Syntax. Prof. Kristina Chew Intensive Classical Greek June 14, 2016

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1 Syntax Prof. Kristina Chew Intensive Classical Greek June 14, 2016

2 A few things to note about Greek verbs 1.The ending on a verb tells us what person it is in. λύεις = you (sg.) loosen λύετε = you (pl.) loosen 2.No need to use a pronoun. λύω = Ι loosen When a pronoun is used, it is emphatic. ἐγὼ λύω = I [Achilles] am doing the loosening [rather than you Patroklos] 3.To some extent, word order does not matter. ὁ Αχιλλέας λύει τὴν ἡνίαν = λύει τὴν ἡνίαν ὁ Αχιλλέας.

3 subject is singular ὁ Αχιλλέας λύει τὴν ἡνίαν. τὴν ἡνίαν ὁ Αχιλλέας λύει. λύει τὴν ἡνίαν ὁ Αχιλλέας. Achilles loosens the reins. subject is plural ὁ Αχιλλέας καἰ ὁ Πάτροκλος λύουσι τὴν ἡνίαν. τὴν ἡνίαν ὁ Αχιλλέας καἰ ὁ Πάτροκλος λύουσι. λύουσι τὴν ἡνίαν ὁ Αχιλλέας καἰ ὁ Πάτροκλος. Achilles and Patroklos loosen the reins.

4 Some Uses of the Genitive, Dative, Accusative Επίδαυρος GENITIVE possession with prepositions value ὀβολοῦ personal agent with ὑπό certain verbs ἀκούω genitive absolute genitive of comparison partitive genitive time DATIVE indirect object (to, for) with prepositions possession with Σωκράτει βιβλίον ἐστίν. means λιθοῖς, ξίφει manner χαρᾷ, λύπῃ place which ὁδῷ agent (with passive verb) with certain verbs a point in time ACCUSATIVE direct object with prepositions duration of time respect accusative absolute πάροδος σκηνή ὀρχέστρα πάροδος

5 Εnclitics ( lean on the word they follow) If preceding word has ultima + circumflex/grave, accent of enclitic vanishes; if preceding word has ultima/grave, it becomes acute. σκηνῆς εἰσι, μικρός γε. If preceding word has antepenult/acute or penult/ circumflex, accent of enclitic vanishes; preceding word gets 2nd accent (acute) on ultima. ἄνθρωπός ἐστι, δῶρόν γε. If preceding word is another enclitic or proclitic, it gets ultima/acute. ἄνθρωποι ἐστέ γε, οὔκ ἐσμεν. If preceding word has penult/acute, accent of 1-syllable enclitic vanishes φίλη γε but 2-syllable enclitic gets ultima/ acute φίλη εἰμί or ultima/circumflex. φίλων τινῶν

6 PARTICIPLES Present Future Aorist Perfect Active λύων, λύουσα, λῦον loosening λύσων, λύσουσα, λῦσον about to loosen λύσας, λύσασα, λῦσαν loosening / having loosened λιπών, λιποῦσα, λιπόν leaving / having left λελυκώς, λελυκυῖα, λελυκός having loosened λυσάμενος, λυσαμένη, λυσάμενον Middle Passive λυόμενος, λυομένη, λυόμενον loosening for oneself being loosened λυσόμενος, λυσομένη, λυσόμενον about to loosen for oneself λυθησόμενος, λυθησομένη, λυθησόμενον loosening / having loosened for oneself λιπόμενος, λιπομένη, λιπόμενον leaving / having left for oneself λυθείς, λυθεῖσα, λυθέν λελυμένος, λελυμένη, λελυμένον having loosened for oneself having been loosened about to be loosened being loosened / having been loosened

7 PARTICIPLES Present Future Aorist Perfect Active λύων, λύουσα, λῦον loosening λύσων, λύσουσα, λῦσον about/going to loosen 1st λύσας, λύσασα, λῦσαν loosening / having loosened 2nd λιπών, λιποῦσα, λιπόν leaving / having left λελυκώς, λελυκυῖα, λελυκός having loosened βαλών (2nd aorist pple) βάλλων (present pple) -> βάλλω, βαλῶ, ἔβαλον λείπων (present pple) λιπών (2nd aorist pple) ἀγγέλλων (present pple) ἀγγείλας (1st aorist pple) About the augment: augment is used with finite verbs > person 1st, 2nd, 3rd < tense no augment is used with infinitive, participle, imperative < aspect

8 Notes about things that came up during class gerund = verbal noun (vs. participle = verbal adjective) In Greek, the infinitive + definite article is used for this fleeing = τὸ φεῦγειν κακόν seizing τὸ ἁρπάζειν Fleeing is cowardly. τὸ φεῦγειν κακόν From translating (Greek to English) sentences in class: Lesson 23 #4 ζητέω ἐζητησαμεν accusative of duration of time For many days we have sought the animals which our lord wishes to have. The animals which our lord wishes to have we have sought for many days. #6 ἀγγέλλων ἀγγείλας ἠγγελκώς, ἠγγελκυῖα, ἠγγελκός ἔχω, εἶχον + infinitive = be able ὁράω (imperf=ἑώρων), ὄψομαι, εἶδον, ἑόρακα ἑώρακα, ἑώραμαι ὦμμαι. see While/as long as she [this/that] whom I serve was seeing/watching me, I myself was not able to steal some obols. Lesson 24 #1 λείπω, λείψω, ἔλιπον, λέλοιπα, λέλειμμαι Those/The ones/the (m.pl.nom.) abandoning/leaving on this day the country are neither without hope nor fear. Those who are abandoning the country on this day are neither without hope nor without fear. #6 It is time we, being not still/no longer children, have/take grace/ thanks for the we/us well having taught. ---> for those having taught us well. --> for those who have taught us well.

