1 1 Fraternities and Labor Associations of Cephalonia: Constitution and diffusion of socialist ideology and trade union identity in Cephalonia at the end of the 19 th century Nikolaos Kamilos The announcement in respect is aiming to present state and underline the significance of both the founding as well as the function of fraternal societies and labor associations in the island of Cephalonia at the end of the 19 th century with regards to the constitution and spreading of the socialist ideology along with the trade union identity. The very first Greek rendering of the term socialism has made its appearance in Greece via the translated term koinonismos produced by a true Saint-Simon follower & believer, Fragkiskos Pilarinos, whom during the necrology of A. Korais in 1833 made a synopsis of the latters 19 th century s philosophical and political stand point with regards to freedom-equality-koinonismos 1.There have been reports on the access of the socialist ideology in the Ionian Islands since the British Protection 2 period, traced in the principles, declarations and goals of the movement of Radicalism 3, which was clearly influenced by Saint-Simon s 4 utopian socialism and Mazzini s 5 (Italian philosopher and politician) theory frame. Upon the Greece-Ionian Islands unification in , the diffusion of the socialist ideology will start to become more concrete. During the respective period of time, there seems to be some rather vivid socialist pulse in both Europe and Balkan area in combination with the founding of the most popular socialist associations 7. Some strong indications of social radicalism have made their appearance in Greece after 1870 deriving mainly from a series of on & off basis financial crisis. Labor Associations were formed in the island of Syros as well as in Athens, Patra, Volos, Larissa and other parts of Greece 8. 1 Π. Ννύηζνο, Ζ ζνζηαιηζηηθή ζθέςε ζηελ Διιάδα από ην 1875 σο ην 1894, ηόκ. Α, εθδ. Γλώζε, Αζήλα , p The British Rule in Cephalonia ( : British Rule, : British Protection) See Γ. Ν. Μνζρόπνπινο Ηζηνξία ηεο Κεθαινληάο, ηόκ. Β, εθδ. Kέθαινο, Αζήλα 1988, pp As per Radicalism in the Ionian Islands See Γ. Γ. Αιηζαλδξάηνο, Δπηαλεζηαθόο Ρηδνζπαζηηζκόο, επηκ. Γ. Αξβαληηάθεο, εθδ. Μνπζείν Μπελάθε, Αζήλα 2008 Πξαθηηθά Δπηζηεκνληθνύ πλεδξίνπ Ζ Έλσζε ηεο Δπηαλήζνπ κε ηελ Διιάδα , ηόκ. Β, Ηδενινγία Πνιηηηζκόο, εθδ. Βνπιή ησλ Διιήλσλ θαη Αθαδεκία Αζελώλ, Αζήλα 2006, pp π. Γ. Λνπθάηνο, Ζ επηαλεζηαθή πνιηηηθή ζρνιή ησλ ξηδνζπαζηώλ, επηκ. Π. Πεηξάηνο, ύλδεζκνο Φηινιόγσλ Κεθαινληάο - Ηζάθεο, Αξγνζηόιη As per Saint- Simon and his followers See Eric Hobsbawm, The Age of Revolution ( ), E.Η.N.B, Athens 1999, p , 340, π. Γ. Λνπθάηνο, «Πξνζβάζεηο ηεο ζνζηαιηζηηθήο ηδενινγίαο ζηα Δπηάλεζα δεύηεξν κηζό ηνπ 19 νπ αηώλα θαη αξρή ηνπ 20 νπ αηώλα», Πξαθηηθά Β πλεδξίνπ Δπηαλεζηαθνύ Πνιηηηζκνύ (Λεπθάδα, 3-8 επη. 1984) Πνιηηηζκηθέο επαθέο ζηα Δπηάλεζα θαη αλακεηαδόζεηο ζηνλ ππόινηπν ειιαδηθό ρώξν, 16 νο - 20 νο αη., Αζήλα 1991, pp As per Ionian Islands administrative affiliation See Υ. Μπακπνύλεο, Σνπηθή Απηνδηνίθεζε θαη Διιαδηθόο Υώξνο, εθδ. Βάληαο, Θεζζαινλίθε 2007, pp ηνπ Ηδίνπ, Όςεηο ηεο ηνπηθήο απηνδηνίθεζεο ζην ειιεληθό θξάηνο: Γηνηθεηηθή νξγάλσζε, πιεζπζκόο, εθπαίδεπζε, Παπαδήζεο, Αζήλα 2008, pp Γ. Ν. Μνζρόπνπινο, Ηζηνξία ηνπ Νένπ Διιεληθνύ Κξάηνπο. Πνιηηηθέο πξνζεγγίζεηο, εθδ. Α. Υξηζηάθεο, Αζήλα , pp Πξαθηηθά Δπηζηεκνληθνύ ζπλεδξίνπ Ζ έλσζε ηεο Δπηαλήζνπ κε ηελ Διιάδα , 2 ηόκνη, ibid, Αζήλα As per the establishment of European socialist parties See Dick Geary, The European labor movement ( ), pub. Paratiritis, Thessaloniki 1988, pp Jacques Droz, Histoire Générale Du Socialisme, issue 2, Paris As per respective time period See Δκκ. Λπθνύδεο, Ζ ελ Διιάδη βηνκεραλία θαη αη απεξγίαη, Δξκνύπνιηο 1883 Ν. βνξώλνο, Δπηζθόπεζε Νενειιιεληθήο Ηζηνξίαο, εθδ. Θεκέιην, Αζήλα 1976, pp , Κ. Φνπληαλόπνπινο, «Μηζζσηή εξγαζία», Ηζηνξία ηεο Διιάδαο ηνπ 20νπ αηώλα. Οη
