1 L e a r n To R e a d Gr eek pa rt 2 Andrew Keller Collegiate School Stephanie Russell Collegiate School New Haven & London
2 Copyright 2012 by Yale University. All rights reserved. This book may not be reproduced, in whole or in part, including illustrations, in any form (beyond that copying permitted by Sections 107 and 108 of the U.S. Copyright Law and except by reviewers for the public press), without written permission from the publishers. Yale University Press books may be purchased in quantity for educational, business, or promotional use. For information, please sales. (U.S. office) or (U.K. office). Publisher: Mary Jane Peluso Editorial Assistant: Elise Panza Project Editor: Timothy Shea Production Controller: Aldo Cupo Designed by James J. Johnson. Set in Arno Roman type by Integrated Composition Systems. Printed in the United States of America. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Keller, Andrew, 1960 Learn to read Greek / Andrew Keller, Stephanie Russell. p. cm. Text in English and Greek. Includes index. ISBN (part 1) ISBN (part 2) 1. Greek language Grammar. 2. Greek language Grammar Problems, exercises, etc. 3. Greek language Readers. I. russell, Stephanie, 1946 II. Title. pa258.k '421 dc A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. This paper meets the requirements of ansi/niso Z (Permanence of Paper) Cover illustration: Rembrandt van Rijn, Aristotle with a Bust of Homer, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Purchase, special contributions and funds given or bequeathed by friends of the Museum, 1961 (61.198). Image copyright The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
3 C h a p t e r 1 0 Vocabulary ἡμέρa, ἡμέρaς, ἡ day χρόνος, χρόνου, ὁ time βασιλεύς, βασιλέως, ὁ king γονεύς, γονέως, ὁ parent ἱππεύς, ἱππέως, ὁ horseman, cavalryman; knight νύξ, νυκτός, ἡ night, ἑαυτοῦ/αὑτοῦ (refl. pron.) himself, herself, itself; themselves ( 103), ἐμαυτοῦ (refl. pron.) myself ( 103), ἡμῶν αὐτῶν (refl. pron.) ourselves ( 103), σεαυτοῦ/σαυτοῦ (refl. pron.) yourself ( 103), σφῶν αὐτῶν (refl. pron.) themselves ( 103), Uμῶν αὐτῶν (refl. pron.) yourselves ( 103) αἰσθάνομαι, αἰσθήσομαι, ᾐσθόμην,, ᾔσθημαι, perceive διαφέρω, διοίσω, διήνεγκα/διήνεγκον, διενήνοχα, διενήνεγμαι, διηνέχθην carry through; intrans., differ; excel δύναμαι, δυνήσομαι,,, δεδύνημαι, ἐδυνήθην be powerful; be able ( 101) ἐπαινέω, ἐπαινέσω/ἐπαινέσομαι, ἐπῄνεσα, ἐπῄνεκα, ἐπῄνημαι, ἐπῃνέθην praise, commend ἐπίσταμαι, ἐπιστήσομαι,,,, ἠπιστήθην know ( 101) κρmνω, κρινῶ, ἔκρι να, κέκρικα, κέκριμαι, ἐκρίθην distinguish; judge; decide σῴζω, σώσω, ἔσωσα, σέσωκα, σέσω(σ)μαι, ἐσώθην save, preserve; middle, keep or preserve for oneself θεῖος, θείa, θεῖον divine; excellent ἴδιος, ἰδίa, ἴδιον private; one s own; peculiar σφέτερος, σφετέρa, σφέτερον their own δημοσίᾳ (adv.) at public expense; publicly, in public ἤ (conj.) than ἤδη (adv.) already, by this time; now; presently ἰδίᾳ (adv.) privately μάλα (adv.) very; very much, exceedingly μάλιστα (superlative adv.) most, especially; in replies, yes μᾶλλον (comparative adv.) more; rather πάλαι (adv.) long ago; long since πρῶτον (adv.) first 319
4 320 Chapter 10 Vocabulary Notes βασιλεύς, βασιλέως, ὁ, king, is applied to any chief, lord, or master of men and to Zeus as king of the gods. In Athens βασιλεύς was the title given to the second of the nine archons, whose duties included all matters pertaining to the state religion. After the Persian war, the noun βασιλεύς without the article often referred to the Persian king. γονεύς, γονέως, ὁ, parent, properly refers in the singular to the father. It is more common in the plural, referring to both parents but retaining its masculine gender. ἱππεύς, ἱππέως, ὁ, horseman, cavalryman, knight, refers in Homer to one who fights from a chariot. Later, however, it is the word for a member of the cavalry. In Athens the knights were the second highest class in Solon s constitution. The dative plural of νύξ, νυκτός, ἡ, night, is νυξί(ν). The tau of the stem νυκτ- assimilated to the sigma of the ending and was lost: *νυκτσί(ν) > *νυκσσί(ν) > νυξί(ν). αἰσθάνομαι, αἰσθήσομαι, ᾐσθόμην,, ᾔσθημαι, is a middle deponent that means perceive by any of the senses. By extension it often has the meaning learn. αἰσθάνομαι may take an Accusative, Direct Object, but it is often followed instead by an Objective Genitive and is translated either perceive or take notice (of). When αἰσθάνομαι introduces an indirect statement, it takes a Subject Accusative and a supplementary participle or ὅτι/ὡς and a finite verb. διὰ τίνος τῶν τοῦ σώματος αἰσθανόμεθα; Through what thing do we take notice of the things of the body? σὺ δ, ὦ φίλε, πῶς αἰσθάνῃ σαφῶς τάδε; But you, friend, how do you perceive these things clearly? αἰσθάνομαί τινας βουλομένους διαφθεῖραι αὐτόν. I perceive that some men want to ruin him. οὐκ αἰσθάνῃ ὅτι ὁ λόγος εἰς ταὐτὸν ἥκει; Do you not perceive that the argument has come to the same thing? διαφέρω, διοίσω, διήνεγκα/διήνεγκον, διενήνοχα, διενήνεγμαι, διηνέχθην is a compound verb composed of the prefix δια- and the verb φέρω. It is both transitive and intransitive and occurs commonly in the active and passive voices but is rare in the middle voice. διαφέρω has the literal meaning carry through, over, or across, but it may also be used as a strengthened form of φέρω with meanings such as go through, bear to the end, endure. When used intransitively, διαφέρω means differ and is accompanied by a Genitive of Comparison ( 105), from ; a parallel clause introduced by the conjunction ἤ ( 105), from ( than ); or a variety of prepositional phrases. In addition to expressing in a neutral way that one person or thing is different from another, διαφέρω means excel or surpass, often accompanied by a Genitive of Comparison that is translated as a direct object. διαφέρω in the passive may mean quarrel (with), often with a Dative of Reference.