9 PARTICIPLES Present Future Aorist Perfect λυσάμενος, λυσαμένη, λυσάμενον Middle Passive λυόμενος, λυομένη, λυόμενον loosening for oneself being loosened λυσόμενος, λυσομένη, λυσόμενον about to loosen for oneself λυθησόμενος, λυθησομένη, λυθησόμενον loosening / having loosened for oneself λιπόμενος, λιπομένη, λιπόμενον leaving / having left for oneself λυθείς, λυθεῖσα, λυθέν You don t need to know these till after class on 6/16/16 λελυμένος, λελυμένη, λελυμένον having loosened for oneself having been loosened about to be loosened being loosened / having been loosened

10 Participles of εἰμί Present active, being ontology ὤν οὖσα ὄν ὄντες οὖσαι ὄντα ὄντος οὔσης ὄντος ὄντων οὐσῶν ὄντων ὄντι οὔσῃ ὄντι οὖσι(ν) οὐσαις οὖσι(ν) ὄντα οὖσαν ὄν ὄντας οὔσας ὄντα Future middle (deponent forms), about to be ἐσόμενος, ἐσομένη, ἐσόμενον < - ἔσεσθαι ἐσομένου ἐσομένης ἐσομένου ἐσομένῳ ἐσομένῃ ἐσομένῳ

11 Uses of Participles Tenses of Participles Attributive translate as adjective (add -ing, -ed to make an adj.) translate as relative clause the one who writes use as substantive ὀ γράφων the writer, the man writing Indicate aspect or time as related to the main verb present = contemporaneous time; imperfective aspect Circumstantial predicate position time, manner, means, cause, condition, other attendant circumstance > translate as: while, since, because, if, as, although (used in place of an adverbial clause) sometimes a particle (ὡς, ἅτε, καίπερ) is added genitive absolute (noun + participle in genitive case) βοῆς ἀκουομένης ἐφοβοῦμεν, with the shout being hear we feared. Supplementary fills out the meaning of certain verbs: ἄρχω, παύω, λανθάνω, τυγχάνω aorist = time before the action of the main verb; aoristic aspect perfect = contemporaneous with time of main verb but action has now/already been completed; perfective aspect future = time after the action of the main verb; action is still in the future but anticipated

12 Relative Clauses Subordinate clause Like an attributive adjective, modifies noun/pronoun Relative pronoun has same gender & number as its antecedent in the main part of the sentence Antecedent can be placed before or after the relative pronoun Antecedent may be demonstrative pronoun. Antecedent may be omitted. Antecedent can be attracted into the case of its antecedent. If the antecedent is a demonstrative pronoun and the rel.pron. is attracted into the case of its antecedent, dem.pron. can drop out. πράττουσι ταῦθ ἃ ἐθέλομεν. ἃ ἐθέλομεν ταῦτα πράττουσι. ἃ ἐθέλομεν πράττουσι. πράττουσι ἃ ἐθέλομεν. Relative adverb may be attracted to a demonstrative antecedent and take its place. πράττουσι ταῦθ ἃ ἐθέλομεν. ἃ ἐθέλομεν ταῦτα πράττουσι. ἃ ἐθέλομεν πράττουσι. πράττουσι ἃ ἐθέλομεν.

13 distinguish from the interrogative pronoun τῖς, τί

14 πᾶς, πᾶσα, πᾶν πᾶς πᾶσα πᾶν παντός πάσης παντός παντί πάσῃ παντί πάντα πᾶσαν πᾶν πάντες πᾶσαι πᾶντα πᾶντων πασῶν πάντων πᾶσι(ν) πάσαις πᾶσι(ν) πάντας πάσας πάντα all: noun + article, predicate position πᾶσα ἡ οἰκία all the house; the house, all of it πᾶσαι αἱ οἰκίαι all the houses; the houses, all of them every, all [conceivable]: noun w/out article, predicate position πᾶσα οἰκία every house [in Athens] πᾶσαι οἰκίαι all houses whole, entire: attributive position ἡ πᾶσα οἰκία, ἡ οἰκία ἡ πᾶσα the whole/entire house substantive: πᾶς everyone; πάντες all (people); πάντα everything omnes, omnia

