1 15 TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE A.P.P.A.C. ASSOCIATION OF PSYCHOLOGY & PSYCHIATRY FOR ADULTS & CHILDREN Neuropsychiatric, Psychological and Social Sciences Today May 4 7, 2010 the Athens Hilton Hotel, GREECE BOOK OF ABSTRACTS ANNOUNCEMENTS (ENGLISH) SPIRITUALITY, HEALTH, AND ARCHITECTURE: WITH RESPECT TO STRESS A. Nejati MS Student, Miami University, OH, USA We should become fully aware of the Spiritual Presence around us and in us as God present to our spirit; Spirit not as a mysterious substance but as God present in communities and personalities, grasping them, inspiring them, transforming them. Paul Tillich. Despite the fact that many contemporary wellness approaches are focused on physical and medical assets, there is a deep connection between spirituality and health, healing and general wellbeing. According to the theory of Rudolf Steiner, the spiritual philosopher, the human being is a fourfold entity which includes material (physical body), life (etheric body), soul (astral body or consciousness), and spirit (ego or self-consciousness). According to his anthroposophical philosophy, understanding the human being as a whole can influence our perception of lifestyle which is essentially interrelated to wellness. Currently, stress, anxiety and physical and mental pressure are the well-documented causes for many severe diseases such as cancer. I pose how can spirituality help the human being to manage their everyday stress and how can architecture enhance wellness, health and healing in a spiritual way? In developed countries, such as the USA, the complexity of urban lifestyles does not always allow a separation or relief from stressful environments. Living with high stress makes it difficult to find concentrated time to experience the distinct aspects of life beyond everyday issues. Therefore, this paper addresses how environmental qualities can motivate the human spirit in order to deal with and counteract highpressured environments. In addition, this paper shows how returning to and focusing on inherent aspects of our being through architecture can affect our real wellness, health, healing, and general wellbeing. My approach is based on personal and individual experiences woven with theoretical viewpoints partially guided by Anthroposophy. Examining the English etymological root related to spirituality, health, healing and well-being is one method for finding out how far our general contemporary understanding of terms is from the original concepts behind them. As a result, the concept will be embodied in a spiritual wellness center in the heart of an urban environment where stress is one of the most relevant issues in all people s everyday lives, ignoring their gender, age and culture. So selecting the site of this project is one my most challenging issues in this process. The program of my spiritual wellness center is different from a hospital or technical healthcare center because my audiences are broader than physical or mental patients. The multifunctional program includes wellness educational practices, for example, libraries and lecture halls, some special wellness methods like yoga, different recreational activities based on historical and traditional concepts, for instance, Roman Thermae, and finally a small hotel. THE UNCONSCIOUS IN PSYCHOTHERAPEUTIC DISCOURSE: THE LANGUAGE OF EXPLANATION VERSUS THE LANGUAGE OF OPERATION. Prof. D.P. Fourie PhD., Clinical Psychologist, Professor, Psychology Dept., University of South Africa, Pretoria, SOUTH AFRICA In the process of psychotherapy it can be useful to distinguish between the language of explanation and the language of operation. The latter refers to the manner in which the therapist speaks to the client(s) while the language of explanation has to do with the way the therapist thinks about the particular problem. A central concept which is widely used in both languages in the course of psychotherapy is that of the unconscious (mind) but the way it is used often implies that the unconscious (mind) is a concrete entity located somewhere in the brain. This paper discusses the reality of the unconscious and shows that this concept is flawed as an explanation of problem formation and problem resolution but that it can be fruitfully employed in the language of operation. A case description is provided to illustrate how this can be done. THE STUDY OF PSYCHOMETRIC EVALUATION OF THE CONNOR DAVIDSON RESILIENCE SCALE (CD-RISC) IN IRANIAN HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS A. Ghamarani¹, Dr. M.B. Kajbaf², Dr. H.R. Oreizi² and Dr. S. Amiri² ¹ PhD Student, Psychology Dept., Educational Science and Psychology Faculty, University of Isfahan, IRAN ² PhD, Psychology Dept., Faculty of Educational Science and Psychology, University of Isfahan Introduction & Aim: The aim of this study was to investigation of the psychometric evaluation of the Connor Davidson Resilience Scale (CD- RISC,2003) in a sample of high school students in Iran. Method: To pursue this aim, above questionnaire was administered on 200 high school students (100 girls and 100 boys). Results: Factor analysis yielded one general factor. The reliability coefficient of the Iranian version of CD-RISC, was 0/91. Conclusions: Taken together, the result of this study indicated that the construct of resilience and its measurement from the West can be helpful and applicable in understanding Iranian adaptive behaviors. Also, result demonstrated that the CD-RISC possesses good psychometric qualities for use in Iran.
2 CHILDHOOD OBESITY AND MOTHERS EMOTIONAL STATE Dr. M. Dixe¹, A. Querido², Dr. H. Catarino¹ and M. Lopes² ¹ PhD. Teacher, School of Health Sciences, Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, PORTUGAL ² MsD. Teacher, School of Health Sciences, Polytechnic Institute of Leiria Introduction and Aim: In Childhood obesity is important to notice mothers emotional state and their understanding of their emotional world. We aim to determine the prevalence of obesity in children aged 6 to 12 years and the relationship between emotional state of mothers and childhood obesity. Method: A correlational study using a non-probabilistic intentional sample of 107 mothers - 50 of normal weigh children and 57 overweighed children. The prevalence of child obesity was 46.7%. A questionnaire of sociodemographic and family characteristics, weigh control; emotional state - Brief Symptom Inventory (Canavarro, 1995) and NEO-FFI-20 (Bertoquini, & Ribeiro, 2006) to assess personality styles (emotional, interpersonal, experiential, attitudinal, motivational) was applied to mothers visiting Portuguese health centers during Results: In both groups, averages of anxiety /depression scale showed similar values with no statistically significant differences in emotional state of mothers (p> 0.05). Regarding personality traits, overweight / obese children mothers had higher values in all dimensions, than normal weight children mothers, although with no statistical significance (p> 0.05). Conclusion: No influence of parental variables on childhood obesity was found. However, parents personality profile is stated as an important variable in overweight /obesity control programs. We suggest replication in larger samples. CHILDHOOD OBESITY AND MOTHER/SON ATTACHMENT. Dr. M. Dixe¹, A. Querido², Dr. H. Catarino¹ and M. Lopes² ¹ PhD. Teacher, School of Health Sciences, Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, PORTUGAL ² MsD. Teacher, School of Health Sciences, Polytechnic Institute of Leiria Introduction and aims: Identify the type of attachment and parental involvement of mothers of obese and non obese schoolchildren, and determine the predictors of obesity in school-age children. Method: This study correlates childhood obesity and type of mother / son attachment. A nonprobabilistic intentional sample of 50 mothers of obese children and 57 mothers of non-obese children, aged 6 to 12 years, were asked a questionnaire consisting of: sociodemographic and family characteristics, weight control, Mothers Perception of Child Attachment Behavior (Dias, Soares & Freire, 2002) and Scale of Parental Involvement in Childhood (Gameiro et.al, 2006). Mothers were questioned in childhood health consultations in Portuguese Health Centers during Results: In average, overweight / obesity children mothers had lower secure attachment and lower parental involvement in all dimensions, than mothers of normal weight children. No statistical significance, contradicts other studies including Trombin et.al (2003). Mothers age (younger) and their BMI (highest) are childhood obesity predictors (p <0.001), opposite to responsibility and concern with children s weight by mothers, which are not. Conclusion: In this study attachment and maternal involvement in children are not predictors of childhood obesity. This could indicate that a holistic intervention preventing childhood obesity is needed. WHY COGNITIVE SCHEMAS CAN PREDICT SEXUAL OFFENDERS: A CASE STUDY ANALYSIS D.G. Lyrakos Clinical Psychologist, Cognitive Therapist, Athens, GREECE Sexual offences over the past decade have been increased dramatically, mainly because the victims have a tendency to report them instead of avoiding it, or blaming themselves. The present presentation is a case study based on a 30 year old male, who has been convicted for 4 sexual offences (rapes) and he underwent cognitive therapy-schema focused approach. In the present case study we are going to present diagnostic clusters of the patient and the schemas produced through the therapeutic sessions and how those schemas can explain and even predict sexual offences. THE IMPACT OF SELF ESTEEM ON THE PERCEIVED AFFILIATION GROUP AT ROMANIAN PREADOLESCENTS WITH BEHAVIORAL PROBLEMS. Dr. R. Urea Ph.D, Psychologist, Lecturer Special Education Dept., Faculty of Psychology & Educational Sciences, Bucharest University, ROMANIA It is well known that teenagers pass through a lot and dramatic psychological changes. A lot of researches have been done. But, most recently, the attention of experts has focus on preadolescents, especially form the time that these children has an increase level of development, especially on cognition level and a decrease level of stability at emotional field. Therefore, we made an investigation that has had the aim to reveal the specific of the self esteem at Romanian preadolescents with behavioural problems and the impact on perceived school environment and school group. We used in our research the following investigation methods: The Self esteem Questionnaire, The attitudinal Questionnaire, and the, and Social Perception for Affiliations Group Quiz; all of these instruments were created for Romanian preadolescents. The results had revealed some basic features of self esteem of Romanian preadolescents with behavioural problems and some features of their attitudes towards the educational process. The conclusion, which came through from this research, is a specific typology of the influences of self esteem of Romanian preadolescents with behavioural problems on the perceived school environment INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS OF ADOLESCENTS AS A DETERMINANT OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE F. Nasir¹ and Prof. S. Munaf² ¹ Ph.D. Student, Clinical Psychology Dept., Institute of Clinical Psychology, University of Karachi, PAKISTAN ² Ph.D., Professor and Former Director of Institute of Clinical Psychology, University of Karachi The aim of the study was to determine the relationship of emotional intelligence of adolescents with their interpersonal relationships. It was hypothesized that there would be positive correlation of interpersonal relationships and emotional intelligence scores of adolescents. Sample included 188 students of secondary classes of different schools of Karachi, Pakistan. With the consent of the principals, adolescents were approached in group settings. They were requested to sign the informed consent form, followed by the administration of demographic information form, Emotional Quotient Inventory Youth Version (BarOn & Parker, 2000) and Clinical Assessment of Interpersonal Relationships (Bracken, 2006). The tests were scored according to the standard procedures and Pearson product moment indicated positive correlation (r =.231, N = 188, p<.01)
3 between interpersonal relationships and emotional intelligence scores. Thus the present research was done keeping in focus the opportunity to give workshop on emotional intelligence which can improve the interpersonal relationships of adolescents. INTERNALISING AND EXTERNALISING BEHAVIOUR PROBLEMS IN PAKISTANI ADOLESCENTS N. Soomro¹ and Dr. J. Clarbour² ¹ Ph.D Student, Psychology Dept., University of York, U.K. ² Ph.D, C. Psych, C. Si, Chartered Forensic Psychologist, Senior Lecturer, Psychology Dept., University of York The major aim of this study is to explore emotional styles and assess internalising and externalising behaviour problems among Pakistani adolescents, using a newly developed scale the Emotional behaviour Scale for Pakistani adolescents (EBS-PA). Like the original EBS (EBS; Clarbour & Roger, 2004). It consists of three subscales: social anxiety, malevolent aggression and social self-esteem. A series of four studies were conducted to evaluate the psychometric properties of the EBS-PA including factorial structure, content and discriminative validity and reliability. These studies demonstrate the EBS-PA is a promising screening tool to measure emotional and behavioural problems in Pakistani adolescents. The EBS-PA was administered to 750 Year 8 schoolchildren in Pakistan, where a significant gender difference was found on the EBS-PA subscales. The results show that more girls than boys were categorised as being at an abnormal range for internalising behaviour. On the contrary, more boys were found to be at high risk of externalising problems than girls. Overall, only 54% of adolescents were in the normal range for internalising behaviour, whereas 81% were categorised in the normal range for externalising behavioural problems. Comparison data are also presented based on socioeconomic class. The implications of these findings for future assessment and intervention are discussed. INCORPORATING SIBLINGS INTO FAMILY-BASED INTERVENTIONS: THE FAMILY CHECK-UP AS APPLIED TO ADOLESCENT ALCOHOL USE Dr. Ch. Slomkowski¹, Dr. R. Rende¹ and Prof. A. Spirito² ¹ PhD. Research Psychologists, Butler Hospital, Providence, Rhode Island, USA ² PhD Professor, Brown University, Providence, RI Introduction and Aim: Most intervention focus on only one child per family. We present data on substance use patterns in siblings of adolescents with alcohol problems in an ongoing study delivering a family-based psychosocial intervention (the Family Check-Up). We also explore how the family dynamics differ when both siblings are currently using substances. Method: The IP, one or two parents, and an adolescent sibling have undergone a baseline evaluation which includes assessment for current substance use and family interaction. Results: Over 50% of the siblings endorse current substance use; older siblings are more likely to be using versus younger siblings. Older, but not younger siblings, as compared to IP, are more likely to smoke cigarettes in addition to using alcohol. There are higher rates of substance-promoting behavior and undermining of parental authority when both siblings are substance users. Conclusion: Adolescents with alcohol-related problems are likely to have siblings who also use substances. Family-based interventions could gain an additional level of efficacy by including siblings as well as adolescents who are using substances. PSYCHOSOCIAL INTERVENTIONS FOR ADOLESCENT ALCOHOL USE IN THE GENOMIC ERA: EMERGING CONCEPTS Dr. R. Rende¹, Dr. Ch. Slomkowski¹ and Prof. A. Spirito² ¹ PhD. Research Psychologists, Butler Hospital, Providence, Rhode Island, USA ² PhD Professor, Brown University, Providence, RI Introduction and Aim: We describe on ongoing study delivering a family-based psychosocial intervention (the Family Check-Up) to adolescents with alcohol-related problems and their adolescent siblings. Given the family-based design, we review the evidence for incorporating genetic markers of risk for alcohol abuse within this type of study. Method: We provide a review of informative behavioural genetic studies to ascertain the evidence supporting the role of genes in adolescent drinking and substance use, along with implications for psychosocial intervention. Results: Most studies suggest the potential role of genes both in terms of pathways to seeking alcohol, as well as reactivity to alcohol. We provide a review of these findings and provide a discussion of the most profitable linkages between specific intermediate phenotypes (e.g., impulsivity, risk-taking, subjective reactions to alcohol) and candidate gene markers. Conclusion: There is a need to develop empirically-supported conceptual models that posit the phenotypes of interest that may be targeted by an intervention, along with biologically-relevant candidate genes that could potentially moderate the effects of psychosocial intervention. IDENTIFYING AUTISTIC DISORDER IN CHILDREN UNDER 2 YEARS OF AGE. Prof. R.L. Young Associate Professor, School of Psychology, Flinders University of South Australia, Adelaide, AUSTRALIA Background: The difficulty in identifying Autistic Disorder at an early age may partly arise from the fact that existing tools and the current diagnostic criteria defined in the ICD-10 (1992) and DSM-IV-TR (2000) describe behaviors thought to occur later in the developmental pathology of the disorder. Objectives: The ADEC (Autism Detection in Early Childhood; ACER, 2007) was developed to provide a psychometrically sound screening tool for clinicians to more accurately identify autism in children under the age of three years. Methods: The referred sample ranged in age from 14 to 36 months. Data were collected from three groups; those who had received a diagnosis of Autistic Disorder, those at risk of developing the disorder and typically developing children. The concurrent validity of the tool was examined by administering it together with the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS; Schopler, Reichler, De Vellis, & Daly, 1980), the Autism Diagnostic Interview - Revised (ADI-R) (Le Couteur et al., 1989; Lord, Rutter, & Le Couteur, 1994), DSM-IV-TR (APA, 2000) criteria and Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT). Other psychometric properties relating to its validity and reliability are also addressed. Results: The ADEC was well-correlated with existing measures of Autistic Disorder some of which are labour intensive and require staff highly trained in the administration and interpretation of these data. Further, when comparing the development of skills in the autism group to that in typically developing group, the age at which the absence of these skills becomes of clinical significance is noted. Conclusions: Results indicate that signs of autism are present in many children as early as 12 months. These behaviours should thus be targeted in early intervention to minimise the effect on other behaviours that any delay in their acquisition may cause.
