Philosophy and Spectatorship. Competitive and Non-Competitive Virtues in Pre-Platonic Conceptions of sophia and philosophia

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1 Printed in: Philosophy, Competition, and the Good Life (Proc. 1st World Olympic Congress of Philosophy, Spetses 2004), ed. by K. Boudouris and K. Kalimpsis, Athens: Ionia 2005, Vol. II, p Slightly revised version of the ms. submitted for publication Philosophy and Spectatorship. Competitive and Non-Competitive Virtues in Pre-Platonic Conceptions of sophia and philosophia Gottfried Heinemann (Kassel, Germany) 1. Wisdom (sophia) is a virtue (aretê), that is, a kind of human excellence. There are other kinds. At times, one of them is claimed to be fundamental. Thus, Tyrtaeus equates excellence with courage. 1 For Theognis, "all excellence is comprised in justness". 2 Heraclitus, by contrast, claims that sound judgement" (or "moderation": sôphronein) "is the greatest virtue". 3 Socrates, in Plato's Laches, suggests that excellence may be equated with universal expertise regarding good and bad (i.e. with sophia). 4 My discussion, in the sequel, will be indifferent to all such claims. Wisdom will be taken to be just one virtue among others. 2. There is no adequate uniform rendering of the Greek term sophia in English. LSJ propose: 1. skill in art, i.e. Aristotle's aretê technês, 5 2. sound judgement in matters of common life, 3. learning, etc. My "wisdom", in the opening passages of this paper, is but a makeshift (and may 1 Tyrtaeus fr. 12, v , echoed by Theognis, v ff. Similarly Theognis, v. 867 f. 2 Theognis, v. 147 f.: ἐν δὲ δικαιοσύνηι συλλήβδην πᾶσ' ἀρετή 'στι, / πᾶς δέ τ' ἀνὴρ ἀγαϑός, Κύρνε, δίκαιος ἐών. 3 DK 22 B 112: σωφρονεῖν ἀρετὴ μεγίστη, καὶ σοφίη ἀληϑέα λέγειν καὶ ποιεῖν κατὰ φύσιν ἐπαΐοντας. - STEMMER 1998, 1534 comments: "Auch Heraklit sieht die 'größte T[ugend]' in einer intellektuellen Haltung, dem Verständigsein (σωφρονεῖν), das sich darin äußert, 'die Dinge ihrer Natur nach wahrzunehmen und das Wahre zu sagen und zu tun'." - This interpretation requires that ἀρετὴ be paired with σοφίη, with the comma after σοφίη (not after μεγίστη). Cf. GLADIGOW 1965, 113 and KAHN 1979, 43. I am not really convinced and, therefore, retain the traditional punctuation. 4 Platon, La. 199c-e ("expertise...": ἐπιστήμη... περὶ πάντων ἀγαϑῶν τε καὶ κακῶν καὶ πάντως ἐχόντων, c6 f.). - On the value of σοφίη, see also Xenophanes, DK 21 B 2.12/14. 5 Aristotle, E.N. VI 1141a9-12. The phrase quoted may also (and more aptly) be rendered by "excellence in craftsmanship".

