1 Editorial Team Vicky Nash Jean Vinten Maria Baka Sarah Yu Foteini Bakarou Sofia Simeonidou Eleni Tsismetzi Maria Ioannou ISBN Πληροφορίες - Παραγγελίες Τηλ. Κέντρο: All rights reserved; no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means without the prior written permission of the publisher.
2 Contents LESSONS GRAMMAR pp. Remember 1a Indefinite article a/an Definite article the 5 Remember 1b More about the definite article Subject / Object Pronouns 6 Remember 1c Countries and their adjectives 7 Remember 2a The Imperative / Let s 8 Remember 2b The Verb BE (Present - Past - Future) 9 Remember 2c The Verb Have Got 10 Remember 3a Question words 11 Remember 3b Possessive Adjectives & Possessive Pronouns 12 Remember 3c Possessive Case 13 Lesson 1 Present Simple Lesson 2 Present Continuous Lesson 3 Present Simple vs Present Continuous Non Continuous Verbs Lesson 4 Plurals (Un)Countable Nouns Lesson 5 Prepositions of Place & Movement Lesson 6 Past Simple (Regular Verbs) Writing 1a What is your life like? 26 Writing 1b Describing pictures 27 REVISION 1 (Lessons 1-6 & Fun Break 1) Lesson 7 Past Simple (Irregular Verbs) Lesson 8 Past Continuous Lesson 9 Used to Lesson 10 Degrees of Adjectives Lesson 11 Degrees of Adverbs Lesson 12 Future Simple Writing 2a Stories about the past 46 Writing 2b A day I will never forget! 47 REVISION 2 (Lessons 7-12 & Fun Break 2) Lesson 13 Be Going To + Verb Lesson 14 Future Tenses Lesson 15 Prepositions of Time Lesson 16 (Full / Bare) Infinitive Lesson 17 Gerund Lesson 18 Be / Get Used To Writing 3a What are you going to do when you grow up? (informal s) 66 Writing 3b Going to the ballet 67 REVISION 3 (Lessons & Fun Break 3) twice the fun 2
3 LESSONS GRAMMAR pp. Lesson 19 Present Perfect Simple - Affirmative (Regular Verbs) Lesson 20 Present Perfect Simple - Interrogative & Negative (Regular Verbs) Lesson 21 Present Perfect Simple (Irregular Verbs) Lesson 22 Have Been In / To, Have Gone To Lesson 23 Present Perfect Simple vs Past Simple Lesson 24 Time Clauses (Present - Future) Writing 4a Have you ever? 86 Writing 4b My end-of-year report 87 REVISION 4 (Lessons & Fun Break 4) Lesson 25 Present Perfect Continuous Lesson 26 MODALS (1): must / have to - can - be able to / could Lesson 27 MODALS (2): may / might / shall / should / ought to Lesson 28 Too & Enough Lesson 29 Zero & First Conditional Lesson 30 Second Conditional Writing 5a What should I do? (asking for and giving advice) 106 Writing 5b Apologising 107 REVISION 5 (Lessons & Fun Break 5) Lesson 31 Question Tags Lesson 32 Relative Pronouns Lesson 33 Relative Clauses Lesson 34 Passive Voice - Present Simple (Affirmative) Lesson 35 Passive Voice - Past Simple (Affirmative) Lesson 36 Passive Voice - Interrogative & Negative Writing 6a It was a film which I really enjoyed 126 Writing 6b The Three Little Pigs 127 REVISION 6 (Lessons & Fun Break 6) Word List Verbs & Tenses 142 Irregular Verbs 143 Yearly Lesson Plan 4 twice the fun 2 3
4 YEARLY LESSON PLAN 1 Remember lessons 1a, b & c (AB) 2 Remember lessons 2a, b & c (AB) 3 Remember lessons 3a, b & c (AB) 4 Lesson 1 Welcome back! (CB) - Present Simple (AB) 5 Lesson 2 Internet Chat - Present Continuous (AB) 6 Lesson 3 Joining the gym (CB) Present Simple vs. Present Continuous (AB) 7 Lesson 4 Happy birthday grandma! (CB) Plurals - (Un)countable Nouns (AB) 8 Lesson 5 Edinburgh Castle (CB) Prepositions of Place & Movement (AB) 9 Lesson 6 Haunted Castles (CB) Past Simple (Regular) (AB) 10 Fun break 1 (CB) - Writing project 1a (AB) 11 Writing project 1b (AB) Revision 1: Fill in & revise, Vocabulary exercises (AB) 12 Revision 1: Grammar exercises (AB) 13 TEST 1 14 Lesson 7 A Canadian thanksgiving (CB) Past Simple (Irregular) (AB) 15 Lesson 8 A birthday surprise (CB) - Past Continuous (AB) 16 Lesson 9 An old-fashioned love story (CB) - Used to (AB) 17 Lesson 10 How self-confident are you? (CB) Degrees of Adjectives (AB) 18 Lesson 11 A big brother s advice (CB) Degrees of Adverbs (AB) 19 Lesson 12 Exotic pets (CB) - Future Simple (AB) 20 Fun break 2 (CB) - Writing project 2a (AB) 21 Writing project 2b - Revision 2: Fill in & revise, Vocabulary exercises (AB) 22 Revision 2: Grammar exercises (AB) 23 TEST 2 24 Lesson 13 Who s going to be Juliet? (CB) Be going