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1 My Iliad A notes C. Bochan, Sydney, last updated 27 December 2006 The text is West These notes contain (in boxes) some parsed Iliad A scholia of the three Alexandrians Zenodotus, Aristophanes and Aristarchus, taken from the scholia texts as edited by Wilhelm Deecke (Auswahl aus des Iliasscholien, 1912) and Hartmut Erbse (Scholia Graeca in Homeri Iliadem (scholia vetera), 1988). A.1 μῆνιν ἄειδε, θεά, Πηληϊάδεω Ἀχιλῆος, μῆνιν ἄειδε θεά Comments: Chantraine 1963 s15: note the different types of constructions which follow this word μῆνιν "anger" in sense: a genitive Ἀχιλῆος "of Achilles" (line 1), an adjective οὐλομένην "accursed" (line 2), and a relative ἥ "which" (line 2) introducing a relative clause. The adjective and relative don t link to μῆνιν because of their position in the verse, but because of their grammatical agreement with μῆνιν in gender, case and person (i.e. fem acc sg) in the case of the adjective, or in gender and person (i.e. fem sg) in the case of the relative. Sihler ss61.1a, 90, 165, 445.3a, 453b: treat this word as ἀ-εί-δω; -ειcame from -Ϝει- following historical loss of Ϝ, and -Ϝει- came from PIE *-we-w- (s453b) following dissimilation of the second -w- (s445.3a); -α- came from reduplication of PIE *H2 laryngeal which was probably present in the PIE *-we-w- element (ss 61.1a and 90) (the H2 laryngeal, unlike H1 or H3, produces an -α- vowel in Greek: s165 and ff). Chantraine 1958 s9: although Homer sometimes uses the Ionic form ἡ θεός to express "goddess", he also uses this Aeolic form as Ionic didn't have a form *θεή which could take its place metrically, i.e. having a long final vowel. My Iliad A notes C. Bochan, Sydney Last updated 27 December 2006 No copying or extraction permitted 1

2 Πηληϊάδεω Miller 1982 ss15, 80, 81: since Aeolians didn't use patronymic nouns, the formula of this word + Ἀχιλῆος probably comes from Ionic; this word may have originally been written *Πηληιάδα', with elision of -ο; -δα- then developing into Ionic -δη-, i.e. *Πηληιάδη'; finally, quantitative metathesis of the ending's vowels, i.e. long-short becoming short-long, giving the current reading Πηληιάδεω. Ἀχιλῆος Palmer 1980 p37: this name is the Caland form of the neuter σ- stem ἄχος pain, distress + -λευς from λᾱϝος the people, the army ; use of the Caland form leads to doubling of the consonant -λ-. A.2 οὐλομένην, ἣ μυρί' Ἀχαιοῖς ἄλγε' ἔθηκεν, Ἀχαιοῖς Monro 1891 s102: this dative plural ending probably included an elided iota. A.3 πολλὰς δ' ἰφθίμους ψυχὰς Ἄϊδι προΐαψεν Ἄϊδι προΐαψεν Pulleyn 2000 p119: name may come from alpha privative + root Ϝιδ- ("see"), meaning "invisible one". Chantraine 1958 ss230 and 233: this word is unaugmented; the augment in Homer can be added to an indicative having a secondary ending to mark more clearly the past sense, however in most cases it can be left out (gnomic aorists, however, generally keep it); the augment is more frequently attested in the Odyssey than in the Iliad. A.4 ἡρώων, αὐτοὺς δὲ ἑλώρια τεῦχε κύνεσσιν κύνεσσιν NB dative of advantage. A.5 οἰωνοῖσί τε πᾶσι, Διὸς δ' ἐτελείετο βουλή, οἰωνοῖσι τε NB dative of advantage. Denniston 1954 p497: this is an example of a single τε used to connect two words; it follows the second word. A.6 ἐξ οὗ δὴ τὰ πρῶτα διαστήτην ἐρίσαντε My Iliad A notes C. Bochan, Sydney Last updated 27 December 2006 No copying or extraction permitted 2

3 οὗ δή Pulleyn 2000 p121: this may be read after ἄειδε ("sing from when "), or after ἐτελείετο βουλή ("Zeus' plan was being fulfilled from when "), as Aristarchus thought. Denniston 1954 p219: this particle emphasises the relative temporal adverb before it, i.e. "just when", "precisely when". A.7 Ἀτρείδης τε ἄναξ ἀνδρῶν καὶ δῖος Ἀχιλλεύς. ἄναξ ἀνδρῶν Sihler 1995 s215: *t was a PIE apical stop; after a consonant, a PIE apical stop + *s becomes -σ- in Homeric Greek, i.e. this word comes from PIE *wanakts. Sihler 1995 ss90, 224.1, 284A.5: alpha in this word probably comes from a H2 laryngeal on its own, i.e. acting as a syllable (s90); since oblique cases of this word are usually zero-grade in Homer (s284a.5), it would have come from a PIE stem including the medial cluster *-nr-, which became νδρ in Greek (s224.1). A.8 τίς τάρ σφωε θεῶν ἔριδι ξυνέηκε μάχεσθαι; θεῶν ἔριδι μάχεσθαι NB partitive genitive. Draper 2002 p28: dative of manner. Goodwin 1897 s775: this infinitive expresses a result. A.9 Λητοῦς καὶ Διὸς υἱός ὃ γὰρ βασιλῆϊ χολωθείς Λητοῦς Draper 2002 p28: Leto was the mother by Zeus of Apollo and Artemis. A.10 νοῦσον ἀνὰ στρατὸν ὦρσε κακήν, ὀλέκοντο δὲ λαοί, ὀλέκοντο Chantraine 1958 s155: the -κω ending of this verb ὀλέκω, which by the way doesn't have any other principal parts, compared against the verb ὄλλυμι, emphasises the result of the action. A.11 οὕνεκα τὸν Χρύσην ἠτίμασεν ἀρητῆρα οὕνεκα τόν Chantraine 1958 s35: this word comes from crasis of οὗ "of which" + ἔνεκα "because". Pulleyn 2000 p124: this might be used here as a demonstrative ("that man") or just as an article, which sometimes does occur in Homer. My Iliad A notes C. Bochan, Sydney Last updated 27 December 2006 No copying or extraction permitted 3