2 serve to merely indicate that sophia is at issue). "Expertise" is far more often appropriate than "wisdom". With respect to other cases, the term may be also explained as follows: He or she is sophos / sophê whom it is wise to ask for advice. Note that nonsense would be made of this formula if "sophos" and "wise" were taken as equivalents. 3. Since virtue is goodness, the meaning of "virtue" depends upon the meaning of "good". Of the latter term, the use as an attribute may be taken as basic. Assume, then, that F is some general term like "man", "ass", or "knife" - or "warrior", "sailor", "daughter", "friend" etc. Then it may make a difference whether some x is a good F or not, whether x is a better F than y, etc. Obviously, the criteria relevant to the valuation depend upon F. For example, to be sharp is a criterion for being a good knife, to be strong and courageous are criteria for being a good warrior, to be frank and faithful for being a good friend, etc. Virtues, then, are the characteristics that correspond to the relevant criteria of goodness. Thus, sharpness is one of the virtues that make a good knife; strength and courage are virtues which, in combination with others, make a good warrior; similarly, faithfulness and frankness are virtues of a good friend, etc. The choice of relevant criteria may be disputed. Let F be "citizen". The relevant, i.e. "political", virtue is often equated with virtue in general. Accordingly, the above-mentioned claims that "virtue" is courage, or justness, or moderation, etc. may be taken as referring to the criteria for "political" virtue. 4. Similarly, sophia is the virtue that makes a good advisor or expert. Plato's description of sophia as expertise in valuation is still in accord with this. 6 It should be noted, however, that the ultimate standard of valuation to which sophia, informed by dialectic, refers (i.e. the Form of the Good) is also meant by Plato to serve as a principle from which all deductive reasoning starts. 6 Plato, Rep. IV, 428d6: σοφία = φυλακική (sc. ἐπιστήμη, c11). Its function is to provide εὐβουλία (d10) with respect to one's integral concerns. Cf. ibid. d1-3:... ὑπὲρ αὑτῆς ὅλης, ὅντινα τρόπον αὐτή τε πρὸς αὑτὴν καὶ πρὸς τὰς ἄλλας πόλεις ἄριστα ὁμιλοῖ. Here, ἄριστα may be taken as presupposing a standard of valuation which, according to Bk. VI, is only provided by the relevant Form. It should be noted, however, that the passage quoted claerly echoes Prot. 318e5-319a2 (Protagoras speaking):... τὸ δὲ μάϑημά ἐστιν εὐβουλία περὶ τῶν οἰκείων, ὅπως ἂν ἄριστα τὴν αὑτοῦ οἰκίαν διοικοῖ, καὶ περὶ τῶν τῆς πόλεως, ὅπως τὰ τῆς πόλεως δυνατώτατος ἂν εἴη καὶ πράττειν καὶ λέγειν. The Protagorean origin of this conception of εὐβουλία is hard to deny. 2

3 Only the latter item is preserved in Aristotle's description of sophia as scientific knowledge with an account of principles. 7 Valuation, which was a practical issue in Plato, is replaced here by the contemplation of final causes, including the function of God as the ultimate final cause in the world. 8 (Accordingly, philosophia is equated by Aristotle with research on principles.) 5. Success and, in particular, winning are forms which the display of virtue may take. In this case, if F is the relevant general term (e.g. "warrior", "sailor", "daughter", or "friend") being F is supposed to entail involvement in some competition. He or she is seen to be the better F who succeeds. Virtues so displayed may be called "competitive", as opposed to the "cooperative" virtues required by contract or partnership. 