1 >>> Remember B Countable Nouns (Μετρήσιμα Ουσιαστικά) Μετρήσιμα ονομάζονται τα ουσιαστικά που μπορούν να μετρηθούν με αριθμούς και έχουν και ενικό και πληθυντικό αριθμό. a chair three chairs ten chairs Για να σχηματίσουμε τον πληθυντικό αριθμό των μετρήσιμων ουσιαστικών, χρησιμοποιούμε τις παρακάτω καταλήξεις: -s cat > cats -es girl > girls για ουσιαστικά σε -s, -ss, -sh, -ch, -x, -o dish > dishes watch > watches BUT photo > photos radio > radios kilo > kilos stereo > stereos -ies για ουσιαστικά σε σύμφωνο + y party > parties BUT toy > toys -ves για ουσιαστικά σε -f και -fe leaf > leaves wife > wives BUT roof > roofs Κάποια ουσιαστικά όμως σχηματίζουν τον πληθυντικό με το δικό τους τρόπο: man > men woman > women child > children ox > oxen tooth > teeth foot > feet goose > geese fish > fish sheep > sheep species > species means > means deer > deer mouse > mice person > people Uncountable Nouns (Μη Μετρήσιμα Ουσιαστικά) Μη μετρήσιμα ονομάζονται τα ουσιαστικά που δεν μπορούν να μετρηθούν με αριθμούς. Πρόκειται συνήθως για: - τρόφιμα / ποτά cheese, bread, sugar, fruit, water,... - υλικά paper, plastic, cotton (= βαμβάκι), metal, wool (= μαλλί), wood (= ξύλο),... - αφηρημένες έννοιες love, hate, health, freedom,... - διάφορα άλλα money, time, hair, help, advice, information, work, homework, housework, weather (= καιρός), furniture, luggage (= αποσκευές), traffic (= κίνηση)... Για να αναφερθούμε στην ποσότητά τους ΔΕ χρησιμοποιούμε a/an αλλά μονάδες μέτρησης ή άλλα ουσιαστικά + of. a kilo of flour a gram (= γραμμάριο) of sugar a jar of honey/jam a loaf of bread a cup of coffee a litre of juice a carton of milk a glass of water a bottle of wine a packet of tea a bar of chocolate/soap (= σαπούνι) a slice of cheese a tube of toothpaste (= σωληνάριο οδοντόκρεμας) a can of coke/beer a bag of flour a piece of information/advice/furniture/luggage 1. Write the plural forms of the nouns. 2. Choose and circle. 1. person people 2. life lives 3. lady ladies 4. brush brushes 5. sock socks 6. potato potatoes 7. roof roofs 8. stereo stereos 9. species species 10. foot 6 feet I like Grammar B1 1. Let s get four cans / cups of coke for the party. 2. Can you give me some informations / information, please? 3. Don t forget to get a piece / tube of toothpaste. 4. Mrs Simpson checks our homework / homeworks every day. 5. Leo gave me a useful advice / piece of advice on my problem. 6. We need a jar of bread / jam for the pancakes. 7. Could you bring me a glass / carton of water, please? 8. I ll have some salad and a slice / bar of bread for lunch.
