Bible Greek. Basic Grammar of the Greek New Testament. Dr. John Pappas. Scofield Seminary Press (c) Dr. John Pappas

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1 Bible Greek Basic Grammar of the Greek New Testament Dr. John Pappas Scofield Seminary Press (c) Dr. John Pappas

2 Copyright by John Peter Pappas 2008 Scofield Seminary Press

3 Table of Contents THE METHOD... 1 THE STORY OF LANGUAGE... 2 THE STORY OF GREEK... 2 THE GREEK OF PALESTINE... 3 THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT MANUSCRIPTS AND MODERN TOOLS... 4 THE GREEK ALPHABET... 5 THE VOWELS... 6 THE DIPHTHONG... 6 SYLLABLES... 6 PRONUNCIATION... 7 BREATHING MARKS... 7 ACCENT MARKS... 7 PUNCTUATION MARKS... 7 A FINAL WORD... 8 PRACTICE... 8 PRESENT ACTIVE INDICATIVE VERBS... 9 VOCABULARY... 9 THE GREEK VERB... 9 PRESENT ACTIVE INDICATIVE PARSING VERBS THE PRESENT ACTIVE INDICATIVE THE PRESENT ACTIVE INFINITIVE PRACTICE SECOND DECLENSION NOUNS VOCABULARY THE GREEK NOUN THE SECOND DECLENSION NOUN SECOND DECLENSION ENDINGS - MASCULINE SECOND DECLENSION ENDINGS - NEUTER THE ARTICLE SECOND DECLENSION ARTICLE - MASCULINE SECOND DECLENSION ARTICLE - NEUTER PRACTICE FIRST DECLENSION NOUNS VOCABULARY FIRST DECLENSION NOUNS FIRST DECLENSION ARTICLE FEMININE FORMS MASCULINE FORMS PRACTICE PRESENT PASSIVE AND MIDDLE INDICATIVE VERBS VOCABULARY THE PRESENT PASSIVE INDICATIVE THE PRESENT MIDDLE INDICATIVE PRESENT PASSIVE AND MIDDLE INDICATIVE FORM i

4 PRACTICE PREPOSITIONS VOCABULARY PURPOSE OF THE PREPOSITION PREPOSITIONS IN COMPOUND WORDS ELISION IN PREPOSITIONS PRACTICE PERSONAL PRONOUNS VOCABULARY PERSONAL PRONOUNS USAGE PRESENT INDICATIVE OF ΕΙJΜΊ PRESENT INFINITIVE OF ΕΙJΜΊ PRACTICE PRONOUNS VOCABULARY DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS RELATIVE PRONOUNS INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS PRACTICE FIRST AORIST VERBS VOCABULARY THE AORIST TENSE FIRST AORIST ACTIVE INDICATIVE FORM FIRST AORIST MIDDLE INDICATIVE FORM PRACTICE THIRD DECLENSION NOUNS VOCABULARY THIRD DECLENSION NOUNS PRACTICE SECOND AORIST VERBS VOCABULARY SECOND AORIST ACTIVE INDICATIVE SECOND AORIST MIDDLE INDICATIVE PRACTICE FUTURE VERBS VOCABULARY THE FUTURE TENSE FUTURE ACTIVE INDICATIVE FORM FUTURE MIDDLE INDICATIVE FORM FUTURE INDICATIVE OF ΕΙJΜΙV PRACTICE AORIST AND FUTURE PASSIVE VERBS VOCABULARY FIRST AORIST PASSIVE INDICATIVE SECOND AORIST PASSIVE INDICATIVE ii

