ORDINAL ARITHMETIC JULIAN J. SCHLÖDER

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1 ORDINAL ARITHMETIC JULIAN J. SCHLÖDER Abstract. We define ordinal arithmetic and show laws of Left- Monotonicity, Associativity, Distributivity, some minor related properties and the Cantor Normal Form. 1. Ordinals Definition 1.1. A set x is called transitive iff y x z y : z x. Definition 1.2. A set α is called an ordinal iff α transitive and all β α are transitive. Write α Ord. Lemma 1.3. If α is an ordinal and β α, then β is an ordinal. Proof. β is transitive, since it is in α. Let γ β. By transitivity of α, γ α. Hence γ is transitive. Thus β is an ordinal. Definition 1.4. If a is a set, define a + 1 = a {a}. Remark 1.5. is an ordinal. Write 0 =. If α is an ordinal, so is α + 1. Definition 1.6. If α and β are ordinals, say α < β iff α β. Lemma 1.7. For all ordinals α, α < α + 1. Proof. α {α}, so α α {α} = α + 1. Notation 1.8. From now on, α, β, γ, δ, ε, ζ, η denote ordinals. Theorem 1.9. The ordinals are linearly ordered i.e. i. α : α α (strictness). ii. α β γ : α < β β < γ α < γ (transitivity). iii. α β : α < β β < α α = β (linearity). Proof. i. follows from (Found). ii. follows from transitivity of the ordinals. iii. : Assume this fails. By (Found), choose a minimal α such that some β is neither smaller, larger or equal to α. Choose the minimal such β. Show towards a contradiction that α = β: 1

2 2 JULIAN J. SCHLÖDER Let γ α. By minimality of α, γ < β β < γ β = γ. If β = γ, β < α. If β < γ then by ii. β < α. Thus γ < β, i.e. γ β. Hence α β. Let γ β. By minimality of β, γ < α α < γ α = γ. If α = γ, α < β. If α < γ then by ii α < β. Thus γ < α, i.e. γ α. Hence β α. Lemma If α 0 is an ordinal, 0 < α, i.e. 0 is the smallest ordinal. Proof. Since α 0, by linearity α < 0 or 0 < α, but α < 0 would mean α. Definition An ordinal α is called a successor iff there is a β with α = β + 1. Write α Suc. An ordinal α is called a limit if it is no successor. Write α Lim. Remark By definition, every ordinal is either or a successor or a limit. Lemma For all ordinals α, β: If β < α+1, then β < α β = α, i.e. β α. Proof. Let β < α + 1, i.e. β α {α}. By definition of, β α or β {α}, i.e. β α β = α. Lemma For all ordinals α, β: If β < α, then β + 1 α. Proof. Suppose this fails for some α, β. Then by linearity, β + 1 > α, hence by the previous lemma α β. Hence by transitivity β < α β, contradicting strictness. Lemma For all α, there is no β with α < β < α + 1. Proof. Assume there are such α and β. Then, since β < α + 1, β α, but since α < β, by linearity α < α, contradicting strictness. Lemma For all α, β, if there is no γ with α < γ < β, then β = α + 1. Proof. Suppose β α + 1. Since α < β, α + 1 β, so α + 1 < β. Then α + 1 is some such γ. Lemma The operation +1 : Ord Ord is injective. Proof. Let α β be ordinals. Wlog α < β. Then by the previous lemmas, α + 1 β < β + 1, i.e α + 1 β + 1. Lemma α Lim iff β < α : β + 1 < α and α 0.