4 A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING OF CHILDREN WITH AUTISM AND ATTENTION-DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER I. Gul¹ and N.B. Yazdani² ¹ MSc., PhD Scholar, School of Health Studies, University of Bradford,UK Lecturer, Fatima Jinnah Women University, Rawalpindi, PAKISTAN ² Graduate Student, Behavioral Science Dept., Fatima Jinnah Women University, Rawalpindi Introduction & Aims: Autism and Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are childhood-onset neuro-developmental disorders which significantly effect the cognitive functioning. The present study was conducted to assess and compare cognitive functioning of Children with Autism, ADHD and Healthy controls. Methods: A sample of 90 children (8-12 years) with Autism, ADHD and Healthy controls (30 each) was selected. The symptom severity of Autism and ADHD was assessed with Gilliam Autism rating Scale 2(GARS 2) and Strengths and Weakness of the ADHD- Symptoms and Normal- Behavior (SWAN) respectively. Cognitive functioning in terms of, visuospatial processing, Memory, Executive and Sensorimotor Functioning was assessed with four subtests of A Developmental neuropsychological Assessment (NEPSY 1). Results: Analysis of Variance indicated a significant difference in all domains of cognitive functioning such as Executive functioning (F = 7.9; p =.001), Visuospatial processing (F = 4.0; p =.02), Immediate Memory (F = 70.7; p =.001), Delayed Memory (F =68.0 p=.001) and Sensorimotor functioning (F = 4.1; p =.02). Post-hoc analysis revealed that Cognitive functioning of Autistic children was more impaired as compared to ADHD and control group. Conclusion: The study highlighted the importance of cognitive assessment of children with developmental disorders for rehabilitation and management programs. This study would be a source of awareness and information for parents, and teachers who are working with these children. AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS: THE CASE OF ASPERGER S SYNDROME Dr. P. Siaperas Msc, PhD, CPsychol., Research Associate, Developmental Psychiatry Section, University of Cambridge, UK The last few decades there is growing knowledge about pervasive developmental disorders. This term points to the fact that autism is a serious abnormality with biological causes affecting the developmental process. Therefore it differs from mental disorders which do not impact so directly on development. In addition, today we are used to talk about autism spectrum where on one side of the spectrum are people with autism (usually called Kanner autism) who have additional severe and profound intellectual disabilities and on the other are people with the features of autism but without intellectual disabilities and usually average or high performance on intelligence tests. People on this side of spectrum are diagnosed as high functioning autism or Asperger s syndrome (AS). The current paper is focused on this end of the autism spectrum and presents the different psychological theories and observations that describe the syndrome. COPING STRATEGIES USED BY PARENTS OF CHILDREN WITH AUTISM. Dr. M. Dixe¹, A. Querido², Dr. H. Catarino¹ and M. Lopes² ¹ PhD. Teacher, School of Health Sciences, Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, PORTUGAL ² MsD. Teacher, School of Health Sciences, Polytechnic Institute of Leiria Introduction and aims: The purpose of this research was to determine the level of family adaptation among parents of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and to identify differences in F-COPES scores based on family demographics, children characteristics and time of ASD diagnosis. Methods. A Cross sectional co-relational study was conducted. A descriptive survey used a convenience sample of 50 parents (38 mothers and 12 fathers) of children with ASD. Family adaptation was measured by the Family Crisis Oriented Personal Evaluation Scales (F- COPESs). All data were analysed using SPSS 14.0 for Windows. Results: The analysis of the Means and standard deviation shows that parents use more strategies of reframing (M=3,8; SD=0,7) than spiritual support (M=2,9; SD=0,9). Acquiring social support as neighbourhood were the less used coping strategy (M=1,8; SD=0,8). We did not find statistical significant differences between coping strategies used by parents of children with autism and childrens age at the time of diagnosis or gender (p>0,05). Families with no other children, mobilized to acquire and accept help and acquired social support more frequently (p<0,05). Conclusions: These results will be useful to professionals working with families of children with autism. THE PREVENTING ROLE OF MATERNAL RESPONSIVENESS ON TURKISH PRESCHOOLERS EMOTION DYSREGULATION I. Metin¹, Prof. N. Aksan² and S. Cebioglu¹ ¹ Psychologists, Academic Assistants, M.A. Students, Developmental Psychology Dept., Koc University, Istanbul, TURKEY ² Prof. Psychology Dept., Koc University, Istanbul For many years, children s emotion regulation has been focus of researchers. The previous studies have shown that deficiency in emotion regulation is linked to important developmental outcomes such as behavioral problems and social incompetence. Therefore, the current study aimed to investigate the mechanisms influencing children s emotion regulation functioning. Specifically, the role of maternal responsiveness (sensitivity, acceptance and cooperation) was examined with respect to Turkish children s emotion regulation functioning. The sample consisted of 118 preschoolers, recruited from different preschools in Istanbul, their mothers and preschool teachers. Maternal responsiveness was observed through mother-child contexts that contain typical naturalistic interactions such as snack time and play time during a laboratory session. Emotion regulation was assessed through Emotion Regulation Checklist. Regression analysis showed that maternal responsiveness significantly accounted for the prediction of emotion dysregulation that is, children with responsive mothers displayed lower levels of emotion dysregulation. This finding has important implications for interventions that target reducing or preventing emotion regulatory problems. In conclusion, this study provides important insights in an attempt of linking maternal responsiveness in combination to emotion regulation for the purpose of identifying origins of dysregulated emotions, which put children at risk for psychopathological disorders. OCCUPATIONAL STRESS & PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGIC DISORDER IN NIGERIA SOUTHWEST ORGANISATIONS Dr. A. Ebiai Ph.D., Senior Lecturer, Psychology Dept., Covenant University, Ota, NIGERIA
5 Stress is the non-specific response of the body to any demand made upon it. Stress reveals major physiological changes which can affect human performance. Occupational stress has been seen to have some major influences in daily living and all stresses whether psychological or physiological frequently implicates in ill health. The current paper aimed at finding out if certain occupations are more stressful than others, if there is any difference between organisations in terms of workers Psychophysiologic disorder and if there is a relationship between stress, health and job satisfaction. The participants in the study are 100 randomly selected organizational workers in South Western Nigeria, ranging between the ages of 25 and 55 years. All participants have been working in their various organisations for more than 12 months. The Life Experience Survey (LES) test, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and the Job Satisfaction Questionnaire (JSQ) were administered to the participants. The result from the ANOVA test to find out the difference between Bank workers, Police Officers, Health Personnel, Academic Persons and Civil Servants showed there is no difference in their stress levels at F(4,95)=1.15 at P=0.05 level of significance. ANOVA test performed in finding out if there is a significant difference between the above five organisation in terms of Psychophysiologic symptoms, results a significant difference in the mean which gave F(4,95) = 2.71 which is significant at P=0.01 and P=0.05 level. The Pearson computation to find out the relationship between the five organisations on Life Event Experience stress, general health and job satisfaction found that there is significant relationship between the five organisations at 0.05 levels. The paper recommends that Government and Private Organisations should endeavour to make the physical environment in organizations better for workers productivity. THE ROLE OF GROUP-BASED SOCIAL SUPPORT IN MODERATING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EXPERIENCING STIGMA AND ILL-HEALTH Dr. M. Tarrant¹ and Dr. C. Farrow² ¹ PhD., School of Psychology, Keele University, UK ² PhD., Exercise and Health Sciences, School of Sport, Loughborough University, UK Introduction and Aim: Discrimination can have a negative impact on psychological well-being, attitudes and behavior. This research evaluates the impact of experiences of weight-based discrimination upon emotional eating and body dissatisfaction, and also explores whether people s beliefs about an ingroup s provision of social support can moderate the relationship between experiences of discrimination and negative eating and weightrelated cognitions and behaviors. Methods: 197 undergraduate students completed measures about their experiences of weight-based discrimination, emotional eating and body dissatisfaction. Participants also reported their beliefs concerning an ingroup s attitude towards overweight people (social support). Results: Recollections of weight-based discrimination significantly contributed to emotional eating and body dissatisfaction. However, the relationships between experiencing discrimination and body dissatisfaction and emotional eating were weakest amongst participants who believed the ingroup held a positive attitude towards overweight people. Conclusion: Beliefs about ingroup social support can influence the relationships between weight-based discrimination and emotional eating and body dissatisfaction. Changing group perceptions to perceive it to be unacceptable to discriminate against overweight people may help to protect victims of discrimination against the negative consequences of weightbased stigma. PSYCHOLOGICAL ADJUSTMENT IN WOMEN WITH BREAST CANCER: AN INTERVENTION STUDY Prof. R. Curtis¹, Dr. A.M. Groarke² and Prof. M. Kerin³ ¹ PhD. Professor, Psychology Dept., National University of Ireland, Galway, IRELAND ² PhD. Psychologist, Galway ³ MD Professor of Surgery, National University of Ireland, Galway Introduction: The number of women who survive breast cancer due to advances in detection and treatment has increased dramatically in recent years with a 5 year survival rate reaching 86%.Many survive for many more years after that so quality of life issues and adjustment have become increasingly important with current emphasis on identifying those patients who would most benefit from psychological intervention. Aim: This study identifies predictors of adjustment and tests the efficacy of a psychological intervention with women diagnosed with breast cancer on their adjustment over time. Method: All women aged years attending the Breast Symptomatic Unit, University Hospital Galway, Ireland since February 2005 newly diagnosed with breast cancer who met the inclusion criteria and were awaiting surgery were assessed. The study assesses global and cancer specific stress, global and cancer specific coping and social support on depression, anxiety, positive and negative affect, body image and benefit finding in women with first diagnosis of breast cancer. Results: First wave of results report on the predictors of psychological adjustment pre and post surgery of 200 women recently diagnosed and on the efficacy of a cognitive behavioural intervention on 70 women who have been randomized to the intervention. Conclusion: Results to date indicate that perceived stress is the strongest predictor of emotional adjustment at diagnosis and post - surgery. ANOVA results demonstrate the effectiveness of the intervention in reducing levels of cancer specific stress, distress and on increasing adaptive coping and benefit finding. TYPE D PERSONALITY, PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTRESS AND QUALITY OF LIFE IN PATIENTS WITH MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION I. Gul¹ and Prof. R.A. Bhatti² ¹ MSc., PhD Scholar, School of Health Studies, University of Bradford,UK Lecturer, Fatima Jinnah Women University, Rawalpindi, PAKISTAN ² PhD Professor, Clinical Psychologist, School of Health Studies, University of Bradford Introduction & Aim: Studies have shown that distressed personality (Type-D) is associated with Myocardial Infarction (MI) and have etiological and prognostic implications. The present study was designed to assess Psychological distress and Quality of life (QOL) in MI patients. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 100(54 males, 46females) first time diagnosed (3-12 weeks) MI patients (WHO criteria) were selected. Type D personality was assessed with Distress Scale (DS-14). Psychological Distress (Anxiety, Depression) was measured with Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) while QOL was assessed with WHO Quality of Life scale (WHOQOL-BREF). Results: 59% of MI patients were identified with Type D personality traits (27Males, 32 Females). Type D personality was identified as significant predictor of impaired QOL [OR: 1.06; 95% CI ( ), p <.01], Depression [OR: 1.11; 95% CI ( ), p <.01] and Anxiety [OR: 1.09; 95% CI ( ), p <.01].The results also revealed that Type D MI patients have impaired QOL (mean= 73.3 [SD= 15.6] versus 85.9 [SD=17.3], respectively; t = 3.8, p <.01), elevated levels of Anxiety and Depression as compared to Non-type D patients. Conclusion: This study highlighted the importance of Type D personality in research on MI as a
6 determinant of adverse psychosocial outcomes. It also emphasized the need for routine psychological assessment of MI patients along with medical treatment to improve their QOL and rehabilitation. SUICIDE AND RELATED HEALTH RISK BEHAVIORS AMONG SCHOOL LEARNERS IN SOUTH AFRICA N.H. Shilubane¹, Dr. Rob Ruiter², Prof. B.H.W. van den Borne³ and Prof. P.S. Reddy⁴ ¹ PhD Student, Lecturer, Maastricht University, NETHERLANDS ² Work and Social Psychology Dept., Maastricht University ³ Professor, Health Education and Promotion Dept., Maastricht University ⁴ Professor, South African Medical Research Council. Introduction: Suicide attempt and completed suicide are increasingly becoming a problem among adolescent in South Africa. The aim is to describe the relationship between suicide and related health risk behaviors among school learners in SA. Method: Data were derived from the 2002 South African Youth Risk Behavior Survey. The population comprised grades 8 to 11 learners in the nine provinces. Twenty-three schools per province were randomly selected. This resulted in 10,699 learners participating in the survey. Key-measures were suicide ideation and suicide attempts. Results: Of the total sample, 24.7% of the learners indicated having seriously considered and/or made a plan to commit suicide at least once during the past six months. Nationwide, this number was significantly higher for girls (26.6%) than for boys (22.6%). The data pattern of suicide attempt followed that of suicide ideation, 18.5% of the total sample reported having attempted suicide once during the past six months. Nationally, it was higher for girls (19.5%) than for boys (17.3%). violence, substance use, unsafe sex, unhealthy eating and unsafe driving were significantly related to both suicide measures. Conclusion: Suicide ideation and attempts among adolescents are high. More research is needed to determine the trends and determinants of suicide among youngsters in order to develop strategies for suicide prevention and care. FUNCTIONAL ORGANIZATION AND MENTAL ACTIVITY IN LEARNING DISABLED CHILDREN: A PSYCHO NEURO - COGNITIVE STUDY. Prof. H.F. Al Sheikh PhD., Assistant Prof. and Head, Special Education Dept., Hail University Psychologist, El-Abasiaa Mental Health Hospital, KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA Over the decade, psychologists had studies the course of mental processes such as; perception and memory, speed and thought, and organization of movement and action. The purpose of this research is to follow Luria s suit in his description of brain development. The recent research describes how the brain development cerebral hemispheres which are needed to higher forms of mental activity, i.e. perception and action, attention and memory, speech and intellectual processes, and the individual brain system. By using (Luria Nebraska Neuro Psychological Battery) LNNB, (Human, Tree, Person test) HTP, & (Electroencephalography) EEG, the research has examined 30 of children between 8-12 years, findings demonstrated that first, there are differences between LD and normal children. Secondly, there are some of decreasing activity in LD children s occipital regions which govern visual perception, in the temporal regions that related with problems in auditory perception. Thirdly, in the parietal reigns which are related to simultaneous syntheses. Finally, shortage in senorimotor and premotor regulation of mental activity; and shortage in one or more perception, movement and action, attention, memory, speech, and thinking. HEALTH SYMPTOMS AND THE MULTIFACETED PICTURE OF SCHOOL WELLBEING A. Løhre Psychologist, PhD Student Public Health Dept., Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, NORWAY Introduction & Aim: Children s school wellbeing is not extensively studied in relation to health. We compared school wellbeing scores, as rated by children, parents and teachers, and assessed associations of school wellbeing with the children s perceived health. Method: In a cross-sectional study of 419 children (55% boys) in grades 1-10, a school wellbeing- scale had options 1-4(best). Health status (1-5), children s report only, included happiness, anxiety, sadness, headache and stomach-ache. Concordance was analysed by cross-tables and Spearman s rho, and proportional odds logistic regression was used to assess associations of wellbeing with health status. Results: In reporting school wellbeing, the concordance between informants was low to moderate (rho, ) although their estimated mean ( ) was approximately the same. Teachers and parents expressed an essentially higher agreement with children who reported the best school wellbeing compared to children on the lower part of the scale. Except for teachers, higher scores on reported school wellbeing were related to higher prevalence of happiness or equivalent lower prevalence of health problems. We also revealed interesting gender differences. Conclusion: School wellbeing reported by children, parents and teachers showed low to moderate concordance. Children s and parents scores on school wellbeing were strongly associated with happiness (positively) and with health problems (negatively). ART PSYCHOTHERAPY IN TRAUMA INTERVENTION: WHAT HELPS? WHAT HINDERS? A. Alexandraki Psychologist, Counsellor, MSc Student, Art Therapy Dept., Queen Margaret Univ., Edinburgh, Scotland, UK With the recent examples of Haiti and Chile, the number of traumatised populations has sounded an international call for effective trauma interventions. Art psychotherapy uses creative expression to provide individuals with means for expressing emotions and experiences to support recovery from psychological distress. This paper attempts to investigate the common resultants in quality and impact of psychoanalytically informed art psychotherapy interventions in populations with trauma. The contemporary literature is reviewed, including discussions from qualitative research, empirical and clinical case studies. The methodological limitations of the studies are reflected. The analysis goes over the literature s theoretical underpinnings, the relation between art psychotherapy, brain function and trauma. It mainly focuses on evaluating the common findings of the current literature, and specifically those factors that contribute to an effective art psychotherapy intervention, including the non-verbal, sensory access to the traumatic memories and the importance of cultural sensitivity.