4 ἠτίμασεν ἀρητῆρα Goodwin 1897 s713: the verb in a causal sentence, like this one beginning οὕνεκα, is in the indicative after both primary and secondary tense verbs in the main clause. Pulleyn 2000 p124: this word means literally "a sayer of prayers", unlike ἱερεύς which means "a sacrificer". A.12 Ἀτρείδης. ὃ γὰρ ἦλθε θοὰς ἐπὶ νῆας Ἀχαιῶν A.13 λυσόμενός τε θύγατρα φέρων τ' ἀπερείσι' ἄποινα, λυσόμενος Goodwin 1897 s840: the future participle can express the purpose of the subject, as here, i.e. "in order to...". τε Denniston 1954 p503: this "A τε B te" construction to say "A and B" is common in Homer; it's usually used to connect words or phrases rather than clauses. A.14 στέμματ' ἔχων ἐν χερσὶν ἑκηβόλου Ἀπόλλωνος στέμματα Pulleyn 2000 p125: these are probably woollen strips or wreaths which he took off a statue of Apollo. A.15 χρυσέῳ ἀνὰ σκήπτρῳ, καὶ λίσσετο πάντας Ἀχαιούς, σκήπτρῳ Pulleyn 2000 p126: a σκῆπτρον isn't just carried by a king: priests, seers, heralds, orators and judges also carry them. A.16 Ἀτρείδα δὲ μάλιστα δύω, κοσμήτορε λαῶν A.17 Ἀτρεῖδαί τε καὶ ἄλλοι ἐϋκνήμιδες Ἀχαιοί, τε ἄλλοι Denniston 1954 pp : this "A τε καὶ B te" construction used to say "A and B" is common in Homer but very rare in the orators and in inscriptions. Sihler 1995 ss204, 374.4: PIE *ly becomes Greek -λλ- (s204); this word, Sihler suggests, comes from PIE *H2elyos (s204), made up of a root *H2el- with the adjective suffix *-yo- (s374.4). A.18 ὑμῖν μὲν θεοὶ δοῖεν Ὀλύμπια δώματ' ἔχοντες θεοί Monro 1891 s105(2): θεοί is not a certain reading since Ὀλύμπια δώματ' ἔχοντες is used as a substantive, and θεοί is therefore unnecessary. My Iliad A notes C. Bochan, Sydney Last updated 27 December 2006 No copying or extraction permitted 4

5 δοῖεν Goodwin 1897 s722: a future wish can be expressed by the pure optative with no introductory particle, e.g. αἴθε, αἲ γάρ, &c. A.19 ἐκπέρσαι Πριάμοιο πόλιν, εὖ δ' οἴκαδ' ἱκέσθαι πόλιν UNESCO site 849: Troy located at N E in Province of Çanakkale, Turkey. A.20 παῖδα δ' ἐμοὶ λύσαιτε φίλην, τὰ δ' ἄποινα δέχεσθαι, λύσαιτε φίλην τά δέχεσθαι Monro 1891 s299(b): the optative without κεν or ἄν expresses a gentle or deferential imperative (here deference to Agamemnon's authority), conveying advice, suggestion, &c. Pulleyn pp : instead of meaning "dear", this may mean "my" here. It's still unclear which of these two possible meanings was the original meaning of φίλος. Monro 1891 s259(a): τά + the particle δέ brings out the contrast of ἄποινα to the previously mentioned παῖδα. Pulleyn 2000 p127: this is an infinitive acting as an imperative. A.21 ἁζόμενοι Διὸς υἱὸν ἑκηβόλον Ἀπόλλωνα. ἁζόμενοι Sihler 1995 ss152, 200: PIE *g was a voiced dorsal stop (s152); a PIE dorsal stop + *y becomes -ζ- in Attic and Ionic Greek, as here (s200); i.e. ἅζ- in this word comes from PIE *hag-y e /o which also appears in ἅγιος "sacred". A.22 ἔνθ' ἄλλοι μὲν πάντες ἐπευφήμησαν Ἀχαιοί, A.23 αἰδεῖσθαί θ' ἱερῆα καὶ ἀγλαὰ δέχθαι ἄποινα αἰδεῖσθαι δέχθαι Goodwin 1897 s748: this infinitive follows the verb ἐπευφήμησαν directly; this type of construction isn't normal in prose. Chantraine 1958 s137: this is an athematic form of a thematic verb. A.24 ἀλλ' οὐκ Ἀτρείδῃ Ἀγαμέμνονι ἥνδανε θυμῷ, My Iliad A notes C. Bochan, Sydney Last updated 27 December 2006 No copying or extraction permitted 5

6 SCHOLIA [through Aristonicus, through Venetus A scholia marginalia] <ἀλλ' οὐκ Ἀτρείδῃ Ἀγαμέμνονι ἥνδανε θυμῷ:> ὅτι Ζηνόδοτος γράφει writes, 3rd sg pres <ἀλλ' οὐκ Ἀτρείδεω Atreus' son, masc gen sg Ἀγαμέμνονος> Agamemnon, masc gen sg. ὁ δὲ ποιητὴς poet, masc gen sg, i.e. Homer δοτικὴν dative case, fem acc sg ἀντὶ instead of + gen γενικῆς genitive case, fem gen sg παραλαμβάνει uses + acc, 3rd sg pres>. ἀλλά Ἀγαμέμνονι θυμῷ Pulleyn s128: this word answers μέν in line 22. i.e. it's not just δέ which can be coupled with μέν. Palmer 1980 p36: this name may be analysed into ἀγα- very, exceedingly + μεν-μων or μεμν-ων, in each case meaning stand fast, firm. NB dative of location. A.25 ἀλλὰ κακῶς ἀφίει, κρατερὸν δ' ἐπὶ μῦθον ἔτελλεν ἐπί Pulleyn 2000 p129: this is a preverb to ἔτελλεν ("tmesis"). Tmesis is found in Vedic and Hittite (but not in Mycenaean, i.e. pre- Homeric Greek). A.26 μή σε, γέρον, κοίλῃσιν ἐγὼ παρὰ νηυσὶ κιχείω μή γέρον Goodwin 1897 s257: the use of this word, plus the second person pronoun here, expresses a threat or warning. Sihler 1995 s276.2: although in Greek vocative forms usually come from the nominative form, a few Greek word retain the PIE vocative singular bare stem form; these involve the regular loss of stem-final stop(s), as here, i.e. loss of -τ-. A.27 ἢ νῦν δηθύνοντ' ἠ' ὕστερον αὖτις ἰόντα, A.28 μή νύ τοι οὐ χραίσμῃ σκῆπτρον καὶ στέμμα θεοῖο. μή χραίσμῃ Goodwin 1897 s263: the use of this word + οὐ + subjunctive expresses a fear that something may not happen. Draper 2002 p33: this word agrees with the nearer noun σκῆπτρον. A.29 τὴν δ' ἐγὼ οὐ λύσω πρίν μιν καὶ γῆρας ἔπεισιν My Iliad A notes C. Bochan, Sydney Last updated 27 December 2006 No copying or extraction permitted 6