3 ORDINAL ARITHMETIC 3 Proof. Let α Lim, β < α. By linearity, β + 1 < α α < β + 1 β + 1 = α. The last case is excluded by definition of limits. So suppose α < β + 1. Then α = β α < β. Since β < α, α = β implies α < α, contradicting strictness. By linearity, α < β implies β < β, contradicting strictness. Thus β + 1 < α. Now suppose α 0 and β < α : β + 1 < α. Assume α Suc. Then there is β such that α = β + 1. Then β < β + 1 = α, thus β < α, i.e. β + 1 < α. Then α = β + 1 < α, contradicting strictness. Hence α is a limit. Theorem 1.19 (Ordinal Induction). Let ϕ be a property of ordinals. Suppose the following holds: i. ϕ( ) (base step). ii. α : ϕ(α) ϕ(α + 1) (successor step). iii. α Lim : ( β < α : ϕ(β)) ϕ(α) (limit step). Then ϕ(α) holds for all ordinals α. Proof. Suppose i, ii and iii hold. Assume there is some α such that ϕ(α). By (Found), take the smallest such α. Suppose α =. This contradicts i. Suppose α Suc. Then there is β such that α = β + 1, since β < β + 1, β < α and hence by minimality of α, ϕ(β). By ii, ϕ(α). Suppose α Lim. By minimality of α, all β < α satisfy ϕ(β). Thus by iii, ϕ(α). Hence there can t be any such α. Definition Let ω be the (inclusion-)smallest set that contains 0 and is closed under +1, i.e. x ω : x + 1 ω. More formally, ω = {w 0 w v w : v + 1 w}. Remark ω is a set by the Axiom of Infinity. Theorem ω is an ordinal. Proof. Consider ω Ord. This set contains 0 and is closed under +1, as ordinals are closed under +1. So ω must by definition be a subset of ω Ord, i.e. ω contains only ordinals. Hence it suffices to show that ω is transitive. Consider ω = {x x ω y x : y ω}. Clearly, 0 ω. Let x ω and show that x + 1 ω. By definition, x + 1 ω. Let y x + 1, i.e. y = x y x. If y = x, y ω. If y x then y ω by definition of ω. Hence x + 1 ω. Thus ω contains 0 and is closed under +1, i.e. ω ω. But ω ω by defintion, hence ω = ω, i.e. ω is transitive.

4 4 JULIAN J. SCHLÖDER Theorem ω is a limit, in particular, it is the smallest limit ordinal. Proof. ω 0, since 0 ω. Let α < ω. Then α + 1 < ω by definition. Assume γ < ω is a limit ordinal. Since γ, 0 γ. Also, as a limit, γ is closed under +1. Hence γ contradicts the minimality of ω. 2. Ordinal Arithmetic Definition 2.1. Define an ordinal 1 := = { }. Lemma ω. Proof. 0 ω and ω is closed under +1. Definition 2.3. Let α, β be ordinals. Define ordinal addition recursively: i. α + 0 = α. ii. If β Suc, β = γ + 1, define α + β = (α + γ) + 1. iii. If β Lim, define α + β = γ<β (α + γ). Remark 2.4. By this definition, the sum α + 1 of an ordinal α and the ordinal 1 = {0} is the same as α + 1 = α {α}. Definition 2.5. Let α, β be ordinals. recursively: Define ordinal multiplication i. α 0 = 0. ii. If β Suc, β = γ + 1, define α β = (α γ) + α. iii. If β Lim, define α β = γ<β (α γ). Definition 2.6. Let α, β be ordinals. Define ordinal exponentiation recursively: i. α 0 = 1. ii. If β Suc, β = γ + 1, define α β = (α γ ) α. iii. If β Lim and α > 0, define α β = γ<β (αγ ). If α = 0, define α β = 0. Lemma 2.7. If A is a set of ordinals, A is an ordinal. Proof. Let A be a set of ordinals, define a = A. Let x y a, then there is an α A such that x y α, so x α hence x a. Thus, a is transitive. Let z a. There is α A such that z α, hence z is transitive. Thus a is transitive and every element of a is transitive, i.e. a is an ordinal.

5 ORDINAL ARITHMETIC 5 Remark 2.8. By induction and this lemma, the definitions of +, and exponentiation above are well-defined, i.e. if α, β are ordinals, α + β, α β and α β are again ordinals. Definition 2.9. Let A be a set of ordinals. The supremum of A is definied as: sup A = min{α β A : β α}. Lemma Let A be a set of ordinals, then sup A = A. Proof. Since sup A is again an ordinal, it is just the set of all ordinals smaller than it. Hence by linearity, sup A = {α β A : α < β}. Which equals A by definition. Lemma Let A be a set of ordinals. If sup A is a successor, then sup A A. Proof. Assume sup A = α + 1 / A, then for all β A, β < α + 1, i.e. β α. Then sup A = α < α + 1 = sup A. Lemma Let A be a set of ordinals, B A such that α A β B : α β. Then sup A = sup B. Proof. Show {γ α A : γ α} = {γ β B : γ β}. Then the minima of these sets, and hence the suprema of A and B, are equal. Suppose γ α for all α A. Then, since B A, γ α for all β B. Suppose γ β for all β B. Let α A, then there is some β B with β α, hence γ β α. Thus γ α for all α A. Lemma If γ is a limit, γ = sup γ = α<γ α = sup α<γ α = γ. Proof. We ve shown a more general form of the first equality, the second and third are just a different ways of writing the same set. Assume γ sup α<γ α, i.e. γ < sup α<γ α or sup α<γ α < γ by linearity. In the first case, there is α < γ such that γ < α, i.e. γ < γ contradicting strictness. In the second case, (sup α<γ α) + 1 < γ, since γ is a limit. But then, by definition of sup, (sup α<γ α) + 1 sup α<γ α while sup α<γ α < (sup α<γ α) + 1, again contradicting strictness. Lemma For all α, 0 + α = α. Proof. By induction on α. Since = 0, the base step is trivial. Suppose α = β + 1 and 0 + β = β. Then 0 + α = 0 + (β + 1) = (0 + β) + 1 = β + 1 = α. Suppose α Lim and for all β < α, 0 + β = β. Then 0 + α = β<α (0 + β) = β<α β = α. Lemma For all α, 1 α = α 1 = α.