to (AB) 25 Lesson 14 World Vision (CB) - Future Tenses (AB) 26 Lesson 15 The story of Monopoly (CB) Prepositions of Time (AB) 27 Lesson 16 Social networking (CB) Full & Bare Infinitive (AB) 28 Lesson 17 African Safari Park (CB) - Gerund (AB) 29 Lesson 18 Strange English stuff (CB) Be / Get used to (AB) 30 Fun break 3 (CB) - Writing project 3a (AB) 31 Writing project 3b - Revision 3: Fill in & revise, Vocabulary exercises (AB) 32 Revision 3: Grammar exercises (AB) 33 TEST 3 * CB = Coursebook AB = Activity Book 34 Lesson 19 Computer trouble (CB) Present Perfect Simple Affirmative (Regular) (AB) 35 Lesson 20 The Have you ever? game (CB) Present Perfect Simple Interrogative - Negative (AB) 36 Lesson 21 A ride on Rotten Row (CB) Present Perfect Simple (Irregular) (AB) 37 Lesson 22 Have you ever been to China? (CB) Have been in / to, Have gone to (AB) 38 Lesson 23 The world s richest people (CB) Present Perfect Simple vs Past Simple (AB) 39 Lesson 24 Extreme sports for kids (CB) Time clauses (Present - Future) (AB) 40 Fun break 4 (CB) - Writing project 4a (AB) 41 Writing project 4b - Revision 4: Fill in & revise, Vocabulary exercises (AB) 42 Revision 4: Grammar exercises (AB) 43 TEST 4 44 Lesson 25 Chinese New Year (CB) Present Perfect Continuous (AB) 45 Lesson 26 Can we go to Paris? (CB) - Modals (1) (AB) 46 Lesson 27 Pick a card, any card (CB) Modals (2) (AB) 47 Lesson 28 Jimmy s bright ideas (CB) Too & Enough (AB) 48 Lesson 29 An amazing world of wax (CB) Zero & First Conditional (AB) 49 Lesson 30 World Wide Fund for Nature (CB) Second Conditional (AB) 50 Fun break 5 (CB) - Writing project 5a (AB) 51 Writing project 5b - Revision 5: Fill in & revise, Vocabulary exercises (AB) 52 Revision 5: Grammar exercises (AB) 53 TEST 5 54 Lesson 31 Save our planet (CB) - Question Tags (AB) 55 Lesson 32 A cautionary tale - Relative Pronouns (AB) 56 Lesson 33 The world of martial arts (CB) Relative Clauses (AB) 57 Lesson 34 Strange food from around the world (CB) Passive Voice (Present Simple Affirmative) (AB) 58 Lesson 35 A haunted theme park (CB) Passive Voice (Past Simple Affirmative) (AB) 59 Lesson 36 End-of-year fund raiser (CB) Passive Voice (Interrogative - Negative) (AB) 60 Fun break 6 (CB) - Writing project 6a (AB) 61 Writing project 6b - Revision 6: Fill in & revise, Vocabulary exercises (AB) 62 Revision 6: Grammar exercises (AB) 63 TEST 6
5 Indefinite article a / an Definite article the Remember! 1a The indefinite article (a / an) (Το αόριστο άρθρο (α / an)) Το αόριστο άρθρο a / an (= ένας, μία, ένα) χρησιμοποιείται πριν από ουσιαστικά ενικού αριθμού όταν μιλάμε γενικά γι αυτά. Βάζουμε το a πριν από ουσιαστικά που αρχίζουν από σύμφωνο (a number, a letter, a knife, a party), ενώ το an μπροστά από ουσιαστικά που αρχίζουν από φωνήεν (an ant, an egg, an idea, an omelette). Σύγκριση: an elephant BUT a big elephant Προσοχή στo u και το h: a university BUT an umbrella a hamburger BUT an hour The definite article (the) (Το αόριστο άρθρο (the)) Γνωρίζεις, ήδη, ότι το οριστικό άρθρο the (= ο, η, το, οι, τα) μπαίνει πριν από ουσιαστικά (ενικού και πληθυντικού αριθμού) όταν μιλάμε συγκεκριμένα γι αυτά. The boy in your garden is my son. Μάθε, όμως, και μερικές άλλες χρήσεις του οριστικού άρθρου, όπως οι παρακάτω: 1. πριν από οποιοδήποτε ουσιαστικό που είναι μοναδικό (the sun, the sea, the sky). 2. πριν από ποταμούς (the River Amazon), ωκεανούς (the Pacific Ocean), θάλασσες (the Mediterranean Sea), οροσειρές (the Himalayas), ερήμους (the Gobi Desert), ενωμένα κράτη (the United Kingdom), ομάδες νησιών (the Bermudas), etc. 3. πριν από εφημερίδες (the Times), μουσικά όργανα (the piano), ξενοδοχεία (the Carlton Hotel), πλοία (the Titanic). 4. πριν από εθνικότητες (the French, the Greeks) και ονόματα οικογενειών στον πληθυντικό (the Nortons). 5. πριν από ουσιαστικά ενικού αριθμού που δηλώνουν ένα είδος. The dolphin is a mammal. 6. πριν από επίθετα υπερθετικού βαθμού (the tallest), ή επίθετα που χαρακτηρίζουν μια ομάδα (the elderly). 1. Fill in with a or an. 1. We have idea. It s good idea. 2. A hippo is a big animal. 3. This is a history book. It s an old book. 4. He has an old house in a small village. 5. There s an apple and a cake in the fridge. 6. Can I have an ice cream and a sandwich? 