7 WAYS OF COPING IN INDIVIDUALS HIGH VS. LOW IN EXPERIENTIAL AVOIDANCE Dr. M. Karekla¹, Prof. G. Panayiotou², M. Kapsou³ and J. Jovanni⁴ ¹ Ph.D., Lecturer and Licensed Clinical Psychologist, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, CYPRUS ² Ph.D., Assistant Professor and Licensed Clinical Psychologist, University of Cyprus ³ M.A., PhD. Student, the University of Cyprus ⁴ B.S., MSc Student, the University of Cyprus Although inherently emotion regulation and the mechanisms individuals utilize to cope with unwanted internal experiences are not dysfunctional, they can become dysfunctional when such regulation processes are needlessly utilized or when they are used inflexibly or applied too rigidly (Forsyth, Eifert, & Barrios, 2006). Research suggests that excessive emotion regulation and high experiential avoidance may contribute to the development of various forms of psychopathology (Amstadter, 2008; Hayes et al., 2004). The purpose of the present study was to examine ways of coping among individuals high vs. low in experiential avoidance. One hundred and ninety-seven (126 female, M age= 44.29) participants were recruited as part of an epidemiological study on anxiety disorders in Cyprus from a representative sample of community adults and completed a packet of anxiety-related questionnaires including the AAQ-II and the brief-cope. Participants who scored one SD or higher above the mean of this sample (M =50.01; SD = 9.41) were classified as the low avoidance group (n = 33; score >59), whereas those with scores of one standard deviation below the mean were classified as high in experiential avoidance (n = 35; score <41). Multivariate analysis of variance was used to investigate whether individuals high vs. low in emotional avoidance (EA) differed on ways of coping. As expected, participants classified as high in EA reported being more likely to utilize the following coping strategies: self distraction (M = 5.56; F (1, 61) = 13.30, p<.001), denial (M = 4.67; F (1, 61) = 26.52, p<.001), emotional support (M = 5.29; F (1, 61) = 6.96, p<.05), behavioral disengagement (M = 3.69; F (1, 61) = 18.85, p<.001), venting (M = 5.42; F (1, 61) = 8.14, p<.01), and self blame (M = 6.52; F (1, 61) = 14.03, p<.001) compared to their low avoidance counterparts (self distraction: M = 4.00; denial: M = 2.83; emotional support: M = 3.93; behavioral disengagement: M = 2.23; venting: M = 4.17; and self blame: M = 5.21). Individuals low in EA reported being more likely to utilize positive reframing (M = 6.67; F (1, 61) = 26.52, p<.001) and acceptance (M = 6.21; F (1, 61) = 5.10, p<.05) than those high in EA (positive reframing: M = 5.35; and acceptance: M = 5.27). The role of emotional avoidance after controlling for other variables such as stress will also be presented. The theoretical and clinical implications of these data and future directions for this work will be discussed. ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN PSYCHOPATHIC CHARACTERISTICS, EXPERIENTIAL AVOIDANCE AND ALCOHOL USE IN A COMMUNITY SAMPLE. Prof. G. Panayiotou¹, Dr. A. Loutsiou-Ladd² and D. Georgiou³ ¹ Ph.D., Assistant Professor and Licensed Clinical Psychologist, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, CYPRUS ² PsyD, Licensed Clinical Psychologist & Director of Clinical Training, University of Cyprus ³ B.S., MSc Student, University of Cyprus. Experiential avoidance (EA) involves attempts to cope with negative affect by not fully processing aversive experiences. EA has mostly been studied in anxious and depressed individuals. It is theoretically important to document whether the aggressive, callous, disinhibited behaviour of people high in psychopathy also entails EA. People also often use alcohol and other substances as a way of muting negative feelings, as has been proposed by the self-medication hypothesis. It is yet unclear whether substance use (and perhaps other impulsive) behaviours associated with psychopathy represent ways of avoiding negative affect. These questions were examined in a community male sample (N=375) aged (M=20), who were mostly national guard personnel. They responded to questionnaires, including the Alcohol Use & Dependence Inventory, facets of Impulsivity, Excitement Seeking, Competence and Deliberation from the NEO-PI-R and the AAQ. A sub-sample (N=230) were also administered the Psychopathic Personality Inventory Revised (PPI-R), which results in 8 subscales; Machiavellian Egocentricity (ME), Rebellious Noncomformity, Blame Externalization (BE), Carefree Nonplanfulness, Social Influence (SI), Fearlessness (F), Stress Immunity (STI) and Coldheartedness. The association between alcohol use and EA was not significant. Correlations indicated that alcohol use was positively related to Impulsivity and Excitement Seeking and negatively to Competence and Deliberation. Linear regression showed that age explained a significant amount of variance in alcohol use, and personality added a small amount of variance, with Deliberation being a negative predictor. EA did not explain additional variance. High emotional flexibility (low EA) was associated with higher Impulsivity, ME and BE, whereas high EA was associated with high Competence, SI (perceived ability to manipulate others), F and STI. Results indicate that among young males, drinking may serve functions that are mostly unassociated with self-medication and EA. Younger age is a significant predictor of alcohol use. When it comes to the association between psychopathic characteristics and EA, it appears that the harsh, selfish characteristics involved in psychopathy, along with impulsivity, are associated with higher emotional flexibility, potentially reflecting the calculating, instrumental attitudes involved. To the contrary, fearless, apparently unemotional characteristics are associated with high EA and probably represent a way of coping with negative affect, perhaps through denying or muting it in order to achieve goals. Future research should also include measures of anxiety, so that in the same population, the full spectrum of inhibited/disinhibited characteristics can be examined. It may be that characteristics falling at both extremes of this spectrum involve high EA as part of an inflexible behavioural repertoire meant to cope with negative affect. EXPERIENTIAL AVOIDANCE IN RELATION TO SENSITIVITY TO PUNISHMENT AND HIGH RISK DRIVING BEHAVIOR Dr. A. Loutsiou-Ladd¹ and Prof. G. Panayiotou² ¹ PsyD, Licensed Clinical Psychologist & Director of Clinical Training, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, CYPRUS ² Ph.D., Assistant Professor and Licensed Clinical Psychologist, University of Cyprus Experiential avoidance (EA) has been implicated in many clinical problems and disorders. The study of EA in non-clinical groups and in relation to daily behaviors holds theoretical potential and is an important contribution to the literature. From a theoretical perspective, this study explores the function of EA. Specifically, we investigated the relation between EA and individual differences in sensitivity to reward and sensitivity to punishment in a non-clinical sample of young male drivers (under 30 years old with at least one year of driving experience). EA was expected to have a stronger correlation to sensitivity to punishment than to reward. This study also anticipated that high EA would relate to worse driving behaviors. A total of 202 young male drivers (M age=19.5 (18-28 years), SD=1.29) volunteered to complete a packet of self-report questionnaires which included the AAQ, the Sensitivity to Punishment/Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ - Torrubia et al. 2001), and a merged questionnaire of various versions of the Driving Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) (Reason et al., 1990). Participants were recruited from randomly selected military camps. All instruments were adapted in Greek by two bilingual authors using the method of front and back translation. Participants who scored one standard deviation or higher above the mean of the sample (M=4.10, SD=1,05) on the DBQ factor of Ordinary Violations were classified as the high-risk drivers (N=46; score 5.06) and those who scored one standard deviation or more below the mean were classified as the low risk drivers (N=48;
8 score 3.05). Results suggest that participants high on EA are also likely to report higher sensitivity to punishment on the SPSRQ (r=-.19, p.01). The correlation between the AAQ and Sensitivity to Reward was not significant (r=-104, p=.17). An ANOVA showed that there were significant differences in AAQ scores among high and low risk drivers (F(1,78)=4.32, p.05). Specifically, the low-risk drivers scored higher on the AAQ, suggesting more emotional flexibility, (M=38.89, sd=5.14) as compared to the high-risk drivers who scored lower on the AAQ, suggesting more experiential avoidance, (M=36.69, sd=4.22). Taken together, these findings point to an escape-from-punishment function of EA and that risky driving may be a behavior that partially functions to escape from painful internal experience. Implications for future research work and for prevention work with high-risk drivers in relation to emotional flexibility will be discussed. ARE INDIVIDUALS HIGH IN EXPERIENTIAL AVOIDANCE MORE LIKELY TO DEVELOP EATING PATHOLOGY COMPARED TO THOSE LOW IN EXPERIENTIAL AVOIDANCE? M. Kapsou¹, Dr. M. Karekla², Prof. M. Constantinou³ and Prof. D.A. Anderson⁴ ¹ M.A., PhD. Student, the University of Cyprus, Nicosia, CYPRUS ² Ph.D., Lecturer and Licensed Clinical Psychologist, University of Cyprus ³ Ph.D., Assistant Professor & Licensed Clinical Psychologist, University of Nicosia ⁴ Ph.D., Assoc.Professor & Licensed Clinical Psychologist, Univ.at Albany, State University of New York, USA High experiential avoidance has been linked with various forms of psychopathology, predominantly anxiety-related conditions and problems (Eifert & Heffner, 2003; Kashdan, 2007; Stewart, Zvolesky, & Eifert, 2002). Studies have also provided evidence for links between EA and various other forms of psychopathology, such as depression, substance abuse, and compulsive behavior, but also eating pathology (Westrup, 2001; Flessner & Woods, 2006; Norberg et al., 2007; Begotka, Woods, & Wetterneck, 2004). College entry is a stressful period linked with lifestyle changes and elevated rates of psychopathology (Rawson, Bloomer, & Kendal, 1994). Hence, disordered eating in college has been proposed to occur as a response to negative mood in some students (Ruderman, 1985). The purpose of the present study was to examine whether experiential avoidance is linked to higher rates of eating pathology in a sample of students entering college in Cyprus. Seventy-six participants (42 female, M age=19) were recruited from the orientation program at the beginning of the academic year at the University of Nicosia. Participants completed a packet of eating related measures (e.g. EAT-26; RRS; TFEQ; Weight goals questionnaire), including also the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ-II) and the BDI. Participants who scored one standard deviation or higher above the mean of this sample of healthy undergraduate students (M = , SD = 13.15) were classified as the low avoidance group (high emotional flexibility; n = 13; score >216), whereas those with scores of one standard deviation below the mean were classified as high in experiential avoidance (low emotional flexibility; n = 13; score <190). Multivariate analysis of variance was used to investigate whether individuals high vs. low in emotional avoidance differed on several measures of eating pathology. As expected participants classified as high in emotional avoidance reported higher levels of eating pathology [EAT26; M = 22.22; F (1, 17) = 5.28, p<.05, η 2 =.24], more uncontrolled eating behavior [TFEQ-factor 2; M = 6.00; F (1, 17) = 6.10, p<.05, η 2 =.26], and depression [BDI; M = 17.78; F (1, 17) = 12.41, p<.01, η 2 =.42] compared to their low avoidance counterparts [EAT26; M = 9.90; TFEQ-factor 2; M = 2.90; BDI; M = 3.20]. It is important to note that individuals classified as high in experiential avoidance reported eating pathology and depression that falls within the range of clinical levels and higher than expected from a college population sample. LECTURES (ENGLISH) Lecture: EVERYDAY LIFE STRESS IS A REAL TIME HUNTING! T. Gaitani Psychologist, D.E.S.S. in Social Psychology, GREECE Even if thousands of pages have been written about it, we still miss the central point thus failing to face it up in a radical way. We forget that is main ingredient is the absolute, uncontrolled rush.which provokes a chain reaction that confuses the person and ends to unpleasant solutions. If we see everyday stress and anxiety closer, then we realize its three main pillars. A. the here and now flight: from the slightest to the biggest problem they all have to do either with the past or with the future. Even if past is defined as the previous moment or as a story of the deep past.and if future has to do with the next moment or with a long-time project, stress and anxiety are strongly present! B. the priorities confusion, as a result of the first: the more we forget our here and now needs, thoughts, desires the less we can recognize what our present priorities are C. our body is the most important bell alarm : given our education that overstresses the importance of the mind-underestimating, at the same time, the body- we have never known how to recognize the bodily signs; even if we do, we have no means to decode them and do something useful to us. As an impact come the vicious circle of the confusion and of a bigger anxiety.until the moment we decide to forget about them because they are unbearable! In order to break this painful and hard to bear chain reaction, there are some steps we can do: Slow down! Even if it is hard at the beginning (given the everyday hectic, quick rhythm of our lives), there are techniques that can help us return to the here and now reality. We ll then discover that priorities are wrongly put and bodily tension is manageable. Recognition and acceptance of the body stress- which can lead to a new automatism : the place of repulsion takes a momentary body relaxation with simple techniques. Short inner dialogue. Little by little, we learn to discern the two selves speaking: the rapid, rigid mind one the one side and the fluctuating feeling. The more we realize the difference between the two, the less we consider these ups and downs as something abnormal! Lecture: THE PRINCIPLE OF BENEFICENCE AND LIFE SPAN DEVELOPMENT: THE ROLE OF PERSONAL THERAPY A. V. Parmenidou BA(Hons) Psychology, MMedSci Psychiatry, Sheffield, UK, The British Psychological Society-European Family Therapy Association Background: For more of the twentieth century senior psychotherapists have struggled with the task of how best to impart the skills and techniques of therapeutic work to novices trying to avoid charlatanism. Cultural pluralism is not yet reflected in students, faculty, curriculum or research of psychotherapy training programs (Highlen, 1994), however, the vast majority of studies consisted of surveys of therapists' opinions indicate that personal therapy has a positive effect on those therapist qualities often cited as constructive to client change (e.g. empathy, warmth, genuineness).