5 FUTURE PASSIVE INDICATIVE PRACTICE IMPERFECT VERBS VOCABULARY THE IMPERFECT TENSE IMPERFECT ACTIVE INDICATIVE FORM IMPERFECT MIDDLE INDICATIVE FORM IMPERFECT PASSIVE INDICATIVE FORM IMPERFECT INDICATIVE OF ΕΙJΜΙV PRACTICE PERFECT AND PLUPERFECT VERBS VOCABULARY THE PERFECT TENSE PERFECT ACTIVE INDICATIVE FORM PERFECT MIDDLE AND PASSIVE INDICATIVE FORM THE PLUPERFECT TENSE PLUPERFECT ACTIVE INDICATIVE PRACTICE SUBJUNCTIVE AND OPTATIVE MOOD VOCABULARY THE SUBJUNCTIVE THE OPTATIVE USES OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE THE PRESENT ACTIVE SUBJUNCTIVE THE PRESENT MIDDLE AND PASSIVE SUBJUNCTIVE FORM THE AORIST ACTIVE SUBJUNCTIVE FORMS PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE OF ΕΙJΜΙV PRACTICE IMPERATIVE MOOD VOCABULARY THE IMPERATIVE PRESENT ACTIVE IMPERATIVE FORM PRACTICE PRESENT PARTICIPLES VOCABULARY THE PARTICIPLE VERBAL PROPERTIES ADJECTIVAL PROPERTIES TRANSLATING THE PARTICIPLE THE PRESENT PARTICIPLE PRESENT ACTIVE PARTICIPLE PRESENT MIDDLE AND PASSIVE PARTICIPLE PRACTICE AORIST PARTICIPLES VOCABULARY THE AORIST PARTICIPLE FIRST AORIST ACTIVE PARTICIPLE FIRST AORIST MIDDLE PARTICIPLE FIRST AORIST PASSIVE PARTICIPLE SECOND AORIST ACTIVE PARTICIPLE iii

6 SECOND AORIST MIDDLE PARTICIPLE NUMBERS CARDINALS ORDINALS PRACTICE PERFECT AND FUTURE PARTICIPLES VOCABULARY THE PERFECT PARTICIPLE PERFECT ACTIVE PARTICIPLE PERFECT MIDDLE AND PASSIVE PARTICIPLE THE FUTURE PARTICIPLE FUTURE ACTIVE PARTICIPLE FUTURE MIDDLE PARTICIPLE FUTURE PASSIVE PARTICIPLE PRACTICE ANSWERS TO PROBLEMS VOCABULARY iv

7 Preface The Greek language of the New Testament is such a precise language that once known, the reader will no longer be handicapped in the Word. It is not possible to interpret completely the thoughts of the original author without going to the original author s language. That means going back to the Hebrew and Greek. Having just a cursory knowledge of the original language helps greatly in the understanding of the Scriptures, but falls short, especially for the English speaker, in understanding the effect and extent of a particular verse. Luther wrote an important letter, To the Councilmen of all cities in Germany that they establish and maintain Christian Schools. In this 1524 treatise, Luther wrote: Here belongs also what St. Paul calls for in 1 Corinthians 14, namely, that in the Christian church all teachers must be judged. For this knowledge of the languages is needful above all else. The preacher of teacher can expound the Bible from beginning to end as he pleases, accurately or inaccurately, if there is no one there to judge whether he is doing it right or wrong. But in order to judge, one must have knowledge of the languages; it cannot be done in any other way. Therefore, although faith and the gospel may indeed by proclaimed by simple preachers without a knowledge of languages, such preaching is flat and tame, people finally become weary and bored with it, and it falls to the ground. But where the preacher is versed in the languages, there is freshness and vigor in his preaching, Scripture is treated in its entirety, and faith finds itself constantly renewed by a continual variety of words and illustrations. Hence, Psalm 129 likens such scriptural studies to a hunt, saying to the deer God opens the dense forests; and Psalm 1 likens them to a tree with a plentiful supply of water, whose leaves are always green. 1 It is hoped that this grammar will in some way help the reader come to a better understanding of the Greek New Testament. And that by using the tools of this grammar, the user will be drawn closer to Him who spoke it. cariv umin kai eirhnh (Grace and peace to you) John Pappas September Martin Luther, ed. W Brandt and H Lehman, Luther s Works (Philadelphia: Muhlenberg Press, 1962), pp v

