Discourse Analysis and Interpretation: A Test Case in Matthew 24 25

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1 ÖREBRO MISSIONSSKOLA Örebro Theological Seminary Discourse Analysis and Interpretation: A Test Case in Matthew Annika Ralston AA 2552 Exam paper NT Exegesis 15hp Spring term 2008 Supervisor: ThD Tommy Wasserman

2 ABSTRACT This essay is arguing that discourse analysis is a necessary tool for exegesis, and can help confirm or refute our intuitive decisions regarding text structure. By doing a thorough analysis of Matthew (the Olivet Discourse) the essay attempts to demonstrate that certain linguistic signals tend to co-occur with section and paragraph boundaries. Sentence connectives such as conjunctions are particularly useful in structuring discourse, as they guide and constrain how the discourse should be processed. Other important factors are genre and the difference between mainline and supportive material. A structure of the discourse will be presented and compared to alternative structuring suggestions made by a selection of translators and exegetes. This essay seeks to demonstrate the importance of taking discourse features into account in exegesis and Bible translation. 2

3 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am grateful to Dr Stephen Levinsohn of SIL International for his advice and input when I selected the text and wrote the theoretical framework. In spite of a heavy schedule of teaching and international travel, he always found time to respond promptly to my questions. I have attempted to build my analysis on his work and that of Dr Robert Dooley. They are not, however, in any sense responsible for the conclusions I have drawn in this study. I also want to thank my supervisor, Dr Tommy Wasserman, for his interest, encouragement and constructive suggestions at every stage of this study. Finally, thanks to my husband Hamish, who has taken on many extra responsibilities at home during this period of study and also proof-read the final manuscript, and to my children, Elise and Daniel, who at times have found the limited access to Mum (and the computer) hard. 3

4 CONTENTS Acknowledgements 1 Introduction Background Purpose Material and method Definitions Delimitations Theoretical framework A functional approach Discourse organisation and cognitive processes Mental representations, coherence, cohesion and cohesive ties Thematic groupings and thematic discontinuities Genre Order of constituents Conjunctions Points of departure, focus and emphasis Points of departure Focus and emphasis Boundary features Analysis Genre Mainline and supportive material Illustrations and narrative passages The seven main theses Structure Section breaks Thematic groupings é and ο ν in illustrations and parables Comparison with other literature Modern translations Commentaries Discussion and conclusions...42 Bibliography...44 Appendix: Chart of the Greek Text

5 1 Introduction 1.1 Background My interest in discourse analysis developed while I was working in the Philippines and was studying a language called Brooke s Point Palawano. There were three segments occurring in nominal phrases, which could not be directly translated, nor did they seem to have a syntactic function. I was thus forced to seek a different explanation to their presence, and came to the conclusion, after following a few red herrings, that one of the segments marked the most important person, object or place at that point in the narrative and the other two emphasis or background information. That which grammatical analysis, understanding of the vocabulary, and knowledge of the local culture could not explain, was resolved by the help of discourse analysis. One of my motives for learning the language was getting involved in the translation of the New Testament into Brooke s Point Palawano, and though I was unable to fulfill that intention, I realised that a translation that failed to organise the text by the help of these discourse features would be lacking in clarity or even convey the wrong meaning. Since then I have become aware that other languages, including Koiné Greek, have their own strategies for helping the listener or reader process a discourse. This means that anyone translating from one language to another must analyse the discourse level in both the source language and the target language, in order to transfer that layer of information which exists beyond the grammar and syntax of individual sentences. 1.2 Purpose My purpose is to demonstrate the necessity of taking the discourse level into account when structuring and translating a text. Especially, I want to show that discourse analysis provides us with tools to help solve some of the problems that traditional exegesis finds it hard to deal with in a satisfactory manner. 1 To achieve this purpose I will analyse a specific text and examine: (1) How is the discourse level marked in the text? (2) Are some levels of meaning lost without discourse analysis? (3) Will discourse analysis influence the way we structure the text? 1 See Carson, 1984, p491(regarding the structure of Matthew 24) and p500 (the interpretation of ο ν). 5