9 It should be noted that the competitive character of a virtue is not just determined by the choice but, rather, by the interpretation of F. For Shakespeare's Lear, on the one hand, to be a good daughter is a matter of contest (to enter into which the one truly good daughter refuses). On the other hand, the moral may be drawn from the Iliad that Achilles, who is a champion in all kinds of competitive virtue, nevertheless fails to be a good warrior, as long as he lacks the cooperative virtues required. 10 In the 5th century, this moral is all the more important since fighting in the phalanx replaced single combat. 6. The degree to which craftsmanship is a matter of competition, and excellence is a matter of superiority, may vary from branch to branch. In particular, presenting one's results to the public and even engaging in a contest may be essential to the practice of the craft (or art) in question. 11 Such is the case in, e.g., housebuilding, mantics, navigation, horseriding, weaving, painting, sculpture, rhetoric, poetry, etc. As far as I can see, the pre-platonic use of sophos and sophia as terms of praise is mainly exemplified by such branches as mentioned. Sculpture is Aristotle's example for the conception 7 Aristotle, E.N. VI, 1141a Cf. Met. I, 982a31 f.: σοφία (b8: τὸ ζητούμενον ὄνομα) is ἡ τοῦ μάλιστα ἐπιστητοῦ (i.e. τῶν πρώτων ἀρχῶν καὶ αἰτιῶν, b9) ἐπιστήμη. 8 Aristotle, Met. I, 982b10; "ultimate final cause", cf. b7: τὸ ἄριστον ἐν τῇ φύσει πάσῃ. 9 Cf. ADKINS 1960, 6 f. 10 On Achlleus' later display, in Il. 23, of cooperative virtue see the paper read by Kostas Kalimtzis at this conference. 11 Both "craft" and "art" are meant to translate τέχνη, with "craft" suggesting a branch in the division of labour and, accordingly, a way to earn one's living. "Art", by contrast, is rather meant to suggest a demanding activity which is skillfully performed. 3

4 of sophia as excellence in craftsmanship (with this excellence, in turn, being conceived of as "exactness"). 12 With respect to rhetoric, the very same language is used in a Euripidean fragment. 13 Poetry is directly referred to by sophiê in Solon; the relevant term of praise is epistamenos ("skillful"). 14 A particularly competitive framework is presupposed when, in Pindar, sophos is the term that describes the good poet. "He", says Pindar, "who is born to know many things is sophos", and is an eagle among crows since nothing but croak is the yield of instruction. 15 It is noteworthy that the same idea is also expressed by Pindar in terms of strength: "That which a man is born for is always the strongest (kratiston). Many humans have striven to acquire fame by means of trained excellences. But each thing in which God has no part is none the worse for remaining unsaid". 16 Similarly, in the contest of poets arranged by Aristophanes professional expertise is professional strength In the first of Pindar's sayings just quoted, sophia is so paired with knowledge as to suggest a context which transcends professional issues. The kind of knowledge required by poetry refers 12 Aristotle, E.N. VI 1141a9-12: Τὴν δὲ σοφίαν ἔν τε ταῖς τέχναις τοῖς ἀκριβεστάτοις τὰς τέχνας ἀποδίδομεν, οἷον Φειδίαν λιϑουργὸν σοφὸν καὶ Πολύκλειτον ἀνδριαντοποιόν, ἐνταῦϑα μὲν οὖν οὐϑὲν ἄλλο σημαίνοντες τὴν σοφίαν ἢ ὅτι ἀρετὴ τέχνης ἐστίν - For housebuilding (Homer, Il ), mantics (Aeschylus, Sept. 382), and navigation (Hesiod, Erga 649, Archilochus, fr. 41 D., Aeschylus, Suppl. 