7 SCHOLIA [through Aristonicus, through Venetus A scholia marginalia] <τὴν δ' ἐγὼ οὐ λύσω - ἀντιόωσαν>: ἀθετοῦνται set aside, 3rd pl pres pass, ὅτι ἀναλύουσι undo, reduce, 3rd pl pres τὴν ἐπίτασιν intensity, fem acc sg τοῦ νοῦ thought, masc gen sg καὶ τὴν ἀπειλήν boast, fem acc sg. ἔπεισιν Draper 2002 p33: this word uses the present tense for the future tense. A.30 ἡμετέρῳ ἐνὶ οἴκῳ, ἐν Ἄργεϊ, τηλόθι πάτρης, A.31 ἱστὸν ἐποιχομένην καὶ ἐμὸν λέχος ἀντιόωσαν. λέχος ἀντιόωσαν Monro 1891 s136(1): the accusative probably acts as an adverb expressing the "sphere" of the action denoted by the verb ἀντιόωσαν. Pulleyn 2000 p131: the change of α + ω to ο + ω here is called "diektasis"; Pharr calls it "assimilation" or "distraction" (see Pharr s945). A.32 ἀλλ' ἴθι, μή μ' ἐρέθιζε, σαώτερος ὥς κε νέηαι. σαώτερος κε Pulleyn 2000 p131: although comparative in form, this has a contrastive sense (i.e. not "safer", but "safe rather than hurt"). Goodwin 1897 s326: ὥς κε or ὡς ἄν + subjunctive are much more common in Homeric final clauses than just ὡς + subjunctive. A.33 ὣς ἔφατ' ἔδδεισεν δ' ὁ γέρων καὶ ἐπείθετο μύθῳ, ἔδδεισεν Pulleyn 2000 p131: this word originally had Ϝ after δ, so the first syllable scans long; West reads -δδ-. A.34 βῆ δ' ἀκέων παρὰ θῖνα πολυφλοίσβοιο θαλάσσης. πολυφλοίσβοιο Pulleyn 2000 p131: this word means "ever-roaring", not "loudroaring" as it's commonly defined. A.35 πολλὰ δ' ἔπειτ' ἀπάνευθε κιὼν ἠρᾶθ' ὁ γεραιός πολλά NB neut acc as adverb. A.36 Ἀπόλλωνι ἄνακτι, τὸν ἠΰκομος τέκε Λητώ A.37 κλῦθί μοι, Ἀργυρότοξ', ὃς Χρύσην ἀμφιβέβηκας My Iliad A notes C. Bochan, Sydney Last updated 27 December 2006 No copying or extraction permitted 7

8 κλῦθι μοι Chantraine 1958 s180: given that imperatives with the ending -θι are normally zero-grade, it's strange that in this athematic form from the root *κλυ, -υ- is long: Homer may have lengthened -υfor metrical reasons; this form always occurs at the start of a line and so -υ- needs to be long. Pulleyn 2000 p133: this word is either spelled μευ (genitive) or μοι (which is possibly an archaic genitive). A.38 Κίλλάν τε ζαθέην, Τενέδοιό τε ἶφι ἀνάσσεις, ζαθέην Τενέδοιο Pulleyn 2000 p133: the prefix ζα- is intensive ("very"). this is an island off the coast near Troy; now called Bozcaada in the Province of Çanakkale, Turkey. A.39 Σμινθεῦ εἴ ποτέ τοι χαρίεντ' ἐπὶ νηὸν ἔρεψα, Σμινθεῦ Pulleyn 2000 p134: the ancients thought this word came from the word for "mouse" in the Mysian dialect (used around the town Chryse where the priest came from) or from a neighbouring town having a similar name; possibly there's a link between the mouse etymology and the disease which the priest wants Apollo to spread. A.40 ἠ' εἰ δή ποτέ τοι κατὰ πίονα μηρί' ἔκηα A.41 ταύρων ἠδ' αἰγῶν, τόδε μοι κρήηνον ἐέλδωρ μοι κρήηνον ἐέλδωρ Pulleyn 2000 p136: the sense of this word here is "please" or "I ask you". Chantraine 1958 s34: -ηη- in this word is probably a development of the form -ααι-, i.e. coming from a verb *κρααίνω; this development can't strictly be called "assimilation" though. Chantraine 1958 s73: this word comes from the root *wel-, with a "prothetic", i.e. added, -ε- vowel at the front, and historical loss of Ϝ. A.42 τείσειαν Δαναοὶ ἐμὰ δάκρυα σοῖσι βέλεσσιν. A.43 ὣς ἔφατ' εὐχόμενος, τοῦ δ' ἔκλυε Φοῖβος Ἀπόλλων, My Iliad A notes C. Bochan, Sydney Last updated 27 December 2006 No copying or extraction permitted 8

9 ἔκλυε Draper 2002 p37: saying that a god heard a prayer is a common Homeric way of indicating that the prayer was granted. A.44 βῆ δὲ κατ' Οὐλύμποιο καρήνων χωόμενος κῆρ, SCHOLIA [through Aristonicus, through Venetus A scholium breve in margine interiore codicis A scriptum] <Οὐλύμποιο καρήνων:> ὅτι ὄρος mountain, neut nom sg complement, i.e. as opposed to other meanings of Ὄλυμπος ὁ Ὄλυμπος Olumpos, masc nom sg: τὰ γὰρ κάρηνα peak, neut nom pl ἐπὶ upon + gen ὄρους mountain, neut gen sg. A.45 τόξ' ὤμοισιν ἔχων ἀμφηρεφέα τε φαρέτρην A.46 ἔκλαγξαν δ' ἄρ' ὀϊστοὶ ἐπ' ὤμων χωομένοιο, ἄρα Denniston 1954 p33: δ' ἄρα is used frequently in Homer, particularly in narrative; it expresses a "lively feeling of interest". A.47 αὐτοῦ κινηθέντος ὃ δ' ἤϊε νυκτὶ ἐοικώς. A.48 ἕζετ' ἔπειτ' ἀπάνευθε νεῶν, μετὰ δ' ἰὸν ἕηκεν, νεῶν Miller 1982 s87: this form is a clear example of shortening of -ηbefore a vowel; the original form was *νηϝῶν, becoming νῆων following historical loss of Ϝ, which form appears 68 times in the Iliad; -η- was then shortened to -ε- producing this form νεῶν, which appears 40 times in the Iliad. A.49 δεινὴ δὲ κλαγγὴ γένετ' ἀργυρέοιο βιοῖο. A.50 οὐρῆας μὲν πρῶτον ἐπῴχετο καὶ κύνας ἀργούς, ἀργούς Pulleyn 2000 p139: this word, like the Sanskrit word rjra-, can mean both "shining" and "swift". A.51 αὐτὰρ ἔπειτ' αὐτοῖσι βέλος ἐχεπευκὲς ἐφιεὶς αὐτάρ Denniston 1954 p55: this particle comes from αὖτε "again" + ἄρ; it's almost confined to epic; it can be adversative or just progressive; here it answers μέν in line 50. My Iliad A notes C. Bochan, Sydney Last updated 27 December 2006 No copying or extraction permitted 9