2 2 However, the development of a special aggregate consciousness remained somewhat of a challenge due to the fact that working conditions presented more of a trade tendency rather than an industrial feel-like, corporation volume was of no important magnitude and both personal and local business bonds remained strong and firmly established 9. As a result, the role of early-formed labor associations limited down to the organization of brotherhoods 10 and win-win groups which operated under the control of bourgeois; and more frequently their employers totally lacked an ideological or trade union kind of goal 11. Around the mid-70 s, the socialist ideology initially introduced a kind of anarchic socialism 12 - as characterized by the Democratic Association of Patra 13 - a branch which had also been put together in the island of Cephalonia. Ionian Islands descendants of radicalism, namely Panagiotis Panas, Rokkos Choidas, Marinos Antipas and Platonas Drakoulis from Ithaca, were responsible for spreading and leading a humanitarian (christianic) and utopian deviation from the socialist ideology 14. Erasmia Louiza Stavropoulos, Panagiotis Panas long time biographer, states that text study is the very proof of his remaining a true democrat seeking to add new suggestions in his political agenda in order to improve blue-collar workers lives 15. More specifically, newspaper articles of democratic and koinonistiko, content written by Panas, regarding the founding of associations, particularly ones relating to labor issues, are of great significance as he considers them mandatory when it comes to ones political awakening. Rokkos Choidas 16, whom held strong ties with Stavros απαξρέο , (επηζηεκ. επηκ.) Υξ. Υαηδεησζήθ, ηόκ. Α 1, εθδ. Βηβιηόξακα, pp Γ. Γεξηηιήο, Ηζηνξία ηνπ ειιεληθνύ θξάηνπο , ηόκ. Β, Βηβιηνπσιείνλ ηεο «Δζηίαο» Η. Γ. Κνιιάξνπ & ηαο Α.Δ., Αζήλα , pp X. Μπακπνύλεο, «Κίλεζε ηδεώλ θαη πξνζώπσλ από ηελ Δπξώπε ζην λεόηεξν Λαύξην », Πξαθηηθά Α Δπξσπατθνύ πλεδξίνπ Νενειιεληθώλ πνπδώλ, Βεξνιίλν 21-4 Οθησβξίνπ 1998, ηόκ. Β, Διιεληθά Γξάκκαηα, pp , ηνπ Ηδίνπ Investigación en archivos griegos para la localización de vestigios de interés para Grecia y España, I Coloquio Internacional: La Presencia del Mundo Griego en los Fondos Documentales Españoles, Perspectiva de Investigación, Granada 2008, Forthcoming transcripts. 9 Αλ. Ληάθνο, «Οη δπλαηόηεηεο πξόζιεςεο ηνπ καξμηζκνύ ζηελ Διιάδα ην 19 ν αηώλα», Θέκαηα Νενειιεληθήο Ηζηνξίαο (18 νο- 20 νο αηώλαο), εηζαγ.-επηκ. Γ. Β. Γεξηηιήο Κ. Κσζηήο, εθδ. Αλη. Ν. άθθνπια, Αζήλα Κνκνηελή 1991, pp Fraternities during the Venetian domination period have played an important role in terms of social tightening among the Ionian people. See Γ. Ν. Λενληζίλεο, Εεηήκαηα επηαλεζηαθήο θνηλσληθήο ηζηνξίαο, εθδ. Αθνί Σνιίδε, Κεληξηθή δηάζεζε εθδ. «Ηλζηηηνύην ηνπ Βηβιίνπ-Α. Καξδακίηζα», Αζήλα , p Γ. Β. Λενληαξίηεο, Σν ειιεληθό ζνζηαιηζηηθό θίλεκα θαηά ηνλ πξώην παγθόζκην πόιεκν, εθδ. Δμάληαο, Αζήλα 1978, pp As per the spread and recruitment of utopian socialism and anarchism notion during the 70 s See Κ. Μνζθώθ, Δηζαγσγηθά ζηελ ηζηνξία ηνπ θηλήκαηνο ηεο εξγαηηθήο ηάμεο, εθδ. Καζηαληώηεο, Αζήλα , pp Γ. Κνξδάηνο, Ηζηνξία ηνπ ειιεληθνύ εξγαηηθνύ θηλήκαηνο, εθδ. «Μπνπθνπκάλε», Αζήλα 1972, pp Κ. Μνζθώθ, Ζ εζληθή θαη θνηλσληθή ζπλείδεζε ζηελ Διιάδα , Αζήλα 1974, pp As per descendants of Radicalism in Cephalonia See Π. Ννύηζνο, Ζ ζνζηαιηζηηθή ζθέςε ζηελ Διιάδα, ibid, pp As per P. Panas ( ) See Ζ. Σζηηζέιεο, Κεθαιιεληαθά ύκκηθηα, ηόκ. Α, ελ Αζήλαηο 1904, ζζ Δ. Λ. ηαπξνπνύινπ, Παλαγηώηεο Παλάο ( ), Έλαο ξηδνζπάζηεο ξνκαληηθόο, Δπηθαηξόηεηα, Αζήλα 1987, including citations of relevant bibliography. 16 As per R. Choidas ( ) See π. Λνπθάηνο, Ρόθθνο Υντδάο, ν θήξπθαο ηνπ ειιεληθνύ ζνζηαιηζκνύ, έθδνζε Αδειθόηεηαο Κεθαιιήλσλ θαη Ηζαθεζίσλ Πεηξαηά θαη εθδ. Αιθπώλ, Αζήλα 1984 Α-Γ. Γεκπόλνο, Ρόθθνο Υντδάο, ν επίγνλνο ησλ Ρηδνζπαζηώλ, Αξγνζηόιη 1984 Σ. Βνπξλάο, Σν μεθίλεκα ηεο θσηηάο. Μηα κπζηζηνξεκαηηθή βηνγξαθία ηνπ πξσηνπόξνπ Γεκνθξάηε Ρόθθνπ Υντδά, εθδ. Αθνί Σνιίδε, Αζήλα 1974.