7. He wears a uniform. He s an electrician. 8. I need an egg to make an omelette Is it an Indian or an Irish song? - Actually, it s a Spanish dance! 10. Look! It s an owl. It s a baby owl. 2. Fill in with a, an or the. 1. Meg is teacher and Ian is actor. an a a 2. There s helicopter in sky. 3. The Beckhams are on holiday in the USA. 4. The / Α fox is a clever animal. 5. You re the best dad in the world! 6. The Times is a daily newspaper. 7. The Sahara Desert isn t in the UK. 8. We must be there in an hour and a half. 9. The cello is a musical instrument. 10. The book on the table is Gerry s. 11. I want to see the Brooklyn Bridge and the Statue of Liberty. 12. He works in a big city in the UK. 13. Big Ben is a tower with a big clock. 14. The / A dog is a very friendly pet. 15. The Greeks are very proud of the Parthenon. a the an twice the fun 2 5
6 Remember! 1b More about the definite article Subject / Object Pronouns More about the definite article Αφού έμαθες πότε χρησιμοποιείται το οριστικό άρθρο the, μάθε και πότε ΔΕ χρησιμοποιείται: 1. πριν από ουσιαστικά στα οποία αναφερόμαστε γενικώς: I like fish. (BUT: The fish we ate was tasty.) 2. μπροστά από τις δεικτικές αντωνυμίες (this / that / these / those), τα κτητικά επίθετα (my, your, ) και τις κτητικές αντωνυμίες (mine, yours,...). 3. μπροστά από κύρια ονόματα (Ben), πόλεις (London), χώρες (Denmark), ηπείρους (Asia), γλώσσες (English). 4. με μαθήματα (history), αθλήματα (basketball), γεύματα (lunch), παιχνίδια (chess). 5. πριν από ημέρες (Friday), μήνες (March), και γιορτές (Easter). Προσοχή: I play tennis. BUT: I play the piano. 1. Fill in with the, where necessary. 2. Fill in with a / an, the or -. The/ Fruit / fruit in that shop is very fresh London is on the river Thames. 3. Wendy really loves - ice cream France is famous for - its wine. 5. The Alps are in the continent of Europe. 6. The Acropolis is in - Athens. 7. Ian likes - golf but Tom likes - tennis. 8. Are - his trainers in - that box? 9. Pam plays the violin and Jo plays the piano. 10. I always send - cards at - Christmas. Subject & Object Pronouns Οι προσωπικές αντωνυμίες (ονομαστικής πτώσης) μπαίνουν μπροστά από τα ρήματα, ως υποκείμενά τους και λέγονται subject pronouns. Δείχνουν ποιος κάνει την ενέργεια του ρήματος. I wake up at 7:00. / She meets Tom every day. Αντίστοιχα, οι προσωπικές αντωνυμίες (αιτιατικής πτώσης) μπαίνουν μετά από τα ρήματα, ως αντικείμενά τους και λέγονται object pronouns. Δείχνουν σε ποιον / τι πηγαίνει η ενέργεια του ρήματος. Wake me up at 7:00. / Tom meets her every day. 3. Fill in with subject or object pronouns. 1. This is my pen. Give it back to me, please. 2. The kids are in their room now. They are studying. 3. Ted s a very nice guy. Everyone likes him. 4. We re hungry. Can you make us some pizza? 5. My sister is not coming with us. She is busy. 6. Where are my keys? I can t find them. 7. Mr Kent isn t American. He is from Sydney. 8. There s Jonathan. Let s go and talk to him. 9. Our cat looks thirsty. Let s give it some water. 10. Where s Linda? We ve got a present for her. 11. Steve and I are friends. We often go out together. 12. Good morning, Mrs Smith. How are you today? 6 twice the fun 2 1. Do you know Mr Cole? 2. My house has a garden and a garage. 3. I speak - English. I live in the UK. 4. The Star Hotel is very big and luxurious. 5. There s a T-shirt on your bed. Is it yours? 6. - Sunday is my favourite day. 7. I don t like - chicken but I love - pizza! 8. - Where s - my shirt? - In the wardrobe. 9. The Nile is the longest river in the world. 10. The Lees are going to Paris at - Easter. 4. Subject Pronouns Object Pronouns I (εγώ) me (εμένα, με) you (εσύ) you (εσένα, σε) he (αυτός) him (αυτόν, τον) she (αυτή) her (αυτήν, την) it (αυτό) it (αυτό, το) we (εμείς) us (εμάς, μας) you (εσείς) you (εσάς, σας) they (αυτοί, -ές, -ά) them (αυτούς, -ές, -ά / τους, τις, τα) Rewrite the sentences using subject and object pronouns. 1. My brothers never tidy their room. They never tidy it. 2. Sally is playing chess with Jason. She is playing it with him. 3. Alan and I will help Tina. We will help her. 4. Eric didn t feed the dogs. He didn t feed them. 5. Betty broke the vase. She broke it. 6. My friends are talking to Max. They are talking to him.