15 Questions Interrogative αdj/pronouns, particles, interrogative adverbs ἆρα, ἆρ ἆρ οὐ, οὐκοῦν, οὐ > expect yes answer ἆρ οὐ φεύγεις κίνδυνον; Aren t you fleeing danger? [Yes I am!] ἆρα μή, μῶν, μή > expect no answer ἆρα μή φεύγεις κίνδυνον; You re not fleeing danger, are you? [No, I am not.] direct: πότερον ἤ either/ whether..or Direct Alternate indirect: εἴτε (εἴτ, εἴθ ) εἴτε (εἴτ, εἴθ ) whether or Mood and tense of verb in original (direct) question are retained in indirect question; person may have to change Use indirect interrogative adjective/ pronoun or adverbs; εἴ Indefinite Interrogative Adj/Pronoun ὅστις ἥτις ὅ τι οὗτινος ἧστινος οὗτινος ᾧτινι ᾗτινι ᾧτινι ὅντινα ἥντινα ὅ τι Indirect οἵτινες αἵτινες ἅτινα ὧντινων ὧντινων ὧντινων οἷστισι(ν) αἷστισι(ν) οἷστινι(ν) οὕστινας ἅστινας ἅτινα

16 Interrogative: Direct or Indirect Indefinite (Enclitic) Demonstrative Relative Specific Indefinite or Indirect Interrogative ποῦ where? πού somewhere (ἔνθα) ἐνθάδε, ἐνταῦθα there ἐκεῖ yonder οὗ where (ἔνθα where) ὅπου where(ever) Place πόθεν whence? ποθέν from some place (ἔνθεν) ἐνθένδε, ἐντεῦθεν thence ἐκεῖθεν from yonder ὅθεν whence (ἔνθεν whence) ὁπόθεν whence(soever) ποῖ whither? ποί to some place (ἔνθα) ἐνθάδε, ἐνταῦθα thither ἐκεῖσε thither οἷ whither (ἔνθα whither) ὅποι whither(soever) πότε when? ποτέ some time, ever τότε then ὅτε when ὁπότε when(ever) Time πηνίκα at what time? (τηνίκα) τηνικάδε τηνικαῦτα at that time ἡνίκα at which time ὁπηνίκα at which time Way πῇ which way? how? πῄ some way, somehow (τῇ) τῇδε, ταύτῃ this way, thus ᾗ in which way, as ὅπῃ in which way, as Manner πῶς how? πώς somehow (τώς), (ὥς) ὧδε, οὕτω(ς) thus, so, in this way ἐκείνως in that way ὡς as, how ὅπως how

17 Formation of Adverbs Take off ending ος ης and add ως: ἀληθῆς ἀληθῶς, καλός καλῶς, αὐτός αὔτως, πᾶς παντῶς, οὗτος οὕτως Use the neuter singular/ plural accusative of an adjective: μόνον, νέον, πολύ, πολλά Irregular adverbs/special cases: ἀγαθός εὖ, ὅδε ὧδε, πολλάκις (often), τήμερον (today) Directional Suffixes -ι, -θι, -σι. at, in. place where (locative). -ου, the sign of the genitive, is also common. -θεν. from. place whence (ablative). -δε (-ζε), -σε. to, toward. place whither οἴκοι (οἴκοθι) at home ἄλλοθι (ἀλλαχοῦ ) elsewhere ἀμφοτέρωθι on both sides παντ-αχ-οῖ in every direction πάντ-ο-θεν (rare) αὐτοῦ in the very place ὁμοῦ at the same place οἴκοθεν from home ἄλλοθεν (ἀλλαχόθεν) from elsewhere ἀμφοτέρωθεν from both sides παντ-αχ-ό-θεν from every side πάντ-ο-σε αὐτό-θεν from the very place ὁμόθεν from the same place Ἀθήνησι at Athens Ἀθήνηθεν from Athens Ὀλυμπίασι at Olympia Ὀλυμπίαθεν from Olympia οἴκαδε (οἶκόνδε) homeward ἄλλοσε (ἀλλαχόσε) elsewhither (ἀμφοτέρωσε to both sides) παντ-αχ-ό-σε in all directions αὐτό-σε to the very place ὁμόσε to the same place Ἀθήναζε to Athens Ὀλυμπίαζε to Olympia

18 Comparison of Adjectives If the penult is long by nature (long vowel, diphthong) or by position (short vowel followed by 2 consonants), ο is not lengthened: λεπτός lean, λεπτότερος, λεπτότατος δηλος δικαιος πικρός bitter [positive], πικρότερος more bitter, bitterer, rather bitter [comparative], πικρότατος most bitter, bitterest, very bitter [superlative]. Adjectives in -ος with a short penult lengthen ο to ω: νεώ-τατος, χαλεπός difficult, χαλεπώτερος, χαλεπώτατος. An undue succession of short syllables is thus avoided. -ior, -ius -issimus, illimus See doc=perseus:text: :par t=2:chapter=14 to say x is more than y use conjugation ἤ (=than) ἡ ἥ ᾕ genitive of comparison to express the highest degree possible use ὡς, ὅτι + superlative ὡς μέγιστος as big as possible, ὅτι δεινότατος as terrible as possible