10 βέλος Pulleyn 2000 p140: the last syllable scans long, even though the next word doesn't begin with a consonant or historical Ϝ: it can do this in Homer if it's in the first syllable of the dactyl, as here. A.52 βάλλ' αἰεὶ δὲ πυραὶ νεκύων καίοντο θαμειαί. αἰεί Sihler 1995 s117.1: this word comes from *ai)ϝei following historical loss of Ϝ; *ai)ϝei came from PIE *H2eyu- "age, life(time)", with the H2 laryngeal changing PIE *-e- to Greek -α-. A.53 ἐννῆμαρ μὲν ἀνὰ στρατὸν ᾤχετο κῆλα θεοῖο, ἀνά Chantraine 1963 s117: it's unclear whether this word should be read as a preposition, i.e. governing στρατόν, or as a preverb in tmesis to ᾤχετο, because ἀνά is found at the caesura. A.54 τῇ δεκάτῃ δ' ἀγορήνδε καλέσσατο λαὸν Ἀχιλλεύς δέ Denniston 1954 p186: although this particle normally comes second in a clause, it can be postponed, as here, if the first two words are article + substantive or + adjective. A.55 τῷ γὰρ ἐπὶ φρεσὶ θῆκε θεὰ λευκώλενος Ἥρη A.56 κήδετο γὰρ Δαναῶν, ὅτι ῥα θνῄσκοντας ὁρᾶτο. ὁρᾶτο Goodwin 1897 s713: the verb in a causal sentence, like this one beginning ὅτι, is in the indicative after both primary and secondary tense verbs in the main clause. A.57 οἳ δ' ἐπεὶ οὖν ἤγερθεν ὁμηγερέες τ' ἐγένοντο, ἐπεί ἤγερθεν Denniston 1954 p417: this particle + οὖν in almost all cases in Homer expresses a reference to something already described or foreshadowed, i.e. here the assembling of the Greeks. Pulleyn 2000 p141: 3rd pl aor passives ending -θεν, as here, often have an intransitive sense rather than a passive one, so here this verb means just "they assembled". A.58 τοῖσι δ' ἀνιστάμενος μετέφη πόδας ὠκὺς Ἀχιλλεύς My Iliad A notes C. Bochan, Sydney Last updated 27 December 2006 No copying or extraction permitted 10

11 δέ Denniston 1954 p179: this particle here doesn't have its normal connective sense; it's used in the then-clause, or apodosis, following the when-clause, or temporal protasis, in line 57; it's thus called apodotic δέ. A.59 Ἀτρείδη, νῦν ἄμμε πάλιν πλαγχθέντας ὀΐω ἄμμε ὀΐω Sihler 1995 s369a: this (Lesbian) accusative pronoun form comes from Proto-Greek *asme. Pulleyn 2000 p142: this verb expresses personal impression, and so is different from e.g. νομίζω "I believe as is commonly believed" and ἡγέομαι "after considering it I maintain". A.60 ἂψ ἀπονοστήσειν, εἴ κεν θάνατόν γε φύγοιμεν, εἴ Goodwin 1897 s460: an εἰ + optative if-clause has the same sense as an εἰ + κε + optative if-clause, as here; both types express a more remote supposition than an εἰ + future if-clause. A.61 εἰ δὴ ὁμοῦ πόλεμός τε δαμᾷ καὶ λοιμὸς Ἀχαιούς. δαμᾷ Pulleyn 2000 p142: this word is formed from the loss of sigma in *δαμάσει and then contraction. A.62 ἀλλ' ἄγε δή τινα μάντιν ἐρείομεν ἠ' ἱερῆα, ἐρείομεν Chantraine 1958 ss44 and 137: -ει- in this word is -ε- lengthened for metrical reasons, i.e. ἐρέομεν; in sequences of four short syllables, it's normally the second which is lengthened (as here); furthermore, this short-vowel subjunctive suggests that ἐρέω "I ask" developed from an ancient athematic present. A.63 ἢ καὶ ὀνειροπόλον, καὶ γάρ τ' ὄναρ ἐκ Διός ἐστιν, ἤ τε Denniston 1954 p306: this particle + καί separates two ideas but signifies that they both must be kept before the mind; the combination occurs often in Plato. Pulleyn 2000 p143: this is being used to mark the statement as general or universal. A.64 ὅς κ' εἴποι ὅ τι τόσσον ἐχώσατο Φοῖβος Ἀπόλλων, My Iliad A notes C. Bochan, Sydney Last updated 27 December 2006 No copying or extraction permitted 11

12 κε ἐχώσατο Chantraine 1963 ss365 and 366: since the optative without a particle is well attested in relative clauses, this word might have been inserted later to make metrical position following historical loss of diagamma at the start of the next word. Goodwin 1897 s669(1): this verb in indirect speech is in the indicative, as the verb in the main clause εἴποι is in a primary tense; if it were in a secondary tense, ἐχώσατο could be put in the optative or left in the indicative. A.65 εἴ ταρ ὅ γ' εὐχωλῆς ἐπιμέμφεται ἠδ' ἑκατόμβης, ἐπιμέμφεται ἑκατόμβης Chantraine 1963 s118: ἐπὶ μέμφεται, with ἐπί keeping its adverbial sense, might be a better and more natural reading here than the compound verb ἐπιμέμφεται. Pulleyn 2000 p143: this word probably doesn't mean sacrificing 100 oxen; it can refer to smaller sacrifices of sheeps, goats, &c. A.66 αἴ κέν πως ἀρνῶν κνίσης αἰγῶν τε τελείων αἴ Goodwin 1897 s487: this if-clause implies its own then-clause, i.e. that the purpose of the action will be fulfilled. A.67 βούλητ' ἀντιάσας ἡμῖν ἀπὸ λοιγὸν ἀμῦναι. βούληται Monro 1891 s82: this is (on one reading) one of the three words in Homer which seems to suggest a thematic stem forming the subjunctive with a short vowel. Monro seems to agree with Stier's reading βούλητ' ἀντιάσας to get rid of the short vowel; West reads this too. A.68 ἤτοι ὅ γ' ὣς εἰπὼν κατ' ἄρ' ἕζετο τοῖσι δ' ἀνέστη SCHOLIA [through Aristonicus, through Venetus A scholia marginalia] <κατ' ἄρ' ἕζετο> ὅτι Ζηνόδοτος γράφει writes, 3rd sg pres <ἐκαθέζετο> sat, 3rd sg aor. οὐκ ἐᾷ allows +acc + inf, 3rd sg pres, i.e. Zenodotus δὲ ἑλληνίζειν speak Greek, pres inf τὸν Ὅμηρον Homer, masc acc sg. ὥσπερ just as γὰρ οὐδὲ neither λέγει says, 3rd sg pres, i.e. Homer <ἐκατέβαινεν> went down, 3rd sg imperf, NB double augment, οὕτως so too οὐδὲ neither <ἐκαθέζετο> sat, 3rd sg aor. A.69 Κάλχας Θεστορίδης, οἰωνοπόλων ὄχ' ἄριστος, My Iliad A notes C. Bochan, Sydney Last updated 27 December 2006 No copying or extraction permitted 12