770) see LSJ, s.v. σοφία and σοφός, and GLADIGOW 1965, 9 ff.; for weaving (Anacreon fr. 109 B.) and vasepainting POLLITT 1974, 22n28 [p. 93]; for horseriding (Alcman fr. 2.2 D.) GLADIGOW 1965, Euripides, fr. 206 N. (from the Antiope, ca. 410 B.C.): ὦ παῖ, γένοιντ' ἂν εὖ λελεγμένοι λόγοι / ψευδεῖς, ἐπῶν δὲ κάλλεσιν νικῷεν ἂν / τἀληϑές ἀλλ' οὐ τοῦτο τἀκριβέστατον, / ἀλλ' ἡ φύσις καὶ τοὐρϑόν ὃς δ' εὐγλωσσίᾳ / νικᾷ, σοφὸς μέν, ἀλλ' ἐγὼ τὰ πράγματα / κρείσσω νομίζω τῶν λόγων ἀεί ποτε. - That is to say, enduring success in rhetoric (cf. v. 6: κρείσσω... ἀεί ποτε) is provided by exactness (v. 3: τἀκριβέστατον) and competence (v. 5: σοφὸς μέν, suggesting a maximum of σοφία which is missed by mere εὐγλωσσία, v. 4). "Nature and correctness" (v. 4: ἡ φύσις καὶ τοὐρϑόν) are claimed to be the standards with which rhetoric ought to accord. It goes without saying that there is no real inconsistency with Aristotle's claim (at E.N. VI, 1141a9) that σοφία is only attested when a maximum of exactness is attained. 14 Solon fr (Edmonds, Loeb): ἱμερτῆς σοφίης μέτρον ἐπιστάμενος. Similarly, Sappho fr. 56 LP: οὐδ' ἴαν δοκίμωμι προσίδοισαν φάος ἀλίω / ἔσσεσϑαι σοφίαν πάρϑενον εἰς οὐδένα πω χρόνον / τεαύταν. Cf. GLADIGOW 1965, Pindar, Ol : σοφὸς ὁ πολλὰ εἰδὼς φυᾷ μαϑόντες δὲ λάβροι / παγγλωσσίᾳ κόρακες ὣς ἄκραντα γαρυέτων / Διὸς πρὸς ὄρνιχα ϑεῖον. 16 Pindar, Ol : τὸ δὲ φυᾷ κράτιστον ἅπαν πολλοὶ δὲ διδακταῖς / ἀνϑρώπων ἀρεταῖς κλέος / ὤρουσαν ἀρέσϑαι / ἄνευ δὲ ϑεοῦ, σεσιγαμένον / οὐ σκαιότερον χρῆμ' ἕκαστον. 17 Aristophanes, Ran. 766 and 780: τὴν τέχνην σοφώτερος, ibid. 770: κράτιστος τὴν τέχνην. 4

5 to a past which is only accessible by myth, to divine concerns and divine actions, to questions of appropriateness in human conduct, etc. It differs in emphasis rather than scope from Presocratic teachings "about everything", 18 and from Presocratic narrations of the formation of the world and, thus, of the "nature" of things "from the beginning". 19 It comes as no surprise, therefore, that sophia, as it is displayed in Presocratic writings, is no less competitive than in poetry. Again, the framework may be aristocratic. In its description, Heraclitus does not hesitate to quote the saying of Bias of Priene that "the many are bad, only few good". In Parmenides, the "knowing man" is clearly distinguished from the "ignorant mortals"; after divine instruction in cosmology, "no insight of mortals shall ever outstrip" him So far, I have presented evidence illustrating my first claim, viz. that sophia is a competitive virtue. My second claim, that philosophia is not, might be taken as a mere truism since, strictly speaking, philosophia is no virtue at all. Philosophia is the thing to which "philosophic" (philosophos, adj.), or "philosophizing" (philosopheôn), people are devoted. It is an activity characteristic of a certain way of life. 21 As such, it is distinguished from a virtue by its very category. Yet, philosophia may have to do with virtue in various ways. Contemplation of virtue, on the one hand, is an essential feature in the description of it in Plato's Apology. 22 On the other hand, "philosophic" life may be described as the display of virtue. Plato's Apology and Charmides leave no doubt that the relevant virtue is moderation (sôphrosynê) rather than expertise (sophia); 23 only in the Republic, philosophia is the display of the latter. 18 "About everything": Xenophanes, DK 21 B 34.2: περὶ πάντων (cf. FRÄNKEL /76, 382; LESHER 1992, 167 f.; LONG 1999, 10; differently GUTHRIE, HGP 1,395; HEITSCH 1983, 77; KRS, no. 186); Democritus DK 68 B 165: περὶ τῶν ξυμπάντων (Cicero, Academica II 23, 73: quid loquar de Democrito?... qui ita sit ausus ordiri "haec loquor de universis"; for a quotation in Greek, see Sextus Empiricus, 7,265). 19 "From the beginning": Hesiod, Th. 45 and 115, [Hippocrates], V.M. 20.1: ἐξ ἀρχῆς (cf. JOUANNA 1990, 208; HEINEMANN 2000, 20n20; differently FESTUGIÈRE 1948, 60). 20 Heraclitus, DK 22 B 104. Parmenides, DK 28 B 1.3: εἰδότα φῶτα, B 6.4: βροτοὶ εἰδότες οὐδὲν, B 8.61: ὡς οὐ μή ποτέ τίς σε βροτῶν γνώμη παρελάσσηι. 21 My description is meant to allow that "philosophic" life is primarily devoted to scientific research and, more generally, to theoretical issues. HADOT 1999 may be one-sided in playing this down. 22 Plato, Apol. 28e5-6, taken together with 38a2-5; similarly, 29d4-30a2. 23 See below 12. 5