7 Countries and their adjectives Remember! 1c Countries and their Adjectives Οι χώρες και τα επίθετά τους Θυμήσου ότι οι χώρες στα αγγλικά δεν παίρνουν άρθρο. Δηλαδή λέμε: Greece / France is a European country και όχι The Greece / The France. Σε κάθε χώρα αντιστοιχεί ένα επίθετο, που γράφεται πάντα με κεφαλαίο το πρώτο γράμμα και έχει τρεις χρήσεις: 1. Εθνικότητα (προέλευση προσώπων) He / She is Greek. (Έλληνας, -ίδα) He / She is French. (Γάλλος, -ίδα) 2. Επίθετο προέλευσης πραγμάτων Α Greek / French school (ελληνικός, -ή, -ό / γαλλικός, -ή, -ό) 3. Γλώσσα I can speak Greek / French (ελληνικά / γαλλικά). Οι γλώσσες δεν παίρνουν άρθρο και είναι πάντα ενικού αριθμού. Greek is a European language. (= Τα ελληνικά είναι μία ευρωπαϊκή γλώσσα.) Δε λέμε: The Greek are Choose and circle. 2. Choose and fill in. 1. Steve s parents are. a. England b. English 2. Ross is on holiday in now. a. France b. French 3. Is there a school here? a. Greece b. Greek 4. Rome is the capital of. a. Italy b. Italian 1. Christine s from Paris. She is French. 2. Athens is the capital of Greece. 3. Can you write your name in Swedish? 4. There are a lot of countries in Europe. 5. They have got a house in Spain. 6. Can you and Tim speak Italian? 7. My mum s best friend is German. (France / French) (Greece / Greek) (Sweden / Swedish) (Europe / European) (Spain / Spanish) (Italy / Italian) (Germany / German) 5. Sven s mother is. a. Sweden b. Swedish 6. Pablo can speak. a. Spain b. Spanish 7. The language is difficult. a. German b. Germany 8. Greece and Italy are in. a. European b. Europe 9. Volos is a city. a. Greece b. Greek 10. Let s visit. a. Turkey b. Turkish 3. Answer the questions. 1. Are you English? Students own answers. 2. Is Paris the capital of Germany? 3. Is your dad Greek? 4. Are there a lot of countries in Europe? 5. Is your mum s best friend French? 6. Can you speak Italian? twice the fun 2 7
8 Remember! 2a The Imperative / Let s The Imperative (Προστακτική) Για να σχηματίσουμε την προστακτική, βάζουμε μόνο το βασικό ρήμα χωρίς υποκείμενο πριν από αυτό. Be careful! Go away! Στην άρνηση προσθέτουμε μόνο το don t πριν από το ρήμα. Don t open her purse! Don t be late again! Μαζί με την προστακτική, μπορούμε να βάλουμε τη λέξη please (= παρακαλώ), στην αρχή ή στο τέλος της πρότασης, όταν θέλουμε να είμαστε πιο ευγενικοί. Give it to Mr Stevenson, please. Please don t call Peter after Fill in with the imperative. brush - give - tell - open - don t worry - help - be - put don t park - don t open - don t talk - take - don t drive 1. Put the words in the correct order. 2. Please don t open the window. It s cold. 3. Take an umbrella with you. 4. Brush your teeth, children! 5. Don t talk now. I m listening to the news. 6. Give me my glasses, please. 7. Please be quiet, Kelly! 8. Don t park your car in front of my house. 9. Please don t drive so fast along this street. 10. Help me with these bags, please. 11. Open your books on page 10, please. 12. Don t worry about me. I m OK. 13. What s wrong? Tell me all about it. Let s (not) + ρήμα Όταν θέλουμε να προτείνουμε σε κάποιους να κάνουμε κάτι μαζί χρησιμοποιούμε το let s με κάποιο ρήμα. Στην άρνηση λέμε let s not + ρήμα. Let s go! = Ας πάμε / Πάμε! Let s play! = Ας παίξουμε! Let s speak English now! = Ας μιλήσουμε αγγλικά τώρα! Let s not do this! = Ας μην το κάνουμε αυτό! 2. Choose and fill in with: Let s - Let s not + make stay go watch buy eat 1. We re hungry. Let s eat some pizza. 4. It s mum s birthday today. Let s make a cake. 2. I m not well. Let s not go out tonight please. 5. There is nothing on TV. Let s watch a DVD. 3. It s beautiful outside. Let s not stay in the 6. Grandma s not well. Let s buy her some house. flowers. 3. Find and match. 1. It s very cold today. 2. I can t do this exercise. 3. Jenny is Australian. 4. The teacher is here. 5. We are very thirsty. 6. I can t play basketball. b d a f c e a. Speak English to her. b. Don t swim in the sea. c. Let s drink some water. d. Help me please. e. Let s play tennis then. f. Don t talk now. 8 twice the fun 2
9 The Verb BE (Present - Past - Future) Remember! 2b The verb BE (Present - Past - Future) Θυμήσου πώς σχηματίζεται το βοηθητικό ρήμα BE στον Ενεστώτα, τον Αόριστο και το Μέλλοντα. Μελέτησε τους παρακάτω πίνακες: AFFIRMATIVE PRESENT (είμαι) I am / I m you are / you re he is / he s she is / she s it is / it s we are / we re you are / you re they are / they re PAST (ήμουν) I was you were he was she was it was we were you were they were FUTURE (θα είμαι) I will / I ll be you will / you ll be he will / he ll be she will / she ll be it will / it ll be we will / we ll be you will / you ll be they will / they ll be NEGATIVE - INTERROGATIVE - SHORT ANSWERS I m not, you aren t, he isn t, we aren t am I, are you, is she? Yes, I am. No, I m not. I wasn t, you weren t, he wasn t, we weren t was I, were you, was she? Yes, I was. No, I wasn t. I won t be, you won t be he won t be, we won t be will I be, will you be, will she be? Yes, I will. No, I won t. 1. Fill in with the verb be in Present, 2. Give short answers to the questions. Past or Future. 1. Our teacher was ill yesterday. 2. Is she on the phone now? 3. Dennis will be back in two hours. 4. Look! The cat is on the roof. 5. Were they in Athens last week? 6. I will be eleven next Friday. 7. They were late yesterday morning. 8. He wasn t (not) in his office an hour ago. 9. My parents aren t (not) here right now. 10. Will you be at work tomorrow? 