8 The Method The method used for learning the Greek of the New Testament is based on the internet video Bible Greek VPOD produced by the author and what the author received during his seminary work under the direction of Dr. Mal Couch. Dr. Couch s method was to keep it simple. This is essential for any first year language course, not just Biblical Greek. One must become familiar with the essentials, the fundamentals, without too much of time spent on unfamiliar grammar terms. It is by no means implied that the grammar terms are not important, nor is it the point of this program to omit technical words, but the mechanics of the language must be introduced without over whelming the student. The basics must be introduced and understood the the technical details can be presented so the student can grow. This program is based on the three fundamentals: Chapter reading of the grammar book Video instruction using the Biblegreekvpod lessons. Then, back to the book and practice exercises This method is simple, straight to the point, and proven. It is the purpose of this method and program that the student will gain a quick confidence working with the language and the love and value for it will grow. Working the practice exercises is extremely valuable. There is no substitute for memorizing the vocabulary and translating the verses. The volume of words to memorize for each lesson is manageable, and the translation work limited to five or six verses. The selection is made in order for the student to become experienced in the subject of the chapter yet blessed since many of the verses have been chosen so that the student will be excited about the meat of the Scriptures. The verses were selected for the most part because of their doctrinal meat not just verses for practice sake. Use a Bible, in fact several versions of the Bible when translating so as to get acquainted with variations. Do not get hung up on the variations just do the basic translations work and wait until intermediate Greek to understand the variations. May your time be spent in the word, not around the word. May the riches and depths of His word bless you greatly.

9 Chapter One The Story of Language The Greek of the New Testament is very unique. It is, in a word preserved. Preserved for all time. Frozen in time by a sovereign God who has preserved His Word in the Hebrew of the Old Testament and Greek of the New in order for all mankind to have a precise knowledge of what He has to say. In fact, God created Adam mature for fellowship with Him. Therefore, Adam was either created already knowing a language or shortly after his creation was gifted (supernaturally given), a complex language to talk with the pre-incarnate Christ in the garden. Adam, Eve and God walked and talked in the garden. It did not take long for man to disobey God s Word and mankind fell. Through one man s sin, death entered the world. Adam and Eve and all their descendents did, however, obey God s command to populate the earth and soon the number of people on the earth increased greatly and sin multiplied. Evilness increased so much that God had to miraculously confuse the common language. Different language groups were born and mankind separated, by families, into unique ethnic groups. Language is predominantly a spoken form of communication, but God preserves His Word in the written form. The spoken form is more versatile in that one can stress certain words by the inflection of the voice. In the written form, God gave man a way to preserve His Word in a permanent record, and commands mankind to preserve His sacred word faithfully and carefully. Legal documents, trade records, history, ancient and modern, are all recorded in writing. All languages have certain fundamental elements with rules that regulate its form. This has to be or communication with each other would be impossible. All those years in school taking English for the purpose of teaching us how to read and write are for the purpose of teaching proper communication with all its rules. In America, the early Puritans wanted all children to learn how to read and write so they could understand God s Word for themselves. So that there is none who are ignorant of our Savior s gift that God came in the flesh, died on the cross as the perfect sacrifice, was buried, and was raised from the dead. He lives, so we may have eternal life with Him. The Story of Greek The Greek language has developed through the ages from its early dialects about 1500 BC The language is generally classified into five periods. The Formative period extends from the origin of the race to Homer (c. 900 BC) 2. It was during this period that the Ionic branch was established and in particular Attic Greek which dominated the dialects. This was the language of Athens. The next great period of the Greek language is called the Classical period. This period extended from Homer to the great Alexandrine conquest (c. 333 BC). Attic was the dialect with a few carryovers from the Doria and Aeolic dialects, which are identified 2 These five periods are defined in Dana & Mantey, A Manual Grammar of the Greek New Testament (New York: MacMillan Publishing 1994) 2