13 Θεστορίδης Pulleyn 2000 p144: this name was probably invented by Homer, based on the root θεσ- used for other religious words, e.g. θέσφατα "oracles". A.70 ὃς εἴδη τά τ' ἐόντα τά τ' ἐσσόμενα πρό τ' ἐόντα, A.71 καὶ νήεσς' ἡγήσατ' Ἀχαιῶν Ἴλιον εἴσω νήεσσι Miller 1982 s13: this word comes from Ionic stem νη- + Aeolic dat pl ending -εσσι, creating an artificial form. A.72 ἣν διὰ μαντοσύνην, τήν οἱ πόρε Φοῖβος Ἀπόλλων. A.73 ὅ σφιν ἔϋ φρονέων ἀγορήσατο καὶ μετέειπεν ἔϋ Pulleyn 2000 p145: the opposite of ἔϋ φρονέων here is probably ἀφρονέων "not sensibly", rather than κακὰ φρονέων "with bad intention". A.74 ὦ Ἀχιλεῦ, κέλεαί με, διίφιλε, μυθήσασθαι A.75 μῆνιν Ἀπόλλωνος ἑκατηβελέταο ἄνακτος. A.76 τοὶ γὰρ ἐγὼν ἐρέω, σὺ δὲ σύνθεο καί μοι ὄμοσσον σύνθεο Goodwin 1897 s136: this verb, and also ὄμοσσον, being verbs of hoping, expecting, promising or swearing, are regularly followed by a future infinitive (as here, i.e. ἀρήξειν). A.77 ἦ μέν μοι πρόφρων ἔπεσιν καὶ χερσὶν ἀρήξειν ἦ Denniston 1954 p389: this particle + μέν + future indicative is used in oaths. A.78 ἦ γὰρ ὀΐομαι ἄνδρα χολωσέμεν, ὃς μέγα πάντων A.79 Ἀργείων κρατέει καί οἱ πείθονται Ἀχαιοί. My Iliad A notes C. Bochan, Sydney Last updated 27 December 2006 No copying or extraction permitted 13

14 οἱ Chantraine 1958 s55: this word originally began with Ϝ, and so the diphthong of καί before it isn't correpted. However, initial Ϝ doesn't consistently prevent correption, hiatus, &c or make position when the previous word ends with one consonant. What's interesting about this word is that it's the only word for which the orthography of the manuscripts, i.e. not just the meter, suggest a trace of a lost initial consonant: νυ-movable isn't added to a preceding word, and οὐ doesn't add a hiatus-breaking -κ or -χ before it. A.80 κρέσσων γὰρ βασιλεύς, ὅτε χώσεται ἀνδρὶ χέρηϊ SCHOLIA [through Aristonicus, through Venetus A scholium breve codicis A inter contextum Homeri et scholia marginalia exaratum] <κρείσσων:> ὅτι Ζηνόδοτος χωρὶς without + gen τοῦ <ν> γράφει writes, 3rd sg pres. τὰ δὲ τοιαῦτα such, neut nom pl συγκριτικὰ comparatives, neut nom pl ἔχει have, 3rd sg pres with neut pl subject ἐπὶ τῆς εὐθείας nominative case, fem gen sg τὸ <ν>. A.81 εἴ περ γάρ τε χόλον γε καὶ αὐτῆμαρ καταπέψῃ, καταπέψῃ Goodwin 1897 s468: this use of a subjunctive in an if-clause in a general supposition is rare in Homer, appearing only 19 times. A.82 ἀλλά τε καὶ μετόπισθεν ἔχει κότον, ὄφρα τελέσσῃ, A.83 ἐν στήθεσσιν ἑοῖσι. σὺ δὲ φράσαι εἴ με σαώσεις. SCHOLIA [through Aristonicus, through Venetus A scholia marginalia] <φράσαι:> ὅτι Ζηνόδοτος γράφει writes, 3rd sg pres <φράσον> indicate (in act), aor imperat act 2nd sg. μᾶλλον more, indeclform δὲ τὸ <φράσσαι> consider (in mid), aor imperat mid 2nd sg ἁρμόζει it is appropriate + inf. δέ σαώσεις Denniston 1954 p170: this is one of the few examples where connective δέ has the sense of οὖν or δή. Goodwin 1897 s669(1): this verb in an indirect question is in the indicative, as the verb in the main clause φράσαι is in a primary tense; if it were in a secondary tense, σαώσεις could be put in the optative or left in the indicative. My Iliad A notes C. Bochan, Sydney Last updated 27 December 2006 No copying or extraction permitted 14

15 A.84 τὸν δ' ἀπαμειβόμενος προσέφη πόδας ὠκὺς Ἀχιλλεύς A.85 θαρσήσας μάλα εἰπὲ θεοπρόπιον ὅ τι οἶσθα θεοπρόπιον Pulleyn 2000 p147: this word probably comes from the root θεο- ("divine") + an o-grade of the verb πρέπω ("to make plain, evident"). A.86 οὐ μὰ γὰρ Ἀπόλλωνα διίφιλον, ᾧ τε σύ, Κάλχαν, διίφιλον τε Chantraine 1958 p497: this word probably comes from a more ancient form Διείφιλος. Denniston 1954 p496: this enclitic here doesn't universalise the relative, but is close: it's the epic τε of habitual action. A.87 εὐχόμενος Δαναοῖσι θεοπροπίας ἀναφαίνεις, A.88 οὔ τις ἐμέο ζῶντος καὶ ἐπὶ χθονὶ δερκομένοιο ζῶντος Goodwin 1897 s847: this participle is the verb of a genitive absolute construction, which is independent from the rest of the clause and sets the circumstances for that clause. Genitive absolutes were first used to express time, i.e. when the action in the main clause took place; later, it was used to express other circumstances, e.g. causes or conditions of the action in the main clause. A.89 σοὶ κοίλῃς παρὰ νηυσὶ βαρείας χεῖρας ἐποίσει A.90 συμπάντων Δαναῶν, οὐδ' ἢν Ἀγαμέμνονα εἴπῃς, A.91 ὃς νῦν πολλὸν ἄριστος ἐνὶ στρατῷ εὔχεται εἶναι. A.92 καὶ τότε δὴ θάρσησε καὶ ηὔδα μάντις ἀμύμων ἀμύμων Pulleyn 2000 pp : the ancients thought this word meant "blameless", composed of alpha privative and perhaps an Aeolic form of μῶμος, however it more likely comes from the verb ἀμεύομαι "to surpass" with a -μων adjective ending. My Iliad A notes C. Bochan, Sydney Last updated 27 December 2006 No copying or extraction permitted 15