19 Irregular comparison of adjectives (used in epic) See doc=perseus:text: :par t=2:chapter=14

20 Irregular comparison of adjectives See doc=perseus:text: :par t=2:chapter=14

21 Result Clauses: ὥστε Caesar erat tam magnus dux ut Brutus Cassiusque eum necare vellent. Νατural uses infinitive for the verb; shows aspect not time translate ὥστε so as subject of infinitive: understood if the same as subject of the main verb a noun/pronoun in acc uses μή μικρὸς ὀ κίνδυνος ἔσται καὶ τοιοῦτος ὥστε φοβῆσαι μηδένα τῶν παίδων. Actual uses a finite verb in the indicative mood; shows aspect not time translate ὥστε so that subject is in the nom. uses οὐ ἐγὼ δ οὕτως εὐδαιμόνως ἔζων ὥστε καθ ἡμέραν ἔθυον αὐτὸς τῷ δαίμονι ᾧ μεγάλην χάριν εἶχον.

22 Subjunctive: Independent Uses Hortatory 1st pers (pl, sg) present, aorist uses μή let s go Prohibitive 2nd, 3rd pers (sg/ pl) aorist preceded by μή main clause = indicative mood tenses indicate aspect Deliberative 1st pers (sg, pl) present, aorist uses μή subordinate clause: relative clause result clause indirect statement νῦν ἴωμεν καὶ ἀκούσωμεν τοῦ ἀνδρός let us go now and hear the man Plato, Protagoras 314 b μὴ ποιήσῃς ταῦτα do not do this, may you not do this μηδὲν ἀθυμήσητε do not at all lose heart Xenophon, Anabasis εἴπωμεν ἢ σιγῶμεν; shall/may we speak or keep silence? E. Ion 758 λέγω, εἶπον τί δράσω; ποῖ φύγω; what am I to do? whither shall I fly? E. Med οὐδείς, οὐδέν μηδείς, μηδὲν nothing, nihil εἷς, μία, ἕν

23 Optative: Independent Uses Wishes often uses εἴθε, εἰ γάρ ( would that, if only ) present, aorist uses μή γίγνομαι, γενήσομαι, ἐγενόμην, γέγονα expresses a wish referring to the future ὁμολογέω, ὡμολόγησα Potential uses particle ἄν aorist uses οὐ states a future possibility or action that is qualified by or dependent on some circumstances or conditions may be translated with may, might, can, would, should, could πράττω, πράξω, ἔπραξα εἰ γὰρ καλῶς πράξειαν ἃ ἐθέλουσιν. εἰ γὰρ γένοιτο would that it might happen Xenophon, Cyropaedia εἴθε φίλος ἡμῖν γένοιο if only you would become our friend Xenophon, Hellenica ἀπόθανοι ἂν he might die ἅπαντες ἂν ὁμολογήσειαν all would agree Isocrates 11.5 οὐκ ἂν λάβοις thou canst not take, you may not take [him] Sophocles, Philoctetes 103 [said by Odysseus to Neoptolemus]

24 Conditions πρότασις ἀπόδοσις Table of Conditional Forms

25 Present imperative may be used in apodosis. Simple Particular conditions refer to a particular, definite event, without implying anything about whether the event is real or probable. Present Simple: εἰ ταῦτα ποιεῖς, καλῶς ποιεῖς if you do this, you do well; εἰ τοῦτ ἔχει καλῶς, ἐκεῖνο αἰσχρῶς, if this is excellent, that is disgraceful Aeschines Past Simple: εἰ ταῦτα ἐποίησας, καλῶς ἐποίησας if you did this, you did well; εἰ μὲν (Ἀσκληπιὸς ὑιὸς) θεοῦ ἦν, οὐκ ἦν αἰσχροκερδής εἰ δ αἰσχροκερδής, οὐκ ἦν (ὑιὸς) θεοῦ if Asclepius was the son of a god, he was not covetous; if he was covetous, he was not the son of a god, Pλατο Republic. 408c

26 εἰ μὴ ἐγὼ αὐτὸν ἐκέλευσα, οὐκ ἂν ἐποίησεν Ἀγασίας ταῦτα if I had not ordered him, Agasias would not have done this, Xenophon, Anabasis Contrary to Fact/Unreal conditions refer an event that could be happening now but is not, or to one that could have happened but did not. Present Unreal: εἰ ταῦτα ἐποίεις, καλῶς ἂν ἐποίεις if you were (now) doing this, you would be doing well Past Unreal: εἰ ταῦτα ἐποίησας, καλῶς ἂν ἐποίησας if you had done this, you would have done well.

27 gnomic statement γιγνώσκω, ἔγνων General Conditions refer to a general, customary or repeated event in present or past time, without implying whether the event occurred or not. Present General: ἐὰν ταῦτα ποιῇς (ποιήσῃς), ἀεὶ σὲ ἐπαινῶ if ever you do this, I always praise you; ἐὰν ἐγγὺς ἔλθῃ θάνατος, οὐδεὶς βούλεται θνῄσκειν if death draws near, no one wishes to die, Euripides Alcestis 671 Past General: εἰ ταῦτα ποιοίης (ποιήσειας), σὲ ἐπῄνουν if ever you did this, I always praised you; αὐτοὺς ἐτίμα εἴ τι καλὸν πράττοιεν he praised them if they were doing something good.