10 as irregular and exceptions. This type of Greek was not confined to Athens and spread as God moved in the world causing the Leopard of Daniel (Daniel 7) to conquer Medo- Persia, Egypt and all areas between. The Leopard of Daniel was identified as Alexander the Great. To accomplish this conquering of the world by Greece, Alexander recruited men for his army from all parts of Greece. This new group played a vital role in the emergence of a new type of Greek. Greek East Greek West Greek Attic-Ionic Arcadian- Cyprian Aeolic: Lesbain, Thessalian, Boeotian NW Greek: Locrian, Phocian, Elean Doric: Laconian, Argolic, Corinthian, Creatan, etc The Koine or Hellenistic Greek Modern Greek 3 This new dialect ushered in the next great period known as the Koine period. This period extended from 330 BC to AD 330. It is the period of the common or universal Greek. Koine means common and it was the language of the common people and the common means of communication in the Hellenistic age (c. 300 BC to AD 500). The Hellenistic colonists made Greek permanent. Only after the passage of several centuries, the sixth century AD, did the Koine give way to the Greek of the Byzantine period (AD 330 to 1453). This period began with the division of the Roman Empire. The last period is the Modern period dating from 1453 to the present. The movement of a universal language that the common man communicated by (or what is commonly called the commercial language), was a sovereign act of God which brought His word to the entire world. The New Testament was written in Greek and it was by this Greek - the unique Koine Greek, that the gospel of Christ spread like wildfire throughout the region. The Greek of Palestine Palestine was multilingual in the time of Christ. Aramaic was the language of the remnant of Israel, a remnant of the Babylonian captivity some 300 years prior to Christ. Jesus spoke Aramaic as is seen in the Gospel record, Hebrew was the language of the rabbinic circle, but it was Greek that was common to all in that region. Koine means 3 Adopted from Bruce Metzger, Lexical Aids for Students of New Testament Greek (New York: Oxford University Press, 1991), p. 74 3

11 common, everyday and was the language of the Hellenistic world. Christ and His desciples spoke Greek, which most certainly was a practicality. Furthermore, there existed in Jerusalem a Greek speaking Jewish synagogue (Acts 6:9) which no doubt used the Greek Old Testament Septuagint in their service. The Greek New Testament Manuscripts and Modern Tools The Biblical writings of the New Testament that have come down to us today have been analyzed (textual criticism) to the point that the major versions are all very good 4. The major manuscripts in use are the Textus Receptus (TR), the Majority Text (MT), and the Nestle-Aland (NA 26 ). With the computer resources that are commonly available today, each one of these texts may be used with complete lexical detail. There are two dominate resources that modern academia uses, Bible Works, and Logos. There are, however, a number of very good free resources that can be found on the Internet. The Online Bible, and e-sword are just two of many. Each of these software programs provides the Greek text along with lexical detail. It is encouraged that anyone learning a language not use these resources. It is recommend that those learning the language do so the old fashion way memorize the vocabulary and forms. This insures that the proper time is spent learning the language. Greek is not a hard language to learn, but it does require the effort needed to quickly identify the root word and its form. Since Greek uses a lot of compound words, knowing the basic vocabulary is essential, and the compounds can be broken down by literally saying the compounds to get to the new word. This is fun as can be seen by using the word knowledge, gnosis is knowledge, but epi-gnosis is over-knowledge, or upon-knowledge, which is a complete or precise knowledge. And a-gnosis is the compound of the negative particle and the Greek word for knowledge, which is combined to give no-knowledge or the English equivalent, ignorance. 4 For a good description of the history of the Greek manuscripts see Bruce Metzger, The Text of the New Testament (Oxford University Press, 1992), or Philip Comfort, Early Manuscripts & Modern Translations of the New Testament (Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 1990). 4

12 Chapter Two The Greek Alphabet The New Testament Greek has twenty-four letters. There exists in the Greek both upper and lower case letters as shown in the following table. Capital Small Name Transliteration 5 Pronunciation Letters Letters Α α alpha a father, cat Β β beta b ball Γ γ gamma g gift δ delta d debt Ε ε epsilon e set Ζ ζ zeta z or dz Zion H η eta ē obey, ate Θ θ theta th theme Ι ι iota i pit, machine Κ κ kappa k kit Λ λ lambda l light Μ µµ mu m man Ν ν nu n no Ξ ξ xi x ax Ο ο omicron o pot Π π pi p pay Ρ ρ rho r rise σ sigma s seas Σ ς sigma (final s seas form) Τ τ tau t to Υ υ upsilon u tube Φ φ phi ph phone Χ χ chi ch Christ Ψ ψ psi ps taps Ω ω omega o tone 5 Transliteration is the process of assigning an English equivalent to the Greek letter. 5