16 A.93 οὔτ' ἄρ' ὅ γ' εὐχωλῆς ἐπιμέμφεται οὐδ' ἑκατόμβης, SCHOLIA [through Herodian, through Venetus A scholia marginalia] <οὔ ταρ ὅ γ' εὐχωλῆς:> οὕτως thus ὀξεῖαν acute accent, fem acc sg ἐπὶ upon + acc τὴν <οὔ>: ὁ γὰρ <τάρ> (connective enclitic) ἐστι σύνδεσμος connective, masc nom sg complement ἐπιφερόμενος following, masc nom sg pass ppl, i.e. following οὔ ἐγκλιτικός enclitic, masc nom sg, ὡς as καὶ also ἐπὶ in the case of + gen τοῦ <εἴ if ταρ (connective enclitic) ὅ he, masc nom sg γ' εὐχωλῆς (on account of) a vow, fem gen sg> [Il.1.65]. A.94 ἀλλ' ἕνεκ' ἀρητῆρος, ὃν ἠτίμης' Ἀγαμέμνων A.95 οὐδ' ἀπέλυσε θύγατρα καὶ οὐκ ἀπεδέξατ' ἄποινα, A.96 τοὔνεκ' ἄρ' ἄλγε' ἔδωκεν Ἑκηβόλος, ἠδ' ἔτι δώσει ἔδωκεν Sihler 1995 ss52.3, 103.1, 119.3: -w- in this word comes from an e- grade PIE root *deh3 (s52.3), with the H3 laryngeal lengthening the vowel before it (s103.1). In this tense we see the full e-grade produce a long -o- vowel; in zero-grade forms of this verb, where the -e- drops away, the H3 laryngeal acts as a syllable producing a short -ο- in Greek, e.g. δίδομεν which is a zero-grade form (s119.3). A.97 οὐδ' ὅ γε πρὶν λοιμοῖο βαρείας χεῖρας ἀφέξει, SCHOLIA [through Venetus A scholia marginalia] καὶ both ἡ Μασσαλιωτικὴ the Massaliotike (an Ionian town) copy of Iliad, probably fourth c BC or later (West 2001 p68), fem nom sg δὲ καὶ and ἡ Ῥιανοῦ therhianos (a Cretan epic poet of the third c BC: West 2001 p 56) copy of Iliad, fem nom sg τὸν αὐτὸν the same, masc acc sg ἔχει has, 3rd sg pres τρόπον way, i.e. reading, masc nom sg, i.e. [ <Δαναοῖσιν ἀεικέα λοιγὸν ἀπώσει>]. ἔοικεν it seems, probably + inf, 3rd sg perf impersonal οὖν ἡ ἑτέρα other (reading), fem nom sg Ζηνοδότου of Zenodotus, masc gen sg εἶναι to be, pres inf, ἡ <οὐδ' nor ὅ he, i.e. Apollo γε πρὶν before, adv here λοιμοῖο plague, masc gen sg βαρείας heavy, fem acc pl χεῖρας hands, fem acc pl ἀφέξει will keep + acc from + gen, 3rd sg fut>. πρίν Goodwin 1897 s657: this first πρίν is used as an adverb; a second πρίν is used (but not as an adverb) + infinitive in the "before" clause which follows. My Iliad A notes C. Bochan, Sydney Last updated 27 December 2006 No copying or extraction permitted 16

17 ἀεικέα Pulleyn 2000 p152: this word here denotes the physical disfigurement caused by plague; compare the use of ἀεικίζω used in Book 24 to describe Achilles' defilement of Hector's corpse. A.98 πρίν γ' ἀπὸ πατρὶ φίλῳ δόμεναι ἑλικώπιδα κούρην ἑλικώπιδα Pulleyn 2000 pp : some think this means "eye rolling", linking the word to ἑλίσσω "to whirl around", but Hesychius suggests that it comes from a word ἕλιξ "black", i.e. "black-eyed". A.99 ἀπριάτην ἀνάποινον, ἄγειν θ' ἱερὴν ἑκατόμβην ἀπριάτην ἄγειν Pulleyn 2000 p153: it's unclear whether this is technically an adverb or an adjective used as an adverb; either way, the meaning is the same. Sihler 1995 ss47, 117, 463: the word ἄγω, being a simple thematic verb, is in fact an e-grade from the PIE root *H2eǵ- "drive"; the H2 laryngeal changes the original PIE e- into α- in Greek. A.100 ἐς Χρύσην τότε κέν μιν ἱλασσάμενοι πεπίθοιμεν. ἐς Sihler 1995 s406.3: this comes from an elaborated form *ἐνς of ἐν, *-ς imported from its anytonym ἐξ, which developed through loss of *ν into ἐς (without lengthening of the vowel) or εἰς (with lengthening). A.101 ἤτοι ὅ γ' ὣς εἰπὼν κατ' ἄρ' ἕζετο τοῖσι δ' ἀνέστη A.102 ἥρως Ἀτρείδης, εὐρὺ κρείων Ἀγαμέμνων, A.103 ἀχνύμενος μένεος δὲ μέγα φρένες ἀμφὶ μέλαιναι A.104 πίμπλαντ', ὄσσε δέ οἱ πυρὶ λαμπετόωντι ἐΐκτην. ἐΐκτην Pulleyn 2000 p155: although technically pluperfect, this is just used as a past tense, as the perfect ἔοικα has a present sense. A.105 Κάλχαντα πρώτιστα κάκ' ὀσσόμενος προσέειπεν A.106 μάντι κακῶν, οὔ πώ ποτέ μοι τὸ κρήγυον εἶπες My Iliad A notes C. Bochan, Sydney Last updated 27 December 2006 No copying or extraction permitted 17

18 τό κρήγυον Monro 1891 s260(e): the article is used before adjectives expressing the contrasts of great and small, many and few, or (as here) good and evil. Pulleyn 2000 p157: it's unclear whether this means "good" or "true"; although here I think it means "good" in contrast to κάκ' in the next line. A.107 αἰεί τοι τὰ κάκ' ἐστὶ φίλα φρεσὶ μαντεύεσθαι, κάκα μαντεύεσθαι Pulleyn 2000 p157: this may be a reference to the prophet's saying that Agamemnon had to sacrifice his daughter Iphigeneia at Aulis if the mission to Troy were to succeed. Goodwin 1897 s763: any adjective may be followed by an infinitive which limits the adjective, as here, i.e. φίλα + μαντεύεσθαι. A.108 ἐσθλὸν δ' οὔτέ τί πω εἶπες ἔπος οὐδ' ἐτέλεσσας. εἶπας Chantraine 1958 s50: this word historically began with a Ϝ, as did the following related word ἔπος, which explains why the last syllable of εἶπες here scans long. A.109 καὶ νῦν ἐν Δαναοῖσι θεοπροπέων ἀγορεύεις, A.110 ὡς δὴ τοῦδ' ἕνεκά σφιν Ἑκηβόλος ἄλγεα τεύχει, δή Denniston 1954 p233: this particle used after verbs of saying, thinking, hoping or fearing can express that what follows is false or not unquestionably true. A.111 οὕνεκ' ἐγὼ κούρης Χρυσηΐδος ἀγλά' ἄποινα Χρυσηίδος Monro 1891 s153: verbs meaning "to swap places with" take a genitive, as here (i.e. to accept or swap a random for Χρυσηίς). A.112 οὐκ ἔθελον δέξασθαι, ἐπεὶ πολὺ βούλομαι αὐτήν A.113 οἴκοι ἔχειν καὶ γάρ ῥα Κλυταιμήστρης προβέβουλα Κλυταιμήστρης Pulleyn 2000 p158: there isn't a nu in her name: all ancient inscriptions leave it out. It probably comes from κλυτός "famous" and μήδομαι "I take counsel". My Iliad A notes C. Bochan, Sydney Last updated 27 December 2006 No copying or extraction permitted 18