6 6 JULIAN J. SCHLÖDER Proof. α 1 = α (0 + 1) = (α 0) + α = α. Prove 1 α = α by induction on α. Since 1 0 = 0, the base step holds. Suppose α = β +1 and 1 β = β. Then 1 α = (1 β)+1 = β +1 = α. Suppose α is a limit and for all β < α, 1 β = β. Then 1 α = β<α (1 β) = β<α β = α. Lemma For all α, α 1 = α. Proof. α 1 = α 0+1 = α 0 α = 1 α = α. Lemma For all α, 1 α = 1. Proof. If α = 0, 1 α = 1 by definition. If α = β + 1, 1 β+1 = 1 β 1 = 1. If α is a limit, 1 α = sup β<α 1 β = sup β<α 1 = 1. Lemma Let α be an ordinal. If α > 0, 0 α = 0. Otherwise 0 α = 1. Proof. 0 0 = 1 by definition, so let α > 0. If α = β + 1, 0 α = 0 β 0 = 0. If α is a limit, 0 α = 0 by defnition. Theorem 2.19 (Subtraction). For all β α there is some γ α with β + γ = α. Proof. By induction on α. α = 0 is trivial. Suppose α = δ + 1 and β α. If β = α, set γ = 0. So suppose β < α, i.e. β δ. Find γ β with β + γ = δ. Set γ = γ + 1, then β + γ = β + (γ + 1) = (β + γ ) + 1 = δ + 1 = α. If α is a limit and β < α then for all δ < α, β δ, find γ δ such that β + γ δ = δ. If δ < β, set γ δ = 0. Set γ = sup β<δ<α γ δ. If γ is a successor, then there is some δ with γ = γ δ. But δ + 1 < α and as in the successor case, γ δ+1 = γ δ + 1 > γ δ = γ, so this can t be the supremum. Also, γ 0, since if it were, for all β < δ < γ, β = δ, i.e. there are no such δ. This implies β + 1 = α, but α is no successor. So, γ is a limit. In particular for all δ < α, γ δ < γ: If there were any δ < γ with γ δ = γ, then since γ 0, β < δ. Then again γ δ+1 = γ δ + 1 > γ δ = γ, contradicting that γ is the supremum. Hence, β + γ = sup ε<γ (β + ε) = sup γδ <γ(β + γ δ ) = sup γδ <γ δ = sup δ<α δ = α. Theorem ω is closed under +, and exponentiation, i.e. n, m ω : n + m ω n m ω n m ω. Proof. By induction on m. Since ω does not contain any limits, we may omit the limit step.