13 Notice the five groupings. These are grouped in four or five letters per group in order to help in the memorization process. It is far easier to memorize a group of four or five letters, then, once that group is memorized, move on to the next group. Memorize the form of the small letters only, saying the name and writing down the letter many times. Do this until the whole alphabet can be written without hesitation. The Vowels There are seven Greek vowels similar to English. They are α, ε, η, ι, ο, υ, and ω. The sounds adopted as equivalent to the vowels in Greek are given for the sake of consistency in pronunciation. The Diphthong In Greek there are seven diphthongs. A diphthong is two sounds that unite in a syllable forming a single sound. Diphthong Transliteration Pronunciation αι ai aisle αυ au kraut ει ei height ευ eu feud οι oi oil ου ou group υι ui suit ηυ approximately the same as ευ Syllables The word syllable comes to the English from the Greek syllabē meaning, that which holds together, and applies to how a word is pronounced. A word or part of a word pronounced with a single, uninterrupted sound of the voice. Every Greek word has as many syllables as it has separate vowels or diphthongs. In general, words are broken up into syllables using the following rules: (a) between vowel and consonant (b) usually when two consonants are placed next to each other This is seen in the following words. θε-λω the-lo νο-µος no-mos κοσ-µος kos-mos α-δελ-φος a-del-phos αν-θρω-πος an-thrō-pos ε-χω e-chō 6

14 Pronunciation Note the following pronunciation rules: 1. Rules for gamma. When γ is followed by a γ, κ, or χ, it is pronounced like the English n (e.g. άγγελος is pronounced an-ge-los). 2. Rules for zeta. When zeta (ζ) begins a word, it is pronounced as z; as in zebra. Otherwise, it is pronounced as dz as in suds. 3. Rules for vowels: Epsilon (ε) and Omicron (ο) are always short. Eta (η) and Omega (ω) are always long. Upsilon (υ) may be either long or short. Alpha (α) has two sounds: căt and fäther. Iota (ι) has two sounds: pĭt and machine. Rules for diphthongs: (a) In general all diphthongs are long. (b) When an iota follows a long vowel, the iota is written under and vowel and is called iota-subscript. For this case the iota subscript does not affect the pronunciation. Breathing Marks Greek uses two breathing marks for the purpose of pronunciation of words starting with a vowel, a diphthong, or an initial rho (ρ). There is the smooth mark that looks like the single right quotation mark ( j ) and placed over the beginning letter or in the case of a diphthong over the second vowel letter but does not affect the pronunciation of the word. The rough breathing mark that looks like the single left quotation mark ( J ) and placed upon the first letter changes the pronunciation of the vowel to an h. For example, αjµαρτία is pronounced hä-mar-tee-ä. Accent Marks There are three accent marks that are used in the Greek to indicate rising or falling of the voice. The acute ( V ) indicates the rising voice; the grave ( ` ) indicates falling voice; and the circumflex (ˆ) indicates both rising and falling. The emphasis on pitch is not reproduced today, but the accent marks are still present. Thus, in pronunciation, we make no distinction between the accents. Punctuation Marks Greek has four punctuation marks. Like English, Greek uses the comma (,) and the period (.). The English colon and semi-colon are represented by ( ) and the question mark is represented by (;). 7

15 A final word The phonological or sound system of the Attic dialect was too complex and artificial for the ears of the Hellenistic world. By the first century AD some vowels and diphthongs were already starting to be pronounced alike, as in Modern Greek, and consequently were confused. The confusion of the vowels and diphthongs of the ē sound is called itacism. As a means of standardization, the sounds of the vowels adopted here are given for the sake of consistency. Practice A. Memorize the alphabet (It is helpful to memorize the alphabet in groups of 5). B. Memorize the diphthongs. 8

16 Chapter Three Present Active Indicative Verbs Vocabulary α[γω I lead ε[χω I have αjκούω I hear θέλω I wish, will βλέπω I see λαµβάνω I take, receive γινώσκω I know λέγω I say, speak γράφω I write λύω I loose, or destroy διδάσκω I teach πέµπω I send εjγείρω I raise up φέρω I bear, bring The Greek Verb In Greek as in English, the verb is the focal point of action. The verb is usually the key word in the sentence and serves as the most important part of interpretation. The verb is a word that describes action or state of being. As in most languages, the Greek verb has tense, voice, mood, person, and number. The verb must agree with its subject in person and number. For example, if the subject is third person, the verb must be third person. Tense in English is restricted to the time when the action of the verb takes place. That is, tense is either past ( I wrote ), present ( I am writing ), or future ( I will write ). In Greek, however, tense provides two elements time of action, and kind of action (also called aspect). With time, the meaning may be either past, present, or future. When kind of action is indicated, it expresses progressive, undefined, or perfected action. Progressive action implies a continuation of action. Undefined action means that the action is thought of as a simple event and says nothing about whether or not it is a process. Perfected action describes the action as having been completed with the result of the action continuing. No element of the Greek language is of more importance to the student of the New Testament than the matter of tense. A variation in meaning exhibited by the use of a particular tense will often dissolve what appears to be an embarrassing difficulty, or reveal a gleam of truth which will thrill the heart with delight and inspiration.the development of tense has reached its highest in Greek, and presents its greatest wealth of meaning. Among all known ancient languages none distinguishes the 9

17 manifold temporal (and modal) relations of the verb so accurately as the Greek. 6 Voice is that quality of the verb that indicates the relationship of the subject to the action. If the subject does the action, then the verb is in the active voice. In the example John hit the ball. Hit is in the active voice because the subject, John, did the action. If the subject receives the action, the verb is in the passive voice. In the example, John was hit by the ball. The subject John was hit by the ball making the action passive voice. If the action is returning to the subject, then the voice is middle. In the example John hit himself, the subject, John, participated in the action, either directly or indirectly. Mood provides the thought with the aspect of reality. For example, the child runs, relates the idea that the child is running in the present. To say, if the child runs, relates the idea of the possibility of the child running in the present. Mood represents the attitude of mind on the part of the speaker. There are two moods in Greek, (1) the real mood called the indicative; and (2) the potential mood which includes (a) the subjunctive (may, might), (b) the optative (may expressing more hesitation than the subjunctive), and (c) imperative (command). Person provides the thought with whether the subject is speaking (first person I, we), is being spoken to (second person you), or is being spoken about (third person he, she, it, they). Finally, the verb will indicate the number whether the subject is singular or plural. The verb agrees with its subject in person and number. Present Active Indicative The first verb system that most students encounter is the present active indicative. The verb λύω is identified by its stem (λυ-) followed by a personal pronoun ending. Singular Plural 1 st λύ-ω I am loosing, I loose 1 st λύ-ο-µεν we are loosing, we loose 2 nd λύ-εις you are loosing, you loose 2 nd λύ-ε-τε you are loosing, you loose 3 rd λύ-ει he/she/it is loosing 3 rd λύ-ουσι(ν) they are loosing, they loose The verb stem is the distinguishing factor of the verb. The stem remains unchanged as the personal pronoun endings change according to person and number, and as the front of the stem is augmented with addition of tense prefixes. 6 H.E. Dana & Julius R. Mantey, A Manual Grammar of the Greek New Testament (The Macmillan Co.:Toronto, 1994), pp. 176,177 10

18 Notice the second person singular and plural are distinguished in the Greek but in the English they have the same form ( you are loosing ). Also notice the movable nu (ν). In the ancient texts sometimes a nu (ν) appears in the third plural form of the present active indicative after the iota (ι). In addition, it appears at the end of other words ending in σι, or ε, especially when followed by another word beginning with a vowel. This is noted so that you may be aware that at times a nu (ν) is added and other times not. Parsing Verbs To parse a verb is to identify its parts. One identifies tense, voice, mood, person and number. For example to parse the verb λύεις, one says it is a Present Active Indicative, 2 person, singular of λύω (note: the first person singular is identified as the root). The Present Active Indicative The present tense describes the time of action or kind of action. For the present tense the fundamental significance is the idea of progress. It represents linear (on-going) action, or this is also referred to as durative action. The active voice means the subject is producing the action. The indicative mood means that the action is real or that there is the reality of the action. The indicative is the mood of certainty. It represents the verbal idea from the viewpoint of reality. This is the attitude of mind expressed, whether the assumed reality is an objective fact or not. 7 The Present Active Infinitive The present active infinitive possesses the idea of a verbal noun having tense and voice. The infinitive can function as relating (a) time using while, or as; (b) reason using because; (c) purpose using to, in order to, so that; (d) result using that, so as to, as a result; and (e) means using by means. Present Active Infinitive of λύω is λύ-ειν to loose Practice A. Memorize the vocabulary. B. Parse the verbs in the following format: tense, voice, mood, person, number, root, translation (e.g., άκούει P.A.I.3Sg. from άκούω he/she/it is hearing). 1. βλέπει 2. γινώσκοµεν 3. λέγουσιν 4. φέρετε 5. γινώσκεις 6. πέµπει 7. λέγεις 8. φέρουσιν 9. άκούω 10. διδάσκεις 7 Dana And Mantey, A Manual Grammar of the Greek New Testament (Macmillan Co., 1955), p