28 εἰ δ ἀναγκαῖον εἴη ἀδικεῖν ἢ ἀδικεῖσθαι, ἑλοίμην ἂν μᾶλλον ἀδικεῖσθαι ἢ ἀδικεῖν but if it should be necessary to do wrong or be wronged, I should prefer to be wronged than to do wrong Plato, Gorgias 469c Future Conditions refer to an event that has not yet happened but will or might. Future More Vivid: ἐὰν ταῦτα ποιῇς (ποιήσῃς), καλῶς ποιήσεις if you may/would do this, you will do well; ἐὰν ζητῇς καλῶς, εὑρήσεις if you may/ would seek well, you shall find, Plato, Gorgias 503d Future Most Vivid/Emotional: εἰ ταῦτα ποιήσεις, καλῶς ποιήσεις if you (will) do this, you will [as in WILL] do well; εἰ μὴ καθέξεις γλῶσσαν, ἔσται σοι κακά if you won't hold your tongue, there will be evil for you Euripides frag. 5 Future Less Vivid (should/would): εἰ ταῦτα ποιοίης [ποιήσειας], καλῶς ἂν ποιοίης [ποιήσειας] if you should do this, you would do well.

29 Conditional Relative Clauses relative clauses referring to an indefinite person or thing (whoever, whatever, anyone, whichever; whatever may happen, we ll manage ) use the same patterns of tenses and moods as conditions instead of εἰ, use ὅστις, ἥτις, ὅ τι (who/what/whichever) ὅς, ἥ, ὅ if the antecedent is an indefinite anyone/anything (often implied) indefinite relative adverb (ὅτε + ἄν = ὅταν, ὁπότε + ἄν = ὅπόταν, (when/ if ever) In a temporal clause/conditional temporal clause, use: ἐπεί + ἄν = ἐπάν, ἐπήν (whenever) ἐπειδή + ἄν = ἐπειδάν (whenever) εἰ ταῦτα ποιεῖς, καλῶς ποιεῖς. > ὅστις ταῦτα ποιεῖ, καλῶς ποιεῖ. Whoever does this, he does well. ἐὰν ταῦτα ποιῇς (ποιήσῃς), ἀεὶ σὲ ἐπαινῶ. > ὅστις ταῦτα ποιῇ (ποιήσῃ), ἀεὶ τοῦτον ἐπαινῶ. (ὅντινα ταῦτα ποιῇ (ποιήσῃ), ἀεὶ ἐπαινῶ [Lesson 50, 290, attraction of relative pronoun ] ) εἰ ταῦτα ποιοίης [ποιήσειας], καλῶς ἂν ποιοίης [ποιήσειας] > ὅταν ταῦτα ὁ παῖς ποιοῖ [ποιήσειε], καλῶς ἂν ποιοῖ [ποιήσειε].

30 1) verb of saying (with no special connotation: ἄγγέλλω, ἄποκρίνομαι, γράφω, λέγω) 2) verbs of thinking, believing (νομίζω, κρίνω, πιστεύω); saying (φημί (say, assert [something is true]), λέγω (say [something is true] 3) verb of showing, knowing, perceiving (ἄκούω, βλέπω, δηλόω, εὑρίσκω, οἶδα, ὁράω, φαίνω) INDIRECT DISCOURSE 1) ὅτι, ὡς + finite verb; same tense as in direct discourse secondary tense (main clause) > optative can be used* 2) infinitive 3) participle : subject of indirect discourse is in accusative (subject is omitted if identifical with subject of main sentence); verbs in dependent clauses remain finite & can be changed to optative;

31 εἶπεν ὅτι πράττοι / πράξοι / πράξειε ἐνόμισεν αὐτοὺς πράττειν / πράξειν / πράξαι ἤγγελεν αὐτοὺς πράττοντας / πράξοντας / πράξαντας Finite Verb in Direct Discourse present/imperfect indicative, present subjunctive aorist indicative, aorist subjunctive perfect/pluperfect indicative, perfect subjunctive Indirect discourse with infinitive & participle Infinitive/Participle in Indirect Discourse present infinitive/participle aorist infinitive/participle perfect infinitive/participle Relative Time Shown by Infinitive/Participle action happening at the same time of the main verb [or contemporaneous with it] action prior to the time of the main verb [or prior to it] action complete at the time of the main verb [or prior to it] future indicative future infinitive/participle action subsequent to the time of the main verb future perfect indicative future perfect infinitive/ participle action complete at a time subsequent to the time of the main verb

32 Indirect Discourse with Finite Verb εἶπεν ὅτι, ὡς πράττοι / πράξοι / πράξειε He said that he did/was doing. present opt >at the same time as action of the main verb He said that he would/will do. future opt > subsequent to the time of the main verb He said that he had/has done. aorist optative -> after the time of the action of the main verb