6 1.3 Material and method My material is the NA 27, different Bible translations, commentaries, books and articles. The purpose of the reading is to gain a deeper understanding of the subject, rather than comparing different theories on discourse analysis. My intention is to do a thorough discourse analysis of the text and compare the result with how it has been structured in various commentaries and Bible translations. Finally, I will summarise my findings and draw my own conclusions Definitions So far, I have used a number of concepts without defining them, but I am well aware that discourse analysis occurs in many contexts, and has various connotations. A discourse, as I define it, is a well defined, clearly delimited unit of speech or writing. It could be a conversation, a novel, a legal document or a monologue. I approach the subject from a linguistic angle, and will adopt Stephen Levinsohn s definition: Discourse analysis is an analysis of language features that draws its explanations, not from within the sentence or word (i.e., the factors involved are not syntactic or morphological), but extrasententially (from the linguistic and wider context). 2 Discourse features refer to the specific ways used in a language to signal discourse functions. In my example from Brooke s Point Palawano, morphemes in the nominal phrase were used, but there are many other possibilities, for example intonation, changed word order and so on. There are also different ways of working with discourse analysis. I will adopt an approach used by Robert A. Doodley and Stephen H. Levinsohn which they describe as functional and cognitive. 3 For the analysis of the Greek text, I will particularly draw on Levinsohn s book Discourse Features of New Testament Greek and his online courses on discourse analysis of narrative and non-narrative materials. 4 In my discussion on the sentence conjunctions in the Gospel of Matthew, I will also use Stephanie Black s work. 5 Robert Dooley (Ph.D) has worked with the Mbya Gurani of southern Brazil since 1975 as a linguist-translator. He is a Linguistics Consultant and Trainer with ALEM (Associaçâo Lingüística Evangélica Missionária) in Brazil, Summer 2 Levinsohn, 2000, viii. Författarens kursivering. 3 Dooley & Levinsohn, 2001, vii. 4 Levinsohn, Levinsohn, 2007a. Self-Instruction Materials on Narrative Discourse Analysis, online at https://mail.jaars.org/~bt/narr.zip Levinsohn, 2007b. Self-Instruction Materials on Non- Narrative Discourse Analysis, online at https://mail.jaars.org/~bt/nonnarr.zip 5 Black,

7 Adjunct Professor at the University of North Dakota and Adjunct Professor at the Graduate Institute of Applied Linguistics. Stephen Levinsohn (Ph.D) has worked with the Inga (Quechuan) people of Colombia from 1968 to 1997 in linguistic research and translation. He is presently an International Linguistic Consultant with SIL International, and has been the Director of a number of workshops worldwide. His special research interests are information structure and discourse features of narrative and hortatory texts in Koiné Greek and languages spoken by minority groups around the world. He has led workshops in South America, the Pacific, different parts of Africa, and in various Asian locations. Valuable contributions have been made by many different people to the discourse analysis of Biblical Greek. I have, however, chosen Dooley and Levinsohn s approach, since they have an unusual breadth of experience in a variety of languages. I consider it a great asset, in dealing with a language like Koiné Greek, which is now not spoken, to be aware of the discourse features which have been identified in living languages. 1.4 Delimitations I will use Matthew 24:3 25:46 for my analysis, since it is a clearly delimited discourse within the wider context of the gospel. According to D. A. Carson, few chapters of the Bible have called forth more disagreement among interpreters than Matthew 24, and, thus, it has good potential as material for my investigation. 6 2 Theoretical framework 2.1 A functional approach Levinsohn describes his approach to discourse analysis as eclectic and functional. 7 Eclectic in the sense that he uses insights from different linguists and linguistic theories in so far as they are helpful, and adapts and develops their ideas; sometimes in a different direction. A functional approach, as defined by Dooley, is an attempt to discover and describe what linguistic structures are used for: the functions they serve, the factors that condition their use. 8 According to Levinsohn, one basic principle of a functional approach is that choice implies meaning, i.e., there are normally linguistic reasons for the way an author chooses to express himself when there are possible alternatives. 9 Thus, many 6 Carson, 1984, p Levinsohn & Dooley, vii. 8 Dooley, 1989, p1. 9 Levinsohn, 2000, viii. 7