11. Are the tourists at the museum? 12. Will your aunt be here on Sunday? 13. I wasn t at home last night. 14. Wow! Tony s father is a pilot Were you at school yesterday? - Yes, I was Is your mother Chinese? - No, she isn t Will dad be at home on Sunday? - Yes, 4. - Were you at Sam s party last night? - No, I wasn t / we weren t Is my book on the desk? - Yes, 6. - Will you be at the cinema tonight? - Yes, 7. - Was the baby ill yesterday? - Yes, 8. - Are you a good student? - No, 9. - Will mum be at work tomorrow? - No, Were the children quiet? - Yes, Are you and Tim in Mrs Cooper s class? - Yes, Will Ron be here tomorrow? - No, Was I the last to arrive? - Yes, Is he the new maths teacher? - No, it is. I m not. he was. they were. you were. he will. I / we will. she won t. he won t. he isn t. we are. 15. I will be in Paris next month Will you be in London next week? - Yes, I / we will. twice the fun 2 9
10 Remember! 2c The Verb Have Got The verb HAVE GOT (=έχω) Affirmative I have/ ve got you have/ ve got he has/ s got she has/ s got it has/ s got we have/ ve got you have/ ve got they have/ ve got Interrogative have I got...? have you got...? has he got...? has she got...? has it got...? have we got...? have you got...? have they got...? Negative I haven t got you haven t got he hasn t got she hasn t got it hasn t got we haven t got you haven t got they haven t got Short Answers Για να δώσουμε μια σύντομη απάντηση σε ερώτηση με have got, βάζουμε Yes / No, την προσωπική αντωνυμία και το have(n t) / has(n t) χωρίς το got. - Have you got a red pen? - Yes, I have. / No, I haven t. 1. Fill in with the correct form of have got. 1. Paul (not) a new CD player. 2. Meg and I have got a small flat. 3. Has she got a sports car? 4. Rex and Ken haven t got (not) a laptop. 5. Have we got any apple juice? 6. Our house hasn t got (not) four bedrooms. 7. He hasn t got (not) a black jacket. 8. Have you got a swimming pool? 3. hasn t got 1. I have got an old piano. Answer as in the example. Rewrite with the short forms of have got. 2. Phil has not got a bike. 3. We have got six dogs! 4. Anna has got a good job. 5. They have not got a car. 6. She has got two black cats. 7. You have not got a radio. 8. My dad has got blue eyes. No I haven t. I ve got a car. I ve got an old piano Have you got a motorbike? (car) Has she got a dog? (cat) - No, she hasn t. She s got a cat Have they got a new house? (old house) - No, they haven t. They ve got an old house Has Alan got blue eyes? (green eyes) - No, he hasn t. He s got green eyes Has your house got a garden? (balcony) - No, it hasn t. It s got a balcony Have you got a sister? (brother) - No, I haven t. I ve got a brother. 2. Phil hasn t got a bike. We ve got six dogs! Anna s got a good job. They haven t got a car. She s got two black cats. You haven t got a radio. My dad s got blue eyes. BE or HAVE GOT? Προσοχή στο τρίτο ενικό (he, she, it) των ρημάτων BE και HAVE GOT, γιατί οι τύποι μοιάζουν. Παρατήρησε τα παρακάτω παραδείγματα: He s an architect. (= He is...) BUT He s got a son. (= He has got...) She s here now. (= She is ) BUT She s got a new dress. (= She has got ) 4. Write the sentences in full form using is or has. 5. Find and write. ( s = is or s = has) He is twelve years old. s = has It has got four legs. s = is She has got long hair. s = has She is afraid of mice. s = is It is nice here in the winter. s = is He has got a red suitcase. s = has She is really hungry. s = has He has got two dogs. s = is 1. He s twelve years old. 2. It s got four legs. 3. She s got long hair. 4. She s afraid of mice. 5. It s nice here in the winter. 6. He s got a red suitcase. 7. She s really hungry. 8. He s got two dogs. 10 twice the fun 2 1. My dad s got brown hair. 2. Tom s a good student. 3. This cat s got green eyes. 4. Maria s a good friend. 5. Her mother s a teacher. 6. Ben s got a new CD player. 7. My mum s got an old car. 8. Christine s from France.
11 Question words Remember! 3a Question Words (Ερωτηματικές Λέξεις) Οι question words (ερωτηματικές λέξεις) μπαίνουν στην αρχή των ερωτήσεων και τις χρησιμοποιούμε για να μάθουμε πληροφορίες σχετικές με: πρόσωπα ή πράγματα (who - whom - whose - what), χώρο (where), χρόνο (when), αιτία (why), τρόπο (how). Who (= Ποιος, -α, -οι, -ες) Who(m) (= Ποιον, -α, -ους, -ες) Whose (= Τίνος, Ποιανού) Χρησιμοποιούνται μόνο για πρόσωπα και είναι ονομαστικής, αιτιατικής και γενικής πτώσης αντίστοιχα. - Who is this man? - It s the maths teacher. - Who(m) do you like? - Patricia. - Whose is this suitcase? - It s Kate s. What (= Τί) - Χρησιμοποιείται για ζώα ή πράγματα. - What s this / that? - It s a rabbit. Where (= Πού) - Where are my glasses? - They re on the table. When (= Πότε) - When is he coming back? - On Monday. Why (= Γιατί) - Why is he sleeping? - Because he s tired. How (= Πώς) - How are you? - I m fine, thanks. 1. Choose and circle. 1. is his mother from? a. When b. Where c. Why 2. are you planning for the weekend? a. What b. Who c. Whose 3. are those blue boots? a. When b. Whose c. Why 4. old are her parents? a. What b. When c. How 5. is their new English teacher? a. Who b. Why c. When 6. didn t she cook dinner? a. How b. Who c. Why 7. will you go on holiday? a. Who b. Where c. What 8. is this motorbike? a. Whose b. Who c. When 9. did you invite to the party? a. Whose b. What c. Who 10. is the capital of Scotland? a. What b. How c. When 2. Match the answers to the questions. d 1. - Who called you? a. - In the fridge When did he leave? c b. - It s a toy Why are you here? h c. - On Friday Whose laptop is this? e d. - Samuel Where is the milk? a e. - It s Mona s Who(m) did he see? g f. - It was fantastic How was the party? f g. - Roberta What s in the box? b h. - I want to talk to you. 3. Fill in with the correct question word. why - how - what - whose - who - where - when Who 1. is Liz talking to? 2. Where did you go yesterday? 