3 3 Kallergis 17 (a member of the Socialist Association of Athens whose ideas had been widely spread throughout the island of Cephalonia), professed a body of 3 core values during his pre-election campaign, those being: freedom equality brotherhood 18. Platon Drakoulis 19 has contributed in a significant manner to the movement of socialist ideas in Cephalonia via informative brochures distribution as well as general studies with regards to socialism along with his setting the ground for Marinos Antipas 20 to make his debut appearance. Using his newspaper Resurrection and through the founding of the Establishment of People Reading named The Equality, made a generous contribution to the spread of socialist ideas to all social layers on a regional basis. In one of is texts titled: Regime, he underscores the need for unification and tightening of bonds amongst working class people. Descendants of Ionian radicalism have held a utopian, socialist and rebellious stand point as they actively expressed their opposition against the Throne and Protection as well as their fighting social injustice and exploitation, setting some solid foundation as per the creation of union labor identity 21. The spread of socialist ideas in the Ionian Islands sometime between late 19 th and early 20 th century, led to a series of fraternities to be founded aiming to solidarity and unity among all of its members along with standing up for better conditions of life 22. The very first association ever to have been founded in the Ionian Islands upon the Unification, was on August, 28 th 1877 in Argostoli, Cephalonia, bearing the name Brotherhood. It was designed as quoted by the local press by the entirety of its members in the city region and the rest parts of the island including all social layers and all outstanding man figures residing on the island 23. The associations composition, whom Rokkos Choidas 24, was very closely attached to aimed exclusively and most fundamentally to maintaining the moral spirit high and living 17 As per the spread of socialist ideas as formed by Kallergis ( ) in Cephalonia See η. Καιιέξγεο, Σν όξακα θαη ε Πξάμε ηνπ Πξσηνπόξνπ νζηαιηζηή, Ίδξπκα Κνηλσληθώλ Ηζηνξηθώλ Δξεπλώλ «ηαύξνο Καιιέξγεο», Αζήλα 1995, p. 13 η. Καιιέξγεο, Δγθόιπηνλ Δξγάηνπ θαη άιια θείκελα, εηζ. Ξ. Μπαισηή, Βηβιηνζήθε Διιήλσλ Ρηδνζπαζηώλ θαη νζηαιηζηώλ, εθδ. Ηδξύκαηνο Κνηλσληθώλ Δξεπλώλ η. Καιιέξγεο θαη Κνύξηεξ Δθδνηηθή, Αζήλα Rokkos Choidas stood as a member of Parliament in Cephalonia, and and was considered to be one of the most outstanding members of Rigas political association. 19 As per Pl. Drakoulis ( ) See Πι. Γξαθνύιεο, Σν εγρεηξίδηνλ ηνπ Δξγάηνπ, ήηνη αη Βάζεηο ηνπ ζνζηαιηζκνύ, Αζήλαη 1890 π. Γ. Λνπθάηνο, «Σν ειιεληθό πξσηνζνζηαιηζηηθό θόκκα ηνπ Πιάησλα Γξαθνύιε», Κπκνζόε, Πεξηνδηθή έθδνζε ζπλδέζκνπ Φηινιόγσλ Κεθαινληάο Ηζάθεο, ηρ.12-13, Αξγνζηόιη 2003, pp As per M. Antipas ( ) See monographs by π. Γ. Λνπθάηνπ, Μαξίλνο π. Αληύπαο. Ζ δσή - ε επνρή - ε ηδενινγία - ε δξάζε θαη ε δνινθνλία ηνπ, Έθδνζε Οκνζπνλδίαο Κεθαιιεληαθώλ θαη Ηζαθεζίσλ σκαηείσλ, Αζήλα 2007 ηνπ Ίδηνπ Σν ιατθό αλαγλσζηήξην «Ζ ηζόηεο» ηνπ Μαξίλνπ Αληύπα Κεθαινληά , εθδ. Αδειθόηεηαο Κεθαιιήλσλ θαη Ηζαθεζίσλ Πεηξαηά, Αζήλα 1984 Ν. Γ. Σδνπγαλάηνο, Ο Μαξίλνο Αληύπαο θαη νη ζνζηαιηζηηθέο εμειίμεηο ζηελ Κεθαινληά, εθδ. Αδειθόηεηαο Κεθαιιήλσλ θαη Ηζαθεζίσλ Πεηξαηά, Αζήλα 1978 Γήκνο Ππιαξέσλ Πξαθηηθά Δπηζηεκνληθνύ πλεδξίνπ Μαξίλνο Αληύπαο ( ), Αγία Δπθεκία Μαξηίνπ 2006, επηκ. Πέηξνο Πεηξάηνο, 2 ηόκνη, Αγία Δπθεκία Γ. Αλησλόπνπινο, «Ζ ζνζηαιηζηηθή θαη επαλαζηαηηθή ζθέςε ζηελ Διιάδα ζηηο ηειεπηαίεο δεθαεηίεο ηνπ 19 νπ αηώλα θαη ζηηο αξρέο ηνπ 20 νύ : Υντδάο, νθηαλόπνπινο, Αληύπαο», Γήκνο Ππιαξέσλ Πξαθηηθά Δπηζηεκνληθνύ πλεδξίνπ Μαξίλνο Αληύπαο, ηόκ. Β, ibid, pp Γ. Λνπθάηνο, «Πξώηκνο εξγαηηθόο ζπλδηθαιηζκόο ζηα Δπηάλεζα ζηα ηέιε ηνπ 19 νπ κ.υ. αηώλα», Κπκνζόε, Πεξηνδηθή Έθδνζε πλδέζκνπ Φηινιόγσλ Κεθαιιελίαο Ηζάθεο, η.ρ. 5, Αξγνζηόιη 1994, pp Newspaper, Παηξηώηεο, s. 7 ( ), p Rokkos Choidas was then a member of the parliament of Cephalonia and contributed both to the founding and function of the respective fraternity.
4 4 up to all expectations, national needs and demands wise 25. He was engaged in activities of national texture such as lottery circulation as an attempt to cover national needs and the creation of a reading establishment in one of his own accommodations providing that way access to press through the reading a spectrum of Greek and foreign newspapers 26 to all Ionians. Later on around 1889, the first Charitable Fraternity was founded in Argostoli aiming to protect and provide care to the homeless when it came to those in need of medical treatment, cases of death or other detrimental incidents which may have occurred 27. In 1893 one more Charitable Fraternity 28, was founded upon an initiative taken by Archbishop of Cephalonia, namely Gerasimos Dorizas 29, whom people were especially fond of. Fraternity in question did not only aim to provide relief to the poor and homeless but also to comfort those imprisoned suffering due to mal living and poor hygiene. Peoples response to circular invitation letter send out by regional archbishop, was initially vast. Hopes for social coherence were never actually verified as two committees were constituted by different social layers right from the start; upon the fraternity s founding, speakers discerned its members social rights per class 30. Fraternity in question went through a brief period of active charity and later on went idle. Labor Associations founding in Cephalonia had been preceded by the establishment of the Labor Association of Corfu in May, 1877; a remarkable effort made to ground union identity in the Ionian Islands. Fraternity of Labor of Lefkas and Labor Union of Corfu were formed in 1892 and respectively, while Central Socialist Association branches founded by Stavros Kallergis had already been functioning in the Ionian Islands and his newspaper The Socialist already been widely circulated. Late 19 th and early 20 th century, a premature working class 32 emerged in Argostoli 33, as the phenomenon of urbanization in the local society was being intensified at the time due to capital input and investments rate increase on behalf of immigrant Greeks. Despite its incorporation in the national body, blue collar working class kept on being somewhat isolated compared to the ruling class, latter intending to politically manipulate and exploit them. It was at the beginning of 1894 that blue collar workers in Argostoli initiated a unanimous effort to organize a guild of their own. That move led to the setting of the Labor Association of Argostoli, namely 25 Newspaper, Παηξηώηεο, s. 6 ( ), p As per the Fraternity s activities in general See newspaper Παηξηώηεο, s. 11 ( ) s. 17 ( ), p. 1 s. 18 ( ), p. 3 and s. 21 ( ), p Newspaper Νέα Κεθαιιελία, s. 161 ( ), p. 3b Α-Γ. Γεκπόλνο, Ζ γέλλεζε θαη ηα πάζε κηαο πνιηηείαο, Αξγνζηόιη 1981, p Newspaper Έγεξζηο, s. 29 ( ), p General information about archbishop Gerasimos Dorizas ( ) See Ζ. Σζηηζέιε, Κεθαιιεληαθά ύκκηθηα, ηόκ. Β, ελ Αζήλαηο 1960, pp Γεώξγηνο. Ν. Καβαδίαο, Γεξάζηκνο Γόξηδαο, αξρηεπίζθνπνο Κεθαιιελίαο, Αζήλαη Newspaper Έγεξζηο, s. 30 ( ), p π. Γ. Λνπθάηνο, «Πξώηκνο εξγαηηθόο ζπλδηθαιηζκόο», ibid, n As per general social status in Cephalonia between See Γ.Ν. Μνζρόπνπινο, Ηζηνξία ηεο Κεθαινληάο, ηόκ. B, ibid, pp As per social variations in Argostoli See Ν. Ξ. Καξπνύδε, Αξγνζηόιη Κεθαιιελίαο, Μεηαβνιέο ζηε ζύγρξνλε δσή κηαο επαξρηαθήο πόιεο, Δηαηξεία Κεθαιιεληαθώλ Ηζηνξηθώλ Δξεπλώλ, Αζήλα 2009 Α- Γ. Γεκπόλνο, ηαζκνί ζηελ πνιηηηθνθνηλσληθή θαη πνιηηηζκηθή δσή ηνπ Αξγνζηνιίνπ, εθδ. Γ.Δ.Π.Α.Φ, Αξγνζηόιη 1994 ηνπ Ίδηνπ Σν Αξγνζηόιη δηαζθεδάδεη, Αξγνζηόιη Γ. Αλησλάηνο, Αξγνζηόιη, ε ρακέλε πόιε. Γξάζε θαζ νδόλ , εθδ. Κνξπθή Α. Δ., Αζήλα 2005.
5 5 Allilovoithia 34 aiming to help its fellow members both on a moral as well as on a substantial basis. Printer, Stavros Menegatos, also known as Stavros Makarounis and Konstantinos Lelos, both of them well known for their determination and humanitarian spirit, were core supporters regarding the creation of Labor Association. Labor Association consisted of a group of progressive people with a popular view point without them being neither proletarians nor people who strive to make their living 35. This group of socialists was supportive of scientific socialism 36, led a life mode and operated in an environment seeking for social balance based on the dictations of Evangelical morale in its most broad sense 37. The Association would consist of a total of 300 members upon its start up while its formal opening was attended by a large No. of people in the city s central square. Speech of triumph was delivered by archbishop G. Dorizas, well known for his eagerness and love for labor 38. The Associations opening event was welcomed by the local press. Rokkos Choidas, in one of is articles in newspaper Egersis pub. by P.Panas, salutes the founding as he considered it to be a solid first step in the form of a union-like organization, underscoring the need for bond tightening among blue collar workers in order for them to be able to cope with practicality issues 39. Articles of the same texture and character, were also written in newspapers such as Lixourion 40 and Zizanion 41. Similar articles were also written in newspapers such as Lixourion and Zizanion. However, the Association s opening was opposed by supporters of the opposite party who considered this move an obstacle when it came to their clients best interests. That was the reason, why they made an effort to prevent the founding of the Association by vilifying it. In one of its article, newspaper Egersis expresses the hope for all blue collar workers who have not yet been disoriented by partisanship and hopefully won t be affected by any type of malicious acts; instead they will try their best in order to achieve the prosperity and welfare of the Association 42. According to the regulations, as stated by the relevant charter, Labor Association of Argostoli, namely Allilovoitheia has had charitable activity both in school as well as the educational field of action 43. Educational speech meetings were held in the Association s conference room hosted by important local figures. A point of emphasis highlighted in a series of speeches was on the one hand, the fact that the Associations decisions should be made with a liberal spirit and forwardness 44, and on the other hand, the need for 34 Καηαζηαηηθόλ ηνπ ελ Αξγνζηνιίῳ Δξγαηηθνύ πλδέζκνπ Αιιεινβνήζεηα, ΦΔΚ, ηρ. Γ, 78/ Members of the upper class would gradually join the association. See newspaper Εηδάληνλ, s. 418 ( ), p. 3b-4a s. 419 ( ), p. 3b-4 a s. 421 ( ), p. 3 Γ. Ζ. Πεληόγαινο, Γηαηξνί θαη Ηαηξηθή ζηελ Κεθαινληάο από ηα ρξόληα ηεο Έλσζεο κέρξη ηνλ πόιεκν ηνπ 1940 ( ), University Studio Press, Θεζζαινλίθε 2007, pp As per fundamental differences between utopian and scientific socialism See Fr. Engels, Socialism Utopian and Scientific, Pathfinder Press, New York Α-Γ. Γεκπόλνο, «Ζ ζνζηαιηζηηθή νκάδα ηεο Κεθαινληάο», Γήκνο Ππιαξέσλ Πξαθηηθά Δπηζηεκνληθνύ πλεδξίνπ, ηόκ. Α, ibid, p As per Associations opening See newspaper Λεμνύξηνλ, s. 39 ( ), p. 1 and newspaper Έγεξζηο s. 68 ( ), p Νewspaper Έγεξζηο, s. 69 ( ), p Νewspaper Λεμνύξηνλ, s. 39 ( ), p Νewspaper Εηδάληνλ, s. 42 ( ), p Νewspaper Έγεξζηο, s. 62 ( ), p First Association s charter ever to have been approved was on September, 19th 1894 See ΦΔΚ, ηρ. Γ, 78/ See speech delivered by P. Livadas in newspaper Έγεξζηο, s. 81 ( ), p. 4.
6 6 proper education for the young 45. Subject spectrum was expanded in speeches delivered by Ilias Tsitselis, N. Mazarakis a.o. who followed in the School for children in need. A point of indication relates to speech titles such as: About Music, About Co-operations in Cephalonia, About hygiene a.o 46. A proof of the Mass acceptance when it came to the Association s initiatives is reflected on positive remarks made by the local press 47. School of Children in need re-establishment in 1896 was the most remarkable effort made on behalf of the association making a significant contribution to achieving further social acceptance 48. First couple of years, the School organized a series of night classes, however due to issues emerging in terms of insufficient financial resources and mal accommodation, its further operational function was not on a continuous basis. Finally, the Association provided the School with some fundamental education on a permanent basis, especially as of 1902, when it received financial boost on behalf of the Administrative Committee of Vallianeios Endowment 49. One more important activity was the founding of a Professional and Housekeeping Laboratory for Poor Women and Girls, a foundation with a definitive importance concerning the island s 50 social progress. School educators were of outstanding value and classes were being realized at evening time due to the fact that children would work during daytime. Initially, children would be provided with all necessary books, stationery and clothing 51. Constant increase of the No. of pupils and teachers is indicative of both Schools success 52. One could also attend a music class. On the grounds of that, a music department was put together for children with special talent. Lessons taught included wind instruments; it was only then that the Professional and Housekeeping Laboratory for Poor Women and Girls infamous band came together contributing to the diffusion the Ionian musical tradition 53. Music department also helped to financially support its pupils whom would collect a financial benefit deriving from private events which they attended. 45 See speech delivered by P. Mirtilis under the title About Childrens education, newspaper Έγεξζηο, ibid, p Among those who stepped up the schools pontium were Ilias Tsitselis, Niθolaos Mazarakis, dr. Richardos Livathinopoulos, Marinos Antipas a.o. See newspaper Εηδάληνλ, s. 82 ( ), p. 4b. 47 Newspaper Εηδάληνλ, s. 80 ( ), p Α-Γ. Γεκπόλνο, «ρνιή Άπνξσλ παίδσλ θαη εθήβσλ Αξγνζηνιίνπ», ζηνλ ηόκν: Γ. Ν. Μνζρόπνπινο (επηκ), Δπηαλεζηαθά Ηδξύκαηα Κιεξνδνηήκαηα (19 νο αη. 1953), Ζ πλεπκαηηθή πνιηηηζκηθή θαη θνηλσληθή ζπκβνιή ηνπο, Πξαθηηθά πλεδξίνπ (Κεθαινληά 7-9 Μαΐνπ 2004), εθδ. Δηαηξείαο Κεθαιιεληαθώλ Ηζηνξηθώλ Δξεπλώλ, Αξγνζηόιη 2007, pp Κιεξνδόηεκα Παλαγή Α. Βαιιηάλνπ, Τπέξ θηιαλζξσπηθώλ ζθνπώλ ελ Κεθαιιελία, Γηαρεηξηζηηθή Δπηηξνπή ηνπ θιεξνδνηήκαηνο Παλαγή Α. Βαιιηάλνπ, Αζήλαη 1932, p. 5 and p Newspaper Ήιηνο, s. 164 ( ), p. 2b. 51 The School considered that an even uniform would be a boost to pupils self-confidence as they would not feel inferior to their counterparts in other educational centers. At the same time uniform was thought to have a negative effect in cases of offensive behavior outside of school premises. See newspaper Εηδάληνλ, s. 296 ( ), p In 1914, School would accommodate a total of students and 8 teachers. See newspaper Εηδάληνλ, s ( ), p. 4 a. 53 As per Ionian folk music and its impact in general See Γ. Ν. Μνζρόπνπινο, «Δηζαγσγηθά ζηνπο ζηόρνπο ηνπ πλεδξίνπ», ζηνλ ηόκν: Γ. Ν. Μνζρόπνπινο (επηκ.), πκβνιή ζηελ ηζηνξία ηεο επηαλεζηαθήο κνπζηθήο, Πξαθηηθά πλεδξίνπ Ηζηνξίαο ηεο Δπηαλεζηαθήο Μνπζηθήο, Αξγνζηόιη- Λεμνύξη (14-18 Οθησβξίνπ 1995), εθδ. Δηαηξείαο Κεθαιιεληαθώλ Ηζηνξηθώλ Δξεπλώλ, Αξγνζηόιη 2000, pp
7 7 A few months upon the founding of Labor Association in Argostoli, Labor Association of Twining 54 was founded in Lixouri on September, The diffusion of socialist ideas in the agricultural part of a Palis 55 county, in combination with financial implications resulting from currant 56 price as well as several social transitions due to the decrease 57 in population, have caused the association s functional conditions to develop and therefore evolve. Blue collar workers in Lixouri area came together to a common association aiming to, same as Argostoli counterpart, the moral and substantial support from one another, their education as well as a joined effort to resolve their problems. The Association constisted of earnest and progressive young people 58 of Lixouri and aimed to be more positive and broadminded oriented than its equivalent in Argostoli 59. According to Association charter, the spirit of charity and philanthropy same as the case was when some of the first labor organizations were formed in Greece. Most charters followed by labor associations since 1880 till 1890 have indicated that professional labor associations were in fact somewhat of a trade, social and labor organizations 60. One of the main elements of the Association was that of universalism especially should one bears in mind that it comes under the quoting any worker, of any origin and religious belief 61. Charter indicates the associations democratic spirit as: a) all its members have enjoyed equal rights and share the same obligations 62, b) support provision mediums are being precisely defined towards all members and a possibility of appeal against a decision 63, is an option, c) members have a right to vote and be voted by 64, d) decisions are made based on the majority 65 and there is a 54 The respective association was founded in September, 12 th See Καηαζηαηηθόλ ηνπ ελ Λεμνπξίῳ Δξγαηηθνύ πλδέζκνπ ε «Αδειθνπνίεζηο», ελ Κεθαιιελία, ηύπνηο πξνόδνπ, 1894, ΦΔΚ, ηρ. Γ, 3/1895. Charter has been registered in National Library bearing the following credentials: O.K.E* Former Municipality of Palikis, capitol Lixouri. See Γ. Ν. Μνζρόπνπινο, Ηζηνξία ηεο Κεθαινληάο, Από ηα αξραία ρξόληα σο ην 1797, ηόκ. Α, εθδ. Κέθαινο, Αζήλα 1990, pp Η. Πάξηο, Κεθαιιελία θαη Ηζάθε, Γεσγξαθηθή Μνλνγξαθία, ελ Αζήλαηο 1872, pp Θ. Καιαθάηεο, «Οη θνηλσληθέο επηπηώζεηο ηνπ εκπνξηθνύ θύθινπ ησλ εμαγώγηκσλ αγξνηηθώλ πξντόλησλ ζηα Δπηάλεζα ( )», Πξαθηηθά Δπηζηεκνληθνύ πλεδξίνπ Ζ Έλσζε ηεο Δπηαλήζνπ,, ηόκ. Β, ibid, ζ. 287 π. Γε-Βηάδεο, «Ηζηνξηθαί ζεκεηώζεηο πεξί ζηαθίδνο ελ Δπηαλήζσ θαη ηδίσο ελ Εαθύλζσ», Παξλαζζόο, ηόκ. ΗΕ, Αζήλα 1894, pp As per demographic development in Cephalonia e.g Γ. Γ. Ηζαθήζηνο, «Γεκνγξαθηθά ραξαθηεξηζηηθά ηεο Δπηαλήζνπ, », Πξαθηηθά Δπηζηεκνληθνύ πλεδξίνπ Ζ έλσζε ηεο Δπηαλήζνπ κε ηελ Διιάδα , ηόκ. Α, ibid, p. 503 Ν. Γ. Μνζρνλάο, «Γεσξγηθή, βηνηερληθή θαη εκπνξηθή δξαζηεξηόηεηα ζηελ Κεθαινληά ( ). Γεσγξαθηθή θαηαλνκή επαγγεικάησλ», Κεθαιιεληαθά Υξνληθά, ηόκ. 5 (1986), pp Founding members of the Association namely were the following: Panagis G. Adilinis, Gerasimos Rikos, Panagis S. Perdikaris, Fragkiskos P. Drakopoulos, Michail Voutsinas, Fotios Savramis, Spiridon Divaris, Rokos Xydaktilos, Panagis Zacharenios, Panagis Adilinis, Evaggelos Melidonis, Charalampos Romanos, Spiridon Zakinthinos, Gerasimos Kourtelos. See Newspaper Έγεξζηο, s. 68 ( ), pp As per Association founding See Π. Πεηξάηνο, «Ο Δξγαηηθόο ύλδεζκνο Λεμνπξίνπ Ζ Αδειθνπνίεζηο 1894», Οδύζζεηα Κεθαιινληάο Ηζάθεο, 2008, pp Γ. Κνξδάηνο, Ηζηνξία ηνπ ειιεληθνύ, ibid, Αζήλα 1972, pp See Καηαζηαηηθόλ ηνπ ελ Λεμνπξίῳ Δξγαηηθνύ πλδέζκνπ., ibid, article Ibid, article Ibid, articles Ibid, article Ibid, articles 26, 29, 31, 33, 34, 41, 42 and 46.