8 variations which exegetes label optional or stylistic need to be investigated and explained. 10 Levinsohn emphasises the importance of discourse analysis for exegesis, and particularly notes its value in dealing with constituent order, conjunctions and the presence vs. absence of articles. 11 He is of the opinion that each Biblical author consistently uses a certain way of marking discourse. 12 Thus, there is potential for variation between authors, and comprehensive explanations may be hard to find. The conclusions drawn from one Biblical book cannot necessarily be applied to another, but have to be validated. Each book has to be studied on its own terms. 2.2 Discourse organisation and cognitive processes Dooley and Levinsohn are using a number of psychological notions to explain discourse phenomena occurring in language data. According to them, general human processes of human cognition, i.e., how people perceive, store and access information, are reflected in the organisation of discourse Mental representations, coherence, cohesion and cohesive ties Some of the key concepts in Dooley and Levinsohn s theoretical framework are mental representation, coherence and cohesion. 14 While we are listening, we are constructing a mental representation of what we hear. This is not only based on the linguistic form of the utterance itself, but on our prior knowledge of the way things happen in the real world and what we expect the speaker to say. The mental representation is normally constructed step by step, as more information becomes available, and initial assumptions are corrected. A discourse can be described as coherent if a certain person, on a particular occasion, can construct a single mental representation of its different elements. Thus, coherence is not an inherent property of the discourse, but is established when an individual is able to interpret it with the help of its linguistic content, the immediate situation and his or her knowledge of the world. The hearer s basic assumption tends to be that a discourse (spoken or written) intends to be coherent. The term cohesion, however, does have a direct relationship to the linguistic form of the discourse. It can be defined as the use of linguistic means to signal coherence. 15 The person who is speaking/writing is placing linguistic signals, cohesive ties, in the discourse, which help the hearer construct an adequate 10 Levinsohn, 2000, viii. 11 Levinsohn, 2006, p2. 12 Levinsohn, 2000, vii. 13 Dooley & Levinsohn, 2001, p Ibid, p Ibid, p27. 8

9 mental representation by indicating how the part of the text with which they occur links up conceptually with another part. Some general types of cohesive ties will be found cross-linguistically, but each language has its own range of devices that can be used Thematic groupings and thematic discontinuities Cohesion and the way it is marked in the Gospel of Matthew will have some relevance for the analysis of the structure of the discourse, but the hierarchical dimension of discourse structure is even more important, and will be discussed in terms of thematic groupings and thematic discontinuities. 17 Dooley and Levinsohn point out that we have a natural tendency to structure a discourse in chunks, e.g., by making pauses in spoken discourse or by dividing a written text into paragraphs. This way of grouping sentences into units, thematic groupings, is due to general cognitive principles. Large amounts of information can be processed more easily by being divided into units that the memory can handle. In longer or more complex discourses, thematic groupings can be nested within each other in a hierarchical arrangement, so that the memory does not have to process more than a limited number of units at the time. Cohesive ties tend to occur in patterns that are based on thematic groupings, and provide linguistic corroboration for groupings that one may posit on conceptual grounds. Thematic discontinuity in one or more dimensions tends to appear at the beginning of a new thematic grouping, when someone moves from one thematic grouping to the next within a mental representation. The division is not only determined by the size of the units, but is influenced by the content. In oral discourse the boundaries (marked by a pause, hesitation or other types of boundary phenomena) are usually drawn where there is a significant change of time, place, participants or action. 18 Within a thematic grouping, there is usually thematic continuity in all these dimensions. 19 A mental representation is by definition a connected structure, but within it there are sections with even tighter inner connections and those sections are associated to one or more of those dimensions. Certain thematic dimensions are more important in specific genres, e.g., time in narrative where the events occur in sequence. Signals of thematic groupings are of importance for the structuring of a discourse, but tend to be indirect. Dooley and Levinsohn stress that a large amount of evidence of diverse types are needed in order for them to be interpreted as 16 Dooley & Levinsohn, 2001, p Ibid, p In narrative disourse. Dimensions for non-narrative are situation, reference and action. Levinsohn, 2000, p5. 19 Dooley & Levinsohn, 2001, p

