are mainly focused on: Renewable Energy Sources,, higher Efficiency Conversion processes, Fuel Switching to lower carbon alternatives and Combined heat and power (CHP) applications In order to achieve in the medium to long term a sustainable power sector CCS and clean coal technologies s should be included in the national R&D portfolio. This complementary option will enable Greece to continue the use e of domestic lignite reserves as a secure and competitive energy source. Greece appears to have a potential storage capacity in hydrocarbon on fields and saline aquifers which probably may increase in the future if exploratory y drillings reach greater depths.
35 Conclusions & Discussion (3) A range of research activities is required in order to assess the storage potential s availability with a higher degree of certainty in combination with each of the large point sources in Greece. Thus, the specific conditions of potential storage sites might be determined by a more detailed evaluation of geological, geochemical and reservoir engineering data. Within EU GEOCAPACITY Project a further detailed assessment of the national potential will be conducted since a priority is the further development of innovative methods for capacity assessment, economic modelling and site selection criteria. Considerable sequestration potential of ultramafic rocks exists in Western Macedonia, well-known geology of Vourinos Complex, significant distribution and volume of Mg-rich rocks. Proximity of the mineral deposits to large CO2 sources. Need for more detailed mapping and evaluation of the magnesium silicate mineral resources.
36 Εθνικό Κέντρο Έρευνας και Τεχνολογικής Ανάπτυξης / Sources 4th NationalN Communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Hellenic Ministry for the Environment, Physical Planning & Public Works, March National Allocation Plan for the Period , 2007, Hellenic Ministry for the Environment, Physical Planning & Public Works, December National Programme for the Reduction of GHG Emissions in Greece ( ). Hellenic Ministry for the Environment, Physical Planning & Public Works, March General Secretariat for Research and Technology (GSRT), GESTCO Project, Summary Report, November EU GEOCAPACITY PROJECT GESTCO PROJECT: WORK PACKAGE 1 FINAL REPORT, DETAILS OF THE REGIONAL STUDIES OF CO2 STORAGE CAPACITY INCLUDED IN THE GESTCO PROJECT
37 Sources C.C.S. potential for the climate change abatement, G. G Hatzigiannis, the Greek Institute for Geology and Mineral Exploration (IGME), February FENCO-ERA.NET ERA.NET, Project full title: Promotion of an Integrated European and National R&D Initiative for Fossil Energy Technologies towards Zero Emission Power Plant, ERAC-CT CT , SIXTH FRAMEWORK PROGRAMME. Mineral Carbonation as a potential carbon dioxide storage option for the region of Western Macedonia, Greece. Koukouzas N., Ziock H., Ziogou F., and Typou I. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Greece vol. XXXVII, 2007, Proceedings of the 11th International Congress, Athens, May, 2007.
ΑΝΘΡΩΠΙΝΑ ΔΙΚΤΥΑ ΕΡΕΥΝΗΤΙΚΗΣ ΚΑΙ ΤΕΧΝΟΛΟΓΙΚΗΣ ΕΠΙΜΟΡΦΩΣΗΣ «ΤΕΧΝΟΛΟΓΙΚΟ ΔΥΝΑΜΙΚΟ ΓΙΑ ΤΗΝ ΜΕΙΩΣΗ ΤΩΝ ΕΚΠΟΜΠΩΝ ΔΙΟΞΕΙΔΙΟΥ ΤΟΥ ΑΝΘΡΑΚΑ ΔΥΝΑΤΟΤΗΤΕΣ ΠΡΟΟΠΤΙΚΕΣ ΤΩΝ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΩΝ ΕΠΙΧΕΙΡΗΣΕΩΝ» Δρ. Ν. Κούκουζας Πτολεμαΐδα,
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