9 Objectives: The face of our world changes, so must the training of psychotherapists. It is evident that there needs more methodologically sound research as well as a more theoretical understanding of how personal therapy affects clinical practice, before any firm conclusions can be drawn about its usefulness. Method: The teleological nature of action is dependent on narratives therefore we adapt a life-span narrative research perspective. The point of narrative research is to make explicit the view of lives, which is embodied in stories. The life story offers a template that can be applied in many disciplinary settings or to fulfill much research needs. Results: The vision of the lives that the stories express and the practices that they present have to be regarded as relevant not only to people involved but also to the researcher and his/her world. It is suggested that it may be more useful for future research in this area to focus on therapy process rather than client outcome. Conclusion: On the assumption that "people are not the problem they are the solution" therapy needs to attend to the political as well as the clinical symptoms of clients, that being spiritual and just as well as being scientific, neutral and professional. No therapist however, has the omnipotence or the omniscience to decide what is the best way for clients to restructure their lives since each life path and journey is unique. Invited Lecture: A PSYCHOANALYTIC UNDERSTANDING OF SHAME: A CLINICAL REFORMULATION. Prof. M. Handakas Psy.D., Psychoanalyst, Assistant Professor, Psychology Dept., Bloomsburg University of Pennsylvania, USA The nature of shame is explored in clinical work. The many and varying aspects of shame are highlighted, including, but not limited to, an operational definition, a review of Freud s writings on shame, a developmental overview, the relation of shame to the superego and ego ideal, a differentiation of shame from other emotions, shame and its relation to defense and to affect theory, treatment implications and the relevance of this topic to the field. The importance of shame in clinical work is described. Proactive identification of shame-based feelings is recommended to the clinician. A theoretical model of shame is presenting as a primary organizing construct in the development of psychopathology. A hypothetical vignette and case analysis (in which the subject is a Greek-American female) is presented to illustrate the application of the model. Invited Lecture: DYADIC ADJUSTMENT SCALE: FIRST STUDY OF THE ITALIAN VERSION Dr. C. Garbarini¹, Dr. L. Rollè², E. Gerino³, E. Marino³ and Prof. P. Brustia⁴ ¹ PhD. Psychologist, Holder of Research grant, Psychology Dept., University of Turin, ITALY ² PhD. Psychologist-Psychoterapist, Dynamic Psychology Lecturer, Holder of Research grant, Psychology Dept., Univ. of Turin ³ Psychologists, PhD Students, Psychology Dept., University of Turin ⁴ Psychologist, Psychoterapist, Professor of Dynamic Psychology, Psychology Dept., University of Turin Literature Review: The present work is focused on the conceptualization of couple adjustment as index of the relation quality. The scale is made up of 32 items in 4 subscales. Aim: The final aim is to proceed with the Italian validation of DAS. In this study we will concern ourselves with a first explorative analysis in order to assess the reliability of the Italian version. Tools: the research has been conducted via structured anonymous questionnaires, the DAS (Spanier, 1976) in our first Italian adaptation and a rivisited version of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desiderability Scale (Crowne, Marlow, 1960). Sample: The total sample consists of 448 subjects residents in every Italian region. Results: The Cronbach s Alpha corroborates the internal consistency for each subscale in the Italian version and our results show a weakness related to the original version of the Scale (Spanier, 1976). This explorative analysis shows some item of the original DAS are expressed in only one factor in the Italian version. Conclusion: The present study intended to verify the possibility of using the DAS in the Italian context and it will be confirm by a confirmatory analysis. However the global results show that the Italian version of DAS offers valid psychometric characteristics expressed by the reliability and the factorial structure. Lecture: CONSTRUCTING ABERRANT BEHAVIOUR: THE DSM AND THE CLASSIFICATION OF SEXUAL PARAPHILIAS. Prof. R.S. Stewart¹ and Prof. S. Korol² ¹ PhD. Professor, Philosophy Dept., Cape Breton University, Sydney, NS, CANADA ² PhD. Assistant Professor, Psychology Dept., Cape Breton University. The DSM has grown exponentially from its first edition in 1952, which listed only twenty six classified mental disorders, to 374 disorders in DSM IV, published in Of particular concern in the recent past with respect to this mushrooming is the advent of designer drugs. Historically, drugs were created in order to treat an already extant disease. With designer drugs, however, this process is reversed with a disease such as Erectile Dysfunction or Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder being constructed only after a drug has been developed that treats the ailment Viagra and Ritalin in these cases respectively. A further complication of the designer drug scenario is the use of such drugs for non-indicated uses. Hence, for example, there have recently been a number of studies exploring the effectiveness of designer drugs, particularly SSRIs, in treating Sexual Paraphilias. If this trend continues, we would expect to see a corresponding rise in the number of diagnoses in this area, just as we witnessed huge increases in diagnoses of Depression once SSRIs entered the marketplace. More particularly, and problematically, we suspect that diagnostic increases will occur with respect to those Paraphilias that are deemed more benign and/or socially acceptable such as the Sexual Desire and Sexual Arousal Disorders. Sexual Paraphilias that continue to have a great deal of negative social stigma, like Pedophilia, Necrophilia, and Frotteurism, will, we suggest, continue to receive scant attention. This is problematic because, once again, psychological and psychiatric treatment will be focused mostly on those ailments that are relatively mild but easy to treat while those most in need of treatment will receive little. Lecture: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EF, ADHD, OVEREATING AND OBESITY. Prof. A. Dempsey PhD., Psychiatric Mental Health Clinical Nurse Specialist, Board Certified Assistant Professor of Nursing, College of Nursing, the University of Cincinnati, USA Introduction: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) and obesity (BMI > 30) are complex and costly disorders with profound effects on the physical, emotional, and social well-being of many. Prevalence studies reveal a disproportionate incidence of AD/HD in obese individuals, who often require greater treatment time, incur greater treatment costs, and are frequently less successful treating their obesity than counterparts without AD/HD. Impaired executive function (EF), is a fundamental characteristic of AD/HD. However, EF and AD/HD are rarely considered in assessment or treatment of obese individuals. Hypothesis: Low EF in domains of attention and impulsivity is seen in individuals with 4 or more symptoms of
10 adult AD/HD, and is associated with specific overeating behaviors leading to obesity. Methods: Non-experimental single group design. Volunteer convenience sample (n=125) completed: Stroop Test, Barratt Impulsivity Scale-11, EF measures; the Adult Self-Rating Scale IV.I, adult AD/HD symptoms, the Emotional Eating Scale and Eating Inventory, and BMI measures. Results: Path analysis tested the hypothesized/modified model. Chi square (x²=6.15, 6df, p=0.4) and RMSEA (0.014) indicated very good fit for the data. Conclusions: Assessment of EF and AD/HD symptoms in obese individuals is needed. Strategies to address challenges of individuals with AD/HD in managing overeating behaviors leading to obesity are needed. Lecture: THE MENTAL HEALTH IMPACT OF FORCED SEX ON SLEEP DIFFICULTIES AND MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS IN A REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLE OF YOUNG AUSTRALIAN WOMEN Prof. J. Astbury and Prof. D. Bruck School of Social Sciences and Psychology, Victoria University, Melbourne, AUSTRALIA Introduction and aim: Mounting evidence indicates that women s mental health is severely compromised by all forms of gender based violence. Of these, the least researched is sexual violence. The major aim of the current study was to examine the strength and precision of the relationship between forced sex and a range of sleep difficulties taking into account the impact of mental health problems such as depression, anxiety, self harm, high risk health behaviours such as alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use and socioeconomic indicators. Method: A cross sectional analysis of data from Survey 3, on more than 9000 younger women (25-30 years) participating in the ongoing Australian Longitudinal Study of Women s Health (ALSWH) was undertaken. Univariate and bivariate analyses comparing young women who reported forced sex with those who did not, were performed to identify significant differences between the two groups. This was followed by hierarchical logistic regression analysis to further clarify the relationship between forced sex and sleep difficulties after controlling for all other significant differences. Results: Young women who reported forced sex compared with those who did not, had significantly higher rates of a range of sleep problems over 3 time periods. The contribution of forced sex to increased sleep difficulties remained significant in the hierarchical regression analysis even after the effects of depression, anxiety, deliberate self harm, higher rates of substance use and prescription sleep medication and socioeconomic factors were statistically controlled. Conclusion: Findings from this nationally representative survey of young Australian women indicate that forced sex is a risk factor for multiple sleep and mental health problems, and substance use. Forced sex is not only a public health and human rights issue but exerts a profound impact on women s emotional health and well being. Clinicians need to take account of a history of such victimization in developing appropriate treatment plans for such common presenting problems as insomnia, depression, anxiety and high risk substance use. Lecture: TRAUMA SYMPTOMS IN A SAMPLE OF INTELLECTUALLY DISABLED SURVIVORS OF SEXUAL ASSAULT. Dr. N.J. Shabalala¹ and A. Jasson² ¹ PhD, Psychologist, Senior Lecturer, Psychology Dept., Child Guidance Clinic, Cape Town University, Rondebosch, S.AFRICA ² Student, Psychology Dept., University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, Cape Town Research shows that the trauma of sexual assault results in emotional distress, with survivors likely to present with symptoms of PTSD. While it is possible to elicit these in people who are able to communicate their emotional states, it is less clear how such trauma presents in intellectually disabled people whose ability to communicate may impaired by the disability and other factors. The few studies that have been conducted with this population group indicates that the trauma may present in behavioural problems, loss of self-care skills and other forms that are not adequately represented in the DSM-IV TR criteria of PTSD. This study aimed to investigate the presence of PTSD symptoms in intellectually disabled people with and without a known history of sexual assault. The Child PTSD Checklist (Amaya-Jackson, Duke Treatment Service) was administered to both groups. In those with a known history of sexual assault (Sexual Assault group), the instrument was further administered to the care-givers to investigate differences in symptom reporting. The Sexual Assault group reported significantly more flashbacks, dissociation, physiological reactions, avoidance behaviours, aggression and anxiety than the Non-Sexual Assault group. The percentage of the Non-Sexual Assault group reporting trauma symptoms was surprising but can be attributed to the high levels of violence in the communities from which both groups came as well as possible un-reported sexual abuse in the context of high levels of gender-based violence in South Africa. The results suggest that the use of structured instruments for assessing trauma are beneficial and can be used with higher functioning intellectually disabled people, as they were better able than their care-givers to report on these. The results also suggest that intellectually disabled people are vulnerable to traumatic events, as shown by symptoms reported by those with no known history of sexual assault. Lecture: WITNESSING ADULT'S VIOLENCE: THE EFFECTS ON CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS Dr. Z.A. Sourpi MA, MSc, PhD. Life Sciences Dept., Univ.of Surrey, Roehampton, Tavistock and Portman Clinic, London, UK Children, like adults, can directly experience or be witness to interpersonal violence either within or outside the family, on one or repeated occasions. Intra-familial violence may result in the death or serious disablement of a parent or child, or may be experienced as child sexual abuse or chronic domestic violence. Non-familial violence includes urban violence, now endemic in some communities, war and civil conflict, and vicarious violence, such as in films and on television. Traumatic events can also occur by natural forces, for example, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, hurricanes. This paper will focus mainly on the effects on children of witnessing severe or repeated violence, sometimes resulting in death, occuring to a member of their family, perpetrated either by a parent or cohabitee or by a person or persons unrelated to them. The psychological symptoms of witnessing violence are not the only consequences, particularly of violence resulting in bereavement. The effects of their disruption of attachment bonds, particularly in young children who are totally dependent on their carers, need consideration, as do issues such as contact with a perpetrator parent. Preventative interventions and therapies will be reviewed and some forensic issues, both civil and criminal, will be considered as they affect mental health professionals. Lecture: TAKING SHELTER FROM THE STORM: A CASE STUDY OF A SOCIAL INCLUSION SERVICE FOR PEOPLE LIVING WITH SEVERE PSYCHIATRIC ILLNESS M. Chase¹, C. Thomas² and Prof. A. Costall³ ¹ MSc. Lecturer, PhD Student, Psychology Dept., University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, UK ² Student, Psychology Dept., University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth
11 ³ Professor, Psychology Dept., University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth Efforts have intensified in the UK to dismantle barriers to social inclusion for people with severe and enduring mental health difficulties. Funding is being prioritised for localised day-services that encourage and facilitate integration into mainstream environments (National Social Inclusion Project, 2009). The present study highlights the complexities and issues that face service-providers. A mixed-method case study design (Stake, 1995) was used to evaluate a newly established social inclusion project in the South of England. The case study incorporated a quantitative audit of the uptake and satisfaction of services provided, as well as participant observations and 1:1 interviews (n=20) with service users and staff. Although the service was valued by participants, it fell short of achieving social inclusion targets. Ultimately people preferred to attend the project s drop-in social facilities and utilise peer support than pursue integration into more mainstream communities. The results are discussed in relation to the theoretical and structural resources that need to be established to facilitate social inclusion. If we are serious about supporting people towards socially inclusive environments then more resources and pragmatic methods of intervention need to be established, where the full complexities of living with mental illness and stigma are acknowledged and confronted. Lecture: DEPRESSION AND PHYSICAL ILLNESS: OPPORTUNITIES FOR INVESTIGATION AND COLLABORATION IN PSYCHOSOMATIC MEDICINE. Prof. M. Riba MD, Clinical Professor, Psychiatry Dept., University of Michigan, USA Associate Chair for Integrated Medical and Psychiatric Services, University of Michigan Depressive disorders are common in primary care settings and even more prevalent in patients-throughout the life cycle - with chronic medical illnesses. In patients with existing cardiovascular disease, depression predicts morbidity and death. There is strong evidence for poor postmyocardial infarction (MI) prognosis in patients with depression or depressive symptoms. Cardiac death risk in the six months after an acute MI is approximately four times greater in patients with depression compared with post-mi nondepressed patients. In patients with cancer, the reported prevalence of adjustment disorders, anxiety, depression and delirium, up to 50% during the course of care, varies because of different criteria and rating scales used to define depression, different methodological approaches to the measurement of psychiatric conditions, and heterogeneity of patient populations studied. Nevertheless, quality of life and adherence to treatment influence patients who have depression in the course of their cancer care and is often not evaluated or undertreated. This presentation will present some of the work we are doing at the University of Michigan to develop a network of depression centers; build our psychoncology and psychcardiology programs for children, adolescents and adults; and discuss challenges and opportunities. Learning Objectives: By the end of this presentation, participants will be able to: (1) Identify some of the major topics in psychosomatic medicine addressing depression (2) Learn the steps the University of Michigan has taken to build a depression center and the future of a network of such centers (3) Review the clinical, research and educational opportunities and obstacles in developing psychoncology and psychcardiology programs. Lecture: PARENTAL SUBSTANCE ABUSE AND PSYCHOLOGICAL CHILD OUTCOME: A RURAL COMMUNITY SAMPLE. Prof. C.B. Asanbe¹, Dr. Ch. Bolden² and Ch. Hall³ ¹ PhD., Psychologist, Psychology Dept., College of Staten Island, City University of New York, USA ² PhD. Lecturer, Behavior Analysis Dept., Tennessee Technological University, USA ³ Director, Humanities Division Dept., Cumberland County Center, Roane State, USA Introduction and Aim: A growing number of children reside with methamphetamine-abusing parents in homes where the illicit drug is produced. Yet, the effect of a methamphetamine environment on psychological child outcome is still unknown. In order to address this, two studies examined the impact of methamphetamine-producing (MP) homes on the psychological functioning of children who lived with methamphetamine-addicted parents in these homes. Method: The first study included 56 preschoolers; 31 from MP homes and 27 from non-producing (NP) homes, and the second consisted of 78 school-age children; 40 from MP homes and 38 from the NP group. The participants were recruited from a rural community in the southeastern part of the United States, and were matched for age, gender, and socioeconomic background. Both studies assessed and compared the behavioral and emotional functioning of children in the MP and NP groups, using Behavior Assessment System for Children, BASC- PRS-P and BASC-SRP forms. Results: Preschoolers from the MP homes showed higher aggression than their NP peers, and the school-age children from MP homes showed more school maladjustment behaviors than their NP peers. Conclusion: These findings point to the need for mental health screening when a child is removed from an MP home. Lecture: INTEGRATING MENTAL HEALTH INTO PRIMARY HEALTH CARE. Prof. M.R. Sadeghi PhD., L. Psyche, Clinical & Health Psychologist Prof., Psychiatry & Behavioural Sciences Dept., United Arab Emirates Univ., Al Ain, UNITED ARAB EMIRATES Mental disorders affect millions of people and, if left untreated, create enormous suffering, disability and economic loss. Currently, neuropsychiatric problems account for 11.5% of the global burden of disease and this figure is expected to rise to 15% by the year The disability caused by mental disorders is substantial, accounting for a 25% of the total disability worldwide. Significantly, 5 of the 10 leading causes of disability worldwide are neuropsychiatric disorders. Most mental disorders can be managed, treated, in many cases prevented, and effective intervention strategies do already exist. Many countries are ill-equipped to address this burden, as mental health resources are scarce. Integrating mental health services into primary care is the most viable way of closing the treatment gap and ensuring that people get the mental health care they need. Among the main advantages integration not only ensures that the whole population has access to the mental health care that it needs, but also increases the likelihood of positive outcomes. In general, this integration is possible across a range of circumstances and conditions, as well as in difficult economic and political circumstances. In particular, specific models for integrating mental health into primary care vary greatly from one country to another. While details differ, success could achieve uniformly through leadership, commitment, and local application of the WHO 10 principles. Nonetheless, for health systems with well-functioning primary care, integrating mental health confers substantial benefits. Among the main advantages integration ensures that the population as a whole has access to the mental health care that it needs, increases the likelihood of positive outcomes, for both mental and physical health problems.