10 thematic boundary features. 20 The potential boundary signals found in the discourse material examined must converge with intuitive judgments of conceptual chunks and cross-linguistically common patterns of elements. 2.3 Genre Discourse analysis is genre-specific, according to Dooley and Levinsohn: Many linguistic observations about a given text can not be generalized; they only hold for the specific type. 21 They adopt four broad categories suggested by Robert Longacre based on agent orientation (where events or actions are controlled by an agent) and contingent temporal succession (many of the events or actions described are contingent on previous events and actions) Narrative (an account of events and experiences) 2. Behavioural (aimed at influencing behaviour) 3. Procedural (descriptions how something is done, for example a recipe) 4. Expository (budgets, scientific articles) Narratives and behavioural discourses are characterised by agent orientation. In narratives, you also find contingent temporal succession, but not in behavioural text. Procedural discourse does not have agent orientation, but contingent temporal succession. Finally, expository discourse is neither agent oriented nor does it have contingent temporal succession. Genre is one factor in separating the mainline from supportive material in a discourse. I would describe mainline as the back bone of the discourse, e.g., the main events of a narrative or the main steps of a procedure. 23 The supportive material provides extra information and supports the development of the main line, without moving it forward. The choice of verb forms is one of the correlatives between mainline and supportive material, specific for the type of genre represented. 24 Past narrative discourse in Greek tends to have aorist indicative verbs in the main event line, and future indicative in future narrative. Hortatory discourse (a behavioural genre) has imperative verbs (or verb forms with imperative force) in the main line, while a procedural text tends to have imperfective verbs. Expository discourse favours stative verbs in the main line. There are different types of hortative discourses, and Kompaoré considers volative weight (i.e., the exhorter s relative power and authority over the exhortee) an important parameter. 25 A basic distinction, then, is instruction (the 20 Dooley & Levinsohn, 2001, p41. More on boundary features in Levinsohn, 2000, part VI. 21 Levinsohn, 2000, p7. 22 Longacre, 1996, p9. 23 See also Levinsohn, 2008, p Levinsohn, 2007, Self-Instruction Materials on Non-Narrative Discourse Analysis, p16, online https://mail.jaars.org/~bt/nonnarr.zip 25 Kompaoré, 2004, p40. 10

11 exhorter considers himself/herself to have the right to tell the exhortee how to behave) and persuasion (the exhorter appeals with reasoning logic to the exhortee) Order of constituents Koiné Greek is one of the languages with so-called free word order. We may take this to mean that it doesn t matter where in the clause or sentence a constituent is placed. However, if Levinsohn s basic assumption choice implies meaning is true, the order of constituents will be influenced by the speaker s or author s communicative intent. Certain choices will then be considered marked, and are likely to carry additional meaning, e.g., prominence. Determining a default constituent order for Koiné Greek is not straightforward, however, and there is no general consensus. 27 Several factors play into this. Clauses with all three elements (verb, subject and object) are not particularly common and many clauses consist of a verb without a grammaticalised subject (a monolectic verb). Levinsohn has found that many variations in constituent order can be explained with reference to the provision of an explicit starting point (point of departure, see 2.6.1), the Principle of Natural Information Flow and prominence. 28 Thus, he has moved away from treating verb-initial constituent order as the default pragmatic order in Koiné Greek. 29 Instead, he has adopted Simon Dik s template for constituent order to explain why subjects often follow the verb in Greek narrative but more often precede it in non-narrative material. 30 Dik s template is as follows: P1 P2 V X, where position P1 can be occupied by one or more TOPIC constituents, and P2 can be occupied by a FOCUS constituent. 31 The order of the remaining constituents of a clause can basically be explained in terms of the Principle of Natural Information Flow Levinsohn, 2008, p4. 27 Black, 2002, p Comrie, 1989, p127f. In accordance with this principle, non-verbal constituents that convey established information precede those that convey new or non-established information. See Levinsohn, 2008, p Personal communication See also Levinsohn, 2008, p25. Compare Levinsohn, 2000, s29 32.Levinsohn, 2000, p Dik, 1989, p For definitions of topic and focus, see and below. 32 Levinsohn suggests four ordering principles; 1. Pronominal constituents follow immediately after the verb and before other nominal constituents; 2. Core constituents (subject, object and other nominal constituents without a preposition) occur before peripheral ones; 3. Overtly expressed propositional topics are placed before the non-verbal comment about that topic; 4.The most important or focal constituent of the comment is placed toward the end of the clause or sentence. 11

