# Calculating the propagation delay of coaxial cable

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1 Your source for quality GNSS Networking Solutions and Design Services! Page 1 of 5 Calculating the propagation delay of coaxial cable The delay of a cable or velocity factor is determined by the dielectric constant of the cable. The velocity factor is the speed at which an RF signal travels through a material compared to the speed the same signal travels through a vacuum. The velocity of propagation is inversely proportional to the dielectric constant. Lowering the constant increases the velocity. Generally, the higher the velocity factor, the lower the loss through a coaxial cable. Said another way, Velocity of Propagation (VP) or velocity factor (VF) is a parameter that characterizes the speed at which an electrical signal (e.g. radio) passes through a medium. Expressed as a number between 0 and 1 (or a percentage), it is the ratio of a signal's transmission speed to the speed of light in vacuum. Thus, transmission in a vacuum would have a VP of 1 (100%). VP equals the reciprocal of the square root of the dielectric constant of the material through which the signal passes. Here are a few definitions: c = speed of light in vacuum = speed RF travels So if the speed of light in a vacuum is 300,000,000 meters per second then it takes ns to go 1ft. = %c (speed of light in a vacuum) = Velocity Factor or Velocity of Propagation Velocity = 100 εε ε = (ε 0 ε г ) Where: ε = Dielectric constant of the insulator. The dielectric constant is often quoted as the relative dielectric constant ε r referred to the dielectric constant of free space ε 0 = 1 ε = ε r ε 0. When the insulator is a mixture of different dielectric materials (e.g., polyethylene foam is a mixture of polyethylene and air), then the term effective dielectric constant ε eff is often used. Below is a table of common dielectric materials and their characteristics. Further down is another table of common coaxial types and their delays based on my calculations. Dielectric Material (ns/ft) Velocity Time Delay Propagation Propagation Time Delay Speed Velocity (formula needs single value) ns/ft of light in free space (% of c) (% of c) Worst case Solid Polyethylene (PE) E-09 Solid Teflon (ST) Foam Polyethylene (FE) E-09 Air Space Polyethylene (ASP)

2 Your source for quality GNSS Networking Solutions and Design Services! Page 2 of 5 Air Space Teflon (AST) E-09 Foam Polystyrene (FS) E-09 Type (/U) MIL-W- 17 Z0(Ω) Dielectric Capacitance O.D. Type (pf/ft) (in.) db/100 MHz RG-4 50 PE ,900 Braid RG PE ,000 Braid RG-5A/B 50 PE ,000 Braid RG-6 /2-RG6 76 PE ,700 Braid RG-6A /2-RG6 75 PE ,700 Braid RG-8 52 PE ,000 Braid RG-8A 52 PE ,000 Braid RG-9 51 PE ,000 Braid RG-9A 51 PE ,000 Braid RG-9B 50 PE ,000 Braid RG PE ,000 Braid RG-10A 52 PE ,000 Braid RG-11 /6-RG11 75 PE ,000 Braid RG-11A /6-RG11 75 PE ,000 Braid RG-12 /6-RG12 75 PE ,000 Braid RG-12A /6-RG12 75 PE ,000 Braid RG-17A 52 PE ,000 Braid RG-22 RG22 95 PE ,000 Braid RG-22A/B RG22 95 PE ,000 Braid /16- RG-23/A RG PE ,000 Braid /16- RG-24/A RG PE ,000 Braid /24- RG-34 RG34 71 PE ,200 Braid /24- RG-34A RG34 75 PE ,500 Braid RG-35 RG35 71 PE ,000 Braid RG-35A/B RG35 75 PE ,000 Braid RG-55B 53.5 PE ,900 Braid RG-58 RG PE ,900 Braid Vmax (rms) Shield Time Delay (ns/ft)

3 Your source for quality GNSS Networking Solutions and Design Services! Page 3 of 5 RG-58A RG58 52 PE ,900 Braid RG-58B 53.5 PE ,900 Braid RG-58C RG58 50 PE ,900 Braid /29- RG-59/A RG59 73 PE ,300 Braid /29- RG-59B RG59 75 PE ,300 Braid /30- RG-62/A/B RG62 93 ASP Braid /31- RG-63/A/B RG ASP ,000 Braid /34-16 RG-65/A RG ASP 44 1,000 Braid /90- RG-71/A/B RG71 93 ASP Braid /31- RG-79/A/B RG ASP ,000 Braid RG PE ,000 Braid 0.7 RG PE 50 10,000 Braid / RG-108/A RG PE ,000 Braid RG-111/A RG PE ,000 Braid /47- RG-114/A RG ASP ,000 Braid /52- RG-119 RG ST ,000 Braid /52- RG-120 RG ST ,000 Braid /54- RG-122 RG PE ,900 Braid /56- RG-130 RG PE ,000 Braid /56- RG-131 RG PE ,000 Braid /100- RG-133/A RG PE ,000 Braid RG-141/A 50 ST ,900 Braid /60- RG-142/A/B RG ST ,900 Braid /62- RG-144 RG ST ,000 Braid RG-164 RG ST ,000 Braid /65- RG-165 RG ST ,000 Braid /65- RG-166 RG ST ,000 Braid RG PE Braid /67- RG-177 RG PE ,000 Braid /93- RG-178/A/B RG ST ,000 Braid /94- RG-179 RG ST ,200 Braid /94- RG-179A/B RG ST ,200 Braid

4 Your source for quality GNSS Networking Solutions and Design Services! Page 4 of 5 RG-180 RG-180A/B RG-210 RG-211/A RG-212 RG-213 RG-214 RG-215 RG-216 RG-217 RG-218 RG-219 RG-223 RG-302 RG-303 RG-304 RG-307/A RG-316 RG-391 RG-392 RG-393 RG-400 RG-401 RG-402 RG-403 RG-405 /95- RG ST ,500 Braid /95- RG ST ,500 Braid /97- RG ASP Braid /72- RG ST ,000 Braid /73- RG PE ,000 Braid /74- RG PE ,000 Braid /75- Dbl RG PE ,000 Braid /74- RG PE ,000 Braid /77- RG PE ,000 Braid /78- RG PE ,000 Braid /79- RG PE ,000 Braid /79- RG PE ,000 Braid /84- Dbl RG PE ,900 Braid /110- RG ST ,300 Braid /111- RG ST ,900 Braid /112- RG ST ,000 Braid /116- RG ,000 Braid /113- RG ST ,200 Braid /126- RG ,000 Braid /126- RG ,000 Braid /127- RG ST ,000 Braid /128- RG ST ,900 Braid /129- RG ST ,000 R /130- RG ST ,500 R /131- RG ST ,500 Braid /133- RG ST ,500 R 9914 (Belden) (Disclaimer this is an amalgam of data from several sources I looked up on the web and massaged a little to say what I wanted. If you care if I copied your data then let me know will

5 Your source for quality GNSS Networking Solutions and Design Services! Page 5 of 5 be happy to take it down give you credit or whatever you like e.g. the coaxial chart came from RF cafe I added the delay calculations per foot column. )

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