19 A.114 κουριδίης ἀλόχου, ἐπεὶ οὔ ἑθέν ἐστι χερείων, ἀλόχου Pulleyn 2000 p158: this word comes from the copulative alpha (coming from the same pre-homeric root *sem from which εἷς "one" comes) + λέχος "bed", i.e. "of the same bed", "of one bed". A.115 οὐ δέμας οὐδὲ φυήν, οὔτ' ἂρ φρένας οὔτέ τι ἔργα. A.116 ἀλλὰ καὶ ὧς ἐθέλω δόμεναι πάλιν, εἰ τό γ' ἄμεινον γε Denniston 1954 p122: this particle in Homer occurs after pronouns, as here, much more often than in other combinations. A.117 βούλομ' ἐγὼ λαὸν σόον ἔμμεναι ἠ' ἀπολέσθαι. A.118 αὐτὰρ ἐμοὶ γέρας αὐτίχ' ἑτοιμάσατ', ὄφρα μὴ οἶος ὄφρα Goodwin 1897 s317: this word + subjunctive (where the leading verb is in a primary tense, as here, i.e. ἑτοιμάσατ') is a pure final clause, i.e. "in order that". A.119 Ἀργείων ἀγέραστος ἔω, ἐπεὶ οὐδὲ ἔοικεν A.120 λεύσσετε γὰρ τό γε πάντες, ὅ μοι γέρας ἔρχεται ἄλλῃ. ὅ Goodwin 1897 s709: this neuter relative pronoun is used in Homer like ὅτι "that". A.121 τὸν δ' ἠμείβετ' ἔπειτα ποδάρκης δῖος Ἀχιλλεύς A.122 Ἀτρείδη κύδιστε, φιλοκτεανώτατε πάντων, A.123 πῶς τάρ τοι δώσουσι γέρας μεγάθυμοι Ἀχαιοί; A.124 οὐδέ τί που ἴδμεν ξυνήϊα κείμενα πολλά ξυνήια Pulleyn 2000 p161: this is an expansion of the adjective ξυνός "common". A.125 ἀλλὰ τὰ μὲν πολίων ἐξεπράθομεν, τὰ δέδασται, My Iliad A notes C. Bochan, Sydney Last updated 27 December 2006 No copying or extraction permitted 19

20 τά Monro 1891 s262(1): this is the only place in the Iliad where the article, used as a relative, comes before the noun/pronoun it refers to (here, the second τά in the line). Monro therefore thinks it might be a wrong reading and suggests instead ἀλλά θ' ἃ μέν. A.126 λαοὺς δ' οὐκ ἐπέοικε παλίλλογα ταῦτ' ἐπαγείρειν. A.127 ἀλλὰ σὺ μὲν νῦν τήνδε θεῷ πρόες αὐτὰρ Ἀχαιοί αὐτάρ Denniston 1954 p55: this particle here answers μέν. A.128 τριπλῇ τετραπλῇ τ' ἀποτείσομεν, αἴ κέ ποθι Ζεύς αἴ Goodwin 1897 s444: this is a future condition, with the if-clause in εἴ κε or αἴ κε + subjunctive, and the then-clause in the future. A.129 δῶσι πόλιν Τροίην εὐτείχεον ἐξαλαπάξαι. A.130 τὸν δ' ἀπαμειβόμενος προσέφη κρείων Ἀγαμέμνων A.131 μὴ δὴ οὕτως, ἀγαθός περ ἐών, θεοείκελ' Ἀχιλλεῦ, A.132 κλέπτε νόῳ, ἐπεὶ οὐ παρελεύσεαι οὐδέ με πείσεις. παρελεύσεαι Goodwin 1897 s713: the verb in a causal sentence, like this one beginning ἐπεί, is in the indicative after both primary and secondary tense verbs in the main clause. A.133 ἦ ἐθέλεις, ὄφρ' αὐτὸς ἔχῃς γέρας, αὐτὰρ ἔμ' αὔτως ὄφρα Pulleyn 2000 p163: this word probably means here "so long as" + subj, rather than introducing a purpose clause. A.134 ἧσθαι δευόμενον, κέλεαι δέ με τήνδ' ἀποδοῦναι; ἀποδοῦναι Chantraine 1958 s15: the δοῦναι element of this word comes from -δοϝναι, with omicron lengthened into a diphthong following historical loss of Ϝ. A.135 ἀλλ' εἰ μὲν δώσουσι γέρας μεγάθυμοι Ἀχαιοί, εἰ Goodwin 1897 s482: this if-clause has an implied then-clause "all will be fine". My Iliad A notes C. Bochan, Sydney Last updated 27 December 2006 No copying or extraction permitted 20

21 δώσουσι Goodwin 1897 s447: this use of εἰ + future in the if-clause expresses a stronger future condition than εἰ + subjunctive. A.136 ἄρσαντες κατὰ θυμόν, ὅπως ἀντάξιον ἔσται ὅπως Goodwin 1897 s344: in this ὅπως + future construction, ὅπως acts as a simple relative. A.137 εἰ δέ κε μὴ δώωσιν, ἐγὼ δέ κεν αὐτὸς ἕλωμαι δέ κεν Denniston 1954 p180: this particle here doesn't have its normal connective sense; it's used in the then-clause, or apodosis, following the if-clause, or conditional protasis; it's thus called apodotic δέ. Goodwin 1897 s201: subjunctive + κεν expresses a future potential, and is almost equivalent to future + κε or ἄν; for that type of construction see line 139 below. A.138 ἢ τεὸν ἠ' Αἴαντος ἰὼν γέρας, ἠ' Ὀδυσῆος τεόν Chantraine 1958 s128: this is an Aeolic form of the personal pronoun, which Homer uses as well as the ἐμός form. A.139 ἄξω ἑλών ὃ δέ κεν κεχολώσεται ὅν κεν ἵκωμαι. SCHOLIA [through Venetus A scholia marginalia] <ἄξω ἑλών:> ἀθετεῖται, set aside, 3rd pl pres pass ὅτι πλήρης complete, masc nom sg, i.e. the above lines are complete without this line ὁ λόγος clause, masc nom sg, ἀλλαγῆς change, fem gen sg γενομένης happening, aor ppl mid fem gen sg τοῦ ῥήματος verb, neut gen sg, <ἕλωμαι> I shall seize, 1 sg aor subj mid (Il.1.137) ἀντὶ instead of + gen τοῦ <ἑλοίμην> I would seize, 1 sg aor opt mid. καὶ εὔηθες foolish, absurd, i.e. stating the obvious, neut nom sg complement τὸ προσκείμενον article + ppl the addition, pres part mid neut nom sg <ὁ he δέ κεν κεχολώσεται will become angry, 3 sg future perf ind pass>: πῶς how? γὰρ οὐκ ἔμελλε not going to + inf, 3 sg imperf χολοῦσθαι to be angry, pres inf pass; κεν Goodwin 1897 s196: future + κεν in Homer is more contingent than the future alone; it has a force approaching that of optative + ἄν. A.140 ἀλλ' ἤτοι μὲν ταῦτα μεταφρασόμεσθα καὶ αὖτις, My Iliad A notes C. Bochan, Sydney Last updated 27 December 2006 No copying or extraction permitted 21