12 The sentences in this discourse have been charted in relationship to the nucleus; i.e., the core constituents, as defined in note 31. I describe constituents that occur before the nucleus as pre-nuclear, and those placed after the nucleus as post-nuclear. 2.5 Conjunctions Conjunctions are involved in signalling continuity and discontinuity in discourse, and will contribute to our understanding of the thematic groupings of Matthew They also play a part in backgrounding. Conjunctions can connect clauses, sentences or phrases. 33 The term is sometimes also used for connectives between larger units, like paragraphs. 34 According to Levinsohn, pragmatic connectives guide and constrain the way the material they introduce is processed in the light of the context. 35 He adapts a definition by Reboul and Moeschler as follows: A connective is a linguistic marker, drawn from a number of grammatical categories (co-ordinating conjunctions [e.g., but], subordinating conjunctions [since], adverbs [thus], adverbial expressions [after all]), which: a) links a linguistic or discourse unit of any size to its context b) gives instructions as to how to relate this unit to its context c) constrains conclusions to be drawn on the basis of this discourse connection that might not have been drawn had it been absent. I will use this as a starting point for discussing conjunctions and other connectives in Matthew According to Stephanie Black, about 70% of the sentences in the Gospel of Matthew begin with a conjunction. 36 This makes the difference between clauses and sentences less evident than in some other languages. It is important, then, to determine what a sentence is in Koiné Greek. Levinsohn defines a sentence as a single independent clause, together with those clauses that are subordinated to it. 37 In my charting I have basically followed that definition, though there may be some inconsistencies Levinsohn, 2000, p Black, 2002, p. Wallace, 1996, p Levinsohn, 2007, s85. Self-Instruction Materials on Narrative Discourse Analysis, online at https://mail.jaars.org/~bt/narr.zip. 36 Black, 2002, p Levinsohn, 2000, p See Appendix. 12

13 In contrast to many languages, Koiné Greek uses conjunctions as the default way of conjoining sentences. Therefore, the absence of a conjunction at the beginning of a sentence, asyndeton, is significant and needs to be taken into account when analysing the distribution of conjunctions. 39 Black emphasises the importance of viewing the sentence conjunctions as a linguistic system:... each form not only appears with its own characteristic syntactical, morphological and lexical collocations (features which themselves form parts of other linguistic systems), but is processed against the background of what might have been chosen but was not Thus, asyndeton is part of the system of conjunctions in Matthew s Gospel, together with καí, δé,τóτ, γáρ and ο ν, and was one of the options available to the Biblical author. (The conjunction ρα occurs only once in my text and will not contribute much to this investigation.) Black discusses whether sentence conjunctions add anything to the total semantic meaning of the propositions they connect, or are merely structural elements. 41 Attempts to define the conjunctions καí and δé semantically, often result in largely overlapping definitions. 42 Black describes this as a maximalist perspective. 43 She prefers a minimalist approach which assigns a smaller role to a particular sentence conjunction and places more importance on context in working out the semantic relationship between the sentences it conjoins. 44 Thus, Black adopts Dik s definition of coordinators as multiple-purpose tools of low semantic specificity. 45 She also refers to Blakemore s distinction between conceptual and procedural meaning. The contribution of connectives to discourse is to provide processing instructions rather than propositional content. 46 Levinsohn adopts a similar approach. He notes that Blakemore sees each conjunction in terms of the single constraint that it places on the way the sentence concerned is to be processed with reference to its context. 47 Levinsohn further maintains that once the constraint on processing that each conjunction imposes has been identified, it is possible to reject senses and glosses that cannot be reconciled with this constraint. In her study of conjunctions in the Gospel of Matthew, Black has chosen to concentrate on narrative discourse. 48 The main part of the discourse I am analysing is hortative (behavioural). Even so, I think it will be useful to briefly summarise her findings regarding the different conjunctions in narrative. 39 Wenham, 1965, p200. Levinsohn, 2007, p84. Self-Instruction Materials on Narrative Discourse Analysis, https://mail.jaars.org/~bt/narr.zip 40 Black, 2002, p Ibid, p Ibid, p112, 142. Levinsohn, 2000, p Black, 2002, p Ibid, p Ibid, p Black, 2002, p Levinsohn, 2000, p Black, 2002, p81. 13