5 τίνι τὸ καλὸν διαφέρει τοῦ ἀγαθοῦ/ἢ τὸ ἀγαθόν; In (respect to) what does the beautiful differ from the good? ὁ Σωκράτης τῇ σοφίᾳ τῶν ἄλλων διέφερεν. Socrates used to excel the other men in wisdom. περὶ πολλῶν διαφέρονται ἀλλήλοις οἱ στρατηγοί. Concerning many things the generals are quarreling with one another. Vocabulary 321 δύναμαι, δυνήσομαι,,, δεδύνημαι, ἐδυνήθην is an athematic passive-in-the-aorist deponent. For its forms in the present and imperfect tenses see 101. δύναμαι may be used absolutely (often with an Adverbial Accusative) and mean be powerful. When it is followed by an infinitive, δύναμαι means be able. τὸν μέγα δυνάμενον τῆς πόλεως ἄρχειν βουλόμεθα. We want the man being greatly powerful to rule the city. ἄρχειν τῆς πόλεως δύναται. He is able to rule the city. ἐπαινέω, ἐπαινέσω/ἐπαινέσομαι, ἐπῄνεσα, ἐπῄνεκα, ἐπῄνημαι, ἐπῃνέθην has two second principal parts because some authors treat it as a partial deponent. Other than in the future tense, ἐπαινέω does not occur in the middle voice but is common in either the active or passive voice. ἐπαινέω is a compound verb composed of the prefix ἐπι- and the verb αἰνέω; the augment is added to the simple verb (e.g., ἐπῄνει, third person singular imperfect active indicative). ἐπαινέω means praise or commend (people, opinions, regimes, qualities). It is sometimes accompanied by a prepositional phrase (ἐπί + dat., διὰ + acc.), a Genitive of Cause, or a causal clause to explain the reason for the praise. In tragedy, ἐπαινέω occasionally means advise and takes an Object Infinitive with a Subject Accusative. ἐπίσταμαι, ἐπιστήσομαι,,,, ἠπιστήθην, know, is an athematic passive-in-the-aorist deponent. For its forms in the present and imperfect tenses see 101. ἐπίσταμαι means know a particular skill, fact, or field of knowledge and is occasionally contrasted with other verbs of knowing (such as οἶδα) by being confined to scientific knowledge. When ἐπίσταμαι introduces an indirect statement, it takes ὅτι/ὡς and a finite verb or a Subject Accusative and a supplementary participle. Less often ἐπίσταμαι introduces an indirect statement with a Subject Accusative and an infinitive. ἐπιστάμεθα ὅτι ταῦτα ἔπρaξας. ἐπιστάμεθά σε ταῦτα πρdξαντα. We know that you did these things. We know that you did these things. When ἐπίσταμαι is followed by an infinitive, it regularly means know how. ἐπιστάμεθα ταῦτα πρᾶξαι. We know how to do these things. The original meaning of κρmνω, κρινῶ, ἔκρι να, κέκρικα, κέκριμαι, ἐκρίθην was separate or distinguish (good from bad, true from false, one group of people from another). From this idea its most common meanings arose: judge, consider, determine (that something is true), decide (a contest, a dispute). When κρmνω means judge, it takes an Accusative, Direct Object, but it also often
6 322 Chapter 10 introduces an indirect statement with a Subject Accusative and an infinitive. Also common is the omission of the infinitive εἶναι in this construction and the inclusion of a Predicate Accusative. κρmνω occurs commonly in the active and passive voices but is rare in the middle voice. οὐκ ὀρθῶς τὸ πρᾶγμα κρmνετε. κρmνω σε νι κᾶν. τίς πάντα τὰ ἀγαθὰ (εἶναι) καλὰ κρmνει; τίς τὸν ἀγῶνα κρινεῖ; You (pl.) are judging the matter not correctly. I judge that you are winning. Who judges that all good things are beautiful? Who will decide the contest? σῴζω, σώσω, ἔσωσα, σέσωκα, σέσω(σ)μαι, ἐσώθην means save (from death), keep alive (with persons as direct objects). With things (home, city, country, government) σῴζω means keep safe, preserve. σῴζω appears in all voices and in the middle means keep or preserve for oneself. θεῖος, θείa, θεῖον means of or from the gods, divine, and frequently modifies nouns such as μοῖρα and τύχη, but it may also be applied to concrete human experiences (danger, sickness, storm). When applied to mortals or heroes or certain things, θεῖος means excellent, marvelous, more than human. The neuter singular substantive τὸ θεῖον expresses the abstract idea of divinity and the plural, τὰ θεῖα, refers to acts of the gods or divine matters. ἴδιος, ἰδίa, ἴδιον means private or personal (as opposed to public, κοινός) or one s own (as opposed to belonging to another). By extension of the notion of personal or one s own, ἴδιος is equivalent to a range of ideas in English, including