7 ORDINAL ARITHMETIC 7 First consider addition. If m = 0 then n + m = m ω. Suppose m = k + 1. n + m = (n + k) + 1. By induction n + k ω and since ω is closed under +1, (n + k) + 1 ω. Now consider multiplication. If m = 0, n 0 = 0 ω. Suppose m = k + 1. n m = (n k) + n. By induction n k ω and since ω is closed under +, (n k) + n ω. Finally consider exponentiation. If m = 0, n 0 = 1 ω. Suppose m = k + 1. n m = n k n. By induction, n k ω and since ω is closed under, n k n ω Comparisons of Addition. 3. Monotonicity Laws Lemma 3.1. If α and β are ordinals, and α β, then α + 1 β + 1. Proof. Assume α β and α + 1 > β + 1. By transitivity it suffices to now derive a contradiction. Since β + 1 < α + 1, β + 1 = α β + 1 < α. If β + 1 = α, β + 1 β, but β < β + 1. If β + 1 < α, by transitivity β + 1 β, but β < β + 1. Lemma 3.2. If α and β are ordinals, then α α + β. Proof. By induction on β: If β = 0, α = α + β. If β = γ + 1 and α α + γ, then α + β = (α + γ) + 1 α + 1 α. If β Lim and for all γ < β, α α+γ, then: α+β = γ<β (α+γ) = sup γ<β (α + γ) sup γ<β α = α. Lemma 3.3. If α and β are ordinals, then β α + β. Proof. By induction on β: β = 0 is trivial, since 0 is the smallest ordinal. If β = γ + 1 and γ α + γ, then α + β = (α + γ) + 1 γ + 1 = β. If β Lim and for all γ < β, γ α+γ, then: α+β = γ<β (α+γ) = sup γ<β (α + γ) sup γ<β γ = β. Lemma 3.4. If γ is a limit, then for all α: α + γ is a limit. Proof. γ 0, so α + γ γ > 0, i.e. α + γ 0. So let x α + γ. Show that x + 1 < α + γ. x α + γ = β<γ (α + β), i.e. there is β < γ such that x α + β. By a previous lemma, x + 1 α + β. If x + 1 α + β, x + 1 < α + γ. So suppose α + β = x + 1. Since γ is a limit, β + 1 < γ and by definition α + (β + 1) = (α + β) + 1, and x + 1 (α + β) + 1, hence x + 1 α + γ. Lemma 3.5. Suppose γ is a limit, α, β are ordinals and β < γ. then α + β < α + γ.

8 8 JULIAN J. SCHLÖDER Proof. By definition, α+γ = δ<γ (α+δ). Since γ is a limit, β +1 < γ. Also by definition: α + β < (α + β) + 1 = α + (β + 1) {α + δ δ < γ}. Hence α + β δ<γ α + δ. Lemma 3.6. Suppose α, β, γ are ordinals and β < γ. then α + β < α + γ. Proof. By induction over γ. γ = 0 is clear, since there is no β < 0. And the previous lemma is the limit step. So we need to cover the successor step. Suppose γ = δ + 1. Then β < γ means β δ. If β = δ, notice: α + β = α + δ < (α + δ) + 1 = α + (δ + 1) = α + γ. If β < δ, apply induction: α+β < α+δ. Hence α+β < (α+δ)+1 = α + (δ + 1) = α + γ. Theorem 3.7 (Left-Monotonicity of Ordinal Addition). Let α, β, γ be ordinals. The following are equivalent: i. β < γ. ii. α + β < α + γ. Proof. The previous lemma shows the forward direction. So assume α + β < α + γ and not β < γ. By linearity, γ β. If γ = β, α + γ = α + β < α + γ. If γ < β, by the forward direction, α + γ < α + β < α + γ. Lemma ω = ω. Proof. 1 + ω is a limit by a lemma above, so ω 1 + ω (since ω is the smallest limit). ω is a limit, so 1 + ω = sup α<ω 1 + α. Since ω is closed under +, 1 + α < ω for all α < ω, hence sup α<ω ω. It follows that 1 + ω = ω. Remark 3.9. Right-Monotoniticy does not hold: Clearly, 0 < 1 and we ve seen that 0 + ω = ω and 1 + ω = ω. So 0 + ω 1 + ω Comparisons of Multiplications. Lemma For all α, β: α + β = 0 iff α = β = 0. Proof. Reverse direction is trivial. So suppose α + β = 0 and not α = β = 0. If β = 0, then 0 = α + β = α and if β > 0, by Left- Monotonicity 0 α + 0 < α + β = 0. Lemma If α and β 0 are ordinals, then α α β. Proof. By induction on β. Suppose β = γ+1, then α β = (α γ)+α α, by induction and the corresponding lemma on addition. Suppose β is a limit. α β = γ<β (α γ) = sup γ<β(α γ) sup γ<β α = α.