14 Black notes that καí is the most common sentence conjunction in Matthew. She describes it as the unmarked or default sentence conjunction in Matthew and as a signal of continuity, mainly found in contexts where there is underlying continuity of time, action and/or actor in narrative. 49 She also notes that Matthew tends to combine καí with an unmarked tense-form (aorist) and unmarked or less marked constituent order (monolectic verb, or verb before subject, if an explicit subject appears). It normally relates the following sentence to a previous sentence, and occasionally continuity extends to a larger discourse unit. 50 Levinsohn points out that in exhortations and expositions, καí constrains the material it introduces to be processed as being added to and associated with previous material. 51 The role of καí as a signal of unmarked continuity is, according to Black, the background against which more marked usage of conjunctions can be evaluated. 52 The conjunction δé, then, according to Black, indicates low- to mid-level discontinuity and prepares the hearer/reader for some kind of change to be incorporated into their mental representation. 53 She considers the use of δé marked, since it occurs with several mutually redundant signals of discontinuity, such as marked constituent order, thematisation, subject switch and so on. It is also postpositive (it does not occur initially in the sentence). 54 According to Levinsohn, δé introduces distinctive information, which also represents a new step or development in the story or argument and builds on what has preceded it. (He notes, however, that it sometimes is used to introduce background material, and thus is not strictly developmental.) 55 Black disagrees with Levinsohn s description of δé as a developmental conjunction. 56 According to her, it implies that a basic function of the form has been determined, to the exclusion of others. She maintains that his description of δé as a developmental marker is still context-based, and lacks reference to other specifically developmental markers or structures. Instead, she considers his other claim that δé is associated with distinctive information more significant. Thus, Black maintains that δé functions alongside the collocating features of discontinuity or change as a procedural signal of discontinuity in narrative. 57 I will compare which approach is more useful in the analysis of occurrences of δé in my text. Asyndeton is a relatively uncommon connective strategy in narrative, according to Black. 58 It occurs either at major breaks (e.g., between title and first sentence, 49 Black, 2002, p Ibid, p Levinsohn, 2000, p Black, 2002, p Ibid, p Ibid, p Levinsohn, 2000, p Black, 2002, p Black, 2002, p Ibid, p

15 or larger sections) or in speech margin, where the information is closely connected. 59 Thus, asyndeton tends to be used at the opposite ends of the continuity-discontinuity scale. 60 Black also notes that there are characteristic collocations with constituent order and verbal tense-form. In speech margins thematic present tense is used, while at major breaks, aorist or imperfect, but never present tense. 61 Black describes τóτ as a signal of marked continuity. 62 There are relatively few occurrences of τóτ as a conjunction in Matthew, and yet Matthew is using it more than any other author (73 times in total, 55 in narrative). It tends to occur with V(S) constituent order, or, at paragraph breaks, SV. 63 Regarding the markedness of τóτ, Black notes that in contrast to καí, it is not found even once in two subsequent sentences. It is more frequently found with a grammaticalised subject, thematic finite verbs, present tense-forms (historical present) in past narrative and combined with lexical items which are significant in Matthean theology, and in climactic statements, actions or events. 64 Thus, it helps the audience identify potentially prominent features. Black considers cooccurrences with καí adverbial. 65 I will discuss that in my analysis of Matthew Levinsohn s view of τóτ is somewhat different. He describes τóτ as an adverbial conjunction, which retains certain adverbial characteristics, and implies that something is happening then and not at some previous time. 66 As an adverb it can be used to highlight the events that immediately follow, before a particularly significant development. 67 As a conjunction, it sometimes occurs at the peak in a paragraph and as a concluding event. 68 Levinsohn considers material linked by τóτ as closely associated together. In narratives, τóτ occurs sentence initially, at low level divisions within an episode, 69 where it signals the division and at the same time acts as a cohesive device indicating continuity of time and other factors between the subsections. The remaining sentence conjunctions, γáρ and ο ν, are fairly rare. There are 124 occurrences of γáρ in the Gospel of Matthew (10 in narrative material, 61 in what 59 Black, 2002, p183: the syntactical structures used to introduce reported speech. Levinsohn uses speech orienter. 60 See also Levinsohn, 2000, p Black, 2002, p Ibid, p Ibid, p Ibid, p Ibid, p Levinsohn, 2000, p Ibid, p Buth, 1990, p46. See also Levinsohn, 2000, p Schooling, 1985, p18. 15