12 Lecture: AN EVALUATION OF THE EARLY INTERVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM (EIRP) FOR CHILDREN WITH AUTISTIC DISORDER (AD) AT FLINDERS UNIVERSITY IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA. Prof. P. Williamson and Prof. R.L. Young Associate Professors, School of Psychology, Flinders University of South Australia, Adelaide, AUSTRALIA This paper will focus on the method and outcome of the Early Intervention Research Program (EIRP) for children with Autistic Disorder (AD) at the Flinders University of South Australia. Although based on traditional ABA programs, the EIRP differs in that each child s program is individualised and targets core deficit-linked behaviours (e.g., imitation & joint attention), rather than targeting dominant secondary behaviours (i.e., stereotypic rituals & routines). Children within the EIRP, undergo a 2 week 10x3 hour clinic-based intervention followed by an 18 week home-based intervention. It was hypothesised that by intensively targeting the core deficit-linked behaviours, these behaviours may be reduced or ameliorated to a point where one can minimise the onset of secondary behaviours. Data from more than 150 children who have participated will be presented. A within subjects quasi experimental staggered baseline repeated measures design was used (initial, pre- intervention, 2 week intervention and 20 week final). Analysis of test scores from initial to 20-week follow up assessments show a general trend towards improvement of autistic symptom severity and an increase in adaptive functioning, beyond that which would have been predicted from baseline measures. The result of follow-up studies will also be discussed. Lecture: TIMING OF CONDITIONED EYEBLINK RESPONSES IN A RODENT MODEL OF ATTENTION-DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY (ADHD) DISORDER A. Thanellou¹ and Prof. J.T. Green² ¹ Ph.D. Student, University of Vermont, USA ² Ph.D. Professor, Psychology Dept., University of Vermont Reductions in the volume of the cerebellum and impairments in cerebellar-dependent eyeblink conditioning have been observed in attentiondeficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Recently, it was reported that subjects with ADHD and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) (a traditional animal model in the study of ADHD), exhibit a parallel pattern of timing deficits in eyeblink conditioning. We used Wistar-Kyoto Hyperactive (WKHA) and Wistar-Kyoto Hypertensive (WKHT), rats bred out from the SHR strain in an attempt to isolate the hyperactivity from the hypertension genetic component, to evaluate whether behavioral impairments in eyeblink conditioning in SHRs are due specifically to hyperactivity. We trained animals with a long-delay (750-ms) eyeblink conditioning task. WKHAs and WKHTs acquired and extinguished CRs similarly. However, only WKHAs displayed shortened onset and peak eyeblink CR latencies compared to WKHTs. Our results validate the hypothesis of cerebellar abnormalities in an animal model of ADHD-like symptoms that does not also exhibit hypertension, and suggest the possibility that shortened eyeblink CRs in WKHAs may be due to a deficit in inhibition of delay (IOD; defined as an increase in CR latency as learning progresses). Follow-up behavioral and anatomical experiments support the hypothesis that timing deficits in WKHAs may be due to a deficit in IOD. Lecture: A MULTI-LEVEL MULTI-SOURCE EXAMINATION OF THE EFFECTS OF LUNCH BREAK ACTIVITIES ON EMPLOYEES DAILY JOB FATIGUE Prof. J.P. Trougakos¹, I. Hideg² and B. Cheng² ¹ PhD, Ass.Professor of Management, Rotman Graduate School of Management, Univ. of Toronto, CANADA ² PhD Students, Rotman School of Management, University of Toronto Introduction and Aim: Modern employees are plagued with increasing levels of fatigue resulting in reduced well-being. Work recovery research has examined how employees utilize various work breaks to off-set these negative consequences. However, no published studies have specifically focused on the recovery effects of lunch breaks, despite their ubiquitous nature. This study seeks to examine how lunch break activities, especially social activities, impact fatigue. We also consider boundary conditions of the social activity- fatigue relationship. Method: Seventy-eight full-time employees completed experience-sampling measures regarding their lunch break activities over a 10-day period. Co-workers provided ratings of employees end of day fatigue over this period. Additionally, employees supervisors rated the overall interpersonal likeability of the employees. Results: Relaxing lunch activities were negatively related to fatigue. Socializing and work-related activities were positively related to fatigue. Further, a significant interaction was found between socializing and work-related activities. Finally, the extent to which supervisors liked focal employees also significantly interacted with social activity in predicting fatigue. Conclusion: Lunch breaks are an important aspect of employee wellbeing. Contrary to prior predictions, social activity was positively related to fatigue. Furthermore, the social activity-recovery relationship appears to be subject to various boundary conditions. Future research should continue exploring these conditions. Lecture: SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES IN COGNITIVE ABILITIES BETWEEN YOUNG AND YOUNG-OLD CHILDREN AND ELDERLY Dr. E. Tsantali¹ ² ³, Prof. D. Economidis, MD¹, Dr. S. Rigopoulou³ and Prof. C. Porpodas² ¹ PhD, School of Medicine, 2 nd Dept. Internal Medicine, Geriatric Unit, Hippokration Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GREECE ² PhD. School of Humanities and Social Studies, Primary Education Dept., University of Patras, GREECE ³ Neurologist, B Hospital of the Institution of Social Insurance, Neurologic Clinic, Panagia Hospital, Thes/niki Objective: Although cognitive development is rapid during childhood, cognitive abilities are advanced in different rhythms. We administered a screening tool (MMSE) in order to assess the development and maintenance of some crucial cognitive abilities (time and place orientation, calculation, language abilities and memory) during people s growth. Methods: We recruited randomly 258 not institutionalized Greek participants, aged from 7-87, divided into three subgroups. Eighty were attending the second and third class of the elementary school (MEAN Age=8, S.D=0.9), 97 the 5 th and 6 th class (MEAN Age=10.7, S.D=0.8) and 81 were elderly people with and without dementia,70.2 (S.D=7.6) years old and having 8.8 (S.D= 4.1) years of education. Results: The Anova analysis indicated statistically significant differences between groups (p=.000) to MMSE, as well as to time and place orientation, calculation, language ability, eupraxia, delayed memory, but not to direct memory. The young children comparing to the young-old ones showed statistically significant differences to MMSE, road orientation (p=.000) and overall place orientation (p=.000), calculation (p=.000) and generally to language ability (p=.007). The older children showed significantly better performance to date (p=.003) and month orientation (p=.000), delayed memory (p=.000), writing (p=.009), eupraxia ability (p=.000) and generally MMSE score (p=.000) comparing to the elderly group. Conclusions: Our results suggest that older children have generally better cognitive performance (MMSE) than young children and
13 elderly with and without dementia. They are also better to time orientation, delayed memory and eupraxia than the elderly. Young children show similar cognitive profile (MMSE ) comparing to elderly group but better performance to time and place orientation and delayed memory. Lecture: COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGY TRAINING IN THE U.K. KINGDOM FOR GREEK STUDENTS WHO COMPLETED THEIR UNDERGRADUATE TRAINING IN GREECE: THEMES WHEN COMPARING THE TWO DIFFERENT ORGANISATIONAL SETTINGS Dr. P.C. Filippopoulos¹ and H. Manafi² ¹ PhD., School of Psychotherapy and Counselling Psychology Regent s College London, UK ² Prof. Doctorate of Counselling Psychology, Programme Director, School of Psychotherapy & Counselling Psychology Regent s College London, UK Counselling Psychology training is a very important aspect of the profession of counselling psychologists. In Europe there are countries that do not include such training in their educational system with the result that a lot of Psychology graduates must move to a different country in order to qualify as counselling psychologists. A number of students who completed their first degree in Greece have studied, and still are studying, counselling psychology at a doctoral level in the United Kingdom. The present study interviewed students that have completed their first degree in Greece and are currently studying Counselling Psychology at a British higher education institute. A thematic analysis was conducted and 4 main themes emerged: Professional Identity, transformative learning, research and training for research, and feelings. In conclusion, all the participants expressed ideas that their move to a British institute was a very good choice for both their training and their professional development. Lecture: CHARACTERISTICS OF OLDER & OLDEST ADULT DRIVERS: UNDERSTANDING RISKY DRIVING Prof. J.H. Ribak PhD, APRN, PMHCNS-BC, Ass. Professor of Nursing, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio USA Introduction: The United States National Highway Traffic Safety Administration reports 500 car crash injuries daily in adults over age 65. Driving is fundamental to adult independence in American society. Aim: This investigation examined whether older drivers (65-74 years) differed in selected characteristics and driving outcomes from oldest drivers (75 years+). The hypothesis: As compared to older drivers, oldest drivers have significantly decreased visual acuity, cervical spine rotation and significantly increased risky driving practices (risky driving behaviors, driving distraction) and adverse driving events (citations, crashes, injuries). Methods: Cross-sectional survey, convenience sample of older (n=75) and oldest drivers (n=84). Visual acuity, cervical spine rotation were measured. Self-reported data identified driving behaviors and adverse events. Licensure records documented citations, crashes. Results: Significant adjusted odds ratios (ORs) found in cervical spine rotation (OR 1.058, p=.003), visual acuity (OR 1.492, p=043), driving distraction (OR 1.212, p=0.031). No significant differences between groups determined for adverse driving events and risky driving behaviors. Conclusion: Hypothesis was partially supported. Compared to older drivers, oldest drivers experienced significantly decreased visual acuity, cervical spine rotation. Driving distraction was significantly decreased for oldest compared to older drivers. Results revealed oldest differed from older drivers signifying importance of individualized approaches assessing driving fitness. Lecture: THE REALITY OF LEARNING DIFFERENT (LD) CHILDREN: HOW TO PROMOTE THEIR SOCIAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL AND ACADEMIC DEVELOPMENT THROUGH EFFECTIVE COUNSELING AND ACADEMIC SUPPORT. Dr. G.G. Thanopoulou Papakonstantinou¹ and M. Protopapa² ¹ Ph.D., Ed.M., M.A, Harvard University, USA Counseling Psychologist, Director of the Counseling Center the International School of Athens (ISA) GREECE. ² M.Sc., Counseling Psychologist, the International School of Athens (ISA), Athens. This presentation will focus on analyzing the Psychological, Social & Academic profile of Children with Learning Differences (LD), and how these children are marginalized and stigmatized within their families, at school, in their every day lives and especially in their relationship with self and others. We will present the role of educational psychologists, counselors and special educators in supporting them in order to overcome their difficulties by providing them with psycho-educational support, conflict resolution and problem-solving skills along with emotional care. In this presentation, we will emphasize the Vicious Cycle these children have to face that blocks their learning and limits their everyday relationships with their own self and others. We will explain how they -esp. in adolescence- often feel inadequate and are mislabeled as lazy, indifferent or bully. We will examine how they end up believing that they have low IQ, poor self-esteem, confused sense of self-identity, and, as a result, exhibit juvenile delinquent, bullying behaviors and use masks in order to cover up for their academic inabilities. In reality, these children can be charismatic personalities with average to high IQ and developed EQ (Emotional Intelligence), if they receive an early and proper psychological and academic intervention to enhance their unique abilities. Finally, in this paper we will present the innovative work that we do at the Counseling/Learning Center of the International School of Athens (ISA), where an organized team of counseling and school psychologists, special educators, speech specialists, play/occupational therapists and sensitive teachers support these students in order to build a strong faith in themselves, to build on their strengths and to work around their weaknesses and finally to grow emotionally, socially and academically. Invited Lecture: HOMOPHOBIA: FIRST STUDY ON TWO GROUPS OF STUDENTS Dr. L. Rollè¹, Dr. C. Garbarini², E. Gerino³, E. Marino³ and Prof. P. Brustia⁴ ¹ PhD. Psychologist, Psychoterapist Lecturer of Dynamic Psychology, Holder of Research grant, Psychology Dept., University of Turin, ITALY ² PhD. Psychologist, Holder of Research grant, Psychology Dept., University of Turin ³ Psychologists, PhD Students, Psychology Dept., University of Turin ⁴ Psychologist, Psychoterapist, Professor of Dynamic Psychology, Psychology Dept., University of Turin Introduction: With the word homophobia we mean the disease, the devaluation and the enmity for the homosexuals men or women. The researches say high levels of homophobia are correlated with the belief that homosexuality is against nature. This thought may induce people to act with aggressivity against LBG population. Aim: The aim of our research was to compare the level of homophobia between two Faculties students. Tools: An Identifying Information Form was used to collect demographic information and the Italian scale, SIMO-G and SIMO-L (Lingiardi, 2005), to evaluate the level of homophobia. Sample: Our sample was of 600 students of two Faculties in North Italy (min 19yo, max 45 yo, mean 20.55, SD
14 2.53). Conclusions: First results show a high correlation between religion, politics and high level of social homophobia. The politic orientation presents a positive correlation with the homophobia against gay (r=0,342; p<0.01) and lesbian (r=0,363; p<0.01). Lecture: SALIENCE OF ETHNIC IDENTITY FOR ADOLESCENT MENTAL HEALTH: MODERATING EFFECT OF RACE. Prof. S. Noh PhD. Professor, Psychiatry Dept., University of Toronto, Ontario, CANADA Co Head of Social Equity and Health Research, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health Introduction & Aim: Self concept involves cognitive and emotional images evaluated based on physical, social, and moral views of the self. The increasing diversity of North American societies highlights the importance of understanding the subjective experience of youth of different ethnic backgrounds. Based on social identity theory and the ethnic identity development model, this study examines if ethnic and host society identities promote the self concept of youth. Racial/ethnic variations are explored across Koreans, non Korean minorities, and Europeans/Whites. Method: Data from the Growing Up Canadian Project, consisting of 585 adolescents and young adults in Toronto, Canada, are analyzed using multivariate OLS. Moderation effects were evaluated based on the inspections of interaction terms in the OLS. Results: The results show that ethnic and host society identities, especially the pride dimensions, are important resources for the self concept of racial/ethnic minorities. Interesting findings occurred across racial/ethnic groups. First, ethnic pride promoted the self concepts of Koreans and non Korean minorities, but not Europeans/Whites. Second, the amount of explained variance in self concept for the Korean ethnic group was smaller than that of the other two groups. Finally, race/ethnicity status moderated the relationship between psychological self concept and the two demographic variables, gender and nativity status. Conclusion: This study adds to the literature on the importance of ethnic identity for minority group members and suggests future studies to investigate group specific factors of self concept. Invited Lecture: HUMANITARIAN AID & PSYCHOLOGICAL EXPERIENCES TO NATURAL DISASTERS & WAR CONFLICTS Dr. N. Dousis-Rassias MD, President of Doctors of Peace, GREECE My presentation will focus on the feelings of the persons I met and our feelings as well. The psychological effect of our presence to them and viceversa. It will cover a period of 19 years and mh physical presence to the following natural disasters: Hurricane Mitch in Honduras & Nicaragua (1998) -Earthquake in Turkey (1999) -Tsunami in Sri Lanka (2004) -Earthquake in Pakistan (2005) -Earthquake in Aquila (Italy 2009) -Flood in Albania (2010) -Earthquake in Haiti (2010). It will cover as well the following wars or conflicts: Kurdistan (1991) -Serbia (1999) -Afganistan (2003) - Lebanon (2006) -South Osetia (2008) -Gaza Strip (2009) -Pakistan (2009). Lecture: MEANING-MAKING BY A COMMUNITY THAT HAS EXPERIENCED LOSS: COLLECTIVE MOURNING AND ART THAT LASTS Prof. Μ.Α. Schina Psy.D., Clinical Psychologist, Professor, University of Indianapolis, Athens, GREECE This presentation examines the course of the mourning process experienced on a collective level by the members of a large community. The catastrophic earthquakes of 1986 devastated the city of Kalamata, Greece, and led it initially to an agonized effort for the actual rebuilding of its central part. Information obtained by the press and the city archives reveals a parallel search, lasting for over two decades, for ways to rebuild the identity of the city, as well. This process, taking place on a latent cultural/psychological level, seems to be seeking expression through the arts. The archives show numerous requests by city officials, groups, and individuals for creations of art ranging from the institutionalization of cultural events to the erection of monuments. What these art suggestions have in common is the desire that the art products be publicly shared and of such construction or organization that they will last in time. Paralleling the works of mourning of an individual, the collecive mourning seems to require creative meaning-making processes and a play with phantasy and cultural symbols, in order to arrive at a secure sense of collective identity. The presentation discusses the implications of its findings for the psychological sciences. Invited Special Lecture: GENDER AND PSYCHOPATHOLOGY - FROM RESEARCH FINDINGS TO CLINICAL PRACTICE Dr. E. Kakouros Early Childhood Education Dept., Technological Educational Institution (TEI) of Athens The prevalence and symptomatology of several mental disorders often differentiate between the two sexes. According to international research findings (Cloninger et al., 1978), men display all different types of antisocial behaviour in a significant higher prevalence than women. On the other hand, mood and anxiety disorders as well as eating disorders are much more frequent among the female population (Robins et al., 1984). In addition, it has been documented that disorders usually first diagnosed in childhood (for example autistic spectrum disorder, conduct disorder, etc.) concern mostly boys whereas those usually first diagnosed in adolescence (for example mood and anxiety disorders or eating disorders) concern mostly girls (Hudziak, et al., 2008). Finally, it has been found that in cases where a disorder may present at similar rates between boys and girls at a younger age (for example enuresis and stuttering), these same disorders are more frequent among boys at later ages. Scientific study of the abovementioned differences may facilitate the understanding of both their etiological mechanisms and their outcomes. The investigation of the factors that put males and females at a more vulnerable position regarding different types of mental disorders may promote: a) the identification of risk factors for the development of several disorders in males and females and b) the planning of more effective therapeutic programmes for males and females. The aim of this presentation is to provide a summary of the most important research findings regarding sex differences in the prevalence and the manifestation of several mental disorders, usually first diagnosed in childhood or adolescence. The main etiological theories of this phenomenon will be presented and the possible effects of sex differences on the outcome of psychopathology in boys and girls will be analyzed. To conclude, thoughts about the possible utility of the adoption of different diagnostic criteria for the two sexes for several developmental disorders will be discussed and relevant perspectives for the forthcoming DSM-5 will be presented.