6 9. In pre-platonic language, philosophos and its cognates can refer to an attitude which, in view of the Latin equivalents of phileô, may be described as amateurship or dilettantism. 24 Taken in this way, "philosophizing" is an activity popular in Periclean Athens. 25 "Philosophizers" (philosophountes) neither are nor intend to become experts (sophoi) or professional scholars (sophistai). Rather, they are devoted to knowledge for its own sake - and, hence, to conversing with scholars and experts, to attending "philosophical" debates and presentations (philosophoi logoi), 26 to engaging in the relevant controversies, 27 to reading and discussing books written by experts who lived earlier (tôn palai sophôn), 28 etc. Socrates, in Plato's Apology, is one such "philosophizer" and so is Kallias who, in the Protagoras, hosts the sophists and is praised by Socrates for his philosophia. The same kind of activity is referred to when Socrates, in the Charmides, asks about philosophia and about boys to talk with and when Callicles, in the Gorgias, claims that philosophia is not appropriate for adults. It also underlies the passage where Phaedo, at the beginning of the dialogue named after him, recalls the encounters en philosophia of Socrates and his friends This, however, is not the whole story about pre-platonic conceptions of philosophia. For the author of On Ancient Medicine, it belongs to "philosophy" to write "about nature" in the way Empedocles did. 30 In a late play by Aristophanes, "philosophic thinking" is ironically paired 24 This may serve as a shorthand for BURKERTs "oberflächlichen φιλοσοφία-begriff" (1960, 175; cf. ibid. 172 ff.). 25 Thucydides 2,40,1: φιλοκαλοῦμέν τε γὰρ μετ' εὐτελείας καὶ φιλοσοφοῦμεν ἄνευ μαλακίας. 26 Gorgias, Hel. c. 13, DK 82 B 11 (see also below 11). - BRISSON (1990, 55n16) additionally adduces the phrase γνωμολογίαι τε λαμπραὶ καὶ φιλόσοφοι (DK 87 B 44a) which, however, is only found in the description by Philostratus of Antiphon's Peri homonoias. 27 Cf. the opening sentence of the Dialexeis, DK 90: Δισσοὶ λόγοι λέγονται ἐν τᾶι Ελλάδι ὑπὸ τῶν φιλοσοφούντων περὶ τῶ ἀγαϑῶ καὶ τῶ κακῶ. 28 Cf. Xenophon, Mem. 1,6,14, where Socrates reports that "philosophizing" ( 2: φιλοσοφοῦντας) includes this: καὶ τοὺς ϑησαυροὺς τῶν πάλαι σοφῶν ἀνδρῶν, οὓς ἐκεῖνοι κατέλιπον ἐν βιβλίοις γράψαντες, ἀνελίττων κοινῇ σὺν τοῖς φίλοις διέρχομαι, καὶ ἄν τι ὁρῶμεν ἀγαϑὸν ἐκλεγόμεϑα. 29 Plato, Prot. 335d6-7, Charm. 153d3-5, Grg. 484c5-8, Phd. 59a3. 30 [Hippokrates], V.M. 20.1: Λέγουσι δέ τινες καὶ ἰητροὶ καὶ σοφισταὶ ὡς οὐκ εἴη δυνατὸν ἰητρικὴν εἰδέναι ὅστις μὴ οἶδεν ὅ τί ἐστιν ἄνϑρωπος... Τείνει δὲ αὐτοῖσιν ὁ λόγος ἐς φιλοσοφίην, καϑάπερ Εμπεδοκλέης ἢ ἄλλοι οἳ περὶ φύσιος γεγράφασιν ἐξ ἀρχῆς ὅ τί ἐστιν ἄνϑρωπος, καὶ ὅπως ἐγένετο πρῶτον καὶ ὁπόϑεν ξυνεπάγη. In HEINEMANN 2000, 22 f., I suggested that φιλοσοφίη here refers to the relation between "philosophic" laymen and professional scholars (σοφισταί). Andrei LEBEDEV, in a private communication, convinced me that this is insufficient, if not entirely wrong. It cannot be denied that φιλοσοφίη here 6

7 with "expertise". 31 In Plato's Phaedo, the description as philosophos of Evenus is probably meant to suggest a Pythagorean background. 32 This language can be traced back to the beginning of the 5th century. "Philosophic men", according to Heraclitus, "must be inquirers of quite a lot of things". 33 In Herodotus, "philosophizing" is paired with traveling "as a spectator" (theôriês heineken). 34 The latter phrase reappears both in Aristotle's description, in the Protrepticus, of phronêsis and in Heraclides Ponticus' report, rendered by Cicero and Iamblichus, about the self-description as philosophos by Pythagoras. 35 In this report which clearly echoes Plato in many respects, theôria is also meant to be opposed to technê, 36 that is, to the kind of knowledge that is only valuable by virtue of the purpose it serves. The point is that theôria is pursued for its own sake. Similarly, a saying is ascribed to Anaxagoras which recommends to live for the sake of "viewing" (theôrêsai) the heaven and the world-order; 37 a Euripidean fragment lets this "order" be formed of such things as are "by their nature immortal". 38 In Plato's Apology, it is said to be a refers to an activity which is exemplified by "Empedocles and others writing on nature from the beginning". It should be noted, however, that being a σοφιστής is clearly distinguished from doing φιλοσοφίη. The argument attributed to "certain physicians and scholars" is claimed to "lead them to philosophy" and, thus, to committing a mistake. The author thereby suggests that "philosophy" does not belong to the regular business of neither. 31 Aristophanes, Eccl. 571: {Χο.} νῦν δὴ δεῖ σε πυκνὴν φρένα καὶ φιλόσοφον ἐγείρειν φροντίδ' ἐπισταμένην / ταῖσι φίλαισιν ἀμύνειν. 32 EBERT 2004, 113 ff., See also his I do not think that EBERT is right in relying on the Suda's report that Zeno of Elea wrote a book πρὸς τοὺς φιλοσόφους (2004, 114, cf. 2001, 431); see CAVEING 1982, 134 f. (not mentioned by EBERT). 33 DK 22 B 35: χρὴ γὰρ εὖ μάλα πολλῶν ἵστορας φιλοσόφους ἄνδρας εἶναι. 34 Herodotus 1,30,2 (Croesus addressing Solon):... ὡς φιλοσοφέων γῆν πολλὴν ϑεωρίης εἵνεκεν ἐπελήλυϑας κτλ. - I am grateful to Andrei LEBEDEV who, in a note on another Ms. of mine, drew my attention to this. 35 Aristotle, Protr. B 44 (Düring, = fr. 58 Rose, p ): ἕνεκα τῆς ϑέας. Cicero, Tusc. 5,9: visendi causa; Iamblichus, V.P. 12/58: ϑέας ἕνεκα. See also Aristotle, Protr. B 18 (Düring) where Pythagoras is claimed to have described himself as ϑεωρός... τῆς φύσεως. - It should be noted, however, that the relevant fragments of Aristotle's Protrepticus are only known from excerpts in Iamblichus which may be contaminated with material deriving from Heraclides Ponticus. See BURKERT 1960, Cf. Heraclides Ponticus in Cicero, Tusc. 5.8: artem... se scire nullam. 37 DK 59 A 30 (= Aristotle, E.E 1216a11 ff.): τὸν μὲν οὖν Αναξαγόραν φασὶν ἀποκρίνασϑαι πρός τινα διαποροῦντα τοιαῦτ' ἄττα καὶ διερωτῶντα, τίνος ἕνεκ' ἄν τις ἕλοιτο γενέσϑαι μᾶλλον ἢ μὴ γενέσϑαι, τοῦ φάναι ϑεωρῆσαι τὸν οὐρανὸν καὶ τὴν περὶ τὸν ὅλον κόσμον τάξιν. - Similarly, Aristotle, Protr. B 19 (Düring); but cf. BURKERT 1960, Euripides fr. 910 N.: ὄλβιος ὅστις τῆς ἱστορίας / ἔσχε μάϑησιν, / μήτε πολιτῶν ἐπὶ πημοσύνην / μήτ' 7

8 commonplace that all "philosophizers" are engaged with "things in the sky and below the earth". 39 In the Phaedo, by contrast, the "nature" inspected by people who are properly devoted to "philosophy" is the realm of Forms. 40 In sum, the evidence thus recorded suggests a pre-platonic notion of "philosophic men" (philosophoi andres), or "philosophizers" (philosophountes), devoting themselves to "inquiry" (historia) and "spectatorship" (theôria) in cosmology and related fields of interest. It is probable, if not at all certain, that Pythagoreans were at first referred to by this. Accordingly, the original meaning of philosophos might have been "companions of the wise man" (i.e. of Pythagoras himself). 41 Taken in this way, philosophia isn't clearly distinguished from sophia (of which it rather is the acquisition or exercise), and is no less competitive than the latter. 11. Quite another form of spectatorship is at issue when, in Thucydides, Athenians are blaimed for being mere "spectators (theatai) of speaches and listeners of deeds", 42 and for acting in the assembly like a panel of judges to assess rhetorical performances. This description suggests an agôn taking place on the stage, and the people of Athens forming the audience. Similarly, the Athenian way of "philosophizing", mentioned by Thucydides, 43 may be described as a habit of forming the audience when sophia is displayed by experts. On the one hand, therefore, both laymen and professional scholars (sophistai) may engage in such "contests of philosophical discourses" as are mentioned by Gorgias. 44 Yet, on the other hand, given the Athnian way of spectatorship just described, "philosophizers" are also the spectators of, and may avoid becoming involved in, the contest. εἰς ἀδίκους πράξεις ὁρμῶν, / ἀλλ' ἀϑανάτου καϑορῶν φύσεως / κόσμον ἀγήρων, πῇ τε συνέστη / καὶ ὅπῃ καὶ ὅπως. / τοῖς δὲ τοιούτοις οὐδέποτ' αἰσχρῶν / ἔργων μελέδημα προσίζει. 39 Plato, Apol. 23d4-7: τὰ κατὰ πάντων τῶν φιλοσοφούντων πρόχειρα ταῦτα λέγουσιν, ὅτι "τὰ μετέωρα καὶ τὰ ὑπὸ γῆς" καὶ "ϑεοὺς μὴ νομίζειν" καὶ "τὸν ἥττω λόγον κρείττω ποιεῖν." 40 Cf. Phd. 103b5: ἐν τῇ φύσει (similarly, Resp. 597b6 and passim, Parm. 132d2). For "inspection" of Forms cf. Phd. 65e2: ϑεωρεῖται; ibid. 66e1-2: αὐτῇ τῇ ψυχῇ ϑεατέον αὐτὰ τὰ πράγματα, etc. 41 For descriptions of Pythagoras as σοφός, see KRS no : Heraclitus, DK 22 B 129; Herodotus 4, 95; Ion of Chios, DK 36 B 4; Empedocles, DK 31 B Thucydides 3,38,4: εἰώϑατε ϑεαταὶ μὲν τῶν λόγων γίγνεσϑαι, ἀκροαταὶ δὲ τῶν ἔργων, echoing Homer's μύϑων τε ῥητῆρ' ἔμεναι πρηκτῆρά τε ἔργων (Il. 9,443). 43 Thucydides 2,40,1 (see above 9). 44 Gorgias, Hel. c. 13, DK 82 B 11:... φιλοσόφων λόγων ἁμίλλας. 8

9 12. So does Socrates, and so do his friends. His disavowal of knowledge, in Plato's earlier dialogues, is meant to distinguish him from all kinds of experts. He never engages in the contest of knowledge-claims. He never knows better. Yet, his rôle in "contests of philosophical discourses" isn't confined to being part of the audience. Socrates enters the stage as an examiner. To "philosophize", in Plato's Apology, means to examine oneself and others (and thus to provide "the greatest good for man"). 45 By setting this into a Delphic framework, Plato suggests that the examination of others is subordinate to selfexamination. 46 The same framework is set in the Charmides for the definition of moderation (sôphrosynê) as "self-knowledge". 47 In the sequel, this definition is only refuted by mistaking the relevant kind of knowledge as "expert knowledge" (epistêmê). 48 With this in mind, one may conclude that moderation (sôphrosynê) rather than competence (sophia) is the virtue displayed in the way of examination with which "philosophizing", in the Apology, is equated. The examination may, and usually does, take the form of a "refutation" (elenchos) which, however, is only superficially meant to refute a statement at issue. Rather, the Socratic elenchos is meant to refute a relevant knowledge-claim and, thus, may also affect some more general excellence-claims in the background. In the competitive setting described, it may thus give rise to "disgrace" (elencheiê) and to shame, i.e. to the very emotion that motivates all kinds of virtue. The Athenian way of spectatorship, described by Thucydides, from which the Socratic way of philosophizing is derived still requires this setting. Taken in a Socratic sense, philosophy is the display of moderation within a competitive framework Plato, Apol. 38a2-6:... τυγχάνει μέγιστον ἀγαϑὸν ὂν ἀνϑρώπῳ τοῦτο, ἑκάστης ἡμέρας περὶ ἀρετῆς τοὺς λόγους ποιεῖσϑαι καὶ τῶν ἄλλων περὶ ὧν ὑμεῖς ἐμοῦ ἀκούετε διαλεγομένου καὶ ἐμαυτὸν καὶ ἄλλους ἐξετάζοντος, ὁ δὲ ἀνεξέταστος βίος οὐ βιωτὸς ἀνϑρώπῳ, κτλ. 46 Cf. ibid. 21b-c, 23a-b. 47 Plato, Charm. 