9 ORDINAL ARITHMETIC 9 Lemma If α 0 and β are ordinals, then β α β. Proof. By induction on β. β = 0 is trivial. Suppose β = γ + 1, then: α β = (α γ) + α > α γ γ (since α > 0 and by Left-Monotonicity) (by induction). And α β > γ implies α β γ + 1 = β. Suppose β is a limit. α β = γ<β (α γ) = sup γ<β(α γ) sup γ<β γ = β. Lemma If γ is a limit, then for all α 0: α γ is a limit. Proof. γ 0, so α γ γ > 0, i.e. α γ 0. So let x α γ. Show that x + 1 < α γ. x α γ = β<γ (α β), i.e. there is β < γ such that x α β. By a previous lemma, x + 1 α β. If x + 1 α β, x + 1 < α γ. So suppose α β = x + 1. Since γ is a limit, β + 1 < γ and by definition α (β + 1) = (α β) + α, and x + 1 (α β) + 1 (α β) + α by Left-Monotonicity (since α 1). Hence x + 1 α γ. Lemma Suppose γ is a limit, α 0 and β are ordinals and β < γ. Then α β < α γ. Proof. By definition, α γ = δ<γ (α δ). Since γ is a limit, β + 1 < γ. By Left-Monotonicity: α β < (α β) + α = α (β + 1) {α δ δ < γ}. Hence α β δ<γ α δ. Lemma Suppose α 0 and β, γ are ordinals and β < γ. Then α β < α γ. Proof. By induction over γ. γ = 0 is clear and the previous lemma is the limit step. So we need to cover the successor step. Suppose γ = δ+1. Then β < γ means β δ. If β = δ, apply Left-Monotonicity: α β = α δ < (α δ) + α = α (δ + 1) = α γ. If β < δ, apply induction: α β < α δ. Hence (by Left-Monotonicity) α β < α δ < (α δ) + α = α (δ + 1) = α γ. Theorem 3.16 (Left-Monotonicity of Ordinal Multiplication). Let α, β, γ be ordinals. The following are equivalent: i. β < γ α > 0. ii. α β < α γ. Proof. The previous lemma shows the forward direction. So assume α β < α γ and not β < γ. If α = 0, then α β = 0 = α γ. So α > 0. By linearity, γ β. If γ = β, α γ = α β < α γ. If γ < β, by the forward direction, α γ < α β < α γ.

10 10 JULIAN J. SCHLÖDER Lemma Let 2 = ω = ω. Proof. Since ω is the smallest limit and by a lemma above 2 ω is a limit, ω 2 ω. Since ω is closed under, for all α < ω, 2 α ω. Hence 2 ω = sup α<ω 2 α ω. Remark Right-Monotonicity does not hold: Clearly, 1 < 2 and since 1 ω = ω and 2 ω = ω, 1 ω 2 ω Comparisons of Exponentation. Lemma If α and β 0 are ordinals, then α α β. Proof. If α = 0 the lemma is trivial. So suppose α > 0. By induction on β. Suppose β = γ + 1, then α β = (α γ ) α α, by induction and the corresponding lemma on multiplication. Suppose β is a limit. α β = γ<β (αγ ) = sup γ<β (α γ ) sup γ<β α = α. Lemma If α > 1 and β are ordinals, then β α β. Proof. If β = 0 the lemma is trivial. So suppose β > 0. By induction on β. Suppose β = γ + 1, then: α β = (α γ ) α > α γ 1 (by Left-Monotonicity) = α γ γ (by induction). And α β > γ implies α β γ + 1 = β. Suppose β is a limit. α β = γ<β (αγ ) = sup γ<β (α γ ) sup γ<β γ = β. Lemma If γ is a limit, then for all α > 1: α γ is a limit. Proof. γ 0, so α γ γ > 0, i.e. α γ 0. So let x α γ. Show that x + 1 < α γ. x α γ = β<γ (αβ ), i.e. there is β < γ such that x α β. By a previous lemma, x + 1 α β. If x + 1 α β, x + 1 < α γ. So suppose α β = x+1. Since γ is a limit, β +1 < γ and by definition α β+1 = (α β ) α, and x + 1 (α β ) + 1 α β + α β α β 2 α β α by Left-Monotonicity (since α 2). Hence x + 1 α γ. Lemma Suppose γ is a limit, α > 1 and β are ordinals and β < γ. Then α β < α γ. Proof. By definition, α γ = δ<γ (αδ ). Since γ is a limit, β + 1 < γ. By Left-Monotonicity: α β < (α β ) α = α β+1 {α δ δ < γ}. Hence α β δ<γ αδ.

