Strategic Meanings in logo designs

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1 Strategic Meanings in logo designs An examination of embedded meanings in logos and their effects on brand recognition A Dissertation submitted By Entisa Dima TO COMMITEE ON BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements For the Degree of MASTER IN STRATEGIC PRODUCT DESIGN STREAM: OPERATIONAL DEVELOPMENT In the INTERNATIONAL HELLENIC UNIVERSITY Thessaloniki

2 Table of Contents Abstract Introduction Literature Review Brand Brand Equity Brand Awareness Brand Image Logo From Metaphor to Brand Awareness Methodology Research Objectives Questionnaire Construction Results Interpretation of findings (Discussion) Limitations and suggestions for future research Conclusion and Recommendations References Appendix

3 Abstract The present study aims at identifying the relationship between Brand Recognition and Strategic logo design that incorporates both congruent and incongruent meanings. Within the survey, the visual communication of the logos that were used, either conveyed meanings through pictorial metaphors or it was of no sense at all. The battle between those two opponents indicated higher levels of brand recognition for the meaningful logos while the abstract ones ranged significantly lower. The data collected were analyzed statistically and, for this sample, imply the existence of such a relationship. The intent is to raise issues that will drive scholars towards a new theory that will foster more exploratory studies for supplementing the current and prevailing conceptions of Strategic logo design and Brand Equity. Key words: Strategic Logo Design, Logo Meanings, Brand Recognition Test, Surprise 3

4 1. Introduction Back in the 2006, New York Times Magazine columnist Rob Walker (Harvard Business Review, 2013) tried to determine what attributes constitute an object more valuable than another. Products and various objects with the exact same properties often showed great variances in their prices and perceived values. The field of modern art provides us with the most preposterous examples of seemingly worthless artifacts but with extremely high monetary values. This phenomenon intrigued Rob Walker to explore the reasons of such a profound pricing policy that is surprisingly successful. The experiment that he conducted showed that the value of some previously perceived as derelict objects suddenly and unexpectedly skyrocketed at the same moment they were accompanied by a tale. The experiment s results revealed that it is the context and the provenance of the items that generate value. In short, objects worth for their story or the meaning that they represent and convey to their owner. Furthermore the experiment presented clear evidence of how the concept of value is processed in the human brain and how the objects that are part of an inspiring narrative can reveal something meaningful about oneself to others. In this world of an overwhelming abundance, an authentic, unique and meaningful story becomes the most significant ingredient to drive a company s potentials and margins up. Creating hidden meanings in logos is more about telling an interesting and compelling story (Ray Vellest, 2012) Logo as an important asset and competitive advantage of a firm, accounts of enormous amounts of time and money expenses for the design s well performance (Colman et al., 1995). Logos attract consumers and achieve the company s corporate image goals (Henderson & Cote, 1998). This public corporate image is the one that the organization managers want their external stakeholders and target audience to perceive about the company (Dutton et al., 1994). However, marketing has undergone a revolution wherein the paradigms of brand perception and attitude follow the tendency for the need of meaningful, smart and practical designs that are replacing conventional thinking as a way of building successful logos. Brand Identity Specialist, Ray Vellest, 2012, argues that telling a good story is what makes a logo good and effective, more than any other visual feature. Specifically, he observes that the best 4

5 tool to achieve that is by incorporating visual tactual incongruities, such as subliminal messages and hidden meanings. Interesting enough is Brown s statement (2006) that ambiguity and enigma are essential to brand s reputation as well. Companies therefore, make use of local or international concepts, metaphorical images, eccentric symbols or discrete elements for their logo design as means of communicating a brand myth. Using such elements that construe perceptions of mystery, vagueness, intensity, supremacy and collectivity, brands can be conceptualized in terms of the narrative or a story that elicit emotions (e.g., Holt, 2003b; Salzer-Morling & Strannegard, 2004; Zaltman, 2003). As one can easily notice, nowadays the decision making process shows clear signs of being driven by the consumer s emotions and less by his rational needs. Within this framework, the personal involvement and interpretations of the brand as a legend create and enhance brand value. Similarly, Holt (2004) suggests that evoking intense feelings around an emerging brand is pivotal for its future success. Additional researchers (Muniz and Schau, 2005; Celsi, Rose, & Leigh, 1993) also highlight the need of enchanting notions of mystery and eminence that create sense of affinity and bonds of loyalty. Over the past century, the fields of corporate logo and brand image have been studied intensively but, yet, there is still limited knowledge and understanding of their relationship (cf. Thomson, MacInnis, & Park, 2005). As a result, there is less than limited systematic research on the effect of strategic logo design on brand perception, while the connection between meaningful design and brand equity has been largely ignored. The organizations are aware that by using design they can express the strengths and qualities of the firm (Melewar, Saunders, 1999). Therefore, a corporate logo should be designed and promoted carefully in order to communicate to the market the company s positioning and general philosophy (Van den Bosch et al., 2005). Following this need, this study is generally focusing on how logo perception and its connection to brand s corporate image can be driven through meaningful design. An improved understanding of the influence of logo design can be of great advantage to a company that addresses to people worldwide and needs its logo to function as a mean of international visual communication. Target customers are now often spread worldwide and redefined as powerful meaning makers rather than inert recipients of marketing products and communications. Perhaps, for this reason, the single most important insight resulting from this review concerns the multifaceted 5

6 nature of the brand s logo that not only can mean dramatically different things to different people, but also can mean multiple things to the same persons over time. One might expect this to apply only to mature brands and logos (cf. Machieit, Allen, & Madden, 1993) that managed to acquire a collection of deep meanings over time. As it will be presented later, when information embedded in logos shape meanings, those meanings affect brand perceptions which in turn formulate a corporate image. Clearly, from this thesis s point of view, it is suggested that the exuded brand aura and personality of an organization, through its logo meaning, is in need of fundamental reconceptualization. Considering logo designs as metaphorical images or story tellers justifies the need to study brand and logo meaning systems in order to create persuasive and sustainable corporate trademarks. Moreover, the reorientation of logos from being brand icon to being brand story indicates a shift in strategic marketing trends. The branding theories need to accommodate a proactive approach that follows the operation and implications of this new consumer behavior reality. Until now, traditional research in logo design has identified various factors that influence consumer behavior and preferences towards brand trademarks. Particularly, affection, recognition and familiarity are logo aspects controlled by parameters such as repetition, naturalness and elaborateness (Henderson and Cote, 1998). To enrich the knowledge around those factors, the present research investigates the effectiveness of the strategic logo design when it integrates brand meanings and virtual metaphors. Drawing upon previous findings, the thesis begins by exploring those parameters that influence consumer responses and fill the gap between Strategic-Meaningful Logo Design and Brand Recognition. The research provides both theoretical and practical contributions to the investigation of logos as designs and story tellers. From a theoretical perspective, these factors are studied in correlation to the consumer s memory notion. Specifically, the thesis investigates the degree to which recognition as part of brand awareness fluctuates depending on the existence of a meaning in the logo. The outcome might prove to be very useful to any strategic logo designer that wants to attend to his target group and portray the desired visual communication in a memorable logo. From a practical perspective, the results can presumably be a future guiding tenet to logo designers and marketers by revealing the relationships between brand recognition and strategic logo design. The dissertation includes also findings regarding the deliberate use of metaphor as a mean of meaning emission. Emphasis is 6

7 given on how the degree of metaphor conventionality or novelty is likely to have an effect and encourage brand conceptual change in addressee s mind. Moreover, the study concludes by observing parameters such as attention, surprise and emotion as part of the wider picture of creating a logo with meaning (metaphorical or not, discrete or hidden, smart or funny). 2. Literature Review 2.1 Brand A name, term, design, symbol, or any other feature that identifies one seller s good or service as distinct from those of other sellers (The American Marketing Association, 2004) The perceived view of branding theory corresponds to the disciplines of psychology and marketing but also draws heavily upon the cognition theories of consumer behavior (Anderson, 1983). Figuratively speaking, brand can be considered as a type of implicit commitment that a firm will perform under a set of specific expectations and deliver what has promised. Alternatively, one could notice that brand is the company s personality as expressed by the internal factors and perceived by the external stakeholders. It can also be described as a person with its own values, attitude, philosophy, manners, education, skills, interests, regions, relationships etc. This features the assumption that the overall brand image is co-created by numerous meanings and associations as part of the brand story (Fournier, 1998; McCracken, 1986). On the whole, the brand exists as a knowledge structure of brand-relevant information (Keller, 2003) and it is perceived as an idea, notion, sense or concept in the mind of the consumer (Ries & Trout, 2001) Brand Equity Customer-based brand equity is defined as the differential effect of brand knowledge on consumer response to the marketing of the brand (Keller, 1993, p.8). Brands are assets with monetary value, owned and controlled by the firm in order to provide to its shareholders the leverage of a unique selling proposition. Brands, most 7

8 importantly for the purposes of this research, are highly connected to their logos and thus their financial value is inseparably linked and affected by their trademark s performance (Hoeffler & Keller, 2003; Keller & Lehmann, 2005). This added value with which a brand is endowed (Farquhar, 1989), distinguished and compared to its rivals, is a direct result of current and past marketing activities (Keller, 2001; Park et al., 1986). Most of those marketing efforts are gauged using dimensions that distinguish the several components of brand knowledge. This knowledge probably consists of the most valuable asset for optimizing marketing and branding productivity. Utilizing the well-defined model of Keller, the Customer Based Brand Equity pyramid, the current thesis focuses on the aspects of Brand Image that in terms of brand and logo associations affect brand recognition Brand Awareness The whole point of creating a logo is to build brand recognition (Jarkko Laine, 2009) David Aaker, in his exploratory paper on Brand Equity Measurements, underlined the importance of Brand Awareness as a dynamic power of affecting consumers perceptions and attitudes that can influence over time the brand choices and even loyalty (Aaaker, 1996). The different levels of awareness he recorded refer to: Brand Recognition Brand Recall Top-of-Mind Brand Dominance Brand Knowledge Brand Opinion Following the Keller s, however, initial main categorization, researchers use mainly the techniques of Brand Recognition and Brand Recall to measure Brand Awareness (Srull 1984; Chandon, 2003). In Brand Recall test consumers are asked to mention, recall, brand names of a specific product category, while in Brand Recognition test they have to identify the brands they remember seeing before. Particularly Brand Recognition tests measure the effectiveness of the various marketing decisions, such as logo design or advertising techniques, a brand has underwent and the desired goals that project the effectiveness of those choices are expressed as high levels of 8

9 recognition. Brand awareness tests help companies track the performance of their marketing communication mix and the results are used in decisions of content refinement or marketing expenditure levels. Brand Knowledge Knowledge created in consumers' minds from past marketing activities Brand Image Brand Awareness Brand Recall Consumers correctly generate the brand from memory The strenght of the brand node or trace in memory in consumers mind Brand Recognition Consumer's ability to confirm prior exposure to the brand when given the brand as a cue Perceptions about the brand as reflected by the brand associations Set of associations in memory Informational nodes linked to the brand node in memory and contain the meaning of the brand for consumers Figure 1: Kevin Lane Keller, Customer-Based Brand Equity, Journal of Marketing Vol. 57 (January 1993), Brand Image Brand associations are the information nodes linked to the brand node in memory and contain the meaning of the brand for consumers (Keller, 1993, p. 3). Prerequisite to the creation of Brand Image is the establishment of a brand node that would ease the attachment of various other nodes to the brand memory (Keller, 1993). Once the information node is stored in memory it sustains and enhances the strength of the associations (Loftus & Loftus, 1980). Despite the fact that memory is very 9

10 durable and decays slowly (Loftus & Loftus, 1980), the likelihood the information are recalled depends on the context the brand is considered and the number of cues that are linked to this node (Isen, 1992). Moreover, these associations can be product or non-product related attributes (Keller, 1993). This study is interested in the latter ones that can be of some symbolic benefits and are created through meaningful logo designs. The spreading activation theory (Anderson, 1983) explains how this exposure to a brand name, image, or logos, calls to mind a web of such brand associations. Logo, the key component of brand identity, provides instant recognition and is considered to be the visual repository of brand extensions. Those visual stimuli play a critical role in building brands and its network of associations by differentiating products, creating relationships, encouraging loyalty and trust, and protecting against competition (Henderson et al., 2003). On the other hand, positive or negative associations can also transfer from brand to corporate logo or product, with little or no processing of information at all (Schechter, 1993). Product choices made with low levels of interest by the purchaser or involvements with the company are strongly influenced by brand awareness; recall and recognition (Heath, 1999). In such instances, the notion attached to the brand logo that influences consumer s choice is one of the few advantages that give a head start to the company and product (Hoyer & Brown, 1990; Leong, 1993). Brand positioning theory helps the managers to select specific associations for emphasis in the knowledge web. Leveraging logos to build strong brands presupposes managers to carefully select or design logos that evoke desired brand associations and enhance brand awareness. The prevailed preferences exist for benefits or values that are assumed to sustain and dominate over time (Aaker, 1996). The creation of unique, successful and enduring international brands has gone beyond the promotion of tangible, practical, functional and salient attributes and benefits into the more abstract and vague realms of feelings, perceptions and image (Schmitt & Simonson, 1997). Subsequently, the brand s semantic memory network accommodates a set of nodes of various links and touchpoints for the brand s features and properties such as brand beliefs, judgment, perception, sense and experience that connect the consumer to the brand (Keller, 1993; 2003). However, an extended review on the nature of brand associations and touch-points is beyond the scope of this thesis. On the contrary, what is important is 10

11 that the brand associations have the ability and tendency to be stored in memory in terms of metaphors (Zaltman, 1997). Thereby, center of the focus of this research is the aspects of memory and particularly brand recognition ought to associations created and strengthen through metaphors and meanings in logo designs. Notably, logos that are the company s official representative face and always in the fore-front of consumer-company interactions, carry and affect the brand extensions and linkages and the other way around. Researchers have argued for a sleeper effect (Moore, & Hutchinson, 1985), in which simple and constant exposure to brand messages can lead to increased brand affection and attitude at a later time. This is the result of mere exposure effects that create a subconscious brand familiarity. Those brief exposures can change audience s affection and attitudinal response to the brand by leveraging a type of low-involvement learning (Smith, & Swinyard, 1983). Similarly, the subliminal persuasion theory explains that one can be subconsciously influenced whenever he is in the relative state of alert (Bruner, & Postman, 1947) that corresponds to his current goals and needs (e.g., Brand, 1978; Strahan, Spencer, & Zanna, 2002; Strahan, Spencer & Zanna, 2005). Following the sleeper effect and the subliminal persuasion theory, someone can argue that a person, who is exposed regularly to a certain logo with special meanings, is more prone to receive the broadcasted messages and create the company intended brand associations, image and perception. In fact, many of these associations are observed to be accepted and saved in a non-verbal but rather sensual mode (Zaltman, 1997). As a matter of fact, nonverbal but sensory associations are the most important aspect of brands that focus on guerrilla marketing and sensory experiences of pleasure, excitement and fun (Holbrook & Hirschman, 1982; Schmitt 1999). Hence, when a logo transmits a message or depicts a particular meaning of the objectives of its brand, it can presumably yield subliminal positive first reactions and impressions and thus create the foundations of a better brand perception at a later time. 2.2 Logo The definition of the term logo derives from the Greek word λόγος, that literally means word. Designing a logo is a way of creating a visual word that will be used to display the brand it was made for. The logo is the nonverbal counterpart of the 11

12 brand name (Danesi, 2006) and the focal construct in this research study. A corporate logo is of managerial importance because it can help the firm array and orchestrate the desired features in its marketing communication and can as well serve as a unique competitive advantage that a company uses to signal corporate identity, to differentiate from direct competitors, to convey relevant power and strength, and to ensure product quality (Henderson & Cote, 1998). Furthermore, it is an important tangible asset that serves as a value proposition and provides the organization the means of raising brand awareness and reputation (Olins, 1989). The reason is that the equity of the brand is affected by the logo design in the long run. When the corporate strategy is recognized and the corporate visual identity is memorable then the organization becomes well known and retains this awareness through its corporate logos (Van den Bosch & Elving, 2005). Undoubtedly, logo consists of the most effective element of the marketing communication mix to be powerful enough to delegate corporate identity worldwide without any further adjustments (Henderson et al., 2003; de Mooij, 2005). Studies explain that, because it communicates visually, it has the ability to overcome obstacles such as international boundaries and language barriers (Kohli et al., 2002). Practically, the term logo is used to refer to a variety of figures, typefaces, illustrations, and abstract images that range from word-driven to image-driven brandmarks (Mollerup, 1997; Henderson & Cote, 1998; Olins, 2003; Wheeler, 2003). The study of logo design is important because of the various conceptual issues involved, including information, exposure effects, familiarity, repetition and adaptation-level theory, aesthetics and social values, and stylistic aspects of design. Even though, the use of logos was initially the reason to create a distinctive brand trademark with a primary aim to associate its name with a graphic representation, now logos convey the image and ethos of the brand they represent in an attempt to create positive affect (Henderson & Cote, 1998). Products are not only practical or convenient objects, but also are a source of pleasurable or meaningful experience (Van Rompay, 2005, p. 16). 12

13 As aesthetics evolve to become an essential component of corporate marketing it is important to determine the extent to which design elements create a positive affect (Schmitt & Simonson, 1997). Marketing managers benefit considerably by acknowledging the principles of capturing, designing, and conceptualizing logos based on company s own style. However, this view can be broaden and developed further by integrating in the design process insights from the fields of cognitive psychology and consumer behavior. For example, in conceptualizing iconographic identity systems, designers must foresee a network of multiple generations of brand extensions and provide a proposition that is convenient enough so that associations will have the symbolism and meaning that links them to the brand, but at the same time signify that entire set of the extension is novel and unique. The academic literature on brand extensions remains an abstract and vague discussion (see Keller & Lehmann, 2005) that has overlooked the pivotal role of the design cues in accommodating brand meanings in logos that presumably will facilitate the viability of the brand extensions. In one exception, Henderson and Cote (1998) alleged that strategic design affects reactions to brands prior to any marketing and promotional activity being implemented. Also, most of the brand associations are found to be not verbal and explicit, but contrary they are visual with implicit or no verbal descriptions at all (Zaltman 1997). Part of this fact is that 2/3 of all the stimuli that reach the brain neurons are visual (Kosslyn et al., 1990). Apparently, good design shall foster the virtual meaningful emotional attachments to brands through common observation (Gobe, 2001; Reingold, 2005) while facilitating the visual aspects of logo design in order to accomplish companies cross-cultural goals. Logo visual perceptions can evoke various and bold aesthetic responses (Bloch, 1995). Aesthetic responses are formed in reaction to the stimulus of design elements that encompass strong attention and involvement (Berlyne, 1971; Veryzer, 1993; Bloch, 1995; Lewalski, 1988). Although intense aesthetic reaction may be more commonly associated with art, resonant designs with meanings and purpose can as well produce vehemently strong emotional reactions among consumers (Bloch, 1995). Particularly for the logos, affective responses might be based on their visual appeal, the meaning they communicate, or the brand they represent. Within the framework of this investigation, the term "meaning" refers to the messages conveyed from the logo design that go beyond the brand name itself and form sets of associations. For 13

14 example, FedEx Company s logo is specifically designed not only to depict the brand name but also to display a less apparent symbol that attempts to create the desired brand associations in viewers mind (see image 1). Image 1: The arrow is a symbol for speed and precision; both core values of FedEx. CEO of FedEx Company. Theorists suggest that prominent and timeless logos should be recognizable and familiar, elicit consensually held meanings and evoke positive affect (Peter, 1989; Vatorella, 1990). For instance, negative space logos such as the previous example, can be very unique, memorable and much more effective and clever in their design pursuant to some logo designers (Ray Vellest, 2012). This counter space can offer rich forms and creative opportunities to embed incongruent meanings that warranty a closer look. The logo can be a mean of compelling consumers to notice and translate its visual communication, as well as recall it in future time (Airey, 2010). Quite an important observation and cornerstone of this research is based on the allegation that the associated meaning of a stimulus is a key factor for the determination of individual s preference for that stimulus (Hoffinan, 1986; Pimentel, 1996). Taking into account those inquiries, this study will try to investigate whether there is in the company s advantage to design logos with intriguing meanings and messages. To date, however, there s no direct answer whether having logos that directly represent the brand nature is a processing advantage, either typographically or figuratively, in 14

15 contrast to abstract and company irrelevant logos. Morgan, however, stated that logos have become generally more abstract, asymmetric and minimalistic and less naturalistic, harmonious, understandable and meaningful over the past century (Morgan, 1986). The general observed trend toward designs that are more abstract (Coyne, 1995; Morgan, 1986) may have created associations in the minds of consumers that changes toward greater abstraction reflect a more up-to-date design, while designs that are more naturalistic are interpreted as outdated. This effect, though, is expected only when there is a high level of previous knowledge associated with the logo. However, Teleogical theorists, (Mayall, 1986; Papanek, 1984) insist that humans are hardwired by their very nature to prefer forms that follow the principles of natural and organic schemes. This may be due to the fact that individual s brain is programmed to process the images it views and has an instant natural desire to understand it (Malamed, 2009). Furthermore, the Information VS Meaning approach suggests that the effectiveness of a logo in communicating a meaning may be related to the level of abstraction of the design (McCracken, 2005). In other words, one could argue that the higher the degree of abstraction in a logo design the less sense the icon makes. Based on all the above findings and theoretical sampling, this thesis will attempt to present clues that favor Meaningful Logo Designs in contrast to Abstract Logo designs in terms of Brand Recognition specifically. Abstract Random shapes Irrelevant design Unfamiliar image Company non assocciated Meaningful Visual Communication Resonant/purposefull design Evokes attention Encourages involvment Attracts interest Elicits consensually held meanings Preassociated & Familiar image/ Naturalistic Figure 2: Characteristics of logo s different categories 15

16 2.3 From Metaphor to Brand Awareness The process of branding in an organization often involves visual and verbal metaphors. Metaphor is a compressed projection of existing knowledge that communicates brand meanings with lower cognitive capacity demands. Likewise, associations of brands are merely represented in memory as metaphors that are easier to understand and save. As mentioned earlier, logos are important multimodal brand artifacts that demonstrate the capability to function independently of language through visual modes (Kress & van Leeuwen, 2006). Metaphor is how these particular mental models are activated in order to shape the way the addressee thinks by framing reality from the organization s point of view (Carl Jon Way Ng & Veronika Koller, 2013). Similarly, metaphors can present the organization in a specific favorable way that can potentially influence the consumer s perception about the organization. According to the same source, the deliberate use of novel metaphor indicates the attempt of promoting a different view and an alternative perception of a specific subject. Shaping this new perspective and conceptual domain addressee undergoes perceptual change. On the other hand, the deliberate use of conventional metaphor concentrates to explicitly draw the attention of the addressee to the existing context that is communicated rather than cause radical conceptual change (Carl Jon Way Ng & Veronika Koller, 2013). Clearly it is posed that the use of metaphor in corporate branding is deliberate with conscious efforts, including multimodal and strategically designed images, to influence perception (Yingying Qiu, 2013). Probably the most effective way to challenge conceptual change is by employing deliberate novel metaphor, where the innovative, unprecedented and relative foreign concepts conflict with the old and dominant paradigms that may lead to a general feeling of joyful surprise. However, in the case of deliberate conventional metaphor, the addressee that is already familiar with the concept might not be affected enough to encourage conceptual change (Carl Jon Way Ng & Veronika Koller, 2013). Nevertheless, this study utilizes in its research both novel and conventional pictorial metaphor as a mean of eliciting conceptual change in terms of logo meaning encoding and brand recognition. Surprise, as a key element of novel metaphor, is considered from many product 16

17 designers to be of a great asset in creating successful products. According to Vanhamne, companies and brands can benefit greatly from designing surprising products (Vanhamme, 2003). During his research, he observed that objects which defy surprise feelings or reactions attract attention, elicit interest and intrigue curiosity for further exploration. Specifically, Silvia (2005) states as well that surprise usually precedes interest while attention is the mean of stimuli learning (Desimone, 1996). At the same time, the user itself also benefits by interacting with such unique concepts that provide new and multisensory experiences. On particular, the sensory experience seems to have an effect on the types of associations people form and have with products (Vanhamme, 2003). One of the strategic techniques designers use to create surprising products, is by incorporating visual-tactual incongruities (Ludden, Schifferstein, & Hekkert, 2008). Previous studies demonstrated that objects with visual-tactual incongruities can successfully surprise people (Ludden, Schifferstein, & Hekkert, 2009). Several researchers (Meyer, Reisenzein, & Schutzwohl, 1997; Scherer, 1987) have argued that a succession of assessments that starts with a nonexpected event probably elicits surprise, which is accompanied by emotion. Theoretically, designers who formulate surprising products by embodying visualtactual incongruities in their designs intend to create pleasant emotions and feelings. However, the degree of incongruity that people understand may affect their appraisal of the product. Berlyne (1971) claimed that there is a correlation between incongruity and pleasantness. This relationship suggests that medium levels of incongruity will be perceived as more pleasant than clear congruity, while high levels of incongruity will be perceived as quite as unpleasant than moderate incongruity. It follows that, the assessment of products with visual-tactual incongruities is defined by negative aesthetic reactions to contradicted expectations and by either positive or negative emotional responses to surprise (Hekkert & Leder, 2008). Indeed, tentative evidence suggests that surprise in products can be seen as technique of evoking different emotions (Ludden et al., 2009). Emotion is the key to a competitive strategy, for its ability to formulate the grounds for a meaningful differentiation (Porter, 1990; 1998). Vanhamme and Snelders (2001) observed that surprise precedes satisfaction, while Ludden, Hekkert, and Schifferstein (2006) claimed that surprise reactions are accompanied by feelings of amusement, 17

18 joy, fascination, and sometimes by inconvenience, disappointment, indignation, and nuisance. The secret to humor is surprise (Aristotle). Experiencing surprise through hidden novelties elicits the attention to the product that incorporates them. When this occurs, the appraisal of novelty that is encompassed by surprise effects is also followed by the expectation of further surprise potential, which in turn evokes interest (Meyer, Reisenzein, & Schutzwohl, 1997; Scherer, 1987). This leads to increased product recall and brand recognition, that eventually helps to increase word-of-mouth (Derbaix & Vanhamme, 2003). Therefore, it is expected that in this case logos with visual-tactual incongruities are captured better in consumer s memory notion. Brand Awareness Interest Attention Emotion Memory Surprise Logo Metaphor & Meaning: Hidden/Clever/Smart/Funny meanings Figure 3: Interpretation of the expected sequence that will reflect part of the relationship between logo design and brand awareness. 18

19 3. Methodology 3.1 Research Objectives Taking into consideration that brand is a repository of meanings that consumers acknowledge and use accordingly in their decision making process (Fournier, 1998; McCracken, 1986), it is wise to challenge ourselves to evaluate the dynamic nature of this meaning that is embedded in logos particularly. As it was discussed earlier in this dissertation, certain images can be designed with carefully selected features that draw attention to their metaphorical meanings. To provide a foundation for this study, theories were drawn from branding, neuro-marketing and cognitive psychology research to build predictions as to how meanings in logo designs may change the visual attention patterns and how brands can maximize the effectiveness of their logos when embedding such meanings. The main purpose of the research is to detect any memory alterations or modifications in respondent s mind about the brands presented to him during the study. The results aim to demonstrate a possible relationship between strategic and meaningful logo design and brand recognition. Briefly the 1 st research question is expressed as follows: Do meanings in logos affect consumer s brand recognition in later time? Prior to any brand recognition, consumers have to undergo brand relevant information encoding which occurs not only when the stimuli are inherently memorable but also during certain favorable states of mind (Chun, Marvin M., Turk-Browne, N. B., 2007). According to the same literature, when information is combined into fully overlapping composite stimuli, subjects can only remember what they selectively attend to. Metaphor by definition is an alternative abbreviated representation of a particular concept and idea that requires fewer cognitive operations from an individual in order to be processed. Metaphor can also serve as a tool to intensify meaning conceptualizations that edit and shift the focus into the heart of the design (Chun, Marvin M., Turk-Browne, N. B., 2007). As previously mentioned, such baseline effects might reflect arousal or the incidental availability of attentional resources. Consequently, highly designed logos should make use of the multimodal nature of deliberate metaphor and its conscious intention to influence perceptions that might favor memorization. Those verbal and visual modes call for attention not only 19

20 to the information contained, but also to the indirect meanings conveyed. Apart from meaning familiarity, metaphors also differ in the degree of meaning exposure. Specifically, the illustrious, literal or commonsensical meanings of an image are those that reside at its denotative level while it s more covert, symbolic or conceptual meanings are the ones located on the connotative plane (Barthes, 1977). In other words, some of the properties of the logos design can be seen and identified but some of them are less congruent and must be indicated or pointed out in order to provoke and elicit participant s attention or surprise. Table 1 Meaning Familiarity Deliberate Metaphor Novel Conventional Meaning Connotative plane Symbolic meaning Covert meaning Exposure (Hidden) Denotative plane Commonsensical Illustrious meaning (Visible) meaning Literature owns some quite exploratory studies of how image s connotative meaning attends and evokes surprise. In these particular issues of The International Design Yearbook (Morrison, Horsham, & Hudson, 1999; Maurer & Andrew, 2000; de Lucchi & Hudson, 2001; Lovegrove & Hudson, 2002; Rashid, 2003) it is presented how products can incorporate visual-tactual incongruities (Ludden, Schifferstein & Hekkert, 2004) in recent product designs. These products revealed two surprise types, Visible Novelty and Hidden Novelty. Visible novelty calls for attention but hidden novelty, as a natural consequence, triggers surprise in a level greater than visible novelty might achieve. Consequently intermediate key factors in this research also to be studied are the surprise effects and the attention elicitation that a correspondent will presumably experience during the 1st survey. 20

21 Table 1 Logo Design Meanings Meaningful Meaningless Metaphors Hidden Visible - Conventional Shift focus Reinforce Novel Surprise Attention In short the 2 nd research question is formulated as: Is surprise provoked by the meaningful logos? Strategic logo design within this research is expressed in terms of clever, interesting or innovative design that calls for novel or conventional metaphor. In relation to the latter, it is proposed as a main issue of this subject that the metaphor in logo images is foregrounded to the set of design features that downplay the brand meanings and desired associations. The reason logo conventionality is also studied is that attention can be as well drawn to obvious meanings that just happen to be inspiring or interesting in a different way. It is assumed therefore that both hidden and visible metaphorical meanings will elicit attentional or surprise effects, even if those effects differ in volume. Moreover, it is difficult to dissociate hidden from visible objectively because metaphor usually involves a set of prominent and concrete entities that in turn stand for motives that are more abstract and less defined. This cohabitation calls for partnership that fulfills images connotative function to convey simultaneously associated ideals and conceptual meanings. However both denotative and connotative meanings that co-exist in a logo can primarily have either a denotative or connotative role (Machin, 2007). Yet, among the sample of brands to be used, some of them contain meanings (apparent or not), while the rest are abstract with no particular message to communicate at all. Thereby, for this particular study, the logos are selected to differ only within the highest degree of certainty with which a user holds a meaning expectation and not the level of meaning exposure. It can also be said that the logo samples used, indicate clear design bipolarity as far as the existence of a 21

22 meaning is concerned something that diversify them based on whether they communicate a meaning in an explicit manner or not (at all). Although the examples show creativity in their specific design, they are based primarily on conventional metaphors and the usage of negative space, which presumably are expected to be more easily captured and invoked by the addressor as well as understood and perceived by the addressee. For example in the Pittsburgh Zoo & PPG Aquarium Logo there is a hidden symbolism in either side of the tree that can be found relatively easy by looking at the negative space of the logo. Image 2 For the time being though, the level of exposure or the degree of novelty a consumer needs to identify the meaning of the logo is irrelevant to this study. 3.2 Questionnaire Construction With the help of dynamic online survey software, anyone with access to the web is eligible to participate in this research. Online surveys are well known to allow researchers reach their target group worldwide and reinforce the diversity of their respondents sample. The survey is conducted using a customized format of the conventional digital questionnaire sheet with images and animations under the principles stated in the Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation (Fanning, 2005) and Measure Brand Awareness with Brand Recognition Surveys (Wyse, 2013). The whole questionnaire design is very simple and minimalistic in order to abridge inference of external factors, avoid noise, confuse, and feelings of boredom, nuisance or tiredness (see Appendix, p. 50). For this reason, the elimination of the 22

23 participant s recklessness in a high degree accounts in a higher quality and trustworthiness of the answers. However, the use of visual representations helps to associate a logo with its brand name and its entire network of associations (Anderson, 1983). The rationale of the survey besides isolating subjects from influences such as luck of focus or general memory abilities aims greatly to also avoid using logos with previous knowledge that might deteriorate results. As a consequence, to manipulate effectively the amount of branding that a brand has underwent and to control for prior ad familiarity, a more than natural ratio of commercial content was selected, specifically foreign brands with no particular international operation and awareness were employed. In addition, no logo contained specific words or cues that might indicate the brand name or product category. Moreover, in order to eliminate these effects of previous brand affections of already known brands to the correspondents, part of the sample contained fictional logo designs; derived from logo market websites and that were both abstract and meaningful. As expressed in Cialdini s trapper metaphor (1980), our finely-tuned traps allow us to capture phenomena without regard for their importance in the course of naturally occurring human behavior (p. 23). Specifically, as far as the questionnaire process of phase 1 is concerned, the detailed procedure is set out as follows: The participants are shown a sample of 24 real and fictional logos. The proportion of those with meanings is 14 out of the total 24 and the order in which they are placed for display is random. 23

24 Table 3: Categories of logo stimuli used in the survey L og os R M R A F M F A RM: Real with Meaning, RA: Real Abstract, FM: Fictional with meaning, FA: Fictional Abstract The number of logos selected is no less than 5 of each of the 4 subcategories. According to an experiment published in experimental psychology (Wicckelgren, 1964) grouping sequences in 6 s showed declined memory performance when the optimum size group for unknown sequences was 4. Moreover the short term memory with duration less than a minute has a limited capacity of 7 items, while the memory performance degradation may arise from a simple decay of information (Makovski, Sussman, Jiang, 2008). Providing participants a convenient sample size of sequence less than 5 would presumably facilitate their memory performance, thus, encouraging someone to argue that any later logo recall could be a result of more than one parameter such as the meaning of the logos. In response to this implication, there were used 4 groups of 6 different sequences that total to 24 logos in a single questionnaire. 24

25 Theoretically, this way the possibility of logo recall or recognition due to some individual s distinct memory abilities is minimized. The survey begins with the display of the first logo image and the subject is asked four questions; 1. Whether he is aware of the logo 2. Whether he can find any meaning being conveyed 3. What is his design evaluation based on his own perception of aesthetics 4. Whether the explanation of the logo s meaning surprised him Image 3: the logo as presented in the questionnaire sheet before questions The first is an open-ended question that requires a brief description of the brand name or product category that the respondent thinks the company operates in. This question aims to clarify whether the subject is aware of the brand in order to seclude results from participants that already have a recollection of it. In case of such brand familiarity, the pair of results of these answers in both phases for this specific logo is immediately excluded. Apparently, in this case, no memory differentiation can be measured. However, the possibility of the subject being aware of the brand, in this survey, is very low, almost unlikely. The sample of logos that has been used contains 42% fictional logos and 58% real but unpopular and unknown to our target population. Moreover this question helps to distinguish false and rational responses from careless participants. Half of the logos, as already mentioned, are fictional and specifically acquired for this study; hence, any participant s claim of having recollection of them immediately disqualifies these particular answers. The second question requires the participant to ponder the logo and speculate whether it communicates a meaning or it is an abstract image. In this step, the subject is given the chance to peruse the meaning of the logo on his own and select one of the three choices; Yes, No, I can assume. If the answer is yes then, according to literature, no surprise effects can be expected due to familiarity (e.g naturalistic logos can contain familiar images and meanings even to those they first see them) and the surprise effect 25

26 is questioned as an attribute to any memory modifications. Yet, we cannot entirely excluded it because the surprise effect might have taken place in the past and already affected memory, but again also highly unlikely for the same reason mentioned previously. The two other options serve the possibility of the respondent not identifying any meaning or not being confident about. In case of assumption (right or wrong) we hypothesize that the respondent can still be surprised by the explanation. Whereas the answer is no then the subject is clearly unaware of the logo meaning, presumably he can t even understand it, however, he sustains candidate for surprise effects. The next question of this section is based on the aesthetics of the logo as an image explicitly. The respondent has to evaluate the icon he is seeing, in a Likert scale of 1 to 5 (1=very poor design, 5=very good design), according to his very own preferences and tastes. This question aims to explore other parameters that might affect brand memory. Since we are testing logos that are fictional or unknown to our target group, any prior brand relationship, feelings, or knowledge are not affecting our results. However, besides its meaning, people may be affected by the general design, colors and shapes. The looks of the logo is a parameter that can elicit attention and interfere with the results, therefore patterns between particular scores of logo appearance and memory increase will be exploited further. Also, it is quite important to highlight the reason of the position (Belson, 1981) of this question that is exactly located before the explanation of the meaning. The purpose is to collect sample s personal ratings of the logo designs as artifacts before any meaning explanation and surprise effect takes place and interferes with judgments. Continuing in the following section, the research attempts to reveal the hidden meaning of the logo using arrows and pointers on the logo s image. Specifically the real or fictional, according to the logo type, brand name and product category information is mentioned with the same clarity. The purpose of this section is to make sure participants are informed of Image 4: the logo as presented after the questions the actual logo meaning and decide whether they felt surprised or not. From the research s perspective, this 26

27 question intends to archive all the logos that produced feelings of surprise and prove the research s question that: a non-abstract but rather clever/funny/meaningful and company related logo may cause attention, provoke interest, evoke emotions and increase brand memory. It should be stressed out that surprise is a stage between attention and interest as mention earlier. In no way it is implied that clever designs with apparent meanings (that do not cause wow but attract interest) cannot affect logo memory once seen. For the needs of this research therefore, we use all of the different types of logo designs (new, unique, smart, funny, metaphorical, and meaningful) that presumably elicit interest (either through surprise, attention or both). Afterwards, the 1 st part of the survey is over. Demographic details and information on sex, age, education and address conclude the survey and the participants are thanked and informed that we will get in touch with them again. The dynamic nature of this research that deliberates the modifications and alterations of brand recognition reiterates the test after 2 weeks time. The second part addresses explicitly to the participants of the first study. This time the subjects are presented the same logos altogether and asked to identify those who they remember only (see Appendix p. 87). The most interesting question is in the case of fictional brands (or the ones declared initially as unknown from the subjects) that contain meanings. The participants that are able to remember the name or product category of those brands, they never knew or seen before, imply the possibility of impact the symbolic and clever logo design had on the memory notion of the consumer mind. Additionally, they are requested to rate again the aesthetics of all the logos, however, this time subjects are answering under the influence, if any, of the meaning explanation. Changing the rate of the logos aesthetics will indicate a possible conceptual change of logos looks perception due to the meaning explanation. 27

28 4. Results A total of 117 respondents participated in the 20 min. survey, 53 women and 64 men. Respondents were drawn from a wider network of acquaintances, aged mainly between 18 and 30, and their participation was completely voluntary but not anonymous. The graph pies below show the population sample s sex and age distribution. WOMEN 45% MEN 55% <18 (2%) (35%) (50%) (10%) 40+ (3%) Pie Chart 1 Pie Chart 2 The majority of the respondents has at least a bachelor diploma (88%) and 39% of the sample owns in addition a Master title. The population sample is located in the wider area of Greece only. Specifically: School diploma (12%) Bachelor (45%) Master (39%) Phd (4%) Pie Chart 3 The answers in the questions that addressed to each participant were collected and archived as nominal data. Taking into account that the sample population consists of such categorical values of more than 100 participants, it is only permitted to describe the population by using the sample proportion (P ) as indicative of population 28

29 proportion (p). The formula used, summarizes the sampling distribution and represents the test statistic needed to estimate the population. The test follows approximately normal distribution n(1-p) is greater than 5, p=0.5. The significance level of the problem was set out to the 5% and the rejection region for the null hypothesis at this point is calculated to α=0.05 The test is one-tailed and the hypothesis is formulated as: Null Hypothesis H 0 : p = 0.5 Alternative hypothesis H 1 : p > 0.5 The following table shows the percentage of the respondents who recognized the meaningful brands and their separate calculation of the Z: Statistic Test. Table 4 Logos with meanings (RM, FM) Brand recognition P(%) Z Test Hypothesis Logo No 2 70% 4, Reject Logo No 4 67% 3, Reject Logo No 6 69% 4, Reject Logo No 7 71% 4, Reject Logo No 8 77% 5, Reject Logo No 10 76% 5, Reject Logo No 12 64% 3, Reject Logo No 14 66% 3, Reject Logo No 16 61% 2, Reject Logo No 18 73% 4, Reject Logo No 20 72% 4, Reject Logo No 22 88% 8, Reject 29

30 Logo No 23 70% 4, Reject Logo No 24 46% -0, Accept Similarly, the next table presents the same data categorization that refers this time to the Abstract logos with no meanings. Table 5 Logos with no meanings, Abstracts (RA, FA) Brand recognition P (%) Z Test Hypothesis Logo No 1 22% -6, Accept Logo No 3 3% -10, Accept Logo No 5 16% -7, Accept Logo No 10 12% -8, Accept Logo No 11 11% -8, Accept Logo No 13 15% -7, Accept Logo No 15 12% -8, Accept Logo No 17 19% -6, Accept Logo No % -9, Accept Logo No 21 7% -9, Accept The Z column that contains the z statistic test shows that the overwhelming majority (13 out 14) of the logos with meanings rejects the null hypothesis and thus indicates that the brand recognition might have actually been affected from the meanings in logos. However, as expected, the same effect did not apply to the non-meaningful logos rather the exact opposite effect was noticed. The abstract logos do not reject the null hypothesis in total and thus corroborate that logos without meanings have low percentages of brand recognition. In accordance with the second objective of this research, the respondents were asked to evaluate the aesthetics of the logo twice, one before knowing the meaning and one after a 2-week time. Utilizing the t-statistic for the means of two samples (with 30

31 different variances) we compare the means of the first evaluations (sample m 1 ) with the means of the second evaluations (sample m 2 ) for each logo. Probability values that are less than 0.05 reject the null hypothesis and act in favor of the alternative. Null Hypothesis: H 0 : m 1 = m 2 m 1 : mean for the 1 st group Alternative Hypothesis: H 1 : m 1 m 2 m 2 : mean for the 2 nd group The following table exhibits the p-values corresponding to the t-statistic for the set of means of each logo where 13 out of total 14 meaningful logos and 8 out of total 10 abstract logos reject the null hypothesis. For the p-values that are less than 0.01, there is overwhelming evidence to infer that the alternative hypothesis is true. In other words, the test is highly significant. The p-values that lie between 0.01 and 0.05 indicate that there is strong evidence to infer that the alternative hypothesis is also true and the results are deemed to be significant as well. Table 6 Meaningful Logos p-values for t-stat Test for means < 0.05 Abstract Logos p-values for t-stat Test for means < 0.05 No 2 6,13587E-07 Reject Ho No 1 0, Reject Ho No 4 0, Reject Ho No 3 6,89044E-09 Reject Ho No 6 0, Accept Ho No 5 2,63128E-09 Reject Ho No 7 0, Reject Ho No 9 0, Reject Ho No 8 4,03489E-05 Reject Ho No 11 0, Reject Ho No 10 0, Reject Ho No 13 1,52418E-05 Reject Ho No 12 4,08814E-07 Reject Ho No 15 3,79611E-06 Reject Ho No 14 9,19008E-08 Reject Ho No 17 0, Reject Ho No 16 0, Reject Ho No 19 0, Accept Ho No 18 4,36392E-07 Reject Ho No 21 0, Accept Ho No 20 0, Reject Ho 8/10 Reject No 22 7,01082E-07 Reject Ho No 23 0, Reject Ho No 24 0, Reject Ho 13/14 Reject In addition, the graphs below that illustrate the sample means of each logo depict how the means of the first design evaluations differentiated in the second one. The red and blue columns represent the means of the first and second design evaluation accordingly. Taking into consideration, also, to the tables 1a and 1b in appendix, it is concluded that the logos with meanings particularly, present an upward trend. 31

32 However, the same increase is not observed when comparing the results of the abstract logos in both of the phases. Specifically, the overall evaluation and perception of the looks of each abstract logo, decreased over the two week time rather than at least remained the same, something that is corroborated in T-stat results. Someone could argue that respondents were influenced by the absence of meaning to those logos in comparison to the meaningful ones and changed their minds about how they perceive their aesthetics in general (see chapter 2.3, p.18). Graph 1 4,5 4 3,5 3 2,5 2 1,5 1 0,5 0 First Evaluation (m1) Second Evaluation (m2) 32

33 Graph 2 3,5 3 2,5 2 1,5 1 1st Evaluation (m1) 2nd Evaluation (m2) 0,5 0 Logo No 1 Logo No 3 Logo No 5 Logo No 10 Logo No 11 Logo No 13 Logo No 15 Logo No 17 Logo No 19 Logo No 21 Moreover, for the last objective, the participants that declared that were surprised by the logo are recorded in terms of proportional values for each one. The Z test statistic control values are calculated in a 5% significant level as shown in the following table: Null Hypothesis H0: p = 0.5 Alternative hypothesis H1: p > 0.5 Table 8 Logos with meanings Surprise effect Z Test Hypothesis (P) % Logo No 2 64% 3, Reject H 0 Logo No 4 36% -3, Accept H 0 Logo No 6 46% -1, Accept H 0 Logo No 7 31% -4, Accept H 0 Logo No 8 58% 1, Reject H 0 Logo No 10 33% -3, Accept H 0 Logo No 12 42% -1, Accept H 0 Logo No 14 32% -3, Accept H 0 Logo No 16 53% 0, Accept H 0 Logo No 18 44% -1, Accept H 0 33

34 Logo No 20 38% -2, Accept H 0 Logo No 22 75% 5, Reject H 0 Logo No 23 65% 3, Reject H 0 Logo No 24 67% 3, Reject H 0 AVERAGE 49% -0, For less than half of the meaningful logos (5 out of 14), the Z test values reject the null hypothesis that meanings in logos do not elicit surprise effect. However, the majority of the meaningful logos (the rest 9 out 14), despite the fact they corroborate the null hypothesis, fluctuate closely around the borders or the rejection area (average Z=-0, ). On the other hand, The vast proportion (10 out of the 10) abstract logos accept the null hypothesis with an average (Z= -4, ) far enough from being considered as marginal (see the following table). Table 9 Abstract Logos Surprise effect (P)% Z Test Hypothesis Logo No 1 13% -8, Accept H 0 Logo No 3 8% -8, Accept H 0 Logo No 5 16% -7, Accept H 0 Logo No 10 26% -5, Accept H 0 Logo No 11 6% -9, Accept H 0 Logo No 13 50% 0, Accept H 0 Logo No 15 46% -0, Accept H 0 Logo No 17 45% -1, Accept H 0 Logo No 19 24% -5, Accept H 0 Logo No 21 49% -0, Accept H 0 AVERAGE 28.3 % -4, Accept H 0 To conclude, the last table contains information that attempts to present the proportion of all positive (Yes) answers derived from the surprise question that were followed also by a successful brand recognition. 34

35 Table 10 Meaningful Abstract Logo No Surprise Brand P% Logo No Surprise Brand P% Answer. Recog. Answers Recog % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % MEAN 77% 35% The 55% of the respondents that claimed they were surprised by the logo explanation, whether with meaning or not, managed to recognize it in the 2 nd phase. In more detailed analysis, the coexistence of meaning in logos and surprise effect elicitation accounted to almost 77% of successful brand recognition, when at the same time only 35% of the abstract logos that surprised were recognized in the 2 nd phase as well. 35

36 5. Interpretation of findings (Discussion) The results of the study are interesting enough to reaffirm the initial and central assumption of the general research. The striking majority of the logos that integrated meaningful visual communication scored the highest levels of brand recognition in the second survey. Participants managed to identify the brands, of the logos with meanings, with greater certainty than those without. A total of more than 50% successful brand recognition accounted to each meaningful logo (with one only exception of 46%) when the best case scenario for the abstract logos did not exceeded the 22%. This significant proportional differentiation between the meaningful and abstract logos is encouraging enough to theorize possible practical correlations between meaningful logo design and brand recognition. This observation demonstrates with confidence the gap between general Brand Awareness and Meaningful Logo Design literature that does not refer to both of these aspects as interrelated Brand Equity elements. The importance of this finding once explored and studied in greater depth can serve as a future tenet guide to logo designers that wish to create outperforming brand icons. Companies can benefit as well by acquiring strategically designed logos as far as their brand equity and corporate image is concerned. Such enhanced brand recognition through logos can consist of a great corporate asset that could eventually lead to increased brand knowledge and cognition. Specifically, experiments by Anand, Holbrook, and Stephens (1988), contribute with findings and provide evidence that relate cognition in the preference developing process. Participants were also required to evaluate the looks and aesthetics of the logo designs and interestingly enough the average evaluation of each meaningful logo increased with a mean of around 11%. In case of the abstract logos, there was also noticed a differentiation of all evaluations with, however, a downturn of approximately 10% for each one. Not all of the respondents re-conceptualized accordingly the aesthetics of each logo and some of them even retained their initial assessments, however, the majority of them changed their opinions in favor of the meaningful ones. The latter observation highlights the existence of a third factor that might have influenced the sample s final decisions. Reminding the reader, the participants were introduced to 36

37 the meaning of the logos right after their first aesthetic evaluation. Moreover, because logos were chosen to be fictional or unpopular and unknown to the target group of this research, it is appropriate to assume that in the meantime the participants weren t influenced by any marketing or branding activities of the specific logos and brands. At this point, this thesis raises the issue that the existence of meanings in logo designs might have actually affected the viewer s perception regarding the general aesthetics of the image. This remark consists of a secondary observation of this study. The initial aim of this set of questions was actually to collect possible answers that might indicate increased brand recognition due to specific logo preference, e.g. higher rates, of the icon s looks and aesthetics. Such a consistency among the respondents distinct aesthetics evaluations and positive brand recognition responds was not identified neither in logo with meanings nor in logos without. However, the general picture (see table 1c in appendix) showed that the higher the rate in aesthetics was, the higher brand recognition in total was, but still in order this observation to be recorder as statistically proved requires further investigation. Moving on to the last construct of this study, or in other words to the element of surprise, the results indicated that the initial assumption and supposition is not reflected accordingly at the data analysis. Particularly, only slightly above the half percent of the respondents that declared to have been surprised by the explanation of the meanings in logos, both meaningful and abstract, indeed recognized it in the next survey. Moreover, meaningful logos, compared to their counterparts, illustrated in average higher rates of surprise effect, as respondents claimed to have experienced, but in general they fluctuated around the baseline of less than 50% positive surprise responds. Therefore, the results are not clear enough to suggest that feelings of surprise are related to enhanced brand recognition or the logo s meaning revealing. In fact, as far as the latter comment is concerned the final outcome does not interfere totally with the initial expectations of the objectives of the research. Specifically, the logos that were employed under the category of Meaningful, both Fictional with meanings-fm and Real with Meanings-RM, were either utilizing conventional or novel pictorial metaphors. In case of the conventional metaphors, as earlier stated, no particular surprise effect is expected due to their nature of design to be familiar. Indeed, most of these meaningful logos can be considered as more of the conventional 37

38 type of metaphor rather than the novel one; according always to their distinct description (see tables 1 and 2, p. 20). 38

39 6. Limitations and suggestions for future research There is no way to understand core brand equity without in depth responses from qualitative research (John Pawle, Unilever, 1999, p. 24). The thesis draws its theoretical background from previous studies and past researches in order to formulate the foundations of this current survey. Secondary data were used as a guideline to identify gaps and needs within cognitive psychology and logo design literature. The emanating assumptions were followed by population research using quantitative analysis methods. However, as stated above, such research methods are never enough to corroborate correlations or cause-effect relationships with certainty. In acknowledging limitations, it was noted that the research was based in evaluating mainly first impressions of hypothetical meaningful logos. Such a frequent limitation across marketing and branding studies indicates a somewhat biased study where momentary and unprompted responses to novel stimuli are drawn from technicalities or cursory appraisals within the questionnaire. In addition to that the validity of the research conclusions is undermined by the possibly misinterpreted results that might over- or underestimate the impact of logo design and meanings. The field related to human cognition and memory, requires a more in-depth approach and qualitative research such as interviews or focus groups. Subjects need to be retained highly focused and undistracted during experiment. Perhaps due to the lack of the right incentives and financial constraints (i.e. payment), participant s eagerness and decision to indeed follow the rules and instructions carefully during the survey were questioned. Additionally, the number of questions was perceived from the viewers as overwhelming and the overall questionnaire as time-consuming. To overcome burdens such as the respondent s limited patience, future researches shall provide greater motivations to the participants. Decreasing the logos sample is not a suggested option since it would not provide the study with liable results to better judge the impact of strategic logo design. Besides that, when encountering parameters such as emotions, surprise and attention, interesting insights can be acquired only via longitudinal studies and live observations in real consumption settings. Furthermore the 2nd phase of the experiment reminded users of a test rather than a simple 39

40 evaluation, something that might have encouraged cheating. Finally, additional countries could have provided greater variation of the sample population regarding the demographics. However, this research aims to point out the gap in literature as far as the relationship of logo meaning and brand awareness is concerned. The findings of this research should provide enough incentives for further and in depth investigation. 40

41 7. Conclusion and Recommendations Drawing preferably on Keller s theory of brand equity (because it applies with higher consistency in this research s objectives), this study has investigated one research question: the relationship, if any, between Brand Recognition and Strategic Logo Design that integrates corporate meanings. This current work is the first that attempts to bridge these two specific brand elements and the outcomes of this investigation provide salient contribution in enhancing the extant literature. The evidences are sufficient to suggest the high possibility of correlation between meaningful logo design and increased brand recognition. Future research should focus in conducting iterative studies in the long run and implement in more depth analyses, such as qualitative techniques. Furthermore, literature can be enhanced, also, by studying the relationship between other brand elements and Meaningful Logo Design. Therefore, besides Brand Awareness, Brand Image that consists of a web of brand associations might also be affected by meanings in logos. This could be particularly true if we consider that metaphors are from definition a set of associations and, thus, when incorporated in logos, also an eligible candidate to convey those associations and affect brand perception. 41

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50 Appendix Table 1a Logo with Meanings First Evaluation (m 1) Second Evaluation (m 2) Difference Logo No 2 3, , , Logo No 4 3, , , Logo No 6 3, , , Logo No 7 2, , , Logo No 8 3, , , Logo No 10 3, , , Logo No 12 2, , , Logo No 14 2, , , Logo No 16 3, , , Logo No 18 3, , Logo No 20 2, , , Logo No 22 2, , , Logo No 23 3, , , Logo No 24 2, , , AVERAGE 3, , , / 11% Table 1b Logos with no meanings, Abstracts (RA, FA) 1st Evaluation (Mean) 2nd Evaluation (Mean) Difference Logo No 1 2, , , Logo No 3 2, , , Logo No 5 3, , , Logo No 10 2, , , Logo No 11 2, , , Logo No 13 3, , ,

51 Logo No 15 3, , , Logo No 17 2, , , Logo No 19 2, , , Logo No 21 2, , , AVERAGE 2, , ,5 / 10% Table 1c All Logos Rates Total Positive Brand Recognition P% % % % % % 51

52 25/1/2014 Logo Design - Google Drive Logo Design The survey that you are about to take part aims to support a research dissertation for a Master's degree in Strategic Product Design from the International Hellenic University of Thessaloniki. The purpose of the questions is to investigate the attitudes of consumers towards specific types of logo designs. Your answers are very important for our research and will help us understand how logo design characteristics influence the brand memorability. The survey will be repeated in 2 weeks time in different format to measure any memory differentiation. The participation in this survey is purely voluntary and anonymous. Thank you very much for your effort! * Απαιτείται 1 1. Do you know the above brand? (Γνωρίζετε την εταιρία αυτή;) * Brand name or Product category (Το όνομα της εταιρίας η το προϊόν της) Νο (Όχι) Yes (Ναι) 2. If yes please specify Αν ναι διευκρινήστε 3. Do you know the meaning of the design? (Γνωρίζετε το νόημα του λογότυπου;) * What it represents/shows (Τι απεικονίζει/ συμβολίζει) Yes/Ναι No/Όχι I can assume/ Υποθέτω https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1nkulgjjbsnlanvkkkn0bbbf1jwidgpc_ox6tacisq8y/edit 1/37

53 25/1/2014 Logo Design - Google Drive 4. Please rate the logo design from scale 1 to 5. (Αξιολογήστε το σχέδιο του λογότυπου) * Very poor design Very good design StepUp Learning Center in Montreal, Canada. 5. Did the explanation surprise you in any way? (Σας εξέπληξε η επεξήγηση του λογότυπου;) * Yes/Ναι Νο/ Οχι 2 6. Do you know the above brand? (Γνωρίζετε την εταιρία αυτή;) * Brand name or Product category (Το όνομα της εταιρίας η το προϊόν της) Νο (Όχι) Yes (Ναι) https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1nkulgjjbsnlanvkkkn0bbbf1jwidgpc_ox6tacisq8y/edit 2/37

54 25/1/2014 Logo Design - Google Drive 7. If yes please specify Αν ναι διευκρινήστε 8. Do you know the meaning of the design? (Γνωρίζετε το νόημα του λογότυπου;) * What it represents/shows (Τι απεικονίζει/ συμβολίζει) Yes/Ναι No/Όχι I can assume/ Υποθέτω 9. Please rate the logo design from scale 1 to 5. (Αξιολογήστε το σχέδιο του λογότυπου) * Very poor design Very good design Fox Company (produces software systems) 10. Did the explanation surprise you in any way? (Σας εξέπληξε η επεξήγηση του λογότυπου;) * Yes/Ναι Νο/ Οχι 3 https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1nkulgjjbsnlanvkkkn0bbbf1jwidgpc_ox6tacisq8y/edit 3/37

55 25/1/2014 Logo Design - Google Drive 11. Do you know the above brand? (Γνωρίζετε την εταιρία αυτή;) * Brand name or Product category (Το όνομα της εταιρίας η το προϊόν της) Νο (Όχι) Yes (Ναι) 12. If yes please specify Αν ναι διευκρινήστε 13. Do you know the meaning of the design? (Γνωρίζετε το νόημα του λογότυπου;) * What it represents/shows (Τι απεικονίζει/ συμβολίζει) Yes/Ναι No/Όχι I can assume/ Υποθέτω 14. Please rate the logo design from scale 1 to 5. (Αξιολογήστε το σχέδιο του λογότυπου) * Very poor design Very good design Zengredients is a mobile application https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1nkulgjjbsnlanvkkkn0bbbf1jwidgpc_ox6tacisq8y/edit 4/37

56 25/1/2014 Logo Design - Google Drive 15. Did the explanation surprise you in any way? (Σας εξέπληξε η επεξήγηση του λογότυπου;) * Yes (Ναι) No (Όχι) Do you know the above brand? (Γνωρίζετε την εταιρία αυτή;) * Brand name or Product category (Το όνομα της εταιρίας η το προϊόν της) Νο (Όχι) Yes (Ναι) https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1nkulgjjbsnlanvkkkn0bbbf1jwidgpc_ox6tacisq8y/edit 5/37

57 25/1/2014 Logo Design - Google Drive 17. If yes please specify Αν ναι διευκρινήστε 18. Do you know the meaning of the design? (Γνωρίζετε το νόημα του λογότυπου;) * What it represents/shows (Τι απεικονίζει/ συμβολίζει) Yes/Ναι No/Όχι I can assume/ Υποθέτω 19. Please rate the logo design from scale 1 to 5. (Αξιολογήστε το σχέδιο του λογότυπου) * Very poor design Very good design Coffee Night Cafe 20. Did the explanation surprise you in any way? (Σας εξέπληξε η επεξήγηση του λογότυπου;) * Yes (Ναι) No (Όχι) https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1nkulgjjbsnlanvkkkn0bbbf1jwidgpc_ox6tacisq8y/edit 6/37

58 25/1/2014 Logo Design - Google Drive Do you know the above brand? (Γνωρίζετε την εταιρία αυτή;) * Brand name or Product category (Το όνομα της εταιρίας η το προϊόν της) Νο (Όχι) Yes (Ναι) 22. If yes please specify Αν ναι διευκρινήστε 23. Do you know the meaning of the design? (Γνωρίζετε το νόημα του λογότυπου;) * What it represents/shows (Τι απεικονίζει/ συμβολίζει) Yes/Ναι No/Όχι I can assume/ Υποθέτω 24. Please rate the logo design from scale 1 to 5. (Αξιολογήστε το σχέδιο του λογότυπου) * Very poor design Very good design Bloom Hotels & Resorts LTD. https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1nkulgjjbsnlanvkkkn0bbbf1jwidgpc_ox6tacisq8y/edit 7/37

59 25/1/2014 Logo Design - Google Drive 25. Did the explanation surprise you in any way? (Σας εξέπληξε η επεξήγηση του λογότυπου;) * Yes (Ναι) No (Όχι) Do you know the above brand? (Γνωρίζετε την εταιρία αυτή;) * Brand name or Product category (Το όνομα της εταιρίας η το προϊόν της) Νο (Όχι) Yes (Ναι) https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1nkulgjjbsnlanvkkkn0bbbf1jwidgpc_ox6tacisq8y/edit 8/37

60 25/1/2014 Logo Design - Google Drive 27. If yes please specify Αν ναι διευκρινήστε 28. Do you know the meaning of the design? (Γνωρίζετε το νόημα του λογότυπου;) * What it represents/shows (Τι απεικονίζει/ συμβολίζει) Yes/Ναι No/Όχι I can assume/ Υποθέτω 29. Please rate the logo design from scale 1 to 5. (Αξιολογήστε το σχέδιο του λογότυπου) * Very poor design Very good design Cosmopolicat Coctail Bar 30. Did the explanation surprise you in any way? (Σας εξέπληξε η επεξήγηση του λογότυπου;) * Yes (Ναι) No (Όχι) https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1nkulgjjbsnlanvkkkn0bbbf1jwidgpc_ox6tacisq8y/edit 9/37

61 25/1/2014 Logo Design - Google Drive Do you know the above brand? (Γνωρίζετε την εταιρία αυτή;) * Brand name or Product category (Το όνομα της εταιρίας η το προϊόν της) Νο (Όχι) Yes (Ναι) 32. If yes please specify Αν ναι διευκρινήστε 33. Do you know the meaning of the design? (Γνωρίζετε το νόημα του λογότυπου;) * What it represents/shows (Τι απεικονίζει/ συμβολίζει) Yes/Ναι No/Όχι I can assume/ Υποθέτω 34. Please rate the logo design from scale 1 to 5. (Αξιολογήστε το σχέδιο του λογότυπου) * Very poor design Very good design https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1nkulgjjbsnlanvkkkn0bbbf1jwidgpc_ox6tacisq8y/edit 10/37

62 25/1/2014 Logo Design - Google Drive Royal Clothes - Fabric & Cloth Industry 35. Did the explanation surprise you in any way? (Σας εξέπληξε η επεξήγηση του λογότυπου;) * Yes (Ναι) No (Όχι) Do you know the above brand? (Γνωρίζετε την εταιρία αυτή;) * Brand name or Product category (Το όνομα της εταιρίας η το προϊόν της) Νο (Όχι) Yes (Ναι) https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1nkulgjjbsnlanvkkkn0bbbf1jwidgpc_ox6tacisq8y/edit 11/37

63 25/1/2014 Logo Design - Google Drive 37. If yes please specify Αν ναι διευκρινήστε 38. Do you know the meaning of the design? (Γνωρίζετε το νόημα του λογότυπου;) * What it represents/shows (Τι απεικονίζει/ συμβολίζει) Yes/Ναι No/Όχι I can assume/ Υποθέτω 39. Please rate the logo design from scale 1 to 5. (Αξιολογήστε το σχέδιο του λογότυπου) * Very poor design Very good design "Coffee and Cigarettes" Movie https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1nkulgjjbsnlanvkkkn0bbbf1jwidgpc_ox6tacisq8y/edit 12/37

64 25/1/2014 Logo Design - Google Drive 40. Did the explanation surprise you in any way? (Σας εξέπληξε η επεξήγηση του λογότυπου;) * Yes (Ναι) No (Όχι) Do you know the above brand? (Γνωρίζετε την εταιρία αυτή;) * Brand name or Product category (Το όνομα της εταιρίας η το προϊόν της) Νο (Όχι) Yes (Ναι) 42. If yes please specify Αν ναι διευκρινήστε 43. Do you know the meaning of the design? (Γνωρίζετε το νόημα του λογότυπου;) * What it represents/shows (Τι απεικονίζει/ συμβολίζει) Yes/Ναι No/Όχι I can assume/ Υποθέτω https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1nkulgjjbsnlanvkkkn0bbbf1jwidgpc_ox6tacisq8y/edit 13/37

65 25/1/2014 Logo Design - Google Drive 44. Please rate the logo design from scale 1 to 5. (Αξιολογήστε το σχέδιο του λογότυπου) * Very poor design Very good design DLUX interior design 45. Did the explanation surprise you in any way? (Σας εξέπληξε η επεξήγηση του λογότυπου;) * Yes (Ναι) No (Όχι) 10 https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1nkulgjjbsnlanvkkkn0bbbf1jwidgpc_ox6tacisq8y/edit 14/37

66 25/1/2014 Logo Design - Google Drive 46. Do you know the above brand? (Γνωρίζετε την εταιρία αυτή;) * Brand name or Product category (Το όνομα της εταιρίας η το προϊόν της) Νο (Όχι) Yes (Ναι) 47. If yes please specify Αν ναι διευκρινήστε 48. Do you know the meaning of the design? (Γνωρίζετε το νόημα του λογότυπου;) * What it represents/shows (Τι απεικονίζει/ συμβολίζει) Yes/Ναι No/Όχι I can assume/ Υποθέτω 49. Please rate the logo design from scale 1 to 5. (Αξιολογήστε το σχέδιο του λογότυπου) * Very poor design Very good design Spartan Golf Club https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1nkulgjjbsnlanvkkkn0bbbf1jwidgpc_ox6tacisq8y/edit 15/37

67 25/1/2014 Logo Design - Google Drive 50. Did the explanation surprise you in any way? (Σας εξέπληξε η επεξήγηση του λογότυπου;) * Yes (Ναι) No (Όχι) Do you know the above brand? (Γνωρίζετε την εταιρία αυτή;) * Brand name or Product category (Το όνομα της εταιρίας η το προϊόν της) Νο (Όχι) Yes (Ναι) 52. If yes please specify Αν ναι διευκρινήστε 53. Do you know the meaning of the design? (Γνωρίζετε το νόημα του λογότυπου;) * What it represents/shows (Τι απεικονίζει/ συμβολίζει) Yes/Ναι No/Όχι I can assume/ Υποθέτω 54. Please rate the logo design from scale 1 to 5. (Αξιολογήστε το σχέδιο του λογότυπου) * Very poor design Very good design https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1nkulgjjbsnlanvkkkn0bbbf1jwidgpc_ox6tacisq8y/edit 16/37

68 25/1/2014 Logo Design - Google Drive H&S Hair and Style Blog 55. Did the explanation surprise you in any way? (Σας εξέπληξε η επεξήγηση του λογότυπου;) * Yes (Ναι) No (Όχι) Do you know the above brand? (Γνωρίζετε την εταιρία αυτή;) * Brand name or Product category (Το όνομα της εταιρίας η το προϊόν της) Yes (Ναι) No (Όχι) https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1nkulgjjbsnlanvkkkn0bbbf1jwidgpc_ox6tacisq8y/edit 17/37

69 25/1/2014 Logo Design - Google Drive 57. If yes please specify Αν ναι διευκρινήστε 58. Do you know the meaning of the design? (Γνωρίζετε το νόημα του λογότυπου;) * What it represents/shows (Τι απεικονίζει/ συμβολίζει) Yes/Ναι No/Όχι I can assume/ Υποθέτω 59. Please rate the logo design from scale 1 to 5. (Αξιολογήστε το σχέδιο του λογότυπου) * Very poor design Very good design Web Girls Social Network 60. Did the explanation surprise you in any way? (Σας εξέπληξε η επεξήγηση του λογότυπου;) * Yes (Ναι) No (Όχι) https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1nkulgjjbsnlanvkkkn0bbbf1jwidgpc_ox6tacisq8y/edit 18/37

70 25/1/2014 Logo Design - Google Drive Do you know the above brand? (Γνωρίζετε την εταιρία αυτή;) * Brand name or Product category (Το όνομα της εταιρίας η το προϊόν της) Νο (Όχι) Yes (Ναι) 62. If yes please specify Αν ναι διευκρινήστε 63. Do you know the meaning of the design? (Γνωρίζεται το νόημα του λογότυπου;) * What it represents/shows (Τι απεικονίζει/ συμβολίζει) Yes/Ναι No/Όχι I can assume/ Υποθέτω 64. Please rate the logo design from scale 1 to 5. (Αξιολογήστε το σχέδιο του λογότυπου) * Very poor design Very good design KAILIA wedding planner https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1nkulgjjbsnlanvkkkn0bbbf1jwidgpc_ox6tacisq8y/edit 19/37

71 25/1/2014 Logo Design - Google Drive 65. Did the explanation surprise you in any way? (Σας εξέπληξε η επεξήγηση του λογότυπου;) * Yes (Ναι) No (Όχι) Do you know the above brand? (Γνωρίζετε την εταιρία αυτή;) * Brand name or Product category (Το όνομα της εταιρίας η το προϊόν της) Νο (Όχι) Yes (Ναι) https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1nkulgjjbsnlanvkkkn0bbbf1jwidgpc_ox6tacisq8y/edit 20/37

72 25/1/2014 Logo Design - Google Drive 67. If yes please specify Αν ναι διευκρινήστε 68. Do you know the meaning of the design? (Γνωρίζετε το νόημα του λογότυπου;) * What it represents/shows (Τι απεικονίζει/ συμβολίζει) Yes/Ναι No/Όχι I can assume/ Υποθέτω 69. Please rate the logo design from scale 1 to 5. (Αξιολογήστε το σχέδιο του λογότυπου) * Very poor design Very good design Yoga center in Australia 70. Did the explanation surprise you in any way? (Σας εξέπληξε η επεξήγηση του λογότυπου;) * Yes (Ναι) No (Όχι) 15 https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1nkulgjjbsnlanvkkkn0bbbf1jwidgpc_ox6tacisq8y/edit 21/37

73 25/1/2014 Logo Design - Google Drive 71. Do you know the above brand? (Γνωρίζετε την εταιρία αυτή;) * Brand name or Product category (Το όνομα της εταιρίας η το προϊόν της) Νο (Όχι) Yes (Ναι) 72. If yes please specify Αν ναι διευκρινήστε 73. Do you know the meaning of the design? (Γνωρίζετε το νόημα του λογότυπου;) * What it represents/shows (Τι απεικονίζει/ συμβολίζει) Yes/Ναι No/Όχι I can assume/ Υποθέτω 74. Please rate the logo design from scale 1 to 5. (Αξιολογήστε το σχέδιο του λογότυπου) * Very poor design Very good design YAK & CO financial administration company based in Netherlands https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1nkulgjjbsnlanvkkkn0bbbf1jwidgpc_ox6tacisq8y/edit 22/37

74 25/1/2014 Logo Design - Google Drive 75. Did the explanation surprise you in any way? (Σας εξέπληξε η επεξήγηση του λογότυπου;) * Yes (Ναι) No (Όχι) Do you know the above brand? (Γνωρίζετε την εταιρία αυτή;) * Brand name or Product category (Το όνομα της εταιρίας η το προϊόν της) Νο (Όχι) Yes (Ναι) https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1nkulgjjbsnlanvkkkn0bbbf1jwidgpc_ox6tacisq8y/edit 23/37

75 25/1/2014 Logo Design - Google Drive 77. If yes please specify Αν ναι διευκρινήστε 78. Do you know the meaning of the design? (Γνωρίζετε το νόημα του λογότυπου;) * What it represents/shows (Τι απεικονίζει/ συμβολίζει) Yes/Ναι No/Όχι I can assume/ Υποθέτω 79. Please rate the logo design from scale 1 to 5. (Αξιολογήστε το σχέδιο του λογότυπου) * Very poor design Very good design WINEFOREST wild foods 80. Did the explanation surprise you in any way? (Σας εξέπληξε η επεξήγηση του λογότυπου;) * Yes (Ναι) No (Όχι) https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1nkulgjjbsnlanvkkkn0bbbf1jwidgpc_ox6tacisq8y/edit 24/37

76 25/1/2014 Logo Design - Google Drive Do you know the above brand? (Γνωρίζετε την εταιρία αυτή;) * Brand name or Product category (Το όνομα της εταιρίας η το προϊόν της) Νο (Όχι) Yes (Ναι) 82. If yes please specify Αν ναι διευκρινήστε 83. Do you know the meaning of the design? (Γνωρίζετε το νόημα του λογότυπου;) * What it represents/shows (Τι απεικονίζει/ συμβολίζει) Yes/Ναι No/Όχι I can assume/ Υποθέτω 84. Please rate the logo design from scale 1 to 5. (Αξιολογήστε το σχέδιο του λογότυπου) * Very poor design Very good design JLUX Tοbacco https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1nkulgjjbsnlanvkkkn0bbbf1jwidgpc_ox6tacisq8y/edit 25/37

77 25/1/2014 Logo Design - Google Drive 85. Did the explanation surprise you in any way? (Σας εξέπληξε η επεξήγηση του λογότυπου;) * Yes (Ναι) No (Όχι) Do you know the above brand? (Γνωρίζετε την εταιρία αυτή;) * Brand name or Product category (Το όνομα της εταιρίας η το προϊόν της) Yes (Ναι) No (Όχι) 87. If yes please specify Αν ναι διευκρινήστε https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1nkulgjjbsnlanvkkkn0bbbf1jwidgpc_ox6tacisq8y/edit 26/37

78 25/1/2014 Logo Design - Google Drive 88. Do you know the meaning of the design? (Γνωρίζετε το νόημα του λογότυπου;) * What it represents/shows (Τι απεικονίζει/ συμβολίζει) Yes/Ναι No/Όχι I can assume/ Υποθέτω 89. Please rate the logo design from scale 1 to 5. (Αξιολογήστε το σχέδιο του λογότυπου) * Very poor design Very good design Conception-Medical center for artificial insemination 90. Did the explanation surprise you in any way? (Σας εξέπληξε η επεξήγηση του λογότυπου;) * Yes (Ναι) No (Όχι) 19 https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1nkulgjjbsnlanvkkkn0bbbf1jwidgpc_ox6tacisq8y/edit 27/37

79 25/1/2014 Logo Design - Google Drive 91. Do you know the above brand? (Γνωρίζετε την εταιρία αυτή;) * Brand name or Product category (Το όνομα της εταιρίας η το προϊόν της) Νο (Όχι) Yes (Ναι) 92. If yes please specify Αν ναι διευκρινήστε 93. Do you know the meaning of the design? (Γνωρίζετε το νόημα του λογότυπου;) * What it represents/shows (Τι απεικονίζει/ συμβολίζει) Yes/Ναι No/Όχι I can assume/ Υποθέτω 94. Please rate the logo design from scale 1 to 5. (Αξιολογήστε το σχέδιο του λογότυπου) * Very poor design Very good design J&C Just Creative Solutions - Business consultants https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1nkulgjjbsnlanvkkkn0bbbf1jwidgpc_ox6tacisq8y/edit 28/37

