Modern Greek Grammar Konstantinos Athanasiou

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1 The simple present / Ενεζηώηας The simple present generally describes an action, an event or condition that takes place in the present. The simple present is used: - to describe an action, an event or condition that is occurring at the moment of speaking Τώρα διαβάδω ηελ εθεκερίδα. I am reading the newspaper now. - to express general truths Η γε γσρίδει γύρω από ηολ ήιηο. The earth rotates around the sun. - to show a habit, repetition or continuity Πεγαίνω ζηο ζτοιείο θάζε κέρα. I go to school every day. Μένω ζηελ Ειιάδα. I live in Greece. - to refer to an action or an event that will certainly occur in the near future Αύρηο θεύγω γηα ηελ Ιηαιία. I am leaving for Italy tomorrow. - to describe events taken place in the past in order to make them more vivid (historical present) Καζώς κηιούζακε, ανοίγει ε πόρηα θαη.... While we were talking, the door opens and Formation of the simple present of the active voice Group A, 1 st conjugation The personal endings of the simple present of the verbs belonging to group A are: -ω, -εις, -ει, -οσμε, -εηε, -οσν The verbs γράθω (write) en δηαβάδω (read) are used as examples: 1. Find the present stem of the verb (ommit -ω). γράθω γραθ- δηαβάδω διαβαδ- -ω, -εις, -ει, -οσμε, -εηε, -οσν after the stem and put the stress mark on the second-to-last syllable. γράθ-ω γράθ-εις γράθ-ει δηαβάδ-ω δηαβάδ-εις δηαβάδ-ει γράθ-οσμε δηαβάδ-οσμε γράθ-εηε δηαβάδ-εηε γράθ-οσν δηαβάδ-οσν Notice that the the first and the second person plural bear the stress mark on the third-to-last syllable. You can see the personal endings of the simple present of the active voice of the 1st conjugation and the conjugation of the verbs used above in the table below: -ω -εις -ει γράθω γράθεις γράθει I write you write he/she/it writes δηαβάδω δηαβάδεις δηαβάδει I read you read he/she/it reads -οσμε -εηε -οσν (ε) γράθοσμε γράθεηε γράθοσν (ε) we write you write they write δηαβάδοσμε we read δηαβάδεηε you read δηαβάδοσν (ε) they read

2 Group B, 2 nd conjugation The personal endings of the simple present of the verbs belonging to group B are: B1: -ώ(-άω), -άς, -ά(-άει), -άμε(-ούμε), -άηε, -άνε (-ούν) B2: -ώ, -είς, -εί, -ούμε, -είηε, -ούν. The verbs κηιώ (speak) and κπορώ (can) are used as examples: 1. Find the present stem of the verb (omit -ω). κηιώ μιλ- κπορώ μπορ- -ώ(-άω), -άς, -ά(-άει), -άμε(-ούμε), -άηε, -άνε (-ούν) after the stem of the B1 verbs or the endings -ώ, -είς, -εί, -ούμε, -είηε, -ούν after the stem of the B2 verbs κηιώ(-άω), κηιάς, κηιά(-άεη), κπορώ, κπορείς, κπορεί, You can see the personal endings of the simple present of both subgroups of the 2 nd conjugation and the conjugation of the verbs κηιώ (speak) en κπορώ (can) in the table below: B1 B2 -ω (-άω) -ας -α (-άει) κηιώ (-άω) κηιάς κηιά (-άει) I speak you speak he/she/it speaks -ώ -είς -εί κπορώ κπορείς κπορεί I can you can he/she/it can -άμε (-ούμε) -άηε -άνε (-ούν) κηιάμε (-ούμε) κηιάηε κηιάνε (-ούν) we speak you speak they speak -ούμε -είηε -ούν(ε) κπορούμε κπορείηε κπορούν we can you can they can