11 ORDINAL ARITHMETIC 11 Lemma Suppose α > 1 and β, γ are ordinals and β < γ. Then α β < α γ. Proof. By induction over γ. γ = 0 is clear and the previous lemma is the limit step. So we need to cover the successor step. Suppose γ = δ+1. Then β < γ means β δ. If β = δ, apply Left-Monotonicity: α β = α δ < (α δ ) α = α δ+1 = α γ. If β < δ, apply induction: α β < α δ. Hence (by Left-Monotonicity) α β < α δ < (α δ ) α = α δ+1 = α γ. Theorem 3.24 (Left-Monotonicity of Ordinal Exponentiation). Let α, β, γ be ordinals and α > 0. The following are equivalent: i. β < γ α > 1. ii. α β < α γ. Proof. The previous lemma shows the forward direction. So assume α β < α γ and not β < γ. If α = 1, α β = 1 = α γ. By linearity, γ β. If γ = β, α γ = α β < α γ. If γ < β, by the forward direction, α γ < α β < α γ. Lemma Let 0 < n ω. n ω = ω. Proof. ω is the smallest limit and n ω is a limit by a lemma above. So ω n ω. Since ω is closed under exponentiation, for all α < ω, n α ω. Then n ω = sup α<ω n α ω. Remark Right-Monotonicity does not hold: Define 3 = ω. Clearly, 2 < 3 and since 2 ω = ω and 3 ω = ω, 2 ω 3 ω. 4. Associativity, Distributivity and Commutativity Theorem , and exponentiation are not commutative, i.e. there are α, β, γ, δ, ε, ζ such that α + β β + α, γ δ δ γ and ε ζ ζ ε. Proof. Let α = 1, β = ω, γ = 2, δ = ω, ε = 0, ζ = ω = ω as shown above. ω ω {ω} = ω + 1, so α + β < β + α. 2 ω = ω as shown above. By Left-Monotonicity, ω < ω + ω = ω 2. So γ δ < δ γ. 0 1 = = 0, but 1 0 = 1 by definition. Hence ε ζ < ζ ε. Theorem 4.2 (Associativity of Ordinal Addition). Let α, β, γ be ordinals. Then (α + β) + γ = α + (β + γ).

12 12 JULIAN J. SCHLÖDER Proof. By induction on γ. γ = 0 is trivial. Suppose γ = δ + 1. (α + β) + (δ + 1) = ((α + β) + δ) + 1 (by definition) = (α + (β + δ)) + 1 (by induction) = α + ((β + δ) + 1) (by definition) = α + (β + (δ + 1)) (by definition) = α + (β + γ). Now suppose γ is a limit, in particular γ > 1. Then β + γ is a limit, so α + (β + γ) and (α + β) + γ are limits. (α + β) + γ = sup((α + β) + ε) (by definition) ε<γ = sup ((α + β) + ε) (by Left-Monotonicity) β+ε<β+γ = sup β+ε<β+γ (α + (β + ε)) (by induction) = sup (α + δ) (see below) δ<β+γ = α + (β + γ) (by definition). Recall Lemma Write B = {α + (β + ε) β + ε < β + γ} and A = {α + δ δ < β + γ}. Clearly B A. Let α + δ A. Let ε = min{ζ β + ζ δ}. Obviously ε γ. Assume ε = γ, then for each ζ < γ, β + ζ < δ. Then δ < β + γ = sup ζ<γ β + ζ δ. Hence, ε < γ, i.e. β + ε < β + γ. By construction, δ β + ε. Thus, by Left-Monotonicity, α + δ α + (β + ε) B. Thus, the conditions of Lemma 2.12 are satisfied. Theorem 4.3 (Distributivity). Let α, β, γ be ordinals. Then α (β + γ) = α β + α γ. Proof. Note that the theorem is trivial if α = 0, so suppose α > 0. Proof by induction on γ. γ = 0 is trivial. Suppose γ = δ + 1. α (β + (δ + 1)) = α ((β + δ) + 1) (by definition) = α (β + δ) + α (by definition) = α β + α δ + α (by induction) = α β + α (δ + 1) (by definition). Suppose γ is a limit. Hence α γ and β + γ are limits.