2 How many...? / How much...? plenty of/a lot of/lots of - some/any - many/much - very Πριν από μετρήσιμα ουσιαστικά πληθυντικού αριθμού χρησιμοποιούμε: How many...? (= Πόσοι...;) How many children have the Smiths got? plenty of/a lot of/lots of (= πολλοί) και some (= λίγοι) στην κατάφαση. There are plenty of/a lot of/lots of/some kids in the school yard. many (= πολλοί) και any (= καθόλου) στην ερώτηση και την άρνηση. Are there many/any kids in the school yard? There aren t many/any kids in the school yard. Παρατήρησε τις παρακάτω σύντομες απαντήσεις: - Are there any/many biscuits left? - Yes, a lot. / - No, not many. - Do the kids have any/much homework on weekdays? - Yes, a lot. / - No, not much. Πριν από μη μετρήσιμα ουσιαστικά χρησιμοποιούμε: How much...? (= Πόσος...;) How much money do you need for that dress? plenty of/a lot of/lots of (= πολύς) και some (= λίγος) στην κατάφαση. There is plenty of/a lot of/lots of/some cheese in the fridge. much (= πολύς) και any στην ερώτηση και την άρνηση. Is there much/any cheese in the fridge? There isn t much/any cheese in the fridge. NOTE ΝΟΤ Το some χρησιμοποιείται και σε ερώτηση όταν θέλουμε να προσφέρουμε ή να ζητήσουμε κάτι ευγενικά. Can I have some coffee, please? To very (= πολύ) χαρακτηρίζει επίθετο ή επίρρημα και δεν μπαίνει ποτέ πριν από ουσιαστικό. Meg is very smart. Mr Roberts speaks very fast. We ve got very bread. 3. Fill in with a lot of, many or much. Fill in with How many or 4. How much. 1. We haven t got much time left. Hurry up! 2. There are a lot of entertaining games on this site. 3. I can t find much information for this project. 4. Were there many guests at Sunday s charity event? 5. Laura spends a lot of money on expensive shoes. 6. Did Sonia use to tell many lies when she was little? 7. Is there much milk in the bottle? 8. Little Robin got a lot of nice presents on her birthday. 1. How much wine should I get for our Christmas party? 2. How much traffic was there in the city centre this morning? 3. How many friends do you have on Facebook? 4. How much water do you drink every day? 5. How many cups of coffee have you had so far? 6. How many concerts has Sandra been to this month? 5. Choose and circle a, b or c. 1. We had fun at the birthday party last night. a. many b. very c. a lot of 2. Dorothy behaved rudely in class yesterday. a. very b. plenty of c. much 3. - Have you travelled abroad many times? - Yes,. a. many b. a lot c. a lot of 4. Are there sandwiches left for Rita and Kate? a. much b. some c. any 5. students prefer doing their homework late in the evening. a. Lots of b. Lots c. A lot 6. Could you please lend me coffee, Alex? a. any b. some c. plenty of 7. - Have you sent Jonathan many s? - No,. a. not a lot b. not any c. not many 8. This maths problem is easy. I don t need help. a. lots of b. very c. much 9. There isn t meat in the fridge for dinner. Let s buy some! a. much b. lots of c. many 10. This organisation raises money for the poor. a. plenty of b. a lot c. very I like Grammar B1 7
3 Indefinite ronouns (Αόριστες Αντωνυμίες) Με τις λέξεις some, any, no και every σχηματίζονται οι παρακάτω αόριστες αντωνυμίες: some (σε κατάφαση & ερώτηση) someone (= κάποιος) somebody (= κάποιος) something (= κάτι) somewhere (= κάπου) any (σε ερώτηση & άρνηση) anyone (= κανείς) anybody (= κανείς) anything (= τίποτα) anywhere (= πουθενά) no (σε κατάφαση με αρνητική σημασία) no one / no-one (= κανείς) nobody (= κανείς) nothing (= τίποτα) nowhere (= πουθενά) every (σε κατάφαση & ερώτηση) everyone (= όλοι) everybody (= όλοι) everything (= όλα) everywhere (= παντού) 6. NOTE any + άρνηση = no + κατάφαση There isn t anyone here. = There is no one here. Το some, όπως και τα παράγωγά του χρησιμοποιούνται και σε ερώτηση όταν θέλουμε να προσφέρουμε ή να ζητήσουμε κάτι ευγενικά. Could I ask you something Mr Simmons? Το any και τα παράγωγά του χρησιμοποιούνται και σε κατάφαση αλλά με διαφορετικό νόημα. Call me any (= ό,τι) time you want. Anyone/Anybody (= οποιοσδήποτε) can play this game. You can ask me anything (= ο,τιδήποτε) you like. We ll go anywhere (= οπουδήποτε) you want. Choose and circle. 1. I can t hear nothing / anything. Speak more loudly, please. 2. Someone / Anyone left this letter for you, Kelly. 3. There is everything / nothing in this box. It s empty. 4. Kate was sad because somebody / nobody remembered her birthday. 5. Would you like something / anything to drink, sir? 6. If you solve this exercise for me, I ll do everything / anything you want. 7. Everybody / Nobody attended the charity event. It was a great success! 8. I can t find Ross anywhere / nowhere. Have you seen him? at two o clock at noon at night, at midnight at breakfast, at lunch, at dinner at the moment / at the weekend at Christmas, at Easter 7. Fill in with: repositions of Time (Χρονικές Προθέσεις) somebody - anybody - nobody - somewhere anywhere - nowhere 1. I didn t have fun at the club because there was nobody I knew there. 2. There is nowhere to park here. Let s drive to the car park. 3. Somebody called you while you were having a bath. He left his number. 4. Is anybody joining me at the cinema tonight? 5. My aunt lives somewhere in Australia. 6. We didn t go anywhere last weekend. We stayed in. at in on during (= κατά τη διάρκεια) + noun while (= ενώ, καθώς) + clause (υποκ+ρήμα) in the 13th century in 1984 in (the) summer in the morning, in the evening in May, in October in five hours, in twenty minutes on Wednesday on Friday morning on 3rd February on New Year s Eve, on Christmas day on a hot/cold day on my birthday Ross fell asleep during the film. Ross fell asleep while he was watching the film. 8. Choose and circle. 1. The project will be ready in / at noon. 2. We are leaving on / at Friday night. 3. I took a trip to Brazil on / in August. 4. Jay woke up three times during / while the night. 5. Life was different on / in the 18th century. 8 I like Grammar B1 6. Mum goes skiing in / at the winter. 7. I send cards to my friends on / at Easter. 8. Jim had a garden party on / at his birthday. 9. Mr Robinson is visiting us in / on 6th May. 10. We went to ete s at / on Christmas day.
4 in (για εσωτερικό κλειστών χώρων / τοποθεσίες) in the garden, in the house in bed, in class in France, in the UK/USA in London repositions of lace & Movement (Προθέσεις Τόπου & Κίνησης) on (για μεταφορικά μέσα / επιφάνειες) on the bus/train/plane on the beach/coast (= ακτή) on this floor/the farm on page ten repositions of lace at (για συγκεκριμένα σημεία/κτίρια/ περιβάλλοντα) at the bus stop, at the corner at the station/cinema/theatre at home, at school, at work at the party repositions of Movement to (για κίνηση / κατεύθυνση) ρήμα κίνησης + to France, to the UK, to the cinema to bed, to work, to school to the beach, to the party Eva lives in Athens. BUT Eva is flying to Athens. 9. Fill in with: in - on - at - to 1. Jack stayed in bed all day on Sunday. 2. I wasn t at home yesterday night. 3. My flat is on the second floor. 4. My cousin Fred lives in the UK with his family. 5. You ll find the answer on page twelve. 6. The Lees went to Spain for their summer holidays. 7. I ll meet you at the bus station in an hour. 8. Meg is flying to New York on 6th of 10. March. Fill in with: outside - between - inside among - around - above 1. Oliver sat between Lucy and Gina More repositions of lace above (= πάνω από) My flat is above my parents. inside (= μέσα σε) I ll meet you inside the theatre. outside (= έξω από) I m waiting outside the bank. under (= κάτω από) The cat is sleeping under the table. near (= κοντά σε) There s a sports centre near my house. next to (= δίπλα σε) Nick is sitting next to his girlfriend. beside/by (= δίπλα σε) The hotel is beside/by the sea. in front of (= μπροστά από) There s a big lorry in front of us. behind (= πίσω από) Little Simon is hiding behind that tree. between (= ανάμεσα σε δύο) Who s the boy between Larry and Kay? at the meeting. 2. Let s go inside. It s too cold out here. 3. There s only one pen among all the pencils. 4. We stood outside the shop till it opened. 5. The whole family sat around the table to decide about a serious problem. 6. My mother hung our family picture above the fireplace. among (= ανάμεσα σε πολλά) There s one rose among these lilies. opposite (= απέναντι) The post office is opposite the station. 11. Choose and circle. (a)round (= γύρω από) There s a garden (a)round our school. More repositions of Movement up/down (= πάνω/κάτω) The children are running up/down the stairs. into/out of (= μέσα/έξω) Ken has just gone into/out of the shop. from (= από) I come from a small Greek island. towards (= προς) The boy ran happily towards his mother. along (= κατά μήκος) We often take a walk along the river. across (= κατά πλάτος) Be careful when you walk across the street. through (= διαμέσου) He got in through the broken window. 1. I heard the bell and walked towards / across the door. 2. Sue ran out of / through the room screaming. 3. I walked along / into the noisy street looking at the shops. 4. The kids walked through / across the road when they saw the green light. 5. What time did you come home out of / from work on Monday? 6. Luis had been climbing up / down the hill for three hours before he finally reached the top. I like Grammar B1 9
5 Lesson 6 ast Simple VS resent erfect Simple have been to have gone to have been in USE ast Simple για πράξεις που έγιναν και τελείωσαν στο παρελθόν Lucy lived in Mexico in I lost my cell phone last night. για πράξεις που έγιναν στο παρελθόν και αναφέρεται το πότε The film finished at 9:00 last night. για καταστάσεις και συνήθειες που ίσχυαν στο παρελθόν Sarah often travelled to Belgium when she was a child. για πράξεις που έγιναν από ανθρώπους που δε ζουν πια Michael Jackson sang a lot of great songs. resent erfect Simple USE για καταστάσεις ή πράξεις που ξεκίνησαν στο παρελθόν και συνεχίζονται ή έχουν ορατά αποτελέσματα στο παρόν Lucy has lived in Mexico since I can't call Kyle. I've lost my cell phone. για πράξεις που έγιναν στο παρελθόν χωρίς να αναφέρεται το πότε The film has finished. για εμπειρίες που έχουμε ζήσει μέχρι τώρα Sarah has visited Belgium a few times. για πράξεις που έγιναν από ανθρώπους που είναι ακόμα στη ζωή Beyoncé has sung a lot of great songs. Emma visited aris in TODAY Emma has lived in Madrid for ten years. KEY WORDS/HRASES yesterday, yesterday morning, the day before yesterday, the last time, two days ago, How long ago...?, in the past, in 1999, the other day (= τις προάλλες), when KEY WORDS/HRASES for, since, just, already, never, ever, yet, always, so far, How long...?, once, twice, three/many/a few times, It/This is the first/second time, superlative... + (ever) have been to Xρησιμοποιούμε have been to για να αναφέρουμε ότι κάποιος πήγε κάπου κι έχει επιστρέψει ή δε βρίσκεται πλέον εκεί. Amber has been to Budapest three times. (έχει πάει στο παρελθόν - δε βρίσκεται εκεί τώρα) have gone to Xρησιμοποιούμε have gone to για να αναφέρουμε ότι κάποιος έχει πάει κάπου και είναι ακόμη εκεί, δεν έχει επιστρέψει. Amber isn't here. She has gone to Budapest. (βρίσκεται ακόμη εκεί - δεν έχει επιστρέψει) have been in Xρησιμοποιούμε have been in για να αναφέρουμε ότι κάποιος ζει, μένει ή βρίσκεται κάπου (συνήθως μετά τα for, since, How long...?). Amber has been in Budapest for two years. (μένει εκεί εδώ και δύο χρόνια) I like Grammar B1 29
6 1. Choose and circle a or b. 1. I your boyfriend at the club the other day. a. saw b. have seen 2. Sue the kitchen and the living room so far. a. cleaned b. has cleaned 3. - you Gary for long? - Yes, he s a good friend of mine. a. Did know b. Have known 4. Last night, we pizza at a Violet s house. a. ordered b. have ordered 5. Mr Smith on a business trip in Italy since Monday. a. was b. has been 6. Have I told you that aul for the 2012 Olympic Games? a. volunteered b. has volunteered 7. This is the first time I a mango. It s delicious. a. ate b. have eaten 8. My dad fund-raising events when he was younger. a. organised b. has organised 2. Fill in with the ast Simple or resent erfect Simple. 1. How long ago did Vivian publish (Vivian / publish) her first novel? 2. Oscar dropped out (drop out) of college last month. 3. My parents have had (have) this flat since they got married. 4. Yesterday, the resident visited (visit) the new hospital in our city. 5. Have you seen (you / see) Nora today? I can t find her anywhere. 6. When did eter and Vicky adopt (eter and Vicky / adopt) little Charlie? 7. It s 2:00 in the morning and Simon hasn t come (not come) home yet. 8. I love London! I have lived (live) here all my life. 3. Choose and circle. 1. Rita has been in / has gone to the Maldives for a holiday. 2. Ben has been in / has gone to Spain since he was a teenager. 3. Laura has never been to / has never been in an exotic island. 4. How long has Lia been to / has Lia been in hospital? 5. Have you ever been to / Have you ever gone to a musical? 6. You can t see Mrs Morris now. She has been to / has gone to the bank. 4. Fill in with have been to, have gone to or have been in, in the correct form. 1. My uncle has been in Cairo for four years. 2. Helen is not here at the moment. She has gone to the dentist s. 3. I have just the shops. Would you like to see my new T-shirt? 4. Mr Smith has been in Egypt since last month. 5. Tim left last Monday. He Switzerland. 6. Mary has gone to the mall. She ll be back in half an hour. has gone to been to 7. My family and I have been to / have gone to Barcelona twice so far. 7. I have never Morocco. Have you? been to 8. The kids have gone to / have been in their room since they woke up. 30 I like Grammar B1 8. I have been to lots of countries but Greece is my favourite.
7 5. Choose the sentences closest in meaning to the sentences given. 1. Liz has gone to Berlin. a. Liz went to Berlin but she has come back. b. Liz went to Berlin and she s still there. 3. Vivian has been in Venice for 10 days. a. Vivian came back 10 days ago. b. Vivian is in Venice now. 2. We have had this bookcase since a. We still have this bookcase. b. We don t have this bookcase anymore. 4. Chris has been to Cyprus twice. a. Chris has come back from Cyprus. b. Chris is in Cyprus at the moment. 6. Fill in the text with the ast Simple or resent erfect Simple. The magician we loved in real life VOCABULARY BOX Daniel Jacob Radcliffe was born on 23 July 1989 in west London. He first expressed 1 (express) his love for acting when he was five, and in 1999, he made his acting debut. However, he actually 2 (become) popular all over the world at the age of 11, when he 3 (star) in the first Harry otter film. has always been Daniel 4 (always be) keen on acting and writing and that s why he didn t go to college or university. He has been a fan of rock music and cricket since he 5 (be) a teenager and he 6 became starred was has had (have) a close friendship with his Harry otter co-stars Tom Felton and Emma Watson has supported for years now. In addition, Daniel 7 (support) many charity has raised organisations such as The Trevor roject. Moreover, he 8 (raise) a lot of money by selling some personal stuff, like his jeans and glasses. For all his charity work, Daniel was awarded the Hero Award in Derivatives: Noun suffixes -ion, -ment Για να σχηματίσουμε τα derivatives (= παράγωγα) των λέξεων, χρησιμοποιούμε είτε prefixes (συλλαβή που προσθέτουμε στην αρχή της λέξης) είτε suffixes (συλλαβή που προσθέτουμε στο τέλος της λέξης). Fill in the nouns and complete the sentences with the corresponding words, in their correct form, from column A or column B. A. Verbs B. Nouns decide decision reduce reduction improve improvement educate education develop development inspire inspiration agree agreement suggest suggestion 1. lease let me know your decision by the end of the week. 2. This shop offers price reductions. You can get great bargains there. 3. There has been a great improvement in your work, Ted. Congratulations! 4. It costs a lot of money to educate a child privately in this country. 5. Developments in technology have changed the way we live. 6. Nature can inspire people to do creative things, like write poems. 7. We made an agreement not to talk about work during our holidays. 8. eter suggested going to visit some old friends while we were in aris. I like Grammar B1 31
8 Lesson 14 Adjectives & Adverbs: Comparisons Χρησιμοποιούμε Comparative Degree (= Συγκριτικός Βαθμός) για να συγκρίνουμε δύο ουσιαστικά ή πράξεις μεταξύ τους. Συχνά μετά το επίθετο/επίρρημα σε συγκριτικό ακολουθεί το than (= από). Laura is younger than Nick. Betty drives more carefully than Gabriel. Χρησιμοποιούμε Superlative Degree (= Υπερθετικός Βαθμός) για να πούμε ότι κάποιος ή κάτι έχει ένα χαρακτηριστικό στον ανώτερο βαθμό. Πριν το επίθετο/επίρρημα σε υπερθετικό βαθμό βάζουμε το άρθρο the και συχνά ακολουθούν οι προθέσεις in ή of (in the world, in our class, of all). Laura is the youngest girl in our class. Betty drives the most carefully of all. Degrees of Adjectives Tα περισσότερα επίθετα σχηματίζουν το συγκριτικό και υπερθετικό βαθμό με τις καταλήξεις -er και -est. Adjective Comparative Superlative tall taller the tallest large larger the largest fat fatter the fattest happy happier the happiest Αν το επίθετο είναι πολυσύλλαβο, χρησιμοποιούμε more στον συγκριτικό και the most στον υπερθετικό. Το ίδιο ισχύει και για κάποια δισύλλαβα επίθετα που έχουν καταλήξεις -ing, -ful, -ed και -ous. Adjective Comparative Superlative responsible more responsible the most responsible famous more famous the most famous Aνώμαλοι σχηματισμοί Adjective Comparative Superlative good better the best bad worse the worst many more the most much more the most little less the least far further/farther the furthest/farthest Degrees of Adverbs Ta επιρρήματα που λήγουν σε -ly, σχηματίζουν το συγκριτικό και υπερθετικό βαθμό με more και the most. Adverb Comparative Superlative nicely more nicely the most nicely cleverly more cleverly the most cleverly Μερικά επιρρήματα σχηματίζουν συγκριτικό και υπερθετικό βαθμό όπως τα επίθετά τους. Adverb Comparative Superlative hard harder the hardest fast faster the fastest high higher the highest late later the latest early earlier the earliest Aνώμαλοι σχηματισμοί Adverb Comparative Superlative well better the best badly worse the worst much more the most little less the least far farther/further the farthest/furthest Other Types of Comparison (not) as + adjective/adverb + as (= (όχι) τόσο... όσο) My brother is as tall as your brother. Sally doesn't dance as nicely as Jane. the + comparative..., the + comparative (= όσο πιο... τόσο πιο) The more you practise, the better you perform. comparative + and + comparative (= όλο και πιο...) The weather is getting warmer and warmer. the same as (= ίδιος με) similar to (= παρόμοιος με) My phone is the same as yours. Your T-shirt is similar to mine. less + adjective/adverb the least + adjective/adverb I find history less interesting than geography. Mike behaves the least responsibly of all. A rabbit runs faster than a turtle but a cheetah runs the fastest of all the animals. I like Grammar B1 61
9 1. Fill in with the comparative and superlative degree of the adjectives and adverbs. Adjectives / Adverbs Comparative Superlative 1. well 2. delicious 3. effectively 4. early 5. far 6. hot 7. bad 8. friendly better more delicious more effectively earlier further/farther hotter worse friendlier the best the most delicious the most effectively the earliest the furthest / the farthest the hottest the worst the friendliest 2. Fill in with the comparative or superlative degree of the adjectives or adverbs. 1. I can t say this is the most interesting (interesting) book I ve ever read. 2. Mum is more patient (patient) than dad when she explains things. 3. Our teacher gives us tests more frequently (frequently) than he used to. 4. Ken finished today s test more quickly (quickly) than usual. 5. Let s buy the biggest (big) box of chocolates in the store! 6. Susan arrived the latest (late) of all for the meeting. 7. Andy talks the least (little) of all the kids in class. 8. My sister is definitely lazier (lazy) than me. 3. Underline the mistakes and write your corrections in the spaces provided. 1. Alice is one of the ambitiousest women in the company. 2. Eva is fitter from me. She goes to the gym every day. 3. The more I think about your idea, the most I like it. 4. Larry plays the piano as better as his older brother. 5. Sandra is the less responsible person I ve ever met. 6. The shoes I bought are similar with Mandy s. the most ambitious than the more well the least to 4. Choose and circle a, b, or c. 5. Fill in the synonymous sentences using the words in brackets. Use up 1. My brother is much at history than me. a. better b. well c. good 2. Qatar is the richest country the world. a. than b. in c. of 3. Catherine's coat is similar Madison's. a. as b. with c. to 4. he makes me wait, the angrier I become. a. The more b. The most c. As much 5. You can walk as as you want. There is no need to hurry. a. slow b. slowly c. more slowly to five words. 1. Kate is taller than any girl in my class. (the) Kate is the tallest girl in my class. 2. Timothy's costume was just like mine. (same) Timothy's costume was the same as mine. 3. My painting was bad but Jack's was worse. (as) My painting wasn't as bad as Jack's. 4. Your performance is gradually improving. (better) Your performance is getting better and better. 5. When you re young, you learn more easily. (the) The younger you are, the more easily you learn. 6. people are recycling nowadays. a. Most and most b. More and more c. As more as 62 I like Grammar B1 6. Our coffee machine is almost the same as yours. (similar) Our coffee machine is similar to yours.
10 6. Read the following information about the countries below and write as many sentences as you can using the comparative and superlative degree and other types of comparison. 318 millions Official language: English Visitors: 69 millions Unemployment Rate: 6,1% USA opulation: UK opulation: 64 millions Official language: English Visitors: 29 millions Unemployment Rate: 6,5% 11 millions Official language: Greek Visitors: 19 millions Unemployment Rate: 26,8% GREECE opulation: 1. The UK has got a bigger population than Greece. / Students own answers 2. Greece has got the least population of all. 3. The official language in the UK is the same as in the USA. 4. Greece attracts the fewest visitors per year. 5. The UK attracts less visitors than the USA. 6. The unemployment rate in the USA is not as high as in Greece. 7. The unemployment rate in the UK is similar to that in the USA. 8. Greece has the highest unemployment rate of all. VOCABULARY BOX repositional hrases: in Choose and fill in with the prepositional phrases given. 1. I always pay for my shopping in cash in addition in a mess = ακατάστατος 2. We saw Big Ben in London and Buckingham alace. in addition (to) = επιπλέον with Harry today? He s 3. What s up in a bad mood in advance = εκ των προτέρων 4. Sue and I have a lot in cash = σε µετρητά in common = από κοινού 5. The manager wants to have a meeting new office we are opening next year. in connection with = σχετικά µε is 6. Your room in a mess 7. Let me know in advance in a good/bad mood = σε καλή/ κακή διάθεση in common., we visited., so we get on very well. in connection with the! Tidy it up before you go out! if you want to stay for tonight. I like Grammar B1 63
11 Revision 2 Lessons Write sentences in the resent erfect Simple including the words in brackets. 1. we - have - this car (since 2002) We have had this car since Jennifer - want - to become an actress (always) Jennifer has always wanted to become an actress. 3. they - not finish - their homework (yet) They haven t finished their homework yet. 4. The kids - solve - the puzzle (just) The kids have just solved the puzzle. 5. Ian - perform - in front of large audiences (never) Ian has never performed in front of large audiences. 6. you - be - to Mexico -? (ever) Have you ever been to Mexico? 2. Fill in with the resent erfect Simple or Continuous. 1. Liz has been drawing (draw) all afternoon. 2. We have been learning (learn) English since we were six years old. 3. I have travelled (travel) abroad more than once. 4. You look exhausted. What have you been doing (you / do)? 5. Linda hasn t sent (not send) any s so far. 6. How long have the Browns owned (the Browns / own) that restaurant? 7. Look at the weather! It has been raining (rain) all day How s Ann? - I haven t seen (not see) her for ages. 3. Fill in with the ast Simple or the resent erfect Simple. 1. How long ago did you visit (you / visit) aris? 2. Tony bought (buy) a flat when he was thirty years old. 3. How many times have you tried (you / try) to pass your driving test? 4. I haven t eaten (not eat) anything since last night. I m hungry. 5. My brother didn t go (not go) to bed very late last night. 6. It s the first time I have drive (drive) such a fast car. 7. Did the Titanic sink (the Titanic / sink) in 1912? 8. Our teacher hasn t corrected (not correct) all the tests yet. 38 I like Grammar B1
12 4. Choose and circle. 1. He has been in / has gone to Australia since he was three years old. 2. Susan isn t here now. She has been in / has gone to the supermarket. 3. I have never been to / have never been in Africa. Have you? 4. Mr Cooper has gone to / has been to Rome. Would you like me to take a message? 5. My parents have been to / have been in Germany for ten years. 6. I have gone to / have been to Santorini many times. 7. hil won t be with us at the party. He has gone to / has been to Madrid. 8. How long has Amy been to / has Amy been in her room? 5. Fill in with the ast Simple and the ast erfect Simple or Continuous. 1. By midnight, eter had been surfing (surf) the Net for three hours. 2. They found the keys after they had been looking for (look for) them for hours. 3. Sharon was really hungry because she hadn t eaten (not eat) anything all morning. 4. The bus had left when we got (get) to the bus stop. 5. Before we moved (move) to Athens, we had lived in Crete. 6. I had been driving (drive) for two hours by the time we reached the airport. 7. The kids were tired because they had been studying (study) hard all day. 8. That was the second time I had tasted (taste) Mexican food. 6. Fill in with the correct present tenses. 1. Alice and Mike painted have already (paint) three rooms. 2. Don t make so much noise! The baby is sleeping (sleep). 3. He hasn t won (not win) any races since Easter. 4. How long have they been talking (they / talk) on the phone? 5. Are you leaving (you / leave) for Vienna tomorrow morning? 6. I haven t heard (not hear) from Dylan for ages. 7. This store doesn t open (not open) at nine o clock every day. 8. Does atrick wash (atrick / wash) his car on Sundays? 7. Fill in with the correct past tenses. 1. By 8:00 yesterday evening, they had been chatting (chat) online for two hours. 2. When I saw Kevin, he was lying (lie) on the beach. 3. The kids weren t playing (not play) in the park when it started to rain. They were jogging. 4. How long ago did Mandy meet (Mandy /meet) Alan? 5. Had Dennis done (Dennis / do) his chores before he went out? 6. She had been reading (read) a book for hours before she fell asleep. 7. Monica tidied her room after she had fed (feed) the cat. 8. How long had they been running (they / run) when they stopped for a rest? I like Grammar B1 39
13 8. Fill in the synonymous sentences using the words in brackets. Use up to five words. 1. I had never been to a rock concert until last night. (ever) Last night was the first time I had ever been to a rock concert. 2. I returned home before 6pm. (by) I had returned home by 6pm. 3. When we got home, it had started snowing. (time) It had started snowing by the time we got home. 4. I was exhausted as I only finished working at 11pm. (all day) I was exhausted as I had been working all day without a break. 5. This is the first time I have purchased clothes online. (never) I have never purchased clothes online before. 6. The last time I cooperated with Ross was a month ago. (haven t) I haven t cooparated with Ross for a month. 7. My father won t be long; he s at the bakery. (gone) My father has gone to the bakery but he won t be long. 8. I arrived an hour ago and I m still waiting for them! (have) I have been waiting for them for an hour now! 9. Tick correct or incorrect. Make corrections wherever needed. 1. I have to ride a horse for almost a year. haven t ridden 2. Haven t you finished your breakfast already? You ll be late for school. yet 3. I have lived in this city since Correct Incorrect 4. Andy isn t at home because he has been to the shopping mall with his friends. gone 5. Helen has been on a business trip to Los Angeles last month. was 6. You look fit and healthy! Have you been exercising at the gym? 7. Her eyes were red because she has been crying for fifteen minutes. had 8. Tania is calling Kay because he had wanted to ask her something. wants 10. Choose and circle a, b, c or d. 1. The students in the yard when the results were announced. a. had stood c. have been standing b. have stood d. were standing 2. My sister hasn t seen any of her classmates she left school. a. since c. by the time b. just d. for 3. Johnny Depp start his acting career? a. How long c. How long has b. How long ago did d. How long is it since 4. We bought the house after we for years. a. have been saving c. saved b. had been saving d. had saved 5. Martha and am India a few times. a. have gone to c. have been to b. have been in d. has been to 6. Do you know that Alexander Graham Bell the telephone? a. had invented c. has invented b. invents d. invented 7. - Why do you look so sad? - I with my girlfriend again. a. have been arguing c. argue b. had been arguing d. had argued 8. has it been since they got married? a. When c. How long already b. How long ago d. How long 40 I like Grammar B1
14 Vocabulary 1. Choose and circle a, b, c. 1. After a lot of thought, she came with a solution. a. out b. up c. on 2. I came this pretty vase in town this morning. a. across b. out c. round 3. It was raining hard so the concert was called. a. off b. out c. back 4. Old Mr Clark fainted because of the heat and didn t come for ten minutes. a. out b. on c. round 5. Jo came flu after swimming in the ice-cold lake. a. up with b. down c. down with 6. We checked our luggage at the flight desk and got on our plane. a. out b. in c. on 7. I m going to the shops. Do you want to come? a. along b. into c. down 8. I'm busy at the moment. Can I call you in a bit? a. off b. out c. back 9. We checked of our hotel and left for the airport. a. out b. up c. in 10. The scientist couldn t finish his research because a problem came. a. round b. up c. in 11. The boy called for help when he fell in the river. a. back b. off c. out 12. If my parents go out, they always phone to check on us during the evening. a. in b. up c. out 2. Choose and fill in the correct prepositional phrase. by chance - by himself - by plane - by now - by mistake - by the way 1. Mike is a great chef. He cooked all these meals by himself in less than an hour. 2. Ronnie prefers travelling by plane. It's usually much quicker. 3. Oh, by the way, are you coming to the party tonight? 4. I ran into Brian completely by chance but was happy to see him. 5. Tim should have arrived by now. Where is he? 6. I took your jacket by mistake. Sorry about that! 3. Form nouns with the suffixes -ion or -ment to complete the sentences. 1. arents are responsible for the healthy development of their children. (develop) 2. We finally reached a decision after discussing our plans all night. (decide) 3. Many great artists get their inspiration from the changing moods of the ocean. (inspire) 4. Norman agreed with Sally's suggestion that they should change the date of their wedding. (suggest) 5. There has been a big reduction in traffic in the town centre since the new road was built. (reduce) 6. The government is hoping for an improvement in the national economy later this year. (improve) 7. I believe every child should be given the opportunity to get a good education. (educate) 8. The whole family were in agreement about where to spend their holiday this summer. (agree) I like Grammar B1 41