3 Formation of the simple present of the medio-passive voice Notice that some Greek verbs in the medio-passive voice have an active meaning in English as έρτοκαη (come), θοηκάκαη (sleep) etc.. Group A, 1 st conjugation The personal endings of the simple present of the medio-passive voice of the verbs belonging to group A are: -ομαι, -εζαι, -εηαι, -όμαζηε, -εζηε, -ονηαι. The verb ληύλοκαη (get dressed) is used as example: 1. Find the present stem of the verb (omit -ω, -οκαη). ληύλω ληύλοκαη νηύν- 2. Place after the stem the endings -ομαι, -εζαι, -εηαι, -όμαζηε, -εζηε, -ονηαι. ληύλ-ομαι ληύλ-εζαι ληύλ-εηαι λησλ-όμαζηε ληύλ-εζηε ληύλ-ονηαι You can see the personal endings of the simple present of the medio-passive voice of the 1 st conjugation and the conjugation of the verb ληύλοκαη (get dressed) in the table below: -ομαι -εζαι -εηαι ληύλομαι ληύλεζαι ληύλεηαι I am (or get) dressed you are dressed he/she/it is dressed -όμαζηε -εζηε -ονηαι λησλόμαζηε ληύλεζηε ληύλονηαι we are dressed you are dressed they are dressed Group B, 2 nd conjugation The endings of the simple present of the medio-passive voice of verbs belonging to group B are: B1: -ιέμαι, -ιέζαι, -ιέηαι, -ιόμαζηε, ιέζηε, -ιούνηαι B2: -ούμαι/άμαι, -άζαι, -άηαι, -όμαζηε, -άζηε, -ούνηαι Arch. conj.: -ούμαι, -είζαι, -είηαι, -ούμαζηε, -είζηε, -ούνηαι Verbs B1 and B2 The verbs αγαπηέκαη (be loved) en θοηκούκαη / θοηκάκαη (sleep) are used as examples: 1. Find the present stem of the verb (omit -ώ, -ηέκαη, -ούκαη, -άκαη). αγαπώ αγαπηέκαη αγαπ θοηκούκαη / θοηκάκαη θοηκ -ιέμαι, -ιέζαι, -ιέηαι, -ιόμαζηε, ιέζηε, -ιούνηαι after the stem of the B1 verbs or the endings -ούμαι/άμαι, -άζαι, -άηαι, -όμαζηε, -άζηε, -ούνηαι after the stem of the B2 verbs

4 αγαπ-ιέμαι αγαπ-ιέζαι αγαπ-ιέηαι θοηκ-ούμαι/άμαι θοηκ-άζαι θοηκ-άηαι You can see the personal endings of the simple present of the medio-passive voice of the 2 nd conjugation and the conjugation of the verb αγαπηέκαη (be loved), θοηκούκαη (sleep) in the table below: B1 -ιέμαι -ιέζαι -ιέηαι αγαπιέμαι αγαπιέζαι αγαπιέηαι I am loved you are loved he B2 -ούμαι/άμαι -άζαι -άηαι θοηκούμαι/άμαι θοηκάζαι θοηκάηαι I sleep you sleep he -ιόμαζηε -ιέζηε -ιούνηαι αγαπιόμαζηε αγαπιέζηε αγαπιούνηαι -όμαζηε -άζηε -ούνηαι θοηκόμαζηε θοηκάζηε θοηκούνηαι Verbs with archaic conjugation Some verbs ending in -ούκαη as δηεγούκαη (narrate), αποηειούκαη (consist), κηκούκαη (imitate), απαζτοιούκαη (busy oneself with, employ) etc. follow the archaic conjugation. The verb δηεγούκαη (narrate) is used as example: 1. Find the present stem of the verb (omit -ούκαη). δηεγούκαη διεγ- 2. Place after the stem the personal endings of the archaic conjugation -ούμαι, -είζαι, -είηαι, -ούμαζηε, -είζηε, -ούνηαι δηεγ-ούμαι δηεγ-είζαι δηεγ-είηαι δηεγ-ούμαζηε δηεγ-είζηε δηεγ-ούνηαι You can see the endings of the simple present of the medio-passive voice of the verbs with the archaic conjugation and the conjugation of the verb δηεγούκαη (narrate) in the table below: -ούμαι -είζαι -είηαι δηεγούμαι δηεγείζαι δηεγείηαι I narrate you narrate he -ούμαζηε -είζηε -ούνηαι δηεγούμαζηε δηεγείζηε δηεγούνηαι Some seldom used verbs ending in -ώμαι follow the archaic conjugation as well, as the verb εγγσώκαη (guarantee): εγγσ-ώκαη, εγγσ-άζαη, εγγσ-άηαη, εγγσ-όκαζηε, εγγσ-άζηε, εγγσ-ώληαη.

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