16 Black calls exposition, and 51 in speech), while ο ν occurs only 56 times (2 in narrative, 31 in exposition and 23 in speech). 70 According to Black, these conjunctions indicate how the sentences they introduce are to be related to the preceding discourse, 71 i.e., they guide the audience to integrate additional material into... the mental representations which they construct of the discourse. 72 Both are postpositive, which Black takes to be related to signalling discontinuity. In narrative, they are concerned with inferential relationships and help the audience make connections between additional information and the current thread of the narrative. The conjunction γáρ indicates that the following is strengthening and/or confirming a preceding proposition, sometimes introducing an embedded narrative (with supportive material), while ο ν appears to serve as a procedural cue which directs the audience to continue on with the main line of the narrative. 73 In a way, one could describe γáρ as backward-looking and ο ν forward-looking. Black, however, considers ο ν as a signal of both continuation and retrospect. 74 Since one of the conjunctions is related to supportive and the other to mainline material, they have a complementary function. Black briefly comments on the use of γáρ and ο ν in exposition; especially their use in relation to sentences with imperatival force. Again, they have a complementary function, as γáρ introduces sentences which strengthen and/or confirm a preceding proposition, while ο ν signals that the audience should continue processing the discourse with a mental representation which now incorporates and is more firmly established by a preceding proposition. 75 Ο ν is often used to introduce an imperative which rests upon a preceding proposition, while γáρ tends to appear following an imperative to introduce a proposition with an indicative verb which backwards confirms the imperative. Levinsohn has a slightly different approach to γáρ and ο ν. He divides the logical connectives into two types; inferential (inductive), introducing consequences, i.e., a thesis, conclusion or result, and strengthening (deductive) connectives that support a thesis by introducing a reason, ground or explanation. 76 He considers ο ν to be one of the inferential connectives, and γáρ the default strengthening connective, that does not indicate a specific logical relation. Ο ν is also described as a marked developmental conjunction, used in two ways in nonnarrative text, inferentially and as a resumptive, usually following material of a digressional nature. 77 When used interferentially it constrains the material with 70 Black, 2002, p Black, 2002, p Ibid, p Ibid, p261. Inferential here does not only indicate logical relations between proposition, but pragmatic inferences regarding discourse relations. 74 Ibid, p Ibid, p Levinsohn, 2008, p17. Note that this is written in the context of non-narrative discourse. 77 Ibid, 2000, p

17 which it is associated to be processed as a new point on the topic, developing from it in an inferential way. The resumptive use marks the resumption of the same theme line, typically after material associated with γáρ or τ. I will compare Black and Levinsohn s description of the two connectives as I apply them to my text, in order to see which interpretation is the most enlightening, especially with regard to ο ν. 2.6 Points of departure, focus and emphasis Points of departure Discontinuities of situation, reference, and sometimes action can be signalled by placing an adverbial or nominal constituent at the beginning of a clause or sentence. This is sometimes called topicalisation. Levinsohn, however, prefers the term point of departure, in order to avoid confusion between topicalisation and topic. 78 Levinsohn distinguishes between three different ways of arranging information functionally within sentences: 1. Topic-comment. 2. Identificational 3. Presentational. For the purpose of this paper, it will suffice to discuss sentences with topic-comment articulation. A sentence with topic-comment articulation has a topic, the entity that the utterance is primarily about, which often coincides with the subject of the sentence, and a comment giving information about the topic. 79 A point of departure in a sentence with topic-comment articulation is placed at the beginning of the clause or sentence, before the topic. The point of departure has a bi-directional function. It is forward-looking and sets a spatial, temporal or individual domain within which the main predication holds 80 and at the same time, it is backward-looking, relating what follows to the context. This involves a switch from a constituent in the previous clause or sentence to the first constituent in the new one. A previous point of departure or topic can also be renewed. Conjunctions like καí, δé and ο ν are ignored when identifying the initial element. 81 Points of departure are also influenced by genre, so that in narrative, events are related to their context on the basis of time, place or reference. In argument, adverbial constituents expressing condition, reason, purpose, and other situational relations may act as points of departure Levinsohn, 2000, p7. 79 Dooley and Levinsohn, 2001, p Chafe, 1976, p Levinsohn, 2000, p8. 82 Ibid. 17

18 2.6.2 Focus and emphasis Levinsohn stresses that initial constituents are placed there for a variety of reason; e.g., focus or emphasis. 83 According to Dooley and Levinsohn, every utterance has a focus. 84 A constituent which is focal is the most important constituent in the clause, introducing new information conveyed about the topic, and tends to occur towards the end of the sentence. 85 It is, however, also possible to prepose a constituent for focus. Levinsohn notes that grammarians frequently call this, and any kind of prominence, emphasis. He prefers to reserve that term for emphasis proper, i.e., expressing strong feelings about an item or to indicate something unexpected. Prominence is defined as any device whatever which gives certain events, participants, or objects more significance than others in the same context Boundary features According to Levinsohn, the division of a book into larger units is largely determined by the purpose of the book, while the primary genre of the book produces many low-level divisions. 87 A point of departure signals discontinuity and, thus, tends to occur at the beginning of a new thematic grouping; usually corresponding to the beginning of a paragraph or section. Adverbial clauses signal stronger discontinuity than participles, which tend to indicate low-level divisions. The role of conjunctions in signalling continuity and discontinuity has been explored above. Chiastic arrangement of the material, and inclusio structures, suggest some form of self-contained unit. 88 Summary statements indicate that the preceding material should be treated as a block. Other relevant features in determining boundaries are changes in cast or role, rhetorical questions, vocatives, back-reference, changes of verb form and redundant noun phrase reference to a particular participant Analysis I have carefully analysed the discourse with regard to discourse features, and will now try to demonstrate how awareness of discourse factors can aid in structuring the text. I will not present any astonishing new insights in this study, since many of the main divisions can be discerned on the basis of content and intuition. I 83 Levinsohn, 2000, p7. 84 Dooley and Levinsohn, 2001, p Lambrecht, 1998, p Levinsohn, 2000, p7, see also Callow, 1974, p Levinsohn, 2000, p274. I use division, boundary and break synonymously. 88 Ibid, p Ibid, p