separate, peculiar, strange (one s own and unusual); ordinary (one s own and not elevated or political); and characteristic (what belongs to a person or species). δημοσίᾳ is an adverb that was originally a feminine singular dative of the adjective δημόσιος, δημοσίa, δημόσιον, public, used as a Dative of Manner with the ellipsis of ὁδῷ: in a public way. δημοσίᾳ often means at public expense. In contrast to the adverb ἰδίᾳ, it means publicly, in public. The meaning of the adverb ἤδη in a particular context is determined by the time referred to by the verb: with past tenses ἤδη means already, by this time ; with present tenses (present, perfect) ἤδη means now (sometimes already ); with the future tense and ideas that look to the future ἤδη means presently (immediately). ἰδίᾳ is an adverb that was originally the feminine singular dative of ἴδιος, ἰδίa, ἴδιον used as a Dative of Manner with the ellipsis of ὁδῷ: in one s own way. ἰδίᾳ means privately, at one s own expense, and in contrast to δημοσίᾳ it means in private. The adverb πάλαι, long ago ; long since, appears with verbs in past tenses and in substantives. περὶ τeς τῆς πόλεως συμφορᾶς αἱ μὲν πάλαι ἐγένοντο, τeς δὲ νῦν πάσχομεν. Concerning the misfortunes of the city, some happened long ago, others we are suffering now. ταῦτ ἔπρaξαν οἱ πάλαι. Men long ago did these things. When πάλαι appears with a verb in the present or imperfect tense, the translation long since is used to indicate an action that has or had been going on and is or was continuing. Special translations of the verbs in such sentences are used.
7 Vocabulary 323 πάλαι τοῦτο λέγω. ἐκεῖ ἐμένομεν πάλαι. Long since I have been saying (and am still saying) this thing. Long since we had been remaining (and were still remaining) there. A similar idea is sometimes expressed by πάλαι and a verb in the perfect or pluperfect tense. ἐγὼ πάλαι πολὺν λόγον πεποίημαι. I have long since been making a long speech (much speech). Derivatives and Cognates Derivatives Cognates αἰσθάνομαι aesthete, anesthesia audible, obey βασιλεύς basilica, basilisk ἐπίσταμαι epistemology ἡμέρa ephemeral ἴδιος idiot, idiom, idiosyncrasy sodality, self, suicide κρmνω endocrine, critic, crisis certain, discern, riddle, garble, crime νύξ nyctitropism night, nocturnal, denigrate χρόνος chronological, chronic
8 324 Chapter The Verbs δύναμαι and ἐπίσταμαι The athematic verbs δύναμαι, δυνήσομαι,,, δεδύνημαι, ἐδυνήθην, be powerful ; be able, and ἐπίσταμαι, ἐπιστήσομαι,,,, ἠπιστήθην, know, are passive-in-theaorist deponents. They have athematic forms in the present and imperfect tenses only. In all other tenses, they are conjugated in the same way as omega verbs. The present and imperfect middle conjugations of -μι verbs use the short-vowel grade of the stem (e.g., δυνα-, ἐπιστα-). 1 The personal endings for the present and imperfect middle conjugations of -μι verbs are added directly to the stem (with no thematic vowel) and are identical with the primary and secondary middle/passive personal endings of omega verbs: Primary Middle/Passive Secondary Middle/Passive Personal Endings personal Endings Singular 1 -μαι -μην 2 3 -σαι -ται -σο -το Plural 1 -μεθα -μεθα 2 -σθε -σθε 3 -νται -ντο Thus, the conjugations of δύναμαι and ἐπίσταμαι in the present and imperfect middle indicative are: Stems: δυνα-, ἐπιστα- Present Middle Indicative Imperfect Middle Indicative Singular 1 δύναμαι ἐπίσταμαι ἐδυνάμην ἠπιστάμην 2 δύνασαι ἐπίστασαι ἐδύνω (< *ἐδύνασο) ἠπίστω (< *ἠπίστασο) 3 δύναται ἐπίσταται ἐδύνατο ἠπίστατο Plural 1 δυνάμεθα ἐπιστάμεθα ἐδυνάμεθα ἠπιστάμεθα 2 δύνασθε ἐπίστασθε ἐδύνασθε ἠπίστασθε 3 δύνανται ἐπίστανται ἐδύναντο ἠπίσταντο Observations 1. The present and imperfect middle indicative of δύναμαι and ἐπίσταμαι have recessive accents, and final -αι counts as short for purposes of accent. 2. The imperfect middle indicative of δύναμαι has the past indicative augment; the imperfect middle indicative of ἐπίσταμαι has a lengthened initial vowel. 3. In the second person singular present middle indicative of δύναμαι and ἐπίσταμαι, the intervocalic sigma was not lost. In the second person singular imperfect middle indicative, the intervocalic sigma was lost, and regular contraction occurred (e.g., ἐδύνω < *ἐδύνασο). 1. In Attic Greek neither εἰμί (Part 1, 55) nor φημί (Part 1, 87) has present or imperfect middle forms.