33 Indirect Discourse with Infinitive ἐνόμισεν αὐτοὺς πράττειν / πράξειν / πράξαι He believed that they were doing. contemporaneous He believed that they will/would be doing. subsequent He believed that they had done. prior ἐνόμισεν πράττειν He believed he was doing. subject of indirect discourse is in accusative (subject is omitted if identical with subject of main sentence)

34 Indirect Discourse with Participle ἤγγελεν αὐτοὺς πράττοντας / πράξοντας / πράξαντας He reported that they were doing. He reported that they would/will be doing. He reported that they had done/had been doing. subject of indirect discourse is in accusative (subject is omitted if identical with subject of main sentence)

35 Review of Indirect Discourse 1) verb of saying (with no special connotation: ἄγγέλλω, ἄποκρίνομαι, γράφω, λέγω) 2) verbs of thinking, believing (νομίζω, κρίνω, πιστεύω); saying (φημί (say, assert [something is true]), λέγω (say [something is true] 3) verb of showing, knowing, perceiving (ἄκούω, βλέπω, δηλόω, εὑρίσκω, οἶδα, ὁράω, φαίνω) Finite Verb in Direct Discourse present/imperfect indicative, present subjunctive INDIRECT DISCOURSE 1) ὅτι, ὡς + finite verb; same tense as in direct discourse secondary tense (main clause) > optative can be used* 2) infinitive 3) participle : subject of indirect discourse is in accusative (subject is omitted if identifical with subject of main sentence); verbs in dependent clauses remain finite & can be changed to optative; Indirect discourse with infinitive & participle Infinitive/Participle in Indirect Discourse present infinitive/participle aorist indicative, aorist subjunctive aorist infinitive/participle perfect/pluperfect indicative, perfect subjunctive perfect infinitive/participle Relative Time Shown by Infinitive/ Participle action happening at the main time of the main verb [or contemporaneous with it] action prior to the time of the main verb [or prior to it] action complete at the time of the main verb [or prior to it] future indicative future infinitive/participle action subsequent to the time of the main verb future perfect indicative future perfect infinitive/participle action complete at a time subsequent to the time of the main verb

36 Purpose Clauses Explain the goal for doing something; could be removed from sentence without changing main meaning of sentence); answer question why. use: ἵνα, ὅπως, ὡς ( so that ) In a purpose clause, the verb is subjunctive or optative, depending on the main verb being primary or secondary. σπεύδω ἵνα τὸν ἀγῶνα ἴδω (ὁρῶ). ἔσπεύδον ἵνα τὸν ἀγῶνα ἴδοιμι (ὁρῴην) ἴδω (ὁρῶ). Purpose can also be shown with future participle, esp. with a verb of motion: σπεύδω ὀψόμενος τὸν ἀγῶνα. ὁράω, ὄψομαι, εἶδον Primary and Secondary Tenses primary tenses secondary tenses present, future, perfect, future perfect indicative imperfect, aorist, pluperfect indicative

37 Clauses of Effort and Clauses of Fear Explain a result someone strives to make happen; answer question what. Used with verbs of expending effort βουλεύω take counsel, ἐπιμελέομαι take care, μηχανάομαι contrive, ποιέω, πράττω take action μηχανή deus ex machina use: ὅπως, ὅπως μή ( that ) primary tense (main clause) -> future indicative // present, aorist subjunctive secondary tense (main clause) -> future optative, future indicative // present, aorist optative ἐπιμελοῦνται ὅπως μὴ ἀποθανοῦνται (ἀποθνῃσκωνται). They take care that they will not die/not to die. ἐπεμελοῦντο ὅπως μὴ ἀποθανοῦνται (ἀποθανοῖντο, ἀποθνῃσκοιντο). They took care that they would not die/not to die. Explain a result someone fears or strives to keep from happening, or fears that something may not happen. Used with verbs of fearing φοβέομαι, δέδοικα δέδια, ἐδεδοίκη ἐδεδίη, ἔδεισα use: μἠ (that, lest); μὴ οὐ (that/lest not) primary tense (main clause) -> subjunctive secondary tense (main clause) -> optative (subjunctive for more vividness) δέδοικε μὴ ὁ πόλεμος μακρὸς ᾖ. He fears lest/ that the war (may) be long. ἐδεδοίκει μὴ ὁ πόλεμος μακρὸς εἰήν (ᾖ). He feared lest/that the war might be long. δεδίασι μὴ οὐ τήμερον ἀφικῶνται. They fear that they may not arrive today.

38 (1) παρακαλεῖ ἰ_α_τρὸν ὅπως μὴ ἀποθάνῃ (common) παρακαλεῖ ἰ_α_τρὸν ὅπως μὴ ἀποθανεῖται (occasionally) παρακαλεῖ ἰ_α_τρὸν μὴ ἀποθάνῃ (rare) he summons a physician in order that he may not die. (2) ἐπιμελεῖται ὅπως μὴ ἀποθανεῖται (common) ἐπιμελεῖται ὅπως μὴ ἀποθάνῃ (occasionally) he takes care that he shall not die. ὅρα_ μὴ ἀποθάνῃς (occasionally) see to it that you do not die. (3) φοβεῖται μὴ ἀποθάνῃ (common) φοβεῖται ὅπως μὴ ἀποθάνῃ (occasionally) φοβεῖται ὅπως μὴ ἀποθανεῖται (occasionally) he is afraid lest he die.

39 Uses of the Infinitive ἡ ψυχὴ δουλεύειν ἑτοίμη the soul is ready to be a servant P. Phae. 252a Complementary Infinitive Object Infinitive Infinitive + adjective Subject infinitive Natural result clause Indirect Discourse Infinitive + πρίν Αrticular Infinitive with verbs to complete their meaning (ἐθέλω, μέλλω, οἶδα, φιλέω, ἔχω, βούλομαι) with κελεύω, βούλομαι + certain adjectives (ἄξιος worthy; ἕτοιμος ready; ἵκανός sufficient) + impersonal verb (infinitive acts as its subject), predicate adjective (ἔξεστι, ῥᾴδιόν ἐστί) + can be translated as a gerund (-ing noun) ὥστε (so as to) with verbs of thinking, believing (νομίζω, κρίνω, πιστεύω); saying (φημί (say, assert [something is true]), λέγω (say [something is true]) πρίν = before πρίν = until (in a negative sentence anticipating an event) > subjunctive + ἄν + τό ~ τὸ λέγειν, τὸ βλέπειν + can be translated as a gerund (-ing noun: speaking, seeing) + considered a neuter sg. noun (nom, gen, dat, acc)

40 SUBORDINATE CLAUSES Purpose Clauses (explains the goal for doing something; could be removed from sentence without changing main meaning of sentence) Conjunctions, pronouns, adjectives κ.α. ἵνα, ὅπως, ὡς μή Verbs primary tense (main clause) - > subjunctive secondary tense (main clause) -> optative (subjunctive for more vividness)* Clauses of Effort (object clauses ) (describe a result that someone strives to accomplish or avert; needed to express speaker s main idea) Clauses of Fear ( object clauses ) ὅπως, ὡς ὅπως, ὡς μή δἔδοικα δἔδια, ἐδεδοίκη ἐδεδίη, ἔδεισα φοβέομαι μἠ (that, lest) μὴ οὐ (that/lest not) primary tense (main clause) - > future indicative // present, aorist subjunctive secondary tense (main clause) -> future optative, future indicative // present, aorist optative primary tense (main clause) - > subjunctive secondary tense (main clause) -> optative (subjunctive for more vividness)*

41 Verbal adjectives in -τέος Verbal adjectives in -τός Αδδ to aorist passive stem (without augment, θη); express necessity: παιδευτέος educandus, must be educated; θεραπευτέον τοὺς θεούς we must serve the gods X. M Show capacity or possibility: παιδευτός educated, ὁρατός visible Attributive position > used as substantive Predicate position > used with εἰμὶ to indicate necessity; agrees in case, number, gender with subject of sentence (if there is one). Doer of action is in dative. In neuter sg./pl. > used impersonally with dative of agent Or have sense of perfect passive participle: μιμητός imitated Dative of agent φιλητός, -τέος (ἐ-φιλή-θην); πειστός, -τέος (ἐ-πείσ-θην) φερ-τός, ί-τέον, δυνα-τός;

42 Crasis (κρᾶσις) & Euphony (εὖ, φωνή) Attic more than any other dialect disliked the immediate succession of two vowel sounds in adjoining syllables (hiatus). To avoid this: contraction affixing a movable consonant at the end of the former word crasis elision (expulsion of short vowel at end of word before a word beginning with a vowel: μ ἐπαίδευσαν; interior elision οὐδείς ~ οὐδὲ εἷς, καθοράω ~ κατὰ ὁράω) hiatus (word ending with a vowel followed by a word beginning with a vowel; avoided by prose writers; allowed with ὦ, εἰ, ἤ, μή, καί) synizesis (in poetry; 2 vowels pronounced together but not written together πόλεως, Πελιάδεω) Crasis (κρᾶσις): mingling/ contraction of a vowel/diphthong at the end of a word with a vowel/ diphthong beginning the following word. Over the syllable resulting from contraction is placed a ' corōnis (κορωνίς, hook). Usually only occurs between words that belong together; first of the words is the less important Chiefly in poetry τὰ ἄλλα ~ τἄλλα ὁ ἄνθρωπος ~ ἅνθρωπος τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ~ θἠμέρᾳ ἐγὼ οἶδα ~ ἐγᾦδα ὁ αὐτός ~ αὑτός καλὸς κἀγαθός