8 8 possibility of appeal against any decision 66 and e) the choice of a conference subject is made by all members of the Association 67. Newspapers of that period, namely Mauri Moira in Argostoli, Lixourion in Lixouri, Zizanion and most importantly Egersis included extensive publications such as the founding of the Labor Association, saluting its establishment 68. The Labor Association of Lixouri had developed financial, social and cultural activity. That was the reason why it became aligned with local farmers in Pali, organizing rallies in order to claim better currant prices 69. It declared its utter most support when it came to incidents of global interest in terms of labor impact. An indicative example on the latter is attendance to the funeral of I.Zervos Iakovatos (radical) in and a telegraph of condolences regarding the death of M.Antipas 71. The Association had also founded Children s School of Labor, a center of education widely accepted by the local society which played an important role in fighting lack of education and diffusion of socialist ideas in lower classes 72. The Association also granted a financial benefit to all its members and provided moral support whenever there was a need for some 73. It had also taken a series of initiatives as per organizing a theatrical establishment in Lixouri, which however never received proper attention and reward 74. Labor Associations in Cephalonia reached a point of decadence, each one of them due to a different reason. Accession in the Association of Argostoli from various social layers, gradually somewhat corrupted its identity and character. Besides, it is no point of dispute that there was a conflict between the Vallianeio Endowment and the Association, latter having sustained a distortion due to factionalism, interpersonal rivalry among its members as well as political ambition as per its leading role thus turned from Labor Association to Social Synergy Association in It was only then that the Association of Lixouri went frail as it came across ruling class opposition, it was corrupted by donations made on behalf of political figures and eventually weakened by confrontations on leadership. Associations, being pioneer organization groups at the time, have been a foundation for the constitution of a trade union identity. Due to that working class in Cephalonia had not realized their dominance up until the association s founding so as to proceed to a claim of their rights, e.g. improvement of standards of life, reduction 66 Ibid, article Ibid, article As per Association s opening See Α. Γ. Γεκπόλνο, Ζ γέλλεζε θαη ηα πάζε.., ibid, pp Γ.Ν Μνζρόπνπινο, Ηζηνξία ηεο Κεθαινληάο, ηόκ. B, ibid, pp Newspaper Λεμνύξηνλ s. 42 ( ), p. 3 a «Σν ελ Λεμνπξίῳ πιιαιεηήξηνλ», newspaper Έγεξζηο, s. 80 ( ), p As per I. Zervo Iakovatos See Νη. Κνλόκνο, Ο Ζιίαο Εεξβόο Ηαθσβάηνο θαη ε Έλσζε ηεο Δπηαλήζνπ, Αζήλα, 1964 Γ. Γ. Αιηζαλδξάηνο, «Ο επηαλεζηαθόο ξηδνζπαζηηζκόο ( ). πλνπηηθό Γηάγξακκα», Σν Ηόλην. Πεξηβάιινλ Κνηλσλία Πνιηηηζκόο, Πξαθηηθά πκπνζίνπ 1984 (Αζήλα, Οθησβξίνπ), Κέληξν Μειεηώλ Ηνλίνπ, Αζήλα 1984, pp As per M. Antipas requiem in Cephalonia See π. Γεκ. Λνπθάηνο, Μαξίλνο πύξνο Αληύπαο, ibid, p Students would attend a variety of classes, extending all the way from Religious Education, Greek, Physics, Technical Courses, History, Courses of Expertise and Commerce to Geography and Mathematics. See newspaper Έγεξζηο s. 91 ( ), p Ibid, s. 90 ( ), p Newspaper Εηδάληνλ, s. 383 ( ), p Καηαζηαηηθόλ ηνπ ελ Αξγνζηνιίσ Κεθαιιελίαο Δξγαηηθνύ πλδέζκνπ «Ζ Αιιεινβνήζεηα» κεηά θαλνληζκώλ ηνπ γπκλαζηεξίνπ ηνπ πλδέζκνπ «Ο Κέθαινο» θαη ηεο ζρνιήο ησλ απόξσλ παίδσλ θαη εθήβσλ, εθ ηνπ Σππνγξαθείνπ ησλ Βηβιηεκπνξείσλ Απνζηνινπνύινπ, ελ Αζήλαηο, 1904.