9 To form the present middle infinitive of a -μι verb: 102. Nouns: Third Declension, -εύς, -έως take the short-vowel grade of the stem 2. add the present middle infinitive ending -σθαι. Thus, for δύναμαι and ἐπίσταμαι: Stem Present Middle Infinitive Translation δυνα- δύνασθαι to be (being) able ἐπιστα- ἐπίστασθαι to be knowing Observation The accent on the present middle infinitive of a -μι verb is recessive, and final -αι counts as short for purposes of accent. To form the present middle participle of a -μι verb: 1. take the short-vowel grade of the stem 2. add the endings -μενος, -μενη, -μενον. Thus, for δύναμαι and ἐπίσταμαι: Stem Present Middle Participle Translation δυνα- δυνάμενος, δυναμένη, δυνάμενον being able ἐπιστα- ἐπιστάμενος, ἐπισταμένη, ἐπιστάμενον knowing Observation The present middle participle of a -μι verb has a persistent accent on the last syllable of the stem. Drill 101 may now be done Noun Morphology: Third Declension, -εύς, -έως One group of third-declension nouns is identified by having -εύς as the nominative singular ending and -έως as the genitive singular ending. The stems of these nouns ended in the diphthong -ηυ, but in Attic Greek the upsilon was often lost, and other sound changes resulted in the following declension.
10 326 Chapter 10 βασιλεύς, βασιλέως, ὁ king Singular Plural Nom. βασιλεύς (< *βασιληύς) βασιλῆς/βασιλεῖς (< βασιλῆες/*βασιλέ-ες) Gen. βασιλέως (< βασιλῆος) βασιλέων (*βασιλέ-ων) Dat. βασιλεῖ (< βασιλῆι) βασιλεῦσι(ν) (< *βασιληῦσι[ν]) Acc. βασιλέa (< βασιλῆα) βασιλέaς (< βασιλῆας) Voc. βασιλεῦ βασιλῆς/βασιλεῖς (< βασιλῆες/*βασιλέ-ες) Memorize each set of endings, paying particular attention to accents, proceeding down the singular column and then down the plural column. Be prepared to recite the endings quickly. Observations 1. In the genitive, dative, and accusative singular and the accusative plural, quantitative metathesis produced the Attic endings. Forms without quantitative metathesis are found in Homer, Pindar, and other non-attic writers. 2. In the nominative singular and dative plural, regular sound change shortened the eta of the diphthong to an epsilon. The vocative singular is the nominative singular without the final sigma. 3. βασιλῆς, the older nominative/vocative plural, developed from the contraction of the eta of the stem with the epsilon of the ending. The alternate nominative/vocative plural and the genitive plural developed from an analogically created stem βασιλε- (*βασιλέ-ες > βασιλεῖς; *βασιλέ-ων > βασιλέων). drill 102 may now be done Reflexive Pronouns and Reflexive Possession Reflexive Pronouns A reflexive pronoun refers to the subject of the clause or sentence in which it appears. He hurt himself. The women are speaking among themselves. Each italicized word is a reflexive pronoun because it refers to the subject of the sentence in which it appears. 2 In Greek, reflexive pronouns for the first and second persons appear in masculine and feminine forms only. 2. In sentences such as He himself did it and We spoke to the women themselves, the words himself and themselves are not reflexive pronouns but rather intensive adjectives. In Greek, forms of αὐτός, αὐτή, αὐτό would be used to express himself and themselves (Part 1, 66).
11 103. Reflexive Pronouns; Reflexive Possession 327 First Person Singular Plural M. F. M. F. Nom. Gen. ἐμαυτοῦ ἐμαυτῆς of myself ἡμῶν αὐτῶν ἡμῶν αὐτῶν of ourselves Dat. ἐμαυτῷ ἐμαυτῇ to/for myself ἡμῖν αὐτοῖς ἡμῖν αὐταῖς to/for ourselves Acc. ἐμαυτόν ἐμαυτήν myself (d.o.) ἡμᾶς αὐτούς ἡμᾶς αὐτdς ourselves (d.o.) Observations 1. There are no nominative forms of reflexive pronouns because reflexive pronouns refer to but never are the subjects of clauses or sentences in which they appear. 2. Each first person singular reflexive pronoun is a compound word made from a form of the first person personal pronoun (ἐμέ) and a form of the intensive adjective αὐτός, αὐτή, αὐτό. Each first person plural reflexive pronoun is two separate words, a form of the personal pronoun followed by a form of the intensive adjective αὐτός, αὐτή, αὐτό. Second Person Singular Plural M. F. M. F. Nom. Gen. σεαυτοῦ/ σεαυτῆς/ of yourself Uμῶν αὐτῶν Uμῶν αὐτῶν of yourselves σαυτοῦ σαυτῆς Dat. σεαυτῷ/ σεαυτῇ/ to/for yourself Uμῖν αὐτοῖς Uμῖν αὐταῖς to/for yourselves σαυτῷ σαυτῇ Acc. σεαυτόν/ σεαυτήν/ yourself (d.o.) Uμᾶς αὐτούς Uμᾶς αὐτdς yourselves (d.o.) σαυτόν σαυτήν Observations 1. Each second person singular reflexive pronoun is a compound word made from a form of the second person personal pronoun (σέ) and a form of the intensive adjective αὐτός, αὐτή, αὐτό. Each second person plural reflexive pronoun is two separate words, a form of the personal pronoun followed by a form of the intensive adjective αὐτός, αὐτή, αὐτό. 2. There are contracted alternate forms of the second person singular reflexive pronoun, and these shortened forms are much more commonly used in Attic Greek. Sometimes when a first or second person personal pronoun is modified by a form of the intensive adjective αὐτός, no reflexive idea is expressed. εἰ μὴ τοῦτο πρdξετε, ἡμᾶς αὐτοὺς δεήσει αὐτὸ τελευτῆσαι. If you (pl.) do not do this thing, it will be necessary for us ourselves to accomplish it. Reflexive pronouns for the third person appear in masculine, feminine, and neuter forms.
12 328 Chapter 10 Third Person Singular M. F. n. Nom. Gen. ἑαυτοῦ/αὑτοῦ ἑαυτῆς/αὑτῆς ἑαυτοῦ/αὑτοῦ of himself of herself of itself Dat. ἑαυτῷ/αὑτῷ ἑαυτῇ/αὑτῇ ἑαυτῷ/αὑτῷ to/for himself to/for herself to/for itself Acc. ἑαυτόν/αὑτόν ἑαυτήν/αὑτήν ἑαυτό/αὑτό himself (d.o.) herself (d.o.) itself (d.o.) Plural M. F. n. Nom. Gen. ἑαυτῶν/αὑτῶν/σφῶν αὐτῶν ἑαυτῶν/αὑτῶν/σφῶν αὐτῶν ἑαυτῶν/αὑτῶν of themselves (m.) of themselves (f.) of themselves (n.) Dat. ἑαυτοῖς/αὑτοῖς/σφίσιν αὐτοῖς ἑαυταῖς/αὑταῖς/σφίσιν αὐταῖς ἑαυτοῖς/αὑτοῖς to/for themselves (m.) to/for themselves (f.) to/for themselves (n.) Acc. ἑαυτούς/αὑτούς/σφᾶς αὐτούς ἑαυτdς/αὑτdς/σφᾶς αὐτdς ἑαυτά/αὑτά themselves (m.) (d.o.) themselves (f.) (d.o.) themselves (n.) (d.o.) Observations 1. There are contracted alternate forms of the third person singular and plural reflexive pronoun. Care must be taken to distinguish these by the rough breathing from similar forms of the third person personal pronoun. αὑτόν himself (d.o.) αὐτόν him (d.o.) 2. For the masculine and feminine plural of the third person reflexive pronoun there are alternate forms (two separate words) that combine an archaic Greek personal pronoun (σφῶν, σφίσιν, σφᾶς) with a form of the intensive adjective αὐτός, αὐτή, αὐτό. Direct and Indirect Reflexives A reflexive pronoun that refers to the subject of the clause or sentence in which it appears is sometimes called a Direct Reflexive. ταῦτ ἐποίησα ὑπὲρ ἐμαυτοῦ τε καὶ Uμῶν, ὦ πολῖται. I did these things on behalf of myself and you, citizens. ἴσως ἐρεῖς ὅτι πᾶς ἀνὴρ ἑαυτὸν μεγάλου ἀξιοῖ πλούτου. Perhaps you will say that every man thinks himself worthy of great wealth. αἱ γυναῖκες αἱ ἐν τῇδε τῇ πόλει σφᾶς αὐτeς περὶ τῆς πολέμου τέχνης διδάσκουσιν. The women in this city are teaching themselves about the art of war.
13 103. Reflexive Pronouns; Reflexive Possession 329 Observations 1. In the first sentence the first person singular reflexive pronoun ἐμαυτοῦ, myself, refers to the subject of ἐποίησα, I. 2. In the second sentence the third person singular reflexive pronoun ἑαυτόν, himself, refers to the subject of the indirect statement, ἀνήρ, man. 3. In the third sentence the third person plural reflexive pronoun σφᾶς αὐτdς, themselves, refers to the subject of διδάσκουσιν, γυναῖκες, women. Sometimes a reflexive pronoun does not refer to the subject of the clause or phrase in which it appears but rather points back to the subject of the main verb. A reflexive pronoun so used is called an Indirect Reflexive. ἐβούλοντο οἱ στρατιῶται τοὺς στρατηγοὺς ἑαυτοῖς προσέχειν τὸν νοῦν. The soldiers were wanting the generals to pay attention to them (i.e., the soldiers). ἔφησεν ὁ ἄρχων πολmτην τινὰ κακὸν ἀποκτενεῖν αὑτὸν μέλλειν. The archon said that some bad citizen was about to kill him (i.e., the archon). Observations 1. In the first sentence ἑαυτοῖς refers not to the subject of the infinitive προσέχειν (στρατηγούς) but to the subject of ἐβούλοντο (στρατιῶται). 2. In the second sentence αὑτόν refers not to the Subject Accusative in indirect statement (πολmτην) but to the subject of ἔφησεν (ἄρχων). Reflexive Possession Reflexive possession in the singular is regularly expressed by the genitive of the reflexive pronouns in the attributive position. τὴν ἐμαυτοῦ ψυ χὴν οὐκ ἀδικήσω. ὑπὸ τῶν σαυτοῦ δούλων ὤφθης. τὸν αὑτῆς παῖδα τὴν ἀρετὴν ἐδιδάσκετο. Observation I shall not wrong the soul of myself. I shall not wrong my own soul. You were seen by the slaves of yourself. You were seen by your own slaves. She was having the child of herself taught virtue. She was having her own child taught virtue. Sometimes reflexive possession in the first and second persons singular is expressed by the possessive adjective used reflexively. τὴν ἐμὴν ψυ χὴν οὐκ ἀδικήσω. I shall not wrong my (own) soul.
14 330 Chapter 10 Reflexive possession in the plural is expressed by possessive adjectives in the attributive position, usually accompanied by the intensive adjective αὐτῶν. τeς ἡμετέρaς αὐτῶν μητέρας Bεὶ τι μῶμεν. We always honor our own mothers. ἆρ οὐ τῷ Uμετέρῳ αὐτῶν στρατηγῷ διαλέξεσθε; Will you (pl.) not converse with your own general? τοῖς λόγοις τοῖς σφετέροις αὐτῶν οὐ πείθονται. Their own words they do not believe. Observations 1. In the first and second persons plural the reflexive use of the possessive adjectives ἡμέτερος, ἡμετέρa, ἡμέτερον and Uμέτερος, UμετέρA, Uμέτερον is reinforced by the use of the intensive adjective in the genitive plural, and a different English translation ( our own, your own ) is used. In the first sentence ἡμετέρaς αὐτῶν is equivalent to ἡμῶν αὐτῶν ( of ourselves ). In the second sentence Uμετέρῳ αὐτῶν is equivalent to Uμῶν αὐτῶν ( of yourselves ). 2. In the third person plural the reflexive-possessive adjective σφέτερος, σφετέρa, σφέτερον, their own, is used and is usually reinforced by αὐτῶν. This adjective is used only for reflexive possession. An alternate way to express reflexive possession in the third person plural employs the third person plural reflexive pronoun in the attributive position. τοῖς ἑαυτῶν λόγοις οὐ πείθονται. They do not believe the words of themselves. They do not believe their own words. Summary of Reflexive Possession (All in the attributive position) Singular Plural (= Genitive of Reflexive Pronoun) (= Possessive Adjective + αὐτῶν) 1st Person ἐμαυτοῦ, ἐμαυτῆς ἡμέτερος, ἡμετέρa, ἡμέτερον αὐτῶν my own our own 2nd Person σεαυτοῦ, σεαυτῆς Uμέτερος, UμετέρA, Uμέτερον αὐτῶν σαυτοῦ, σαυτῆς your (pl.) own your own 3rd Person ἑαυτοῦ, ἑαυτῆς σφέτερος, σφετέρa, σφέτερον αὐτῶν αὑτοῦ, αὑτῆς (OR ἑαυτῶν/αὑτῶν) his own/her own their own Drill 103 may now be done.
15 104. Comparison of Adjectives and Adverbs Comparison of Adjectives and Adverbs 1 In both English and Greek most adjectives and adverbs may appear in three different degrees. Positive Comparative Superlative Adjective wise wiser; rather wise wisest; very wise Adverb cleverly more cleverly; rather cleverly most cleverly; very cleverly Regular Comparison of Adjectives 3 The positive degree of an adjective is the form given in dictionaries and vocabularies: σοφός, σοφή, σοφόν, wise. To form the comparative and superlative degrees of a first-second-declension adjective with a stem ending in a short syllable, add the endings -ώτερος, -ωτέρa, -ώτερον (comparative) and -ώτατος, -ωτάτη, -ώτατον (superlative). When the stem of a first-second-declension adjective ends in a long syllable, 4 add -ότερος, -οτέρa, -ότερον (comparative) and -ότατος, -οτάτη, -ότατον (superlative). For example: Positive Comparative Superlative σοφός, σοφή, σοφόν σοφώτερος, σοφωτέρa, σοφώτατος, σοφωτάτη, σοφώτερον σοφώτατον δεινός, δεινή, δεινόν δεινότερος, δεινοτέρa, δεινότατος, δεινοτάτη, δεινότερον δεινότατον The adjective φίλος, φίλη, φίλον has an irregularly formed superlative degree: φίλτατος, φιλτάτη, φίλτατον. Memorize this irregular superlative adjective. 5 For third-declension adjectives ending in -ης, -ες, add -τερος, -τέρa, -τερον (comparative) and -τατος, -τάτη, -τατον (superlative) directly to the stem. For example: Positive Comparative Superlative σαφής, σαφές σαφέστερος, σαφεστέρa, σαφέστατος, σαφεστάτη, σαφέστερον σαφέστατον For third-declension adjectives ending in -ων, -ον, add -έστερος, -εστέρa, -έστερον (comparative) and -έστατος, -εστάτη, -έστατον (superlative) directly to the stem. For example: Positive Comparative Superlative εὐδαίμων, εὔδαιμον εὐδαιμονέστερος, εὐδαιμονέστατος, εὐδαιμονεστέρa, εὐδαιμονεστάτη, εὐδαιμονέστερον εὐδαιμονέστατον 3. For the comparative and superlative degrees of ἀγαθός, κακός, καλός, αἰσχρός, ἐχθρός, ῥᾴδιος, πολύς, μέγας, and ὀλίγος, see A syllable is long if it contains 1) a naturally long vowel, 2) a diphthong, or 3) a short vowel followed by two consonants or a double consonant (ζ, ξ, ψ). 5. Comparative forms of φίλος are rare and do not appear in this textbook.
16 332 Chapter 10 Observations 1. The accents on the comparative and superlative degrees of adjectives are persistent on the antepenult. 2. The comparative degree of an adjective has a variety of translations: -er, more, quite, rather, too. 3. The superlative degree of an adjective has a variety of translations: -est, most, very. Regular Comparison of Adverbs The positive degree of an adverb is regularly formed by adding -ως to the stem of the corresponding adjective: σοφῶς, δεινῶς, σαφῶς, etc. The regular form of the comparative degree of an adverb is the neuter singular accusative (Adverbial Accusative) of the comparative degree of the adjective. The regular form of the superlative degree of an adverb is the neuter plural accusative (Adverbial Accusative) of the superlative degree of the adjective. For example: Positive Comparative Superlative ἀδίκως ἀδικώτερον ἀδικώτατα σαφῶς σαφέστερον σαφέστατα Observations 1. The accents on the comparative and superlative degrees of adverbs are persistent on the antepenult. 2. The comparative degree of an adverb has a variety of translations: more -ly, quite -ly, rather -ly, too -ly. 3. The superlative degree of an adverb may be translated most -ly or very -ly. It is also possible to form the comparative and superlative degrees of both adjectives and adverbs by adding a comparative (μᾶλλον, more ) or a superlative (μάλιστα, most ) adverb to the positive degree of the adjective or adverb. The positive degree of the adverb μάλα, very, is also used to form the superlative degree of an adjective or adverb. For example: σαφέστερος, -τέρa, -τερον or μᾶλλον σαφής, -ές clearer, more clear σαφέστατος, -τάτη, -τατον or μάλιστα/μάλα σαφής, -ές clearest, most clear σαφέστερον or μᾶλλον σαφῶς more clearly σαφέστατα or μάλιστα/μάλα σαφῶς most clearly, very clearly Drill 104 may now be done.
17 105. Comparative and Superlative Degrees Constructions with the Comparative and Superlative Degrees The comparative degree of an adjective or adverb is regularly used to make comparisons between two persons or things. For example: σοφώτερός ἐστιν ὁ Σωκράτης ἢ ὁ Εὐρι πίδης. Socrates is wiser than Euripides. φημὶ αὐτὸν σαφέστερον λέγειν ἢ σέ. I say that he speaks more clearly than you. τὸν τρόπον τῆς πόλεως μᾶλλον ἢ τοὺς νόμους μανθάνεις. You understand the way of the city more than its laws. (μᾶλλον [adv.] more) Observation In these sentences the conjunction ἤ, than, is used to make a comparison. When comparisons are made with ἤ, the elements being compared must be in the same case because ἤ is used to introduce a parallel clause: σοφώτερός ἐστιν ὁ Σωκράτης ἢ ὁ Εὐρι πίδης (ἐστὶ σοφός). Socrates is wiser than Euripides (is wise). φημὶ αὐτὸν σαφέστερον λέγειν ἢ σέ (λέγειν). I say that he speaks more clearly than you (speak). A comparison may also be expressed by a noun or pronoun in the genitive case. A genitive so used is called a Genitive of Comparison. For example: εἰρήνην ἄγειν δικαιότερόν ἐστι τοῦ πολεμεῖν. To keep the peace is more just than to make war. οὐδὲν δεινότερον ἔσται θανάτου. Nothing will be more terrible than death. The syntax of each italicized word (τοῦ πολεμεῖν, θανάτου) is Genitive of Comparison. Observations 1. The Genitive of Comparison, a development of the separative, or from, function of the genitive case, is translated with the English word than. 2. In comparisons using the Genitive of Comparison (rather than ἤ), the genitive expresses the point of departure from which the comparison is made or the absolute standard of a particular quality. Thus, in the first sentence making war is the starting point from which keeping the peace is more just. In the second sentence death is, in the view of the writer or speaker, the absolute standard of what is terrible.