15 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND BENEFITS OF IMPLEMENTING AN ACADEMIC SERVICE LEARNING PRISON PROJECT: THE INSIDE-OUT PRISON EXCHANGE PROGRAM. Prof. K. Healey¹, Prof. S. Jacobs² and R. Morris³ ¹ Ph.D. Psychologist, Prof. Psychology Dept., One University Place, Chester, USA ² Ph.D. Sociologist, Prof. Psychology Dept., One University Place, Chester ³ M.A., Prison Psychologist, Chester State Correctional Institution, Chester Introduction: This poster presentation will provide an overview of the Inside-Out Prison Exchange Program. Examples of the challenges, benefits and transformative value of traditional University students and incarcerated students attending semester length University level classes inside the prison will be drawn from both the University and community partner perspective. Method: The basics for beginning an Inside-Out program and the philosophy of the Program developed at Temple University, Philadelphia, Pensylvania, USA will be described. Dr. Jacobs recent ethnographic data of the reentry of 35 African American men will augments current research on programming for prison timea as well as reentry. We will describe how interested faculty at the University gained support from both the University and the prison, collaboration between faculty and prison staff and the necessary steps to insure continuing support for the program in both institutions. Results: Data from across the United States on the efficacy of this unique prison programmming will be shared with specific examples from different instituitons of higher education and detailed analysis of the course evaluations and student observations. Conclusions: The benefits at both tangible and intangible levels of this academic service learning model provide opening for new directions in both university and prison programming. Special Lecture: MINDPOWER: AN INTERDISCIPLINARY PUBLIC MENTAL HEALTH STRATEGY. Prof. J.L. Aicher¹ and Prof. W. Smith² ¹ MD, MPH, MURP, BES, FRCPC, Psychiatrist, Horizon Health Network, St. John Regional Hospital Assistant Professor, Psychiatry Dept., Dalhousie University, Memorial University, CANADA ² MD, BSc, FRCPC, Associate Professor of Psychiatry, Saint John, CANADA Introduction & Aim: Most mental health professionals now focus on detecting mental health disorders and trying to cure or at least manage symptoms. Important efforts are underway to reduce stigma, enabling people to seek and get help. Unfortunately, our efforts are still analogous to treating infectious illnesses like cholera -- but putting individuals back into the unhealthy environment that got them sick. We describe the process used to launch Mindpower 2006! an interdisciplinary community-based approach to promote mental health in Saint John, Canada. Method: We first developed a robust, easy to understand and operationalize framework that all community members can use to promote their own mental health. It combines a stress-support model of health promotion with a concept of mental fitness that encourages people to master instead of avoid life challenges. Mental health experts, health care providers, community activists and change agents organized and facilitated a free, fun-filled festival where the entire city was encouraged to participate. Results: Through a variety of interactive media (inspirational workshops, music, painting etc) local heroes described how it would have been easier to avoid their particular challenge, but instead mastered and succeeded! At the interactive Stages of Life Exhibit people worked together to identify specific challenges community members experience through the lifespan, and conceptualized solutions. Festival organizers and community change agents had an opportunity to collaborate with each other and with government officials to share ideas. Conclusion: With a limited budget, a small city in Canada organized a successful festival predicated on a novel framework to promote mental fitness. Special Lecture: A PSYCHO-ANALYTICAL APPROACH TO PROFILING SERIAL KILLERS Dr. M. Pistorius PhD. Psychologist, Pretoria, SOUTH AFRICA Introduction and aim: The aim of this paper is to introduce delegates to the psycho-sexual developmental phases, characteristic of all serial killers, and then to demonstrate by way of case studies, how this information is incorporated into profiling a serial killer. Method: By way of case studies, the author will illustrate how Freud s phases of psycho-sexual development, from the oral to the genital, can illuminate the hidden subconscious motivation of serial killers to torture, mutilate and murder their victims. From analyzing the crime scene, the profiler can deduct in which psychosexual developmental phase the serial killer fixated as a child and how this fixation developed into a sexual fantasy, that eventually culminated in the series of murders. The profiler compiles the profile of the unknown suspect, which is then used as a benchmark by the detective to identify and eliminate suspects until the most likely suspect is arrested. Knowledge of the phase of fixation is incorporated into the interrogation strategy of the suspect, which usually elicits a confession from the suspect. Results: This method has been successfully applied in the investigation and arrest of thirty South African serial killers. Case studies will be used to illustrate during the presentation. Conclusion: Delegates will understand the hidden motivation of serial killers with reference to their psycho-sexual developments and would be able to comprehend how a psychological profile of a serial killer is compiled. SYMPOSIA (ENGLISH AND GREEK) Symposium: CLINICAL RECOGNITION OF ADHD IN ADULTS Prof. T. Bilkey MD. Psychiatrist, Director, Ontario Bilkey ADHD Clinics, Barrie & Stratford, Ontario, CANADA Adj.Professor, Psychiatry Dept., Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, University of Western Ontario General Abstract: Adult ADHD is a common and highly impairing psychiatric disorder, affecting approximately 5% of all adults. The persistence of ADHD into adulthood is associated with numerous domains of impairment, including educational and occupational functioning. While both persistent and impairing, ADHD in the adult population is also associated with numerous comorbidities, including high rates of mood and anxiety disorders and addictions. Although awareness of ADHD in adults is growing, the disorder remains vastly under-recognized in clinical practice. The diagnosis can be complex in that ADHD shares symptoms with other conditions and manifestations of ADHD change over time. Therefore, the educational program FAST MINDS was developed to provide clinicians with a method to recognize the symptoms and patient presentations of Adult ADHD in
16 their practice. This program, which has received national accreditation through the College of Family Physicians of Canada, assists physicians in the recognition of the red flag symptoms of ADHD using the acronym FAST MINDS. This presentation is 100% clinically oriented and demonstrates interviewing techniques, through the use of video vignettes, based on 10 typical patient presentations of Adult ADHD. Invited Symposium: DOMESTIC VIOLENCE QUALITATIVE FINDINGS IN WOMEN IMMIGRANTS AND REFUGEES IN ATTICA COUNTY Dr. K. Sklavou¹ and Dr. A. Koumoula² ¹ PhD. Social Worker, Child and Adolescents Psychiatric Dept., Sismanoglio General Hospital, Athens ² MD, Director of Child and Adolescents Psychiatric Dept., Sismanoglio General Hospital, Athens Εισαγωγή: Η θεωρητική και ερευνητική µελέτη ανά τον κόσµο έχει αναδείξει την πολιτισµική διάσταση του φαινοµένου και τον υψηλό κίνδυνο θυµατοποίησης των γυναικών που ανήκουν σε µειονοτικές/ εθνοτικές οµάδες. Σκοπός: Η παρούσα έρευνα εξετάζει τη διαπολιτισµική διάσταση της ενδοοικογενειακής βίας. Συγκεκριµένα παρουσιάζονται οι επιπτώσεις της ενδοοικογενειακής βίας στη σωµατική, την ψυχική υγεία και την κοινωνική ένταξη των αλλοδαπών γυναικών θυµάτων. Μέθοδος: Η ερευνητική διαδικασία διεξήχθη σε δυο στάδια. Η κύρια έρευνα στηρίχθηκε στο ποιοτικό πρότυπο. Το δείγµα αποτέλεσαν 23 γυναίκες. Η συλλογή των δεδοµένων πραγµατοποιήθηκε µέσω ηµιδοµηµένων ατοµικών συνεντεύξεων, ενώ η επεξεργασία στηρίχθηκε στην ανάλυση περιεχοµένου. Αποτελέσµατα: Η ανάλυση των ερευνητικών πορισµάτων καταδεικνύει τις διαστάσεις του προβλήµατος και τις επιπτώσεις στη ζωή των θυµάτων. Οι γυναίκες του δείγµατος προσδιόρισαν ένα πλήθος σωµατικών, ψυχολογικών και κοινωνικών προβληµάτων, ως επακόλουθα της βίας. Συµπεράσµατα: Η αποµόνωση και η έλλειψη πληροφοριών σε συνδυασµό µε τα πολιτισµικά χαρακτηριστικά καθορίζουν τη στάση των κακοποιηµένων αλλοδαπών γυναικών, αναφορικά µε την αντιµετώπιση των επιπτώσεων της βίας. Symposium: CONSEQUENCES IN EVERY DAY PSYCHIATRIC CLINICAL PRACTICE RELATED TO LEGAL ISSUES NOT APPARENTLY DEFINED Dr. D. Petsas¹ and N. Petsas² ¹ Psychiatrist, 4 th Psychiatric Emergency Dept., Psychiatric Hospital of Attica Daphni ² Attorney - Private sector, Athens Στην καθηµερινή κλινική πρακτική και στο σηµείο, που η Ψυχιατρική συναντά τη Νοµική επιστήµη, εµφανίζονται συχνά προβλήµατα, που θέτουν διλλήµατα. Η Ψυχιατροδικαστική ή ικαστική Ψυχιατρική ακόµη δεν έχει καταφέρει να καλύψει τα υπάρχοντα κενά και να δώσει ξεκάθαρες απαντήσεις, καθώς φαίνεται να υπάρχει σηµαντική απόκλιση στις απόψεις µεταξύ νοµικών και ψυχιάτρων. Έτσι εξηγείται η χρονιότητα των προς επίλυση θεµάτων και η διαιώνιση ενός κλίµατος ανασφάλειας µεταξύ των επαγγελµατιών ψυχικής υγείας, όσον αφορά στον τρόπο διαχείρισης συγκεκριµένων καταστάσεων. Στη στρογγυλή αυτή τράπεζα γίνεται καταγραφή των προβληµάτων και εκτενέστερη αναφορά σε κάποια από αυτά, ενώ περιγράφονται και υπογραµµίζονται οι επιπτώσεις, που η µη επίλυση τους επιφέρει στην πορεία της ψυχικής υγείας των ψυχικά ασθενών. Υπογραµµίζεται, επίσης, η ανάγκη προάσπισης των δικαιωµάτων όχι µόνο των ψυχικά πασχόντων, αλλά και των επαγγελµατιών ψυχικής υγείας και τονίζεται προς αυτή την κατεύθυνση, η ανάγκη εξοικείωσης των τελευταίων µε νοµικούς όρους, αλλά και γενικότερα µε τη νοµοθετική ή/και δικαστική νοοτροπία. Προτείνεται η έναρξη ενός ουσιαστικού διαλόγου µε συµµετοχή όλων των εµπλεκόµενων πλευρών και φορέων, που θα έχει ως στόχο το να οδηγηθούµε σε νέες, συµπληρωµατικές νοµοθετικές ρυθµίσεις, προκειµένου να δοθούν σαφείς, δίκαιες και ορθολογιστικές απαντήσεις στα αντικρουόµενα και διφορούµενα ζητήµατα του σήµερα. SYMPOSIUM (EN): The Psychological and Neurohormonal Impact of Infertility PSYCHOLOGICAL EXPERIENCE IN THE IVF CLINIC- NEUROHORMONAL DATA INVOLVED IN THE INFERTILITY STRESS V.Simoglou1, Prof. M. Venetikou2, A. Zafiropoulou3, K. Pantazopoulou3, Dr. Th. Paraschos4, Prof. Ch. Darviri5, and Prof. G. Chrousos6 BASAL STRESS LEVELS AND MARITAL RELATIONSHIP IN A SAMPLE OF FERTILE COUPLES A. Zafiropoulou3, K. Pantazopoulou3, Prof. M. Venetikou2, V.Simoglou1, Dr. L. Klentzeris7, Prof. Ch. Darviri5 and Prof. G. Chrousos6 STRESS LEVELS DURING PROTOCOL PHASES IN IVF TREATMENT OF SUBFERTILE COUPLES K. Pantazopoulou3, A. Zafiropoulou3, Prof. M. Venetikou2, V.Simoglou1, Ch. Germanou8, Dr. M. Mastrominas9, Prof. Ch. Darviri5 and Prof. G. Chrousos6 MARITAL RELATIONSHIP IN COUPLES DURING ASSISTED REPRODUCTION A. Zafiropoulou3, K. Pantazopoulou3, Prof. M. Venetikou2, V.Simoglou1, Ch. Germanou8, Dr. Th. Paraschos4, Dr. M. Mastrominas9 and Prof. Ch. Darviri5 PERSONALITY VARIABLES IN THE SUBFERTILE POPULATION K. Pantazopoulou3, A. Zafiropoulou3, Prof. M. Venetikou2, V.Simoglou1, Ch. Germanou8, Dr. Th. Paraschos4, Dr. L. Klentzeris7 and Dr. M. Mastrominas9 HOLISTIC ASSESSMENT OF THE BIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL VARIABLES IN ASSISTED REPRODUCTION Prof. M. Venetikou2, V.Simoglou1, K. Pantazopoulou3, A. Zafiropoulou3, Ch. Germanou8, Dr. Th. Paraschos4, Dr. M. Mastrominas9 and Dr. L. Klentzeris7 1 DEA, MA, IVF Psychologist, Embio IVF Centre, Athens 2 MD, DipEndo, PhD, Prof. of Pathophysiology-Nosology, Consultant Endocrinologist, TEI of Athens Professor, Stress and Health Promotion, Biomedical Research Foundation, Academy, Athens 3 Psychologists, MA Students, Biomedical Research Foundation, Academy, Athens 4 MD, PhD, Consultant Gynaecologist, Embio IVF Centre