19 hope to prove, however, that linguistic signals do coincide with and confirm some of those intuitions, and, occasionally, refute them. 3.1 Genre An initial step in my analysis is to determine the genre of the relevant text, since this impacts certain issues, e. g. separating mainline material from supportive material. 90 In Matthew 24:3 25:46, more than one genre is represented. There is a past narrative framework, in which a behavioural discourse (I will call it a hortatory speech) is incorporated. This in turn is made up of mainline exhortations and different kinds of supportive material consisting of future narrative, illustrations and parables (past narrative). This makes for a complex and, in my view, interesting discourse. A broad outline of the genres is as following: 24:3 24:4a Narrative framework with a question and a speech orienter which is introducing the speech. 24:4b 25:46 Hortatory speech with supportive material. I will discuss the relationship between mainline and supportive material in the next section. At this point it is sufficient to note that the main body of the discourse is hortatory (behavioural) and that the mainline verbs are present imperatives. The parables tend to have aorist indicative main verbs. The shorter illustrations do not have a typical verb form, and the genre is harder to define. 3.2 Mainline and supportive material I have noted in section 3.1 that the main body of this discourse is a hortative speech with a short introductory narrative framework. I will leave the narrative framework aside, and begin by separating the mainline exhortations (theses) from the supportive material in the hortative speech, in order to establish a basic outline of the main body of the text; i.e., the speech. Two discourse features will be particularly important for this task; the verb forms and the choice of conjunctions Illustrations and narrative passages Some of the supportive material is clearly defined and can be separated out immediately; four illustrations and three narrative passages: 24:32 33 Illustration 90 Levinsohn, 2007, p16, Self-Instruction Materials on Non-Narrative Discourse Analysis, online https://mail.jaars.org/~bt/nonnarr.zip 19

20 24:37 42 Illustration 24:43 44 Illustration 24:45 51 Illustration 25:1 12 Parable of the ten virgins 25:14 30 Parable of the talents 25:31 46 Judgment narrative The mainline theses will not be part of this supportive material. I propose that there are only seven main theses, while the other exhortations are part of the supportive material. Verb aspect appears to play a part in differentiating between mainline imperative verbs and supportive imperative verbs in this discourse, where present aspect is characteristic of the mainline verbs and aorist of the supportive imperatives. (The mainline verbs and the sentence conjunctions will be indicated in bold in the Greek examples below.) The conjunctions that tend to collocate with the main theses are resumptive ο ν and developmental δé. Asyndeton also occurs three times, in the first two theses, and the last. One of the main theses with asyndeton follows on a speech orienter (24:4b), and the other two are elaborations or restatements of a preceding thesis (Thesis 2 to Thesis 1, and Thesis 7 to Thesis 6). Resumptive ο ν is a conjunction that is particularly important as an indication of a mainline thesis and is found in three of the theses below (3, 5 and 7). Even so, I have analysed two potential theses as supportive, and the conjunction ο ν as inferential. This is due to the change in aspect from present to aorist, and to some degree, the structure of the sentence. According to my opinion, the very detailed content of the exhortations undergirds that interpretation as well. The developmental marker is more common in the mainline of the narrative supportive material. There is, however, one instance of a mainline thesis with δé in this discourse; Thesis 4. Supportive material is frequently introduced by the strengthening conjunction γáρ, which backward-confirms the preceding thesis. Thus, material introduced by γáρ is defined as supportive material, together with any subsequent sentences associated to it by καí. Four of the main theses (1, 2, 4 and 7) and two of the supportive exhortations are followed by γáρ. The last three of the main theses are also strengthened by the interpretative logical connective τ. Although not inter-sentential, it relates back to the preceding thesis and introduces a reason or evidence for that which has already been said or implied. The more complex issues regarding the supportive material will be dealt with later. 20

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