22 A.141 νῦν δ' ἄγε νῆα μέλαιναν ἐρύσσομεν εἰς ἅλα δῖαν, ἅλα Sihler 1995 ss47, 170, 294.2: this word is the only λ- stem in Greek (s294.2); it comes from PIE *sal- "salt" (s47), with PIE *s changing to an aspirate before a vowel (s170). A.142 ἐν δ' ἐρέτας ἐπιτηδὲς ἀγείρομεν, ἐς δ' ἑκατόμβην ἐς Chantraine 1963 s145: ἐς rarely appears as a preverb in tmesis (as here); Aristarchus read ἐν here. A.143 θείομεν, ἂν δ' αὐτὴν Χρυσηΐδα καλλιπάρηον A.144 βήσομεν εἷς δέ τις ἀρχὸς ἀνὴρ βουληφόρος ἔστω, ἀρχός Chantraine 1963 s16: the appositional constructions common in Homer are sometimes difficult to analyse; here this word acts as predicate to ἔστω, and ἀνὴρ βουληφόρος (nouns in apposition to each other) act as the subject. A.145 ἠ' Αἴας ἠ' Ἰδομενεὺς ἢ δῖος Ὀδυσσεύς, A.146 ἠὲ σύ, Πηλείδη, πάντων ἐκπαγλότατ' ἀνδρῶν, ἐκπαγλότατε Pulleyn 2000 p166: this word probably is related to ἐκπλήσσω "to strike out of, to scare, to astound". A.147 ὄφρ' ἥμιν Ἑκάεργον ἱλάσσεαι ἱερὰ ῥέξας. A.148 τὸν δ' ἄρ' ὑπόδρα ἰδὼν προσέφη πόδας ὠκὺς Ἀχιλλεύς ὑπόδρα Pulleyn 2000 p166: this word probably comes fron ὑπό and the aorist form ἔδρακον of δέρκομαι "to look", i.e. to look from under a lowered brow. A.149 ᾤ μοι, ἀναιδείην ἐπιειμένε, κερδαλεόφρον, κερδαλεόφρον Pulleyn 2000 p167: this word comes from κέρδος "profit, advantage" and φρονέω "to think of". A.150 πῶς τίς τοι πρόφρων ἔπεσιν πείθηται Ἀχαιῶν, My Iliad A notes C. Bochan, Sydney Last updated 27 December 2006 No copying or extraction permitted 22

23 A.151 ἠ' ὁδὸν ἐλθέμεναι ἠ' ἀνδράσιν ἶφι μάχεσθαι; μάχεσθαι Goodwin 1897 s775: this infinitive expresses a result. A.152 οὐ γὰρ ἐγὼ Τρώων ἕνεκ' ἤλυθον αἰχμητάων A.153 δεῦρο μαχησόμενος, ἐπεὶ οὔ τί μοι αἴτιοί εἰσιν μοι Pulleyn 2000 p168: this is a dative of disadvantage. A.154 οὐ γὰρ πώ ποτ' ἐμὰς βοῦς ἤλασαν οὐδὲ μὲν ἵππους, βοῦς Sihler 1995 s162: β- comes from the PIE labiovelar *gw; this can be clearly seen in the Mycenaean form of βουκόλος "cowherd", qo-uko-ro, where qo- begins with a labiovelar. A.155 οὐδέ ποτ' ἐν Φθίῃ ἐριβώλακι βωτιανείρῃ A.156 καρπὸν ἐδηλήσαντ', ἐπεὶ ἦ μάλα πολλὰ μεταξύ, A.157 οὔρεά τε σκιόεντα θάλασσά τε ἠχήεσσα. A.158 ἀλλὰ σοί, ὦ μέγ' ἀναιδές, ἅμ' ἑσπόμεθ', ὄφρα σὺ χαίρῃς, ἅμα χαίρῃς Sihler 1995 ss91, 170, 389.1B.a: this word probably comes from an accusative PIE form *héma from the PIE root *sem "one-together" which is also the basis for Greek εἷς "one"; PIE *héma came from PIE *sem by change of *s to an aspirate before a vowel (s170); Greek ἅμα then came from PIE *héma by assimilation of *é to *a across the resonant *m (s91). Pulleyn 2000 p169: this use of subjunctive rather than optative in a final clause after the historic verb ἑσπόμεθ' is a "vivid subjunctive", showing that it's meant to continue into the present, i.e. Agamamemnon's happiness. A.159 τιμὴν ἀρνύμενοι Μενελάῳ σοί τε, κυνῶπα, ἀρνύμενοι Goodwin 1897 s840: this is a rare use of the present participle expressing purpose, i.e. instead of the future participle; it also expresses an attendant circumstance here. My Iliad A notes C. Bochan, Sydney Last updated 27 December 2006 No copying or extraction permitted 23

24 κυνῶπα Pulleyn 2000 p169: this is the only time in Homer this insult is used against a man: in other places it's used against Helen, Hera, Aphrodite and Klutaimestra. A.160 πρὸς Τρώων τῶν οὔ τι μετατρέπε' οὐδ' ἀλεγίζεις. A.161 καὶ δή μοι γέρας αὐτὸς ἀφαιρήσεσθαι ἀπειλεῖς, καί ἀπειλεῖς Denniston 1954 p258: this connective + δή in Homer introduces something similar in kind to what has preceded, but stronger in degree. Goodwin 1897 s136: verbs such as this, being verbs of hoping, expecting, promising or swearing, are regularly followed by a future infinitive (as here, i.e. ἀφαιρήσεσθαι). A.162 ᾧ ἔπι πόλλ' ἐμόγησα, δόσαν δέ μοι υἷες Ἀχαιῶν. A.163 οὐ μὲν σοί ποτε ἶσον ἔχω γέρας, ὁππότ' Ἀχαιοί A.164 Τρώων ἐκπέρσως' εὖ ναιόμενον πτολίεθρον, ἐκπέρσωσι Goodwin 1897 s538: in if-clauses, introduced by a relative, and expressing a general supposition, Homer often uses the subjunctive without ἄν or κε. A.165 ἀλλὰ τὸ μὲν πλεῖον πολυάϊκος πολέμοιο A.166 χεῖρες ἐμαὶ διέπους', ἀτὰρ ἤν ποτε δασμὸς ἵκηται, ἵκηται Goodwin 1897 s468: this use of a subjunctive in an if-clause in a general supposition is rare in Homer, appearing only 19 times. A.167 σοὶ τὸ γέρας πολὺ μέζον, ἐγὼ δ' ὀλίγον τε φίλον τε τό Monro 1891 s261(3): the article here reinforces the pronoun σοί which conveys the idea of possession. A.168 ἔρχομ' ἔχων ἐπὶ νῆας, ἐπεί κε κάμω πολεμίζων. κε Monro 1891 s362: Monro thinks that the ἐπεί + κε + subjunctive reading here (on the basis of Aristarchus' reading) is not appropriate, and points to other ancient readings ἐπὴν κεκάμω and ἐπήν κε κάμω. My Iliad A notes C. Bochan, Sydney Last updated 27 December 2006 No copying or extraction permitted 24

25 A.169 νῦν δ' εἶμι Φθίηνδ', ἐπεὶ ἦ πολὺ φέρτερόν ἐστιν A.170 οἴκαδ' ἴμεν σὺν νηυσὶ κορωνίσιν, οὐδέ σ' ὀΐω σοