1 PROJECT MANAGEMENT WORKSHOP BEHAVIORAL AND CONTEXTUAL PERSPECTIVES IN COMPLEX PROJECTS HAU Kostas Theofanides
2 The Dimensions of the Project Mgr - Planning and organizing - Control -Technical/professional knowledge - Oral communication - Listening - Written communication - Sensitivity - Group leadership - Job motivation - Analysis - Judgment - Initiative The true determinants of successful project management are related to people management. All the technology of the world cannot overcome poor leadership, motivation, communication skills, team building, etc
3 Weighting of Competence ranges at IPMA levels A, B, C and D Contextual Behavioral Technical Competence ranges IPMA level A % IPMA level B % IPMA level C % IPMA level D % Technical Behavioral Contextual
4 Technical competences Τεχνικες Επάρκειες 1.01 Project management success Επιτυχία διοίκησης-διαχείρισης έργου 1.02 Interested parties Ενδιαφεροµενα µερη 1.03 Project requirements and objectives Απαιτησεις και στοχοι του εργου 1.04 Risk & opportunity Κινδυνοι και ευκαιριες 1.05 Quality Ποιοτητα 1.06 Project organisation Οργανωτική δοµή έργου 1.07 Teamwork Οµαδικη εργασια 1.08 Problem resolution Επιλυση προβληµατων 1.09 Project structures οµες εργου 1.10 Scope & deliverables Αντικειµενο και παραδοτεα 1.11 Time & project phases Χρονος και φασεις εργου 1.12 Resources Ποροι 1.13 Cost & finance Κοστος και χρηµατοδοτηση 1.14 Procurememt & contract Προµηθειες και συµβασεις 1.15 Changes Αλλαγες 1.16 Control & reports Ελεγχος και αναφορες 1.17 Information & documentation Πληροφορηση και τεκµηριωση 1.18 Communication Επικοινωνια 1.19 Start-up Έναρξη Έργου 1.20 Close-out Ολοκλήρωση Έργου
5 Behavioural competences Επάρκειες Συµπεριφοράς 2.01 Leadership Ηγεσια 2.02 Engagement & motivation έσµευση & Παρακίνηση 2.03 Self-control Αυτοελεγχος 2.04 Assertiveness Πειστικότητα 2.05 Relaxation Εκτόνωση 2.06 Openess εκτικότητα 2.07 Creativity ηµιουργικοτητα 2.08 Results orientation Επικέντρωση στα αποτελέσµατα 2.09 Efficiency Αποδοτικότητα 2.10 Consultation ιαβουλευση 2.11 Negotiation ιαπραγµατευση 2.12 Conflicts & crisis Επίλυση συγκρούσεων & κρίσεων 2.13 Reliability Αξιοπιστια 2.14 Values appreciation Εκτίµηση διαφορετικών αντιλήψεων 2.15 Ethics Ηθική
6 Contextual competences Επαρκειες πλαισιου 3.01 Project orientation Προσανατολισµός διαχείρισης µε βάση τα έργα 3.02 Programme orientation Προσανατολισµός διαχείρισης µε βάση το 3.03 Portofolio orientation Προσανατολισµός διαχείρισης µε βάση τo 3.04 Project, programme, portofolio (PPP) implementation Υλοποιηση εργου, προγραµµατος,χαρτοφυλακιου (ΕΠΧ) 3.05 Permanent organisation Μόνιµη οργανωτική δοµή 3.06 Business Επιχειρηµατική διάσταση 3.07 Systems, products & technology Συστηµατα, προιοντα και τεχνολογια 3.08 Personnel management ιοικηση προσωπικου 3.09 Health, security,safety & environment (HSSE) Υγιεινη, προστασια, ασφαλεια και περιβαλλον (ΥΠΑΠ) 3.10 Finance Χρηµατοοικονοµικα 3.11 Legal Νοµικα
7 Behavioral competences 2.01 Leadership
8 Leadership styles The PM must know what leadership styles exist and decide which one is the appropriate for : - the project - the team being managed - the dealing with senior management - the dealing with the interested parties - in all type of situations The leadership style includes : - patterns of behavior - communication methods - decision making process - amount and type of delegation
9 Leadership tasks in projects providing information agreeing on objectives and tasks distribution quality control and feedback making decisions resolving conflicts motivating the team members promoting learning developing both teams and individuals Leadership styles in projects Decision made by supervisor Decision made by the team Authoritarian Patriarchal Advisory Consultative Participative Delegative Cooperative
10 The aim of Leadership Task Team Individual The leader should develop and coach the team towards a common target by fulfilling the needs of individuals Task, Team and Individuals need to be interlinked. When a PM faces problems and difficult situations, has to think how this triangle works The needs of individuals : MASLOW pyramid The achievement of a task keeps the team strong and the individual happy. If the team is weak, the performance towards the task is low and the individual Εµπειρία satisfaction decreases
11 Leadership-Management difference : Ethos Logos Pathos LOGOS : Try to convince the subordinates by the logic of the situation ETHOS : is the Leader's basic set of values and beliefs towards which he motivates others to work PATHOS : Is the leader's relationship with the team Once the manager has won support for his or her personal values and the values of the project (ETHOS), and once the people work well together as a team (PATHOS), then the team members are Εµπειρία open to persuasion on individual issues that need resolving on the project (LOGOS)
12 Leadership-Management contrasting roles : Leadership role Top management Leadership Ask strategic questions Management Reply operational questions Senior management Generate answers to those questions Implement organizational changes to realize the strategy Generate detailed plans to achieve operational stability Maintain systems and controls Management role Operational management Work through relationships and inspiring others Work through hierarchies and formal authority It is leadership activity rather than Management which represents a core capability. Leadership is a necessity Εµπειρία at every organizational level.
13 Leadership vs Management. - focus on people and relations - focus on processes and tasks - open mind - stable viewpoint - interest on the big - interest in details - think out of the box - follow the rules and boundaries - decide quickly - need time and data to decide - develop teams - direct and control people Leadership is the art of mobilizing others to want to struggle for shared aspirations (Kouzes and Posner, 1995) Leadership is a sacred trust earned through the respect of others. (Gosling & Mintzberg, 2003)
14 Team Performance Forming Storming Norming Performing
15 Team lifecycles in projects Informal structures in teams Start Team formation Team building Teamwork Team dissolving End Informal role Performer Analyzer Integrator Controller Follower Worker Focus in the team Pushes through own opinion Develops solutions Develops the relationships in the team Controls time and progress Avoids conflicts Performs the work
16 Behavioral competences 2.02 Engagement and motivation
17 «...when you want something very much, the whole universe will conspire to achieve it.» «The Alchemist» - Paoulo Coelio
18 MASLOW s hierarchy of needs achievement esteem belonging People as they satisfy a low level need, that reduces in importance and they become motivated by the next. Knowledge workers look to satisfy their protection needs for esteem and achievement. This leads to five new factors for effective sustenance motivation : PURPOSE : People must believe in the importance of their work and that it contributes to the development of the organization PROACTIVITY : People want to manage their own career development. Emphasizing the achievement of results than roles, gives subordinates to seek own development. PROFIT SHARING : Allowing people to share in the entrepreneurial culture encourage them to value it. PROGRESSION : People in the top of Maslow pyramid value the opportunity for learning experience and new skills. PROFESSIONAL RECOGNITION : Knowledge workers do not want the anonymity of the bureaucrat, they want to receive due recognition.
19 MASLOW s hierarchy of needs at work environment Max use of abilities Promotion & recognition Interpersonal relationships Job security, health insurance Basic pay People have different needs at different times Offer employees a choice of rewards Do not rely too heavily on financial rewards Herzberg found out that the higher level needs really motivate people Intrinsic Motivation : The source of the motivation that comes from actually engaging in the behavior. Extrinsic Motivation : The source of the motivation is the consequences of the behavior and not the behavior itself.
20 The Motivation model Need Unfulfilled need which we desire to meet Motivation Search for ways to satisfy the need Behaviors Choose a behavior intended to satisfy the need Feedback Reward informs you whether behavior worked and should be used again Rewards Satisfy needs
21 Behavioral competences 2.03 Self control
22 Behavioral competences 2.04 Assertiveness
23 Behavioral competences 2.05 Relaxation
24 Behavioral competences 2.06 Openness
25 Openness key competence Johari Window help people better understand their interpersonal communication and relationships. Feedback (receive information from others about yourself) Known to Others Known to Self Unknown to Self Disclosure (tell others about yourself) Open Area Blind Area Unknown to Others Hidden Area Unknown Area
26 Openness key competence Johari Window Turtle Open Area Blind Area Interviewer Open Area Blind Area Hidden Area Unknown Area Hidden Area Unknown Area Silent observer: Neither seeks nor gives feedback Irritating to others no reciprocation Bull Open Area Hidden Area Blind Area Unknown Area Transparent Open Area Hidden Area Blind Area Unknown Area Tell others what they think and feel, but don t ask hear what others say and feel. People open up, self-disclose freely
27 Behavioural competences 2.07 Creativity Shortcut to creativity.pps.lnk
28 ηµιουργικότητα (creativity) 2
29 Characteristics of creative people Intelligence Intelligent people recognize the significance of small bits of information and are able to connect them in imaginative ways Persistence Drives intelligent people to continue developing and testing after others have given up. It is based on a high need for achievement and a moderate or high degree of self-confidence Knowledge Experience Inventive thinking style Creative thinkers are divergent thinkers and risk takers. They are not bothered working with ambiguous information or making mistakes. Don t like to abide by rules or status and are unconcerned about social approval of their actions
30 Behavioral competences 2.08 Results orientation
31 MARS model of individual behavior and results - Direction - Intensity -Persistence Values Personality Perceptions Emotions and attitudes Stress Motivation - Aptitudes (physical, mental) - Capabilities (skills, knowledge) Ability Tasks, priorities, behaviors Situational factors Behaviors and results Role perceptions - Personality and values are the most stable characteristics. - Emotions, attitudes and stress are more fluid. - Individual perceptions and learning usually lie somewhere between.
32 Role perceptions - Beliefs about what tasks to perform - Beliefs about relative importance of tasks - Beliefs about preferred behaviors to accomplish tasks Situational factors Environmental conditions beyond the individual s shortterm control that constrain or facilitate - behavior - time - people - budget - work facilities
33 Behavioral competences 2.09 Efficiency
34 Efficient Project Management : authority, responsibility, accountability Authority can be established through legal documentation ( de jure authority) and through the possession of knowledge, skills and attitude ( de facto authority). It comes from the organizational position occupied by the individual and is delegated from a higher level in the organization. The ability to exercise de facto authority is dependent on the competency of the individual. Knowledge + Skills + Attitude = Competency Familiarity, awareness, comprehension acquired by study or experience The ability to apply knowledge A state of mind or feeling (authority and responsibility)
35 RACI Chart : A structured tool to assign responsibilities on project tasks RACI CHART Υπευθυνοι Eργασιες ΝΚ ΓΓ ΚΤ ΑΝ ΒΣ ΧΞ R = Responsible = The individual who must do the task Α = Αccountable = The person who assumes liability for the completion of the task R A C I Μελετες R C Α C I Αδειες R A C/I Προυπολογισµος R A I Συµβασεις A R C I Εκσκαφες A I Κατασκευη A I I Επιβλεψη στατ R/A Επιβλεψη ΗΜ R/A C I Πληρωµες I R A C = Consulted = The person who should be consulted for the task Ι = Informed = The individual who should be informed for the task
36 Efficient Project Management : Monitoring by KPIs or management by Cybernetics? Managing by Tasks or by Milestones? Manage by Inputs or by Outputs?
37 Τα 6 Thinking Hats (Ed. de Bono) Κάθε 'Thinking Hat "είναι και διαφορετικό στυλ σκέψης : White Hat: Eπικεντρώνεται στα στοιχεία και πληροφοριες που είναι διαθέσιµες. Εντοπίζει κενα στις γνώσεις του και προσπαθει να τις συµπληρώσει. Αναλύει προηγούµενες τάσεις, καί προσπαθει να προεκτείνει τα ιστορικά στοιχεία. Red Hat: Σκέφτεται και αποφασίζει µε διαίσθηση και συναίσθηµα. Προσπαθεί να σκεφτεί πως θα αντιδράσουν οι άλλοι µεσα απο συναισθήµατα. Black Hat: Βλέπει τα πράγµατα απαισιόδοξα, ψαχνει να βρει γιατι δεν θα λειτουργήσουν οι λυσεις. Εντοπιζει τα αδύνατα σηµεία. Ειναι χρήσιµη συµπεριφορά διοτι βοηθά τους αλλους να εντοπίσουν έγκαιρα και να λύσουν τα προβλήµατα. Yellow hat: Βλέπει τα πράγµατα αισιόδοξα ακοµη καιοτανειναισεδυσκολία. Σκέφτεται θετικά, βλέπει τις ευκαιρίες και οχι τα προβλήµατα Green hat : Eιναι ανοικτός σε ιδέες και κριτική, εχει δηµιουργική σκέψη, βρίσκει λύσεις στα προβλήµατα. Blue hat: Σκέφτεται την διαδικασία, συντονίζει, προεδρεύει. Οταν στερεύουν οι ιδεες συµπεριφέρεται µε το πράσινο καπέλο. Σε απρόσµενες καταστάσεις φορά το µαύρο καπέλο.
38 Τα 6 Thinking Hats (Ed. de Bono) Τρόπος εφαρµογής για αποτελεσµατικό decision making : Συνήθη meetings : Oi συµµετέχοντες φοράν ο καθενας το δικο του καπέλο, διαφωνούν, οι δηµιουργικές ιδέες πνίγονται, ο καθένας θέλει να επιβάλει το δικό του τρόπο σκέψης µε αποτέλεσµα τα meetings ειναι χρονοβόρα, χωρίς κατάληξη, χωρίς να προκύπτει πάντα η καλύτερη λύση, και µε συχνές προσωπικές αντιπαραθέσεις που πλήττουν την συνοχή της οµάδας. Meetings κατά Ed. debono : Oι συµµετέχοντες υπό τον συντονισµό ενός Blue, φορούν όλοι µαζί και για συγκεκριµένοι διάστηµα το ίδιο καπέλο, µε σειράτοπράσινο καπέλο, µετά το άσπρο, το µαύρο, το κίτρινο, κλπ, και σκέφτονται όλοι µε τον ίδιο τρόπο. Έτσι επιταχύνουν τις αποφάσεις, εξετάζουν όλα τα ενδεχόµενα, βρίσκουν τις βέλτιστες λύσεις και η συνοχή της οµάδας ενισχύεται..
39 ...αποτελεσµατική επικοινωνία Ευεξία - ιανοητική (ενδιαφέροντα) - Συναισθηµατική (αυτοπεποίθηση) - Πνευµατική (ηρεµία) - Φυσική (ενέργεια, διατροφή, άσκηση, ύπνος) 55% φυσιολογία (physiology) 8% λέξεις (words) 37% τόνος (tone) Ισορροπία : σώµαπνεύµα-ψυχή
40 Behavioral competences 2.10 Consultation
41 Behavioral competences 2.11 Negotiation
42 The smart negotiation approach Benefit for you Low High Lose-win Win- win Lose-lose Win-lose Low High Benefit for me In a efficient negotiation each side tries to move the case from a win-lose or lose- win to a win-win one, by extending the application to a broader scope. Examples : 1 : 2 : 3 :
43 Behavioral competences 2.12 Conflicts and crisis
44 Behavioral competences 2.13 Reliability
45 Behavioral competences 2.14 Values appreciation
46 Results dependency on Values Αποτελέσµατα (results) Αντιλήψεις (perceptions) Eενέργειες (actions) Aξιες- πιστεύω (values-believes)
47 Behavioral competences 2.15 Ethics
48 Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Refers to an organization's moral obligation toward all of its stakeholders (Shareholders, customers, suppliers, governments, other groups of vested interest in the organization) Economic As part of CSR many companies have adopted the triple bottom line philosophy : aim to be profitable in the market place (economic) but also to improve conditions for society as well as physical environment. Social Environmental CSR is receiving a lot of attention but in many organizations the rhetoric runs well ahead of actions. Spheres of sustainability
49 PROJECT MANAGEMENT Preparation Seminar for IPMA Certification Contextual competences
50 The contextual competences Contextual competences Describe the promotion of PPP in an organization Describe what Support Functions and Project Teams should know about each other Project orientation Programmed orientation Portfolio orientation Project, programmed, portfolio (PPP) implementation Permanent organization Business Systems, products & technology Personnel management Health, security, safety & environment (HSSE) Finance Legal
51 Contextual competences 3.01 Project orientation
52 What is project orientation: -The orientation of organizations to managing by projects -The development of project management competence Above have direct impact on the success of the project Projects differ substantially from the normal operation of organizations. It is likely that an organization manages by projects in order to be effective, to grow and change to compete in its market place, while normal line functions and operations are managed mainly for efficiency.
53 Contextual competences 3.02 Programmed orientation
54 What is a programmed: A set of related projects and organizational changes put in place to achieve a strategic goal and to deliver the benefits that the organization expects...an instrument to implement strategic change What is programmed orientation: decision to apply the concept managing by programmers and the development of the competence in programme management. The characteristics of a programme : - Some of the project in the programme have not been identified at start of programme - Later projects in the programme depend on the output of an earlier project - The contents are subject to large variations - Constantly monitor the relevance of projects within the programme in relation to the strategy
55 Contextual competences 3.03 Portfolio orientation
56 What is a portfolio: A set of projects and/or programmes which are not necessarily related, brought together for the sake of control, coordination and optimization, as they draw on a common pool of scarce resources. The organization should break down its strategy into the definition of the KPIs and their assigned weightings, to reflect the strategy. Each project and/or programme is assessed on the basis of the KPIs to check its continuing relevance..portfolio management aligns the portfolio to the goals of the organization and prioritizes all projects and programmes Frequently applied tools in Portfolio management : - Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) - balanced scorecard - common format reports - Executive summary report - Integrated project management information systems - Portfolio management office - priority setting committee
57 Contextual competences 3.05 Permanent organization
58 Traditional project organizations -2 characteristic Influence org Matrix org Pure org The PM has Staff function Authority for WHAT,WHEN, HOW MUCH All formal authority Competences needed INFORMAL: expertise, experience, personal relationships, friendships, proximity to power, personal charisma Flexibility, cooperation, coordination, conflict resolution FORMAL : Direct, control, manage Org cost low Low-medium high Where PMs report To the line mgr in permanent org Depending on the issue To the PM Where PMs work In their dpmts Any place At project room Staffing easy easy difficult Decision making speed slow medium fast Resources Utilization high medium/high Not guaranteed Concentration to the project Little medium high
59 New project organization models Empowerment : - further development of Matrix org - transfer to team member the HOW and HOW WELL authority - transfer to team the WHAT, WHEN and HOW MUCH authority - the Dpmt mgr becomes Expert pool mgr and retains the WHO authority Virtuality : - Working in different locations/time - cooperation of several orgs - optimal use of core competences - unconscious project culture - common ICT infrastructure - qualification of members for virtual cooperation Integration : - team members represent different orgs (customers, suppliers, etc) - detachment of org structures from contractual structures - optimized business case, holistic project view - apply uniform pm approach, single PM - trust, openness, open-book, win-win - avoid conflicts Partnering : - strategic project alliances goes further than integrated project org - supported by contractual provisions common incentive scheme - common project objectives - risk and gain sharing
60 Contextual competences 3.06 Business
61 Business This competence element covers the impact of business issues on managing PPP and vice-versa. This includes the information needed on both sides to ensure that issues are properly addressed and that the results from PPP are aligned with business needs. In order to be fully effective and efficient, PM needs to fit into the business environment. PPP management are linked to and should enable the organisation's strategy. The start-up accounts for 30% of the project's success. Start-up is also the point to : - motivate and engage all interested parties and participants - discuss and accept the business case - develop first project plan - perform the first risk analysis -include legal/regulatory aspects and investigate which influence the project or programme.
62 Contextual competences 3.09 Health, Security, Safety, Hygiene (HSSE)
63 Safety The safety considerations concern : - the protection of people from death or major injury in the various project phases (construction, operation/use of the product, disposal). A formal hazard and operability ('hazop') study should be carried out to determine what the safety issues are and how they should be addressed. For safety as well as for security it is helpful to distinguish between issues and risks that relate to the organisation, its infrastructure, information, intellectual property and products and those applicable to people.
64 Environment Protection of the environment is increasingly important, with main issues : - global warming - pollution (ground-water-air) - depletion of natural resources, - energy efficiency and energy conservation These factors need to be taken into account in all the project phases (development, implementation, operation/use, decommissioning and disposal). In designing the product and its manufacturing processes, the team needs to consider : - what materials will be used, - how much energy is required to produce the item, - how much CO2 or other greenhouse gases will be emitted, - whether there are waste material disposal issues (materials can be recycled, are biodegradable, or will cause pollution at the end of the product's life) In using the product, its environmental impact should be minimised in terms of energy efficiency, emissions, and waste disposal. Internal and independent external auditing processes should operate within the organisation covering all issues related to HSSE
65 By reducing unsafe conditions we eliminate Eliminate Fatalities &DAFW. Above the line are Painful!!! Injuries, First aid Fatality DAFW ,000 10, , ) Near Miss Unsafe Acts & Condition