19 Chapter Four Second Declension Nouns Vocabulary α[γγελος, οj messenger, angel καί and, also, even (conj.) αjδελφός, οj brother καρπός, οj fruit α[νθρωπος, οj man, person κύριος, οj lord αjπόστολος, οj apostle λίθος, οj stone α[ρτος, οj bread, loaf λόγος, οj word δουλος, οj slave, servant νόµος, οj law δω'ρον, τό gift οι\κος, οj house, household θάνατος, οj death ο[χλος, οj crowd, multitude ιjερόν, τό temple υιjός, οj son The Greek Noun Greek nouns, as English nouns, are words used to name a person, place, or thing. The Greek noun contains case, gender, and number. To complicate matters there are three declensions or grouping of Greek nouns. A declension is a grouping of nouns according to their endings but has no effect on their translation. Case has to do with the function of the noun as it relates to the verb or to other parts of the sentence. Greek has eight distinctive cases, but of these eight cases, one only has to remember four (or five forms when the vocative form is different from the nominative). 1. Nominative. The nominative is the case of designation. It is the naming case. The nominative serves as the subject of the sentence or clause. It is translated as υιός a son, or when used with the article ό υιός the son. 2. Genitive. The genitive is the case of description. The genitive specifies or qualifies the word it modifies. It expresses possession and is translated as υιόυ of a son, or when used with the article του υιόυ of the son. 3. Ablative. The ablative is the case of separation or origin. It uses the same form as the genitive and is translated υιόυ from a son, or when used with the article του υιόυ from the son. 4. Dative. The dative is the case of reception. It is translated as υιόω to a son, or when used with the article τω υιόω to the son. 5. Locative. The locative is the case of location or position. It uses the same form as the dative and is translated as υιόω in a son, or when used with the article τω υιόω in the son. 12

20 6. Instrumental. The instrumental is the case of means or instrument. It uses the same form as the dative and is translated as υιόω with or by a son, or when used with the article τω υιόω with or by the son. 7. Accusative. The accusative is the case of limitation. The action extends to and is limited to the object. Its main usage is with the direct object of the phrase. It is translated as υιόν son, or when used with the article τον υιόν the son. 8. Vocative. The vocative is the case of address. In the plural the case always has the same form as the nominative, but in the singular the forms are often different. It is translated as υίέ Son, The Second Declension Noun Second declension nouns are primarily masculine and neuter. Second Declension endings - Masculine Singular Plural Translation Nominative -ος -οι a, the Genitive -ου -ων of Ablative -ου -ων from Dative -ω/ -οις to Locative -ω/ -οις in Instrumental -ω/ -οις with, by Accusative -ον -ους a, the Vocative -ε -ου O Second Declension endings - Neuter Singular Plural Translation Nominative -ον -α a, the Genitive -ου -ων of Ablative -ου -ων from Dative -ω/ -οις to Locative -ω/ -οις in Instrumental -ω/ -οις with, by Accusative -ον -α a, the Vocative -ον -α O The Article A noun may, or may not, possess a definite article. In the Greek there is no indefinite article corresponding to the English a or an. To express the indefinite idea in Greek, the article is omitted. So, ό υιός is translated the son, while, υιός is simply son or a son. 13

Chapter 2 * * * * * * * Introduction to Verbs * * * * * * *

Chapter 2 * * * * * * * Introduction to Verbs * * * * * * * Chapter 2 * * * * * * * Introduction to Verbs * * * * * * * In the first chapter, we practiced the skill of reading Greek words. Now we want to try to understand some parts of what we read. There are a

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