13 ORDINAL ARITHMETIC 13 α (β + γ) = sup δ<β+γ α δ (by definition) = sup β+ε<β+γ (α (β + ε)) (see below) = sup(α (β + ε)) (by Left-Monotonicity) ε<γ = sup(α β + α ε) (by induction) ε<γ = sup α ε<α γ (α β + α ε) (by Left-Monotonicity) = sup (α β + ζ) (see below) ζ<α γ = α β + α γ (by definition). Recall Lemma Write B = {α (β + ε) β + ε < β + γ} and A = {α δ δ < β + γ}. Clearly B A. Let α δ A. Let ε = min{η β + η δ}. Obviously ε γ. Assume ε = γ, then for each η < γ, β + η < δ. Then δ < β + γ = sup η<γ β + η δ. Hence, ε < γ, i.e. β + ε < β + γ. By construction, δ β + ε. Thus, by Left-Monotonicity, α δ α (β + ε) B. Thus, the conditions of Lemma 2.12 are satisfied. Write B = {α β + α ε α ε < α γ} and A = {α β + ζ ζ < α γ}. Clearly B A. Let α β+ζ A. Let ε = min{η α η ζ}. Obviously ε γ. Assume ε = γ, then for each η < γ, α η < ζ. Then ζ < α γ = sup η<γ α η ζ. Hence, ε < γ, i.e. α ε < α γ. By construction, ζ α ε. Thus, by Left-Monotonicity, α β + ζ α β + α ε B. Thus, the conditions of Lemma 2.12 are satisfied. Theorem 4.4 (Associativity of Ordinal Multiplication). Let α, β, γ be ordinals. Then (α β) γ = α (β γ). Proof. Note that the theorem is trivial if β = 0. So suppose β > 0. Proof by induction on γ. γ = 0 is trivial. Suppose γ = δ + 1. (α β) (δ + 1) = ((α β) δ) + (α β) (by definition) = (α (β δ)) + (α β) (by induction) = α ((β δ) + β) (by Distributivity) = α (β (δ + 1)) (by definition) = α (β γ).

14 14 JULIAN J. SCHLÖDER Now suppose γ is a limit, in particular γ > 1. Then β γ is a limit, so α (β γ) and (α β) γ are limits. (α β) γ = sup((α β) ε) (by definition) ε<γ = sup ((α β) ε) (by Left-Monotonicity) β ε<β γ = sup β ε<β γ (α (β ε)) (by induction) = sup (α δ) (see below) δ<β γ = α (β γ) (by definition). Recall Lemma Write B = {α (β ε) β ε < β γ} and A = {α δ δ < β γ}. Clearly B A. If A =, B = A. Let α δ A. Let ε = min{ζ β ζ δ}. Obviously ε γ. Assume ε = γ, then for each ζ < γ, β ζ < δ. Then δ < β γ = sup ζ<γ β ζ δ. Hence, ε < γ, i.e. β ε < β γ. By construction, δ β ε. Thus, by Left-Monotonicity, α δ α (β ε) B. Thus, the conditions of Lemma 2.12 are satisfied. Notation 4.5. As of now, we may omit bracketing ordinal addition and multiplication. Remark 4.6. Ordinal exponentiation is not associative, i.e. there are α, β, γ with α (βγ) (α β ) γ. Proof. Let α = ω, β = 1, γ = ω. Then β γ = 1, i.e. α (βγ) = α 1 = ω. But α β = ω, hence (α β ) γ = ω ω. And ω < ω ω by Left-Monotonicity. Theorem 4.7. Let α, β, γ be ordinals. Then α β+γ = α β α γ. Proof. Recall that β + γ = 0 iff β = γ = 0, so the theorem holds for α = 0. Also note that the theorem is trivial for α = 1, so suppose α > 1. Proof by induction on γ. γ = 0 is trivial. Suppose γ = δ + 1. α β+δ+1 = α β+δ α (by definition) = α β α δ α (by induction) = α β α δ+1 (by definition).