164d3-5 (Critias speaking): σχεδὸν γάρ τι ἔγωγε αὐτὸ τοῦτό φημι εἶναι σωφροσύνην, τὸ γιγνώσκειν ἑαυτόν, καὶ συμφέρομαι τῷ ἐν Δελφοῖς ἀναϑέντι τὸ τοιοῦτον γράμμα. 48 Ibid. 165c4-6 (Socrates speaking): εἰ γὰρ δὴ γιγνώσκειν γέ τί ἐστιν ἡ σωφροσύνη, δῆλον ὅτι ἐπιστήμη τις ἂν εἴη καὶ τινός ἢ οὔ; - Εστιν, ἔφη, ἑαυτοῦ γε. 49 I am grateful to Anthony Alcock for having polished my English. 9

10 References: ADKINS, Arthur W.H. [1960]: Merit and Responsibility. A Study in Greek Values, Oxford BRISSON, Luc [1990]: "Mythes, écriture, philosophie", in: La naissance de la raison en Grèce. Actes Congr. Nice 1987, ed. J.-F. Mattéi, Paris, pp BURKERT, Walter [1960]: "Platon oder Pythagoras? Zum Ursprung des Wortes 'Philosophie'", Hermes 88, CAVEING, M. [1982]: Zénon d'élée. Prolégomènes aux doctrines du continu. Étude historique et critique des Fragments et Témoignages, Paris DÜRING, Ingemar [1969]: Der Protreptikos des Aristoteles, Einl., Text, Übers. und Kommentar; Frankfurt a.m. EBERT, Theodor [2001]: "Why is Evenus Called a Philosopher at Phaedo 61c?", Classical Quarterly 51, EBERT, Theodor [2004]: Platon. Phaidon, Übersetzung und Kommentar, Göttingen FESTUGIÈRE, A.-J. [1948]: Hippocrate. L'ancienne médecine, introduction, traduction et commentaire, Paris FRÄNKEL, Hermann [ /76]: Dichtung und Philosophie des frühen Griechentums, repr. München 1976 GLADIGOW, Burkhard [1965]: Sophia und Kosmos. Untersuchungen zur Frühgeschichte von sophos und sophié, Hildesheim GUTHRIE, W.K.C. [HGP]: A History of Greek Philosophy, 6 vols., Cambridge 1962 ff. HADOT, Pierre [1999]: Wege zur Weisheit oder Was lehrt uns die antike Philosophie?, übers. von H. Pollmeier, Berlin HEINEMANN, Gottfried [2000]: "Natural Knowledge in the Hippocratic Treatise On Ancient Medicine", in: Antike Naturwissenschaft und ihre Rezeption, vol. 10, ed. by J. Althoff et al., Trier, p HEITSCH, Ernst [1983]: Xenophanes. Die Fragmente, hg., übers. und erl., München und Zürich JOUANNA, Jacques [1990]: Hippocrate, De l'ancienne médecine, Texte établi et traduit, Paris KAHN, Charles H. [1979]: The Art and Thought of Heraclitus, Cambridge KRS = KIRK, G. et. al.: The Presocratic Philosophers, 2nd. ed. Cambridge

11 LESHER, J.H. [1992]: Xenophanes of Colophon: Fragments, A Text and Translation with a Commentary (Phoenix Supplementary Vol. 30 / Phoenix Presocratics Vol. 4), Toronto LONG, A.A. [1999]: "The Scope of Early Greek Philosophy", in: The Cambridge Companion to Early Greek Philosophy, ed. by A.A. Long, Cambridge, p LSJ = LIDDELL, Henry G. and SCOTT, Robert: A Greek-English Lexicon, rev. by H.S. JONES et al., with a Supplement 1968, repr. Oxford 1989 POLLITT, J.J. [1974]: The Ancient View of Greek Art. Criticism, History, and Terminology, Student edition, New Haven and London ROSE, V. [1886]: Aristotelis qui ferebantur fragmenta, Lipsiae STEMMER, P. [1998]: "Tugend. I. Antike", in: Historisches Wörterbuch der Philosophie, ed. by J. Ritter et al., Basel 1971 ff., vol. 10, col Prof. Dr. Gottfried Heinemann Universität Kassel, Institut für Philosophie, D Kassel Phone: /7 11

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