17 5 PhD, Professor, Public Health and Health Promotion, Technological Educational Institute (TEI) of Athens Coordinator, Professor, of Stress and H. Promotion, Biomedical Research Foundation, Academy, Athens 6 MD, PhD, FRCP, MACE, MACP, Professor of Paediatrics, University Clinic of Agia Sophia, Athens, GREECE Coordinator and Professor, Stress and H. Promotion, Biomedical Research Foundation, Academy, Athens Georgetown University, ex-director, Paediatric Endocrinology Section and Training Program NICH, NIH, USA 7 MD, PhD, FRCOG, Consultant Gynaecologist, Director of IVF Centre Mitera 8 IVF Psychologist, Embryogenesis IVF Centre, Athens 9 MD, PhD, Consultant Gynaecologist, Embryogenesis IVF Centre, Athens ANNOUNCEMENTS & LECTURES (GREEK) DESCRIPTION OF THE GREEK PERSONALITY ASSESSMENT INVENTORY D.G. Lyrakos Clinical Psychologist, Cognitive Therapist, Athens Τα τελευταία χρόνια στην Ελλάδα γίνεται µια προσπάθεια στάθµισης και οργάνωσης ψυχοµετρικών τεστ. Το Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) όπως είναι η Αγγλική του ονοµασία ή το Ερωτηµατολόγιο Αξιολόγησης της Προσωπικότητας όπως έχει κατοχυρωθεί στα Ελληνικά είναι ένα εργαλείο αξιολόγησης όχι µόνο συµπτωµάτων ψυχοπαθολογίας, αλλά καλύπτει επίσης ένα µεγάλο εύρος παραµέτρων. Η χρήση του µπορεί να βοηθήσει τον επαγγελµατία υγείας όχι µόνο στο κοµµάτι της διάγνωσης, αλλά µπορεί να δώσει πολύτιµες πληροφορίες για τον εξεταζόµενο όσο αναφορά τάσεις συµπεριφοράς, κοινωνική κατάσταση και υποστήριξη, αποδοχή ψυχοθεραπείας και φαρµακευτικής θεραπείας κ.α.. Στην οµιλία αυτή θα παρουσιάσουµε την ελληνική έκδοση και της ελληνικές κλείδες του Ερωτηµατολόγιο Αξιολόγησης της Προσωπικότητας που βγήκαν µετά από την διαδικασία στάθµισης σε κλινικό και µη κλινικό πληθυσµό. SEXUALITY AND GENDER: ATTITUDES OF YOUNG GREEKS TOWARDS HOMOSEXUAL RELATIONSHIPS. Prof. A.V. Riga¹ and E. Papa² ¹ Professor of Social-Clinical Psychology and Qualitative Methodology, University of Crete ² Psychologist, Undergraduate studies, University of Crete Attitudes towards homosexuality have been shown to vary along different demographic dimensions such as gender or political orientation, age and others. The aim of this research was to study the attitudes of young Greek people regarding homosexual relationships and gives emphasis on 1) the gay marriage, 2) the adoption of children by same-sex couples, 3) the children s sexuality education from their parents and 4) the way homosexuals are treated in their working environment. In the present study, the sample consists of 174 young people between 18 to 30 years old. For the data collection it was used a questionnaire, of closed-ended and open-ended questions. The analysis was conducted with the statistical package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Results have shown that young Greeks, particularly young men, are more conservative than women, as far as questions about very personal matters are concerned and much more open with matters of sexuality in the workplace. Overall, women appear to hold more positive attitudes towards homosexuality. SCHOOL PREDICTORS OF BULLYING AND VICTIMIZATION IN MIDDLE SCHOOL: RESULTS FROM A PILOT STUDY K.D. Kapari¹ and P.D. Stavrou² ¹ PhD Student, Special Education Dept., Lab of Special and Curative Education, University of Ioannina ² Psychologist, Researcher, Lab. Psychologie Clinique et Psychopathologie, Univ.Paris V, Sorbonne, France Numerous studies have focused on individual characteristics of bullies and victims, without careful examination of contextual factors that might influence bullying and victimization in school settings. This pilot study examines the association of the school climate and the school s response to violence with the intensity of bullying and victimization in a sample of 114 students in three Greek public middle schools. The participants completed a self-report questionnaire designed to assess their perceptions about: a) the school climate, b) the school s response to violence, and c) the intensity of bullying and victimization in their school. Internal consistency reliability scores were ranged from.62 to.93. Data was analyzed using correlations (Pearson r) and multiple regressions. All the school climate variables (Fairness, School Belonging, Authoritarian Practices, Safety, Discipline Management) were associated with the intensity of bullying and/or victimization. Two variables of the school s response to violence (Student Intervention, Teacher Intervention) explained 49% of the variance of the intensity of bullying. Two variables of the school climate (Safety, Discipline Management) explained 47% of the variance of the intensity of victimization. Our findings are consistent with the research literature and suggest the influence of school context on bullying and victimization. FROM PLANNING TO IMPLEMENTATION OF MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES: THE CENTRE OF MENTAL HEALTH OF THE G. HOSPITAL SOTIRIA. Dr. G. Freris¹, Dr. K. Kondili², and Dr. M. Triandopoulou² ¹ Child Psychiatrist, Guidance Centre of General Hospital Sotiria, A.P.P.A.C. Board Member ² Psychiatrists, Mental Health Services of General Hospital Sotiria, Athens. Στις ξεκίνησε την λειτουργία του το Κ.Ψ.Υ. του Γ.ΝΝ.Θ.Α. «Η Σωτηρία», στην περιοχή της Πλ. Αττικής και µε τοµεοποιηµένη περιοχή τον. Γαλατσίου και το 6 ο διαµέρισµα Αθηνών. ροµολογήθηκαν όλες εκείνες οι διοικητικές και επιστηµονικές ενέργειες για την ορθότερη λειτουργία: α) των δύο τµηµάτων (Παιδοψυχιατρικό, Ψυχιατρικό) και β) των διεπιστηµονικών οµάδων. Στο πρώτο 4µηνο λειτουργίας ανέπτυξε προγράµµατα πρωτογενούς και δευτερογενούς πρόληψης για παιδιά, εφήβους και ενήλικες, ήτοι: α) διαγνωστικά και θεραπευτικά ραντεβού, β) οµάδες γονέων παιδιών προσχολικής ηλικίας, γ) οµάδες στα Κ.Α.Π.Η. του. Γαλατσίου, καθώς και εποπτείας του προσωπικού, δ) δράσεις δηµοσιοποίησης των προσφεροµένων υπηρεσιών σε σχολεία και φορείς
18 ACADEMIC PROBLEMS IN INSTITUTIONS OF MENTAL HEALTH: GUIDANCE CENTRES VERSUS CENTRE OF DIAGNOSIS & SUPPORT (C.D.D.S) Dr. G. Freris¹, S. Spyrou², B. Andreadelli² and O. Kourella³ ¹ Child Psychiatrist, Guidance Centre of General Hospital Sotiria, A.P.P.A.C. Board Member ² Clinical Psychologist, General Hospital of Mytilini ³ T.E. Nurse of Mental Health, Child Psychiatry Hospital of Attika Τα Κέντρα ιάγνωσης, ιαφοροδιάγνωσης και Υποστήριξης (Κε...Υ.), αποτελούν υπηρεσίες του Υπουργείου Παιδείας, που ασχολούνται µε τις µαθησιακές δυσκολίες των παιδιών και εφήβων, προσφέροντας σηµαντικό έργο. Όµως αν και το φάσµα των Ψυχικών διαταραχών δεν αποτελεί προτεραιότητα των δραστηριοτήτων τους, συχνά εµπλέκονται µε αυτές. Από την δηµιουργία των πρώτων Κ..Α.Υ. (Κέντρα ιάγνωσης και Αξιολόγησης και Υποστήριξης), έως την µετονοµασία τους από το 2008, σε Κε...Υ (Κέντρα ιαφοροδιάγνωσης, διάγνωσης και Υποστήριξης) έχουν παρέλθει 10 χρόνια περίπου και η εµπλοκή τους µε τις υπηρεσίες του Υπουργείου Υγείας αποτελεί ένα ζητούµενο. ιαπιστώνονται: α) συνεχείς ερµηνευτικές εγκύκλιοι που προσπαθούν να διαχειριστούν τις παραµέτρους σχετικά µε τις προφορικές εξετάσεις β) χρόνους αναµονής για την µαθησιακή εκτίµηση έως και 2-3 χρόνια γ) συγχυτική πληροφόρηση του Υπουργείου Παιδείας, σχετικά µε την λειτουργία των Ιατροπαιδαγωγικών Κέντρων, µετά από µια δεκαετία περίπου συνύπαρξης. Συµπερασµατικά τα Κε...Υ. φαίνεται ότι ακόµη προσπαθούν να οριοθετήσουν το ρόλο τους σε σχέση µε το εξωτερικό περιβάλλον και κυρίως µε τις υπηρεσίες του Υπουργείου Υγείας, που άλλοτε τις επικαλούνται και άλλοτε τις αγνοούν : M.HEALTH PROGRAMMES FOR CHILDREN & ADOLESCENTS IN GREEK FRONTIER REGIONS Dr. G. Freris¹, S. Spyrou², B. Andreadelli², O. Kourella³ and M. Mamidaki⁴ ¹ Child Psychiatrist, Guidance Centre of General Hospital Sotiria, A.P.P.A.C. Board Member ² Clinical Psychologist, General Hospital of Mytilini ³ T.E. Nurse of Mental Health, Child Psychiatry Hospital of Attika ⁴ Social Psychologist, Centre of Prevention, Athens Στις ακριτικές περιοχές της Ελλάδας, Β.Α. & Ν.. Αιγαίο ( ωδεκάνησα, Μυτιλήνη, Λήµνος, κ.ά), Θράκη (Ξάνθη, Αλεξανδρούπολη, Κοµοτηνή) δραστηριοποιούνται και καταγράφονται βασικές υπηρεσίες ψυχικής υγείας για το παιδί και τον έφηβο: Κέντρα Ψυχικής Υγείας, Κε...Υ., Κέντρα Ψυχολογικής υποστήριξης, Ειδικά σχολεία, Κέντρα πρόληψης του ΟΚΑΝΑ, Ψυχολογικές και Ψυχιατρικές Υπηρεσίες στα Γενικά Νοσοκοµεία, ηµοτικοί Συµβουλευτικοί Σταθµοί, ΚΕΚΥΚΑΜΕΑ, Πρόνοια, Εισαγγελία ανηλίκων). Τα προγράµµατα πρωτογενούς και δευτερογενούς πρόληψης στην Ψυχικής υγείας σε παραµεθόριους περιοχές δεν αποτελούν προτεραιότητα, (λόγω γεωγραφικής κατανοµής και έλλειψης ανθρωπίνων πόρων). Όµως, αν και µε άναρχο και ανοµοιογενή τρόπο, είναι σε δυναµική εξάπλωση η ευαισθητοποίηση στην Ψυχική Υγεία παιδιού και εφήβου, ακόµα και σε δυσπρόσιτες περιοχές (Ποµακοχώρια, Λειψοί, Κάσος κ.ά.). Οι δράσεις υλοποιούνται, είτε από δηµόσιες ή δηµοτικές υπηρεσίες (Ιατροπαιδαγωγικό Κέντρο Μυτιλήνης, ηµοτικό Ιατροπαιδαγωγικό Κέντρο Ρόδου, Ψυχολογικό Κέντρο Β. Ελλάδας, κατά τόπους Κε...Υ, Κοινωνικές Υπηρεσίες κ.ά.), είτε από Μ.Κ.Ο. (π.χ. «Ανοιχτή Αγκαλιά»). Ενεργή συµµετοχή σ αυτή την προσπάθεια είχε το Πανεπιστήµιο Αιγαίου, µέσα από την υλοποίηση προγραµµάτων επιµόρφωσης, περίπου 1500 εκπαιδευτικών, την διετία , στην Ειδική Αγωγή και την Ψυχική Υγεία). NETWORKS IN THE MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES IN THE PREFECTURE OF ATTIKA: MARKERS OF FUNCTIONING AND DYSFUNCTIONING IN CATCHMENT AREA Dr. G. Freris¹, O. Kourella², S. Spyrou³, B. Andreadelli³ and S. Triandafillidou⁴ ¹ Child Psychiatrist, Guidance Centre of General Hospital Sotiria, A.P.P.A.C. Board Member ² T.E. Nurse of Mental Health, Child Psychiatry Hospital of Attika ³ General Hospital of Mytilini ⁴ Social Worker, Archbishop of Athens Από την σύσταση των 12 Τοµέων Ψυχικής Υγείας (Το.Ψ.Υ.) στο Ν. Αττικής (αριθ. Υ5α/Γ.Π. οικ.61133/ ) και άλλων αποφάσεων που ακολούθησαν (Τροποποίηση της υπ αριθµ. Υ5α/Γ.Π.οικ & Ένταξη των Μονάδων Ψυχικής Υγείας στους Τοµείς Ψυχικής Υγείας), έως σήµερα, έχουν γίνει σηµαντικά βήµατα τόσο ως προς τον αριθµό των δοµών όσο και ως προς την κατεύθυνση της συνέργιας αυτών, ειδικά στο Ν. Αττικής Έχουν, όµως, καταγραφεί ποικίλου τύπου δυσκολίες, οι οποίες ενίοτε λαµβάνουν και την µορφή σοβαρής δυσλειτουργίας, που συχνά στρέφεται, άµεσα, κατά του ασθενούς. Καταγράφονται κλινικά παραδείγµατα, που αναδεικνύουν αυτά τα προβλήµατα και προτείνονται θεσµικές και πρακτικές λύσεις όπως: α) τακτικό, τουλάχιστον για τα πρώτα χρόνια, επαναπροσδιορισµό συνολικά των τοµεοποιηµένων γεωγραφικά περιοχών, β) θεσµική συνεργασία (σε τακτά διαστήµατα π.χ. κάθε 1-2 µήνες), των εµπλεκοµένων υπηρεσιών ψυχικής υγείας, του ιδίου τοµέα. γ) αξιοποίηση και δικτύωση όλων των φορέων ( ηµόσιο, Μ.Κ.Ο., κ.ά.), που ασκούν αντίστοιχες δράσεις, στον ίδιο τοµέα. THE EXPERIENCE AFTER THE DIAGNOSIS FOR AN ADULT WITH ADHD, SEARCHING OF INFORMATION AND JOINING AN ADULT ADHD SELF HELP GROUP. S. Zorbas Economist, Member of ADHD Hellas, Author, Adult with ADHD Σκοπός: Nα αναδειχθεί η σηµασία που έχει για έναν ενήλικα µε ιάσπαση Προσοχής, αφού λάβει την ιάγνωση της ιάσπασης Προσοχης να αναζητήσει πληροφορίες για τα χαρακτηριστικά της ιαταραχής από κάθε διαθέσιµη πηγή (όπως είναι το internet και η διαθέσιµη βιβλιογραφία) και να συµµετέχει σε οµάδα ενηλίκων που έχουν ΕΠ. Μέθοδος: Συµµετοχική Παρατήρηση σε 2 οµάδες ενηλίκων µε ΕΠ/Υ που συντόνισα µαζί µε έναν εργοθεραπευτή ( ) και έναν παιδοψυχίατρο.( ). Αυτοπαρατήρηση: Σε σχέση µε την αναγνωση βιβλίων για την ιάσπαση Προσοχής και την εµπειρία από την επικοινωνία µε ενήλικες µε ιάσπαση Προσοχής που γνώρισα στις οµάδες. Αποτελέσµατα, Συµπέρασµα: Τα συµπεράσµατα από την εµπειρία της µετά τη διάγνωσης περιόδου θα αναλυθούν. Η ενηµέρωση για τα χαρακτηριστικά της ιάσπασης Προσοχής µέσω της ανάγνωσης βιβλίων που έχουν γράψει ειδικευµένοι ψυχολόγοι και ψυχίατροι που συχνά έχουν και οι ίδιοι ή τα παιδιά τους ΕΠ είναι πολύ κατατοπιστική. Η συµµετοχή στις οµάδες ενηλίκων µε ΕΠ έδειξε πως το σηµαντικό δεν ήταν ποιος ήταν ο εισηγητής ή αυτός που συντόνιζε την οµάδα, αλλά η εµπειρία να βρεθούν οι ενήλικοι µε άτοµα που βίωναν παρόµοιες καταστάσεις. Κατανόηση, ανταλλαγή πληροφοριών και αίσθηση πως δεν είναι οι µόνοι που έβλεπαν τον εαυτό τους να έχει χαρακτηριστικά συµπεριφοράς που συχνά δηµιουργεί η ΕΠ.