15 ORDINAL ARITHMETIC 15 Suppose γ is a limit. Then α γ and α β+γ are limits. α β+γ = sup α δ δ<β+γ = sup α β+ε β+ε<β+γ = sup α β+ε ε<γ (by definition) (see below) (by Left-Monotonicity) = sup(α β α ε ) (by induction) ε<γ = sup α ε <α γ (α β α ε ) = sup ζ<α γ (α β ζ) (by Left-Monotonicity) (see below) = α β + α γ (by definition). Recall Lemma Write B = {α β+ε β +ε < β +γ} and A = {α δ δ < β + γ}. Clearly B A. Let α δ A. Let ε = min{η β + η δ}. Obviously ε γ. Assume ε = γ, then for each η < γ, β + η < δ. Then δ < β + γ = sup η<γ β + η δ. Hence, ε < γ, i.e. β + ε < β + γ. By construction, δ β + ε. Thus, by Left-Monotonicity, α δ α β+ε B. Thus, the conditions of Lemma 2.12 are satisfied. Write B = {α β α ε α ε < α γ } and A = {α β ζ ζ < α γ }. Clearly B A. Let α β ζ A. Let ε = min{η α η ζ}. Obviously ε γ. Assume ε = γ, then for each η < γ, α η < ζ. Then ζ < α γ = sup η<γ α η ζ. Hence, ε < γ, i.e. α ε < α γ. By construction, ζ α ε. Thus, by Left-Monotonicity, α β ζ α β +α ε B. Thus, the conditions of Lemma 2.12 are satisfied. 5. The Cantor Normal Form Lemma 5.1. If α < β and n, m ω \ {0}, ω α n < ω β m. Proof. α + 1 β, so ω α+1 ω β by Left-Monotonicity (of exponentiation). Hence (by Left-Monotonicity of multiplication), ω α n < ω α ω = ω α+1 ω β ω β m. Lemma 5.2. If α 0 > α 1 >... > α n, and m 1,..., m n ω, then ω α 0 > 1 i n ωαi m i. Proof. If any m i = 0 it may just be omitted from the sum. So suppose all m i > 0. n = 0 and n = 1 are the trivial cases. Consider n = 2: ω α1 m 1 + ω α2 m 2 ω α1 m 1 + ω α1 m 1 by the lemma above and Left-Monotonicity of addition. Then again by the previous lemma ω α1 m 1 2 < ω α 0.

16 16 JULIAN J. SCHLÖDER Continue via induction: Suppose the lemma holds for n. Then consider the sequence α 1,..., α n. It follows that 2 i n+1 ωαi m i < ω α 1. By the n = 2 case, ω α 0 > ω α1 m 1 + ω α 1 and by Left-Monotonicity of addition, ω α1 m 1 + ω α 1 > 1 i n ωαi m i. Theorem 5.3 (Cantor Normal Form (CNF)). For every ordinal α, there is a unique k ω and unique tuples (m 0,..., m k ) (ω \ {0}) k, (α 0,..., α k ) of ordinals with α 0 >... > α k such that: α = ω α0 m ω αk m k Proof. Existence by induction on α: If α = 0, then k = 0. Suppose that every β < α has a CNF. Let ˆα = sup{γ ω γ α} and let ˆm = sup{m ω ω ˆα m α}. Note that ω ˆα α: If not, then α ω ˆα. Then there is γ, ω γ α with α γ. But since ω α+1 > ω α α, γ < α + 1, i.e. γ α. Also note that ˆm ω: If not, then ˆm = ω, hence: α < ω ˆα+1 = ω ˆα ω = sup n ω ω ˆα n α. By construction, ω ˆα ˆm α, so there is ε α with α = ω ˆα ˆm + ε. Show that ε < α: Suppose not, then ε α, hence ε ω ˆα, so there is ζ ε with ε = ω ˆα + ζ, i.e. α = ω ˆα ˆm + ω ˆα + ζ. By left-distributivity, α = ω ˆα ( ˆm + 1) + ζ ω ˆα ( ˆm + 1), contradicting the choice of ˆm. Thus, by induction, ε has a CNF i l n ωβi i. Note that β 0 ˆα: If not, β 0 > ˆα, i.e. by the choice of ˆα, ω β 0 > α, so ε ω β 0 > α. Now state the CNF of α: If β 0 < ˆα set k = l + 1, α 0 = ˆα, m 0 = ˆm and α i = β i 1, m i = n i 1 for 1 i k. And if β 0 = ˆα set k = l, m 0 = n 0 + ˆm, α 0 = ˆα and α i = β i, m i = n i for 1 i k. Uniqueness: Suppose not and let α be the minimal counterexample. Let α = ω α0 m ω αm m m = ω β0 n ω βn n n. Obviously α > 0, i.e. the sums are not empty. Show α 0 = β 0 : Suppose not, wlog assume α 0 > β 0. Consider the previous lemma. Then α ω α0 m 0 > ω β0 n ω βn n n = α. Then show m 0 = n 0 : Suppose not, wlog assume m 0 < n 0. Then, again by the previous lemma, ω α 0 > 1 i m ωαi m i. So, by Left- Monotonicity of addition, α < ω α0 m 0 + ω α 0, i.e. α < ω α0 (m 0 + 1) ω α0 n 0 α. So ω α0 m 0 = ω β0 n 0, so by Left-Monotonicity, ω α1 m ω αm m m = ω β1 n ω βn n n. These terms are strictly smaller than α by the previous lemma. By minimality of α, m = n, and the α s, β s, m s and n s are equal. Thus α has a unique CNF.

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