80 25/1/2014 Logo Design - Google Drive 95. Did the explanation surprise you in any way? (Σας εξέπληξε η επεξήγηση του λογότυπου;) * Yes (Ναι) No (Όχι) Do you know the above brand? (Γνωρίζετε την εταιρία αυτή;) * Brand name or Product category (Το όνομα της εταιρίας η το προϊόν της) Νο (Όχι) Yes (Ναι) https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1nkulgjjbsnlanvkkkn0bbbf1jwidgpc_ox6tacisq8y/edit 29/37

81 25/1/2014 Logo Design - Google Drive 97. If yes please specify Αν ναι διευκρινήστε 98. Do you know the meaning of the design? (Γνωρίζετε το νόημα του λογότυπου;) * What it represents/shows (Τι απεικονίζει/ συμβολίζει) Yes/Ναι No/Όχι I can assume/ Υποθέτω 99. Please rate the logo design from scale 1 to 5. (Αξιολογήστε το σχέδιο του λογότυπου) * Very poor design Very good design ED'S ELECTRIC appliances 100. Did the explanation surprise you in any way? (Σας εξέπληξε η επεξήγηση του λογότυπου;) * Yes (Ναι) No (Όχι) 21 https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1nkulgjjbsnlanvkkkn0bbbf1jwidgpc_ox6tacisq8y/edit 30/37

82 25/1/2014 Logo Design - Google Drive 101. Do you know the above brand? (Γνωρίζετε την εταιρία αυτή;) * Brand name or Product category (Το όνομα της εταιρίας η το προϊόν της) Νο (Όχι) Yes (Ναι) 102. If yes please specify Αν ναι διευκρινήστε 103. Do you know the meaning of the design? (Γνωρίζετε το νόημα του λογότυπου;) * What it represents/shows (Τι απεικονίζει/ συμβολίζει) Yes/Ναι No/Όχι I can assume/ Υποθέτω 104. Please rate the logo design from scale 1 to 5. (Αξιολογήστε το σχέδιο του λογότυπου) * Very poor design Very good design Seventh Day Russian Federation https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1nkulgjjbsnlanvkkkn0bbbf1jwidgpc_ox6tacisq8y/edit 31/37

83 25/1/2014 Logo Design - Google Drive 105. Did the explanation surprise you in any way? (Σας εξέπληξε η επεξήγηση του λογότυπου;) * Yes (Ναι) No (Όχι) Do you know the above brand? (Γνωρίζετε την εταιρία αυτή;) * Brand name or Product category (Το όνομα της εταιρίας η το προϊόν της) Νο (Όχι) Yes (Ναι) 107. If yes please specify Αν ναι διευκρινήστε https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1nkulgjjbsnlanvkkkn0bbbf1jwidgpc_ox6tacisq8y/edit 32/37

84 25/1/2014 Logo Design - Google Drive 108. Do you know the meaning of the design? (Γνωρίζετε το νόημα του λογότυπου;) * What it represents/shows (Τι απεικονίζει/ συμβολίζει) Yes/Ναι No/Όχι I can assume/ Υποθέτω 109. Please rate the logo design from scale 1 to 5. (Αξιολογήστε το σχέδιο του λογότυπου) * Very poor design Very good design Cesare amatuli Luxury olive oil 110. Did the explanation surprise you in any way? (Σας εξέπληξε η επεξήγηση του λογότυπου;) * Yes (Ναι) No (Όχι) 23 https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1nkulgjjbsnlanvkkkn0bbbf1jwidgpc_ox6tacisq8y/edit 33/37

85 25/1/2014 Logo Design - Google Drive 111. Do you know the above brand? (Γνωρίζετε την εταιρία αυτή;) * Brand name or Product category (Το όνομα της εταιρίας η το προϊόν της) Νο (Όχι) Yes (Ναι) 112. If yes please specify Αν ναι διευκρινήστε 113. Do you know the meaning of the design? (Γνωρίζετε το νόημα του λογότυπου;) * What it represents/shows (Τι απεικονίζει/ συμβολίζει) Yes/Ναι No/Όχι I can assume/ Υποθέτω 114. Please rate the logo design from scale 1 to 5. (Αξιολογήστε το σχέδιο του λογότυπου) * Very poor design Very good design Catch me - AA Supporting Group https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1nkulgjjbsnlanvkkkn0bbbf1jwidgpc_ox6tacisq8y/edit 34/37

86 25/1/2014 Logo Design - Google Drive 115. Did the explanation surprise you in any way? (Σας εξέπληξε η επεξήγηση του λογότυπου;) * Yes (Ναι) No (Όχι) Do you know the above brand? (Γνωρίζετε την εταιρία αυτή;) * Brand name or Product category (Το όνομα της εταιρίας η το προϊόν της) Νο (Όχι) Yes (Ναι) https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1nkulgjjbsnlanvkkkn0bbbf1jwidgpc_ox6tacisq8y/edit 35/37

87 25/1/2014 Logo Design - Google Drive 117. If yes please specify Αν ναι διευκρινήστε 118. Do you know the meaning of the design? (Γνωρίζετε το νόημα του λογότυπου;) * What it represents/shows (Τι απεικονίζει/ συμβολίζει) Yes/Ναι No/Όχι I can assume/ Υποθέτω 119. Please rate the logo design from scale 1 to 5. (Αξιολογήστε το σχέδιο του λογότυπου) * Very poor design Very good design London Symphony Orchestr 120. Did the explanation surprise you in any way? (Σας εξέπληξε η επεξήγηση του λογότυπου;) * Yes (Ναι) No (Όχι) https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1nkulgjjbsnlanvkkkn0bbbf1jwidgpc_ox6tacisq8y/edit 36/37

88 25/1/2014 Logo Design - Google Drive Demographics 121. Sex * Φύλο Male / Άνδρας Female / Γυναίκα 122. Age group * Ηλικία < Education * Μόρφωση School Diploma (Απολυτήριο Λυκείου) Bachelor (Πτυχίο) Master (Μεταπτυχιακό) PhD (Διδακτορικό) Άλλο: (Διεύθυνση ηλεκτρονικού ταχυδρομείου) * We will need your adress only to get in touch with you in the 2nd phase. Με την υπ οστήριξη της https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1nkulgjjbsnlanvkkkn0bbbf1jwidgpc_ox6tacisq8y/edit 37/37

89 25/1/2014 Logo design phase 2 - Google Drive Which logos do you remember? Ποια λογότυπα θυμάστε; In the 1st phase of this survey you were asked to identify some brands, speculate their meanings and evaluate their design. In the 2nd phase, the same logos will be presented to you, and you will be asked to rate them accordingly. For those who you remember you will need to specify their company's name or in which product/service category they operate. Only an "one or two words" specification is required. Thank you very much in advance for your participation once again and I promise this one will last less than 2''. Στην 1η φάση της έρευνας αυτής σας ζητήσαμε να ταυτοποιήσετε κάποιες μάρκες εταιριών, να υποθέσετε το νόημα των λογότυπων τους και να τα αξιολογήσετε σχεδιαστικά. Στην προκείμενη φάση, θα σας παρουσιάσουμε τις ίδιες εταιρίες και θα σας ζητήσουμε να αναγνωρίσετε ποία λογότυπα θυμάστε. Συγκεκριμένα θα χρειαστεί να τα βαθμολογήστε ανάλογα την εντύπωση που σας έκαναν και να αναφέρετε πολύ περιληπτικά, για όσα εντυπώθηκαν στη μνήμη σας, το όνομα της εταιρίας ή το προϊόν-υπηρεσίες που προσφέρουν. Σας ευχαριστώ για τη συμμετοχή σας ακόμα μια φορά και υπόσχομαι ότι η διάρκεια του δεν ξεπερνάει τα 2 λεπτά. * Απαιτείται Rate the logos and write for those that you remember, their company's name or product/service field they operate in. Αξιολογήστε τα λογότυπα και διευκρινίστε για αυτά που θυμάστε το όνομα της εταιρίας η το προϊόν/ υπηρεσία που παρέχουν. Logos 1-9 https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1vful4medriqi4yifxkibdmhiakzvnux_hjbmj5cxqti/edit 1/7

90 25/1/2014 Logo design phase 2 - Google Drive 1. How you rate their design, now, from 1 to 5 (πως κρίνετε τα λογότυπα από θέμα αισθητικής τώρα;) * Vertically you see the logos and horizontal the ratings (Κάθετα είναι τα λογότυπα, οριζόντια οι βαθμίδες) Να επισημαίνεται μόνο μία έλλειψη ανά σειρά. 1 (Very poor design) (Very good design) logo 1 logo 2 logo 3 logo 4 logo 5 logo 6 logo 7 logo 8 logo 9 Specify for those logos you remember only, their brand name or product category. i.e. Redbull or energy drinks Διευκρινίστε για τα λογότυπα που θυμάστε μόνο, το όνομα της εταιρίας η το προϊόν/ υπηρεσία που παρέχουν. π.χ. Κωτσόβολος ή Ηλεκτρονικές συσκευές https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1vful4medriqi4yifxkibdmhiakzvnux_hjbmj5cxqti/edit 2/7

91 25/1/2014 Logo design phase 2 - Google Drive Rate the logos and write for those that you remember, their company's name or product/service field they operate in. Αξιολογήστε τα λογότυπα και διευκρινίστε για αυτά που θυμάστε το όνομα της εταιρίας η το προϊόν/ υπηρεσία που παρέχουν. Logos https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1vful4medriqi4yifxkibdmhiakzvnux_hjbmj5cxqti/edit 3/7

92 25/1/2014 Logo design phase 2 - Google Drive 11. How you rate their design, now, from 1 to 5 (πως κρίνετε τα λογότυπα από θέμα αισθητικής τώρα;) * Vertically you see the logos and horizontal the ratings (Κάθετα είναι τα λογότυπα, οριζόντια οι βαθμίδες) Να επισημαίνεται μόνο μία έλλειψη ανά σειρά. 1 (Very poor design) (Very good design) logo 10 logo 11 logo 12 logo 13 logo 14 logo 15 logo 16 logo 17 logo 18 Specify for those logos you remember only, their brand name or product category. i.e. Redbull or energy drinks Διευκρινίστε για τα λογότυπα που θυμάστε μόνο, το όνομα της εταιρίας η το προϊόν/ υπηρεσία που παρέχουν. π.χ. Κωτσόβολος ή Ηλεκτρονικές συσκευές https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1vful4medriqi4yifxkibdmhiakzvnux_hjbmj5cxqti/edit 4/7

93 25/1/2014 Logo design phase 2 - Google Drive Rate the logos and write for those that you remember, their company's name or product/service field they operate in. Αξιολογήστε τα λογότυπα και διευκρινίστε για αυτά που θυμάστε το όνομα της εταιρίας η το προϊόν/ υπηρεσία που παρέχουν. Logos https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1vful4medriqi4yifxkibdmhiakzvnux_hjbmj5cxqti/edit 5/7

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