18 334 Chapter 10 Sometimes words whose meanings suggest comparison appear with ἤ or the Genitive of Comparison. For example: σοί γε φίλος τίς ἐστιν ἄλλος ἢ οὗτος; To you, at least, who is a friend other than this man? οὐδὲν διέφερε τοῦ πατρὸς τὴν φύσιν. Not at all was he differing from his father in nature. (διαφέρω, διοίσω, διήνεγκα/διήνεγκον, διενήνοχα, διενήνεγμαι, διηνέχθην differ) Observations 1. The adjective ἄλλος, ἄλλη, ἄλλο, other, is comparative in meaning and may appear in comparisons using ἤ, than. 2. Verbs of differing and excelling such as διαφέρω often appear with a Genitive of Comparison that may be translated with the English word from. A noun or a neuter singular substantive in the dative case is used to indicate the degree or amount by which persons or things being compared differ. A dative so used is called a Dative of Degree of Difference. For example: οἶμαι ἐγὼ πολλῷ εἶναι σοφώτερον τὸν Σωκράτη ἢ τοὺς μαθητdς. I think that by much is wiser Socrates than his students. I think that Socrates is much wiser than his students. ὀλίγῳ χρόνῳ μετὰ τὴν νmκην ἤρξατο ἄλλη μάχη. By a little time after the victory began another battle. A little time after the victory another battle began. (χρόνος, χρόνου, ὁ time) The syntax of each italicized word (πολλῷ, χρόνῳ) is Dative of Degree of Difference. Observations 1. In the first sentence the Dative of Degree of Difference is a neuter singular substantive: πολλῷ = by (the amount) much. 2. In the second sentence the Dative of Degree of Difference, χρόνῳ, qualifies the preposition (μετά), whose meaning is comparative: after = later than. 3. Frequently an Adverbial Accusative is used instead of a Dative of Degree of Difference. σοφίaν ἡμᾶς χρὴ ἔχειν πολὺ μᾶλλον ἢ πλοῦτον. For us to have wisdom is necessary much more than (for us to have) wealth. It is necessary for us to have wisdom much more than wealth. The Partitive Genitive (Part 1, 47) and the Dative of Degree of Difference may appear with adjectives and adverbs in the superlative degree. For example: τοῦτο τὸ ἔργον πάντων ἦν μακρῷ δεινότατον. This deed was by far the most marvelous of all (deeds).
19 107. Dative of Time When 335 The words ὅτι or ὡς may be added to an adjective or adverb in the superlative degree to express the highest possible degree. The resulting phrase is translated as as possible. For example: ὁ σοφὸς βίον ἄγειν ὅτι δικαιότατον ἐθέλει. The wise man wishes to lead a life as just as possible. ὡς σαφέστατα τὴν γνώμην Uμῖν ἐρῶ. As clearly as possible I shall tell you (pl.) my opinion. Drill 105 may now be done Genitive of Time Within Which The time during or in the course of which an action occurs (occurred, will occur) is expressed by the genitive case, and a genitive so used is called a Genitive of Time Within Which. For example: τῆς αὐτῆς ἡμέρaς ἐνmκησά τε τὸν ἀγῶνα καὶ ἐνι κήθην. (ἡμέρa, ἡμέρaς, ἡ day) Within the same day I won in the contest and was conquered (in the contest). ὁ πόλεμος ὀλίγου τελευτήσει χρόνου. The war will end within a little time. The syntax of each italicized word (ἡμέρaς, χρόνου) is Genitive of Time Within Which. Observations 1. The Genitive of Time Within Which may be translated with the English prepositions within or in. 2. Sometimes the Genitive of Time Within Which is used to express the time since an action occurred. οὐδεὶς τοῦτον ἑόρaκε πολλῶν ἡμερῶν. No one has seen this man in many days Dative of Time When The time at which an action occurs (occurred, will occur) is expressed by the dative case, and a dative so used is called a Dative of Time When. For example: πολλοὶ μιᾷ νυκτὶ ἀπέθανον. On one night many men died. (νύξ, νυκτός, ἡ night) The syntax of the italicized word (νυκτί) is Dative of Time When.
20 336 Chapter 10 Observations 1. The Dative of Time When may be translated with the English prepositions in, on, or at. 2. The Dative of Time When usually includes an adjective modifying a word for a unit of time. When no modifier is used, the preposition ἐν often appears, but if the modifier is a demonstrative, ἐν may or may not be used. ἐν νυκτὶ παισίν εἰσι μεγάλοι φόβοι. At night children have great fears. (ἐν) ἐκείνῃ τῇ νυκτὶ εἰς τὴν πόλιν ἤλθομεν. On that night we came into the city Accusative of Extent of Time For how long a time an action occurs (occurred, will occur) is expressed by the accusative case, and an accusative so used is called an Accusative of Extent of Time. For example: τὴν πᾶσαν ἡμέρaν διελέγοντο. For the whole day they were conversing. The syntax of the italicized word (ἡμέρaν) is Accusative of Extent of Time. Observations 1. Like the Accusative of Respect and the Adverbial Accusative, the Accusative of Extent of Time derives from the capacity of the accusative case to express extent. 2. The Accusative of Extent of Time emphasizes that an action occurs (occurred, will occur) through the whole period (i.e., Throughout the whole day they were conversing ). 3. The Accusative of Extent of Time is regularly translated with the English preposition for. Prepositions are frequently used in expressions of time, sometimes to strengthen the idea expressed by the genitive, dative, or accusative alone and sometimes to express a slightly different idea. καθ (ἑκάστην) ἡμέρaν every day; daily μεθ ἡμέρaν by day, in the daytime διὰ νυκτός in the course of the night ὑπὸ νύκτα toward night(fall) Certain adverbs or time expressions, including the Accusative of Extent of Time, are used with verbs in the present or imperfect tense to indicate actions that have or had been going on and are or were continuing. Special English translations of the verbs in such sentences are used. τὸν δῆμον ἀδικεῖς πολύν, ὦ Δημόσθενες, χρόνον. You have been wronging the people for much time, Demosthenes (and are still wronging them). ἐκ παιδὸς ἐμοὶ ἑταῖρος ἦν. From childhood he had been (and still was) a companion to me. ἆρα φῂς τὸν Σωκράτη πάλαι τοὺς νέους διαφθείρειν; (πάλαι [adv.] long since) Are you asserting that Socrates has long since been corrupting (and is still corrupting) the young men?
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