19 THE EFFECTS OF ANXIETY IN BRAIN ACTIVITY OF CHILDREN: A BRAIN IMAGING STUDY. Prof. A.V. Karapetsas¹ and Dr. N.C. Zygouris² ¹ Professor of Neuropsychology Neurolinguistic, University of Thessaly ² PhD. Clinical Neuropsychology, University of Thessaly, Lab.of Neuropsychology -Univ. of Thessaly, Member Υπάρχουν πολλές βιολογικές θεωρίες που υποστηρίζουν ότι το άγχος οφείλεται σε νευροχηµική δυσλειτουργία συγκεκριµένων νευροδιαβιβαστών, όπως η σεροτονίνη, το γ αµινοβουτυρικό οξύ (GABA) και η νορεπινεφρίνη. Οι ίδιοι νευροδιαβιβαστές διαδραµατίζουν σηµαντικό ρόλο στη γένεση των κυµατοµορφών των Γνωστικών Προκλητών υναµικών και ιδιαίτερα της κυµατοµορφής Ρ300. Με αυτό το σκεπτικό διενεργήθηκε µια έρευνα στο Εργαστήριο Νευροψυχολογίας του Πανεπιστηµίου Θεσσαλίας µε χρήση Γνωστικών Προκλητών υναµικών. Στόχος της έρευνας ήταν να διερευνηθούν οι διαφορές στην εγκεφαλική δραστηριότητα µεταξύ παιδιών και εφήβων µε Γενικευµένη Αγχώδη ιαταραχή σε σχέση µε την οµάδα ελέγχου. Για το σκοπό αυτό αξιολογήθηκαν 6 παιδιά (3 αγόρια και 3 κορίτσια) µε Μ.Ο. ηλικίας τα 12 έτη που συµπλήρωναν τα κριτήρια του DSM IV για τη συγκεκριµένη διαταραχή αφενός και αφετέρου τα κριτήρια της Revised Children s Manifest Anxiety Scales (RCMAS) για την ίδια διάγνωση. Στη συνέχεια αξιολογήθηκε µε τη µέθοδο των Γνωστικών Προκλητών υναµικών η εγκεφαλική τους δραστηριότητα. Καταγραφικά ηλεκτρόδια τοποθετήθηκαν στις εξής εγκεφαλικές περιοχές: FP1, FPz, FP2, F3, Fz, F4, F7, F8, C3, Cz, C4, P3, Pz, P4, Oz. Η ίδια διαδικασία αξιολόγησης ακολουθήθηκε και για τα 6 παιδιά που συµµετείχαν στην οµάδα ελέγχου, που είχαν ίδιο φύλο και ίδια ακριβώς ηλικία µε τα παιδιά της πειραµατικής οµάδας. Από την ανάλυση των αποτελεσµάτων προκύπτει ότι ο χρόνος έκλυσης της κυµατοµορφής Ρ300 µπορεί να αποτελέσει ένα αξιόπιστο δείκτη στη διάγνωση µεταξύ παιδιών µε Γενικευµένη Αγχώδη ιαταραχή σε σύγκριση µε την οµάδα ελέγχου. Επίσης, προκύπτει ότι η ύπαρξη της συγκεκριµένης ψυχοπαθολογίας ασκεί αρνητική επιρροή στις ανώτερες γνωστικές λειτουργίες (µνήµη, αντίληψη, προσοχή, µάθηση, επίπεδο εγρήγορσης) των παιδιών που την εµφανίζουν. Τα αποτελέσµατα του συγκεκριµένου πρωτοκόλλου χρησιµοποιούνται σε µια έρευνα πιλότο µε στόχο της εύρεση του κατάλληλου τόσο εκπαιδευτικού όσο και κλινικού νευροψυχολογικού προγράµµατος αποκατάστασης των παιδιών που πάσχουν από Γενικευµένη Αγχώδη ιαταραχή που διεξάγεται από το Εργαστήριο Νευροψυχολογίας του Πανεπιστηµίου Θεσσαλίας. A CHILD COUNTS «STARS. COUSELORS»: ACTIONS AND SIDE EFFECTS OF THEIR INVOLVEMENT IN MENTAL HEALTH S. Spyrou¹, K. Mihailidou², B. Tsihla², S. Firigοu², D. Paraskevopoulos³ and Dr. G. Freris ¹ Clinical Psychologist, General Hospital Vostanio of Mytilini ² Psychologists, Mental Health Centre, General Hospital Sotiria, Athens ³ Sociologist, Mental Health Centre, General Hospital Sotiria, Athens ⁴ Child Psychiatrist, Mental Health Centre, General⁴ Hospital Sotiria, Athens Σκοπός της εργασίας είναι η ανάδειξη των δυσκολιών συνεργασίας µεταξύ των υπηρεσιών ψυχικής υγείας για το παιδί και τον έφηβο, µέσα από την καταγραφή ενός κλινικού περιστατικού παραβατικότητας και των συνεπειών του. Μέθοδος: το υλικό προέρχεται: 1) από το αρχείο φακέλου κλινικής περίπτωσης του γραφείου Ψυχολόγων, την Ψυχοδιαγνωστική εκτίµηση και την επίσηµη αλληλογραφία 2) τον αριθµό και το είδος των παρεµβάσεων που επιχειρήθηκαν από τις υπηρεσίες ψυχικής υγείας προς το σχολείο, την οικογένεια και το κοινωνικό 3) τα αποτελέσµατα των παρεµβάσεων. Αποτελέσµατα: Αναδεικνύεται η σπατάλη πόρων (ανθρώπινων και οικονοµικών) για την διαχείριση µιας περίπτωσης, όταν εµπλέκονται πέντε φορείς (τρεις του Υπουργείου Υγείας και Κοινωνικής Αλληλεγγύης και δύο του Υπουργείου Παιδείας), παράλληλα µε τις Κοινωνικές Υπηρεσίες τοπικών ήµων και το Υπουργείο ικαιοσύνης (Εταιρεία Προστασίας Ανηλίκων). Συµπεράσµατα: α) το παιδί εξακολούθησε να έχει άρνηση στο σχολείο και παραβατική συµπεριφορά. Έδωσε µόνο του λύση στο πρόβληµα φεύγοντας από το σχολείο και παρακολουθώντας νυχτερινό Γυµνάσιο, ενώ το πρωί εκπαιδεύεται σε χειρονακτική εργασία β) εξακολουθούν να εκκρεµούν συναντήσεις των φορέων για να συνδιαλλαγούν στο πρόβληµα του µαθητή. SENSITIVE SOCIAL GROUPS: THE WAY OF PROMOTION OF PISN (PEOPLE IN SPECIAL NEEDS) TO THE PRESS Dr. M. Sidiropoulou¹ and E. Polivaka² ¹ PhD Social Anthropology, University of the Aegean, GREECE ² MEd Education, MA Philosophy and Education Dept., Education Sector Aristotelio University of Thessaloniki, GREECE The models that have been molded concerning disability are three according to what is widely known : the moral, the social and the medical (Olkin, 1999:24-25). Each of these creates a different perspective about how we understand disability, where the problem lies and who is the better way to treat it. The General Secretariat of Communication and information realizing the necessity to abide by the journalistic ethics concerning the presentation of disability matters, adopted a journalistic guide, that aims to justify the disability with the release of thought from rooted stereotypes and prejudices. Using the way the guide suggests, the Press will succeed in promoting the modern social model, which is the correct and just focus to the man and not his disability, to the citizen with disability and not the disabled citizen, as the first one has rights, while the other cause philanthropy. In order to draw conclusions in reference to the subject and the standard of the Press, we drew articles from five daily newspapers, which related to disability matters during September and December 2006 and since they were categorized we qualitatively analyzed their content. Bibliography and journalistic guide had been the source of our results and evaluation judgments. THE IMAGE OF FATHER THROUGH ADVERTISEMENTS Prof. T. Sidiropoulou¹, M. Zafeiropoulou², O. Tsakalou² and I. Halkiadaki² ¹ Ass.Prof. of Psychopedagogics, Early Childhood Dept., Technological Educational Institution (TEI) of Athens, GREECE ² Teachers of Early Childhood Education The dominance of advertising in our everyday life, now has been a fact and their excessive use is an irrefutable evidence. Ads running everywhere, no matter where we look, no matter what we do. The object of our study are in general the advertisements and more in particular those which present the father, his role and the relationship with his kids. The centerpiece of our project is the use and presentation of ads, that are representative to the way that they present the father figure. But before this is done, there are some data given about advertising, the means of midad delivery and the role in influencing the consumer behavior. Furthermore, the father s role in society is been looked for and the stages from which the father figure has passed. What is up next is the presentation of the ads, which have been placed in areas of the market for their better examination. Based on the ads and utilizing in combination to the case study, we end up to our study results.
20 NEW FORMS OF MOTHERHOOD: THE REACTION OF NEW TEACHERS Prof. T. Sidiropoulou¹, M. Zafiropoulou², S. Soulele², A. Antonarou² and S. Peyoglou² ¹ Ass.Prof. of Psychopedagogics, Early Childhood Dept., TEI of Athens, GREECE ² Teachers of Early Childhood Education Motherhood consists of one of the most valuable contributions to human society, it constitutes of a right between others (Riga, 1990). This is a right that more and more women nowadays exercise it either they are married or not and so new forms of family figures have been created. Researches (Maratou, 1986, Riga, 1990) show that even Greek traditions and the central place that family takes in Greek society resist to the European model s, new family figures are also being adopted from Greece. Family undergoes serious core and functional alterations. It is being enriched by new elements, such as the establishment of the partners autonomy, the re-definition of father s role and the co-responsibility all of the extended family members to the economical, technological and social development. Society s structure makes it hard for a woman to choose the part in which she has to settle in. As the key to the parental effectiveness, it is being highlighted to be the mother s general adjust. Nevertheless, a younger or older mother who is socially and psychologically adjusted can be better prepared to confront the anxieties and agonies, which are related to the baby s upbringing, as mother s activities are more effective (Riga, 2008). To the frame referred above, we studied the future teachers opinion concerning the new forms of motherhood. The coincident sample was 340 students of the Preschool Education Department, who are aware of the cognitive subject of the school s lessons which relates to the family, the mother s role and mainly to the children. Our first results show that students have renounced the society s stereotypes, since they seem to have accepted the changes of the traditional image of motherhood. EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE IN GREEK EARLY YEARS CLASSROOM S. Dimitriadi¹, T. Papadaki² and E.M. Makrogkika³ ¹ MEd Education, Research Fellow, Early Childhood Education (E.C.E.) Dept., T.E.I. of Athens ² MEd Education, Early Years Teacher ³ Early Years Teacher For many years there has been acknowledged a need to value, respect and treat all humans equally. This need becomes even more perceptible now, as our society is rapidly transforming into a patchwork of different people with different backgrounds. Therefore, it is most important that today s children are educated for a harmonious life in a larger social universe. The fundamental stone should be set in early childhood programmes, as during early years children develop their self-identity and form images about others through messages their environment conveys. The aim of this study was to identify the extent of existing diversity as well as the equal opportunities principles and practice in greek early years classroom, with special focus in infant toddler curriculum. Primary research was conducted by collecting the data needed using the technique of oral communication and more specifically, the technique of interview. The interviews were structured using open questions. Sampling for the interview was made by means of an opportunity sample of early years teachers. The outcomes of this study proved that diversity existed to a considerable extend in early years classroom while positive attitudes to equal opportunities practices within the early years curriculum were expressed. Given that in working with children the aim is to lay positive and firm foundations, these results form one more brick to the equality building. GENDERED DISTINCTIONS IN CHILDREN S PLAY M. Zerva¹, V. Salonidis², R. Iatrou², M. Daskalou² and Dr. M. Sidiropoulou³ ¹ ΜSc Education, Research Fellow, Early Childhood Dept., Technological Educational Institution (TEI) of Athens, GREECE ² Teachers of Early Childhood Education ³ PhD. Social Anthropology, University of the Aegean The social role of sex always constituted a decisive factor in choice of games from the children. The fact that even now days, the choice of a game is made, based on the gender, gave us the spark to make a research so as to find the reason why the stereotypes of behavior play primary role for the configuration of structures of modern society and consequently configure the game. The game is widely known that constitutes for a little child very important parameter aw for his physical and emotional development. The sex is that which sets the physical differences between male and female, as well as their moral attitude. Therefore, the social role of sex for the children is shaped mainly by the influences of adults while it is expressed through various activities mainly during the game. According to the results of research, the gender is decisive factor for the choice of game. As it results from the treatment of data, the stereotypes are largely realistic and play primary role for the configuration of game. On the contrary, factors as the level of education of parents, the age and the nationality of children constitute characteristics that do not influence decisively the choice of the kind of game. Therefore the intervention on gender is necessary to start from pre-school education, to be based on the principles of equality of human rights and motivate all those who get involved in the educational process so as to focus on everyday practices in and out of school. Necessary condition in order this to be achieved is to reconsider our perceptions and attitudes as far as gender roles concerned. THE TRANSITION TO PRE KINDERGARTEN Prof. T. Sidiropoulou¹, S. Dimitriadi², A. Kalamata³ and S. Mitrovgeni³ ¹ Ass.Prof. of Psychopedagogics, Early Childhood Dept., TEI of Athens, GREECE ² MA. in Education, Hull University, Research Fellow Early Childhood Dept., TEI of Athens ³ Teachers of Early Childhood Education By the time they reach school age many children will already have experienced several transition periods. Transition means that young children will experience changes to their physical environment, routine, curriculum and teacher. Therefore, transition has become a key focus for many schools, with a range of activities planned throughout the year. This paper investigates parents views and attitudes to the school s policies and practices on transition from nursery to reception class. The method of triangulation was used and the sample was comprised of parents, early years teachers as well as Kindergarten teachers and young children from pre - school centres in Attica prefecture. In order to collect the data the techniques of oral and written communication were used by interviewing and administering questionnaires accordingly. Research outcomes show that there is an effective consultation with all parties involved during times of transition, especially parents and teachers. Parents recognise, value and support teachers practices in order to facilitate transition and teachers on the other hand, understand the importance of parents being involved in this process. The crucial element to successful transitions proves to be continuity. Effort is being made to provide a framework for continuity in the settings by well established routines in and outside the classroom. Evidence show that settings which invest time in planning for continuity will