43 Wishes & the Optative Wishes often uses εἴθε, εἰ γάρ ( would that, if only ) present, aorist οptative uses μή expresses a wish referring to the future εἰ γὰρ καλῶς πράξειαν ἃ ἐθέλουσιν. εἰ γὰρ γένοιτο would that it might happen Xenophon, Cyropaedia εἴθε φίλος ἡμῖν γένοιο if only you would become our friend Xenophon, Hellenica Unattainable Wishes (1) εἶθε, εἰ γάρ + imperfect/aorist indicative > protasis of unreal condition (2) form of ὤφελον (2 aor of ὄφείλω) + present/aorist infinitive ~ εἶθε/εἰ γάρ may be placed before ὤφελον εἴθ εἶχες βελτἱους φρένας. Would that you had (now) better hearts. E. El συγγίγνομαι εἴθε σοι τότε συνεγενόμην Would that I had then been with you. X. M ὤφελε Κῦρος ζῆν. Would that Cyrus were (now) alive (Cyrus ought to be alive). X. Anabasis ὤφελον λιπεῖν τὴν Σκῦρον. Would that I had never left Scyros. S. Philoctetes. 969 οἷος τε = be able εἰ γὰρ ὤφελον οἷοί τε εἶναι οἱ πολλοὶ κακὰ ἐργάζεσθαι. Would that the multitude were able to do evil. Pl. Cr. 44 d.

44 Redundant/sympathetic μή, μὴ οὐ verbs of hindering (deny, refuse, forbid, avoid) may take an objective infinitive and may combine μή with the infinitive. μή reinforces ( sympathizes ) the negative sense of the verb of hindering and has no effect on the English translation. If the verbs of hindering has a negative with it, redundant μὴ ού can be added, with no effect on the English translation. First he denied you had in him no right (Shakesp., Com. of Er ); La pluie... empêche qu'on ne se promène (Racine). καταρνῇ μὴ δεδρακέναι τάδε; Do you deny that you have done this? S. Ant. 442 ἀποκωλῦσαι τοὺς Ἕλληνας μὴ ἐλθεῖν. to hinder the Greeks from coming. X. A κήρῦκα προέπεμψεν αὐτοῖς... ἀπεροῦντα μὴ πλεῖν. They sent a herald to forbid them to sail. Thucydides 1.29 εὐλαβήσεσθε μὴ πολλῶν ἐναντίον λέγειν. You will beware of speaking in public. P. Euthyro. 304a οὐκ ἀρνοῦμαι μὴ οὐ ταῦτα δρᾶσαι. I do not deny that I did this. [ οὐ is repeated with the infinitive to sum up the effect of οὐκ ἀρνοῦμαι ]

45 Cautious assertions, cautious denials μὴ and μὴ οὐ + indicative/subjunctive cautious assertion + μή = speaker thinks smthg is true (indicative) or may prove to be true (subjunctive). cautious denial + μή = speaker thinks smthg is not true (indicative) or may prove not to be true (subjunctive). οὐ μή + subjunctive/future indicative can indicate emphatic denial ἢν νικήσωμεν, οὐ μή ποτε ὑμῖν Πελοποννήσιοι ἐσβάλωσιν ἐς τὴν χώραν. If we are victorious, the Peloponnesians will never invade your territory. T οὐδεὶς μηκέτι μείνῃ τῶν πολεμίων. Not one of the enemy will stand his ground any longer. X. A οὔτι μὴ φύγητε. You shall not escape (a threat); you re not going to get out of this. E. Hec With the future indicative (first and third person). οὔ σοι μὴ μεθέψομαί ποτε. Never will I follow you. S. El ἀλλὰ μὴ τοῦτο οὐ καλῶς ὡμολογήσαμεν. But perhaps we did not do well in agreeing to this. P. Men. 89c. ἀλλ ἄρα... μὴ ὁ Κτήσιππος ἦν ὁ ταῦτ εἰπών. But I suspect (i.e. perhaps) after all it was Ctesippus who said this. P. Eu. 290e With μή (of what may be true): μὴ ἀγροικότερον ᾖ τὸ ἀληθὲς εἰπεῖν. I suspect it's rather bad form (lit. too rude) to tell the truth, P. G. 462e. With μὴ οὐ (of what may not be true): ἀλλὰ μὴ οὐχ οὕτως ἔχῃ. But I rather think this may not be so. P. Crat. 436b; μὴ οὐκ ᾖ διδακτὸν ἀρετή. Virtue is perhaps not a thing to be taught. P. Men. 94e.

46 Prolepsis (πρόληψις, anticipation ) Nominative subject of a dependent clause (e.g., indirect question) often placed ahead of its clause and becomes the accusative (sometimes genitive, dative) direct object of the main verb. δήλου τοὺς παῖδας ὅπου ἔκειντο. (δήλου ὅπου οἱ παῖδες ἔκειντο.) λαμβάνω, λήψομαι δέδοικα δ αὐτὴν μή τι βουλεύσῃ νέον. But I fear lest she may devise something new E. Medea. 37 ὁρᾷς τὸν εὐτράπεζον ὡς ἡδὺς βίος. Υou see how sweet is the luxurious life. E. fr ἐπιχειρήσωμεν εἰπεῖν ἀνδρεία τί ποτ ἐστίν. Let us try to say what courage is. P. Lach. 190d λέγω, ἐρῶ~λέξω, ἔλεξα~εἶπον

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