3. Why are you asking? 4. Whose car is this? 5. What are you doing tomorrow? 6. How many apples do you want? 7. When are they coming? 4. Write the questions for these answers, using the word given What s your name? (name) - My name is Jill How do you feel? (feel) - I feel sick Who is this woman? (woman) - It s my sister Where is the post office? (post office) - It s opposite the bank Whose are these / those jeans? (jeans) - They re mine. twice the fun 2 11
12 Remember! 3b Possessive Adjectives & Possessive Pronouns Possessive Adjectives - Possessive Pronouns (Κτητικά Επίθετα - Κτητικές Αντωνυμίες) Για να δηλώσουμε σε ποιον ανήκει κάτι βάζουμε ένα κτητικό επίθετο (possessive adjective) πριν από το ουσιαστικό. Προσέχουμε ότι δε χρησιμοποιούμε άρθρο μαζί με τα κτητικά επίθετα. The Her daughter is very tall. The His name is David. Οι κτητικές αντωνυμίες (possessive pronouns) δείχνουν και αυτές σε ποιον ανήκει κάτι, αλλά χρησιμοποιούνται στη θέση του ουσιαστικού, έτσι ώστε αυτό να μην επαναληφθεί. Πρόσεξε τα παρακάτω παραδείγματα: - Is this her notebook? - Yes, it s hers. (Ναι, είναι δικό της.) - Are these your boots? - Yes, they re mine. (Ναι, είναι δικές μου.) Possessive Adjectives my (μου) your (σου) his (του) her (της) its (του) our (μας) your (σας) their (τους) Possessive Pronouns mine (δικός μου) yours (δικός σου) his (δικός του) hers (δικός της) - ours (δικός μας) yours (δικός σας) theirs (δικός τους) Βλέπουμε, λοιπόν, ότι όταν χρησιμοποιούμε τις κτητικές αντωνυμίες δεν ακολουθεί ποτέ κάποιο ουσιαστικό, γιατί αυτό εννοείται. Ενώ, μετά από τα κτητικά επίθετα πάντα υπάρχει και κάποιο ουσιαστικό που προσδιορίζεται από αυτά. This is my hat. It s mine. 1. Fill in with the possessive adjectives or pronouns Is this your jacket? - No, it isn t mine Are these his sisters? - Yes, they re his Are those their children? - Yes, they re theirs. 4. Molly and I have got a pet. It s ours. 5. This isn t my bag. Mine is the blue one Are these your hamburgers? - No, they aren t ours Is this Sally s bike? - Yes, it s hers. 8. This isn t their car. Theirs is the black one. 9. This isn t our laptop. Ours is pink. 10. That is my aunt. Her name is Helen. 2. Choose and circle. 1. They ve got a cat. Their / Theirs cat is cute. 2. He s got a green pen. My / Mine pen is red Is this her pencil? - Yes, it s her / hers. 4. Are they yours / your parents? 5. His book is great. Hers / Her isn t so interesting. 6. They ve got a new flat. Their / Theirs flat is big Are these your boots? - Yes, they re my / mine. 8. Is Robert ours / our new classmate? 9. - Are these glasses your / yours? - No, they re dad s Is this the baby s toy? - No mum, it s my / mine. 3. Choose and circle. 1. What are those people saying? I can t hear. a. they b. their c. them 2. My brother is sick. He isn t coming with. a. us b. we c. ours 3. Your house is next to! a. mine b. my c. me 4. This laptop belongs to Eva. The TV is also. a. her b. hers c. she 5. Ben is leaving. Is he taking car? a. he b. him c. his 6. Some of these books are mine and some are. a. yours b. your c. you 7. Why doesn t anyone here want to play with? a. I b. mine c. me 8. This can t be Mary s diary. never leaves it open. a. She b. Hers c. Her 9. Our parrot can t talk but can sing! a. its b. it c. our 10. There goes Sarah. Can t you see? a. hers b. she c. her 12 twice the fun 2
13 Possessive Case Remember! 3c Possessive Case (Γενική Κτητική) Γενική κτητική 1. Όταν βάζουμε s στα κύρια ονόματα και ακολουθεί ουσιαστικό, λέμε σε ποιον ανήκει το ουσιαστικό. This is Tom s room (= αυτό είναι του Tom το δωμάτιο). Το ίδιο γίνεται και με ουσιαστικά που περιγράφουν πρόσωπα ή ζώα. π.χ. the boy s bike (= του αγοριού το ποδήλατο), my dog s toys (= του σκύλου μου τα παιχνίδια), κτλ. 2. Αν όμως έχουμε ουσιαστικό σε πληθυντικό με κατάληξη -s, (π.χ. boys, dogs) και θέλουμε να μιλήσουμε για κάτι που τους ανήκει, βάζουμε ΜΟΝΟ την απόστροφο ΧΩΡΙΣ το s. π.χ. the boys bikes = των αγοριών τα ποδήλατα, my dogs toys = των σκύλων μου τα παιχνίδια, κτλ. ΑΛΛΑ: σε ανώμαλους πληθυντικούς χωρίς κατάληξη -s, ισχύει ο πρώτος κανόνας, π.χ. the children s books. 3. Όταν θέλουμε να πούμε ότι κάτι ανήκει σε ΔΥΟ πρόσωπα, βάζουμε s στο ΔΕΥΤΕΡΟ πρόσωπο. This is Mary and John s house = σημαίνει ότι το σπίτι ανήκει και στους ΔΥΟ (και στη Mary, και στον John). 4. Όταν όμως μιλάμε για πράγματα που ανήκουν σε δύο πρόσωπα και όπου το ΚΑΘΕ πρόσωπο έχει το ΔΙΚΟ ΤΟΥ, βάζουμε s ΚΑΙ ΣΤΑ ΔΥΟ πρόσωπα. These are Mary s and John s cars = σημαίνει ότι ο καθένας έχει από ένα αυτοκίνητο. ΠΡΟΣΕΞΕ να μη μπερδεύεις το s της Γενικής Κτητικής με το s = is ή το s = has. This is John s room. John s ten years old. ( s = is) John s got a cat. ( s = has) Are these your jackets? 2. - Are the red shoes Mary s? 3. - Is this notebook mine? 4. - Is it Tom s ball? 5. - Is that Jim and Ted s cat? 6. - Is it Julie s car? 7. - Are these George s clothes? 8. - Are these your parents coats? 2. Find and match. d g e b c a h f a. - Yes, it s hers. b. - Yes, it s his. c. - Yes, it s theirs. d. - No, they re not ours. e. - No, it isn t yours. f. - Yes, they are theirs. g. - Yes, they re hers. h. - No, they aren t his. Fill in with the possessive case of the nouns with one or two s or. Dave and Ned s 1. Dave and Ned have got a big sister. This is big sister. 2. Dad has got a brother and mum has got a brother, too. These are dad s and mum s brothers. 3. My brothers and sisters live on the same farm together. This is my brothers and sisters farm. 4. Bob has got a cat and Tony has got a dog. Those are Bob s and Tony s pets. 5. Mr Black and his wife have got a flower shop. This is Mr Black and his wife s flower shop. 6. My uncle and aunt have got horses and sheep. Look at my uncle and aunt s animals. 7. The boys have got great toys. The girls have got great toys, too. I really like the boys and girls toys. 3. Fill in with s = is, s = has or P.C. (possessive case). is P.C. has 1. The cat s drinking some milk. s = 2. This is John s house. s = 3. Mum s got a new hat. s = 4. Tim s got a new bike. s = 5. Amy s doll is new. s = has P.C. 6. My mother s cooking a delicious meal. s = 7. These are Julie s trainers. s = 8. Andrew s got a difficult problem. s = 9. Mark s motorcycle is orange. s = 10. My brother s playing with the dog. s = is P.C. has P.C. is twice the fun 2 13
14 Lesson 1 Present Simple Read and learn. Grammar Theory Present Simple (Απλός Ενεστώτας) Affirmative I travel you travel he travels she travels it travels we travel you travel they travel Interrogative do I travel? do you travel? does he travel? does she travel? does it travel? do we travel? do you travel? do they travel? Negative I don t travel you don t travel he doesn t travel she doesn t travel it doesn t travel we don t travel you don t travel they don t travel Short Answers Οι σύντομες απαντήσεις του Present Simple σχηματίζονται με Yes / No, την αντίστοιχη προσωπική αντωνυμία και τα do(n t) / does(n t). - Do they play tennis? - Yes, they do. / No, they don t. - Does she wake up early? - Yes, she does. / No, she doesn t. Spelling Rules 1. Στην κατάφαση του 3 ου ενικού (he, she, it), το ρήμα έχει κατάληξη -s. come > comes, cook > cooks, stop > stops 2. Τα ρήματα που τελειώνουν σε -ss, -sh, -ch, -x, -o, στο 3 ο ενικό, παίρνουν την κατάληξη -es. kiss > kisses, brush > brushes, watch > watches, fax > faxes, go > goes 3. Στα ρήματα που λήγουν σε σύμφωνο και -y, το y γίνεται i και μπαίνει η κατάληξη -es. cry > cries, try > tries, fly > flies BUT: play > plays, say > says USE O Present Simple χρησιμοποιείται κυρίως: 1. για συνήθειες ή πράξεις που επαναλαμβάνονται συχνά I usually walk to school. 2. για γενικές αλήθειες ή φυσικά φαινόμενα It never snows in Cairo. 3. για μόνιμες καταστάσεις They live in Toronto. 4. για δρομολόγια και προγράμματα The school bus leaves at Time Adverbs / Expressions every day / night / evening / week / year in the morning / (the) summer at / (mid)night / dinnertime / weekends / Christmas on Sunday evening(s) / weekdays / 16 th July after / before school / breakfast / our lesson once / twice a day, three times a week Adverbs of Frequency usually, sometimes, often, always, never, rarely Tα επιρρήματα συχνότητας μπαίνουν: πριν από το κύριο ρήμα. We usually go to the gym at She sometimes eats fish. I often wake up early in the morning. They rarely visit her. μετά από τα βοηθητικά ρήματα. John is sometimes late for school. I don t often eat fish. John has never got time to talk to me. 14 twice the fun 2
15 1. Fill in with the Present Simple. (-s, -es or -ies?) 4. Fill in the questions and give answers as in the example. 1. Samantha usually comes (come) home late at night. Does 2. Andrew goes swim (go) to work by train. 3. My sister always studies (study) hard for her exams. fast? - run No, she doesn t. She runs very fast. 4. Brenda spends (spend) her money on clothes. 5. Fay brushes (brush) her teeth twice a day. 1. Dora (swim) very 2. Does the train leave (leave) 6. Dad returns (return) from work at 5 o clock. at 6.00? - arrive 7. She never watches (watch) reality shows. No, it doesn t. 8. He often tidies (tidy) his bedroom on Saturdays. It arrives at 6: Mary s baby cries (cry) a lot. 3. Do you drive (drive) to 10. Joe faxes (fax) a lot of letters at work. London? - fly No, I don t. 2. Fill in with the Present Simple of the verbs. move takes 1. The Parkers (move) house every three years. 2. Diana s son (take) karate lessons on Mondays. 3. We spend (spend) our holidays in Spain every I fly to London. 4. Do they play (play) football? - play golf No, they don t. They play golf. summer. 5. Does your uncle paint (paint) 4. Fiona speaks (speak) good German and Spanish. houses? - fix cars 5. Jason and Liam often go (go) skiing in the No, he doesn t. winter. He fixes cars. 6. The twins wash (wash) their father s car on 6. Does she work (work)? Sundays. - go to college 7. The bus to London leaves (leave) at No, she doesn t. 8. Sarah writes (write) to her cousins every week. She goes to college. 3. Fill in with the Present Simple. (P -? - O) 5. Rewrite the sentences as in the example. Do drink 1. you (drink) juice with your breakfast? doesn t rise works 2. The sun (not rise) in the west. 3. Gina (work) as a secretary here. 4. Does Mr Palmer teach (teach) maths? 5. Sharon doesn t ride (not ride) her old bike any more. 6. We always watch (watch) the 8 o clock news all together. 7. Do you often take (take) the bus? 8. They don t read (not read) a newspaper every day. 9. My sister never plays (play) computer games. 10. The kids usually drink (drink) milk for breakfast. 1. We go to the theatre. (often - on Saturdays) We often go to the theatre on Saturdays. 2. She goes camping. (sometimes - at weekends) She sometimes goes camping at weekends. 3. Alan has a big breakfast. (always - in the morning) Alan always has a big breakfast in the morning. 4. We are sleepy. (always - in the morning) We are always sleepy in the morning. 5. Ned plays on his computer. (never - after school) Ned never plays on his computer after school. 6. They visit their aunt Ann. (usually - twice a week) They usually visit their aunt Ann twice a week. twice the fun 2 15
16 Lesson 2 Present Continuous Read and learn. Grammar Theory Present Continuous (Ενεστώτας Διαρκείας) Affirmative I am / m leaving you are / re leaving he is / s leaving she is / s leaving it is / s leaving we are / re leaving you are / re leaving they are / re leaving Interrogative am I leaving? are you leaving? is he leaving? is she leaving? is it leaving? are we leaving? are you leaving? are they leaving? Negative I am not / m not leaving you are not / aren t leaving he is not / isn t leaving she is not / isn t leaving it is not / isn t leaving we are not / aren t leaving you are not / aren t leaving they are not / aren t leaving Spelling Rules Βλέπουμε ότι για να σχηματίσουμε τον Present Continuous χρησιμοποιούμε το βοηθητικό ρήμα be (am / is / are) και το ρήμα με την κατάληξη -ing. Πρόσεξε τους παρακάτω κανόνες ορθογραφίας: 1. Τα μονοσύλλαβα ρήματα που τελειώνουν σε σύμφωνο - φωνήεν - σύμφωνο διπλασιάζουν το τελευταίο σύμφωνο και παίρνουν την κατάληξη -ing. jog + -ing > jogging, stop + -ing > stopping Εξαίρεση: travel + -ing > travelling, begin + -ing > beginning ΠΡΟΣΟΧΗ! Τα χ, y, w δε διπλασιάζονται fax + -ing > faxing, play+ -ing > playing, chew + -ing > chewing 2. Όταν το ρήμα λήγει σε -e και πριν απ αυτό υπάρχει σύμφωνο, τότε φεύγει το -e και μπαίνει η κατάληξη -ing. make + -ing > making BUT: see + -ing > seeing 3. Αν το ρήμα τελειώνει σε -ie, τότε φεύγει το -ie, στη θέση του μπαίνει y και ακολουθεί η κατάληξη -ing. lie + -ing > lying Short Answers Σχηματίζουμε τις σύντομες απαντήσεις του Present Continuous με Yes / No, την αντίστοιχη προσωπική αντωνυμία και με τα am (not) / is(n t) / are(n t). - Is Jess playing with his toy cars? - Yes, he is. / No, he isn t. - Are the children eating lunch? - Yes, they are. / No, they aren t. USE Ο Present Continuous χρησιμοποιείται: για πράξεις που γίνονται τη στιγμή που μιλάμε. Mum is cooking dinner now. The children are watching TV. για πράξεις που γίνονται προσωρινά για αυτή τη χρονική περίοδο. I am learning to play the guitar. Toby is staying with his grandparents. Time Adverbs / Expressions (right) now, at the moment, this week / year, today, etc. He s working at the moment. Be quiet, she s resting now. They re staying with Ken this week. 16 twice the fun 2
17 1. Fill in with the Present Continuous. are waiting 1. The children (wait) for their school bus. 2. Thelma and Alex are watching (watch) an adventure film. 3. Dennis is swimming (swim) in the pool. 4. My cousin is dancing (dance) with Carol s brother. 5. Look! The kids are fixing (fix) their bikes. 6. Be careful! You are standing (stand) on my foot. 7. Your son is lying (lie) on the floor. 8. I can t go out with him. I am studying (study) for my exams. 9. Mum and dad are travelling (travel) to Paris. 10. Gemma is sewing (sew) a new dress for her party. 2. Form sentences with Present Continuous. (P -? - O) 1. P Anna (send) an to her friend.? O 2. P Alison and Fred are jogging (jog) in the park.? O 3. P Your mother is making (make) a fruit cake.? O 4. P The sun is shining (shine) again.? O 5. P Mr Watkins is staying (stay) at a small hotel.? O is sending Is Anna sending an to her friend? Anna isn t sending an to her friend. Are Alison and Fred jogging in the park? Alison and Fred aren t jogging in the park. Is your mother making a fruit cake? Your mother isn t making a fruit cake. Is the sun shining again? The sun isn t shining again. Is Mr Watkins staying at a small hotel? Mr Watkins isn t staying at a small hotel. 3. Rewrite in the correct order. 4. Ask questions and give answers as in the example. 1. watching / good / Are / film / now/ you / a /? Are you watching a good film now? 2. hard / is / this / working / not / week / He / very /. He is not working very hard this week. 3. salad / She / the / is / moment / making / a / at /. She is making a salad at the moment. 4. they / Are / afternoon / a / this / meeting / having /? Are they having a meeting this afternoon? 5. the / not / the / is / rabbit / He / feeding / moment / at /. He is not feeding the rabbit at the moment. 6. a / today / Am / lesson / I / piano / having /? Am I having a piano lesson today? Is 1. Nelson (skate) right now? swim skating No, he isn t. He s swimming. 2. Are your schoolmates studying (study)? play No, they aren t. They re playing. 3. Is Erica painting (paint) a picture? draw No, she isn t. She s drawing. 4. Are you cooking (cooking) dinner? relax No, I m not. I m relaxing. 5. Is Mark talking (talk) on the phone? watch TV No, he isn t. He s watching TV. 6. Are they playing (play) chess? listen to a CD No, they aren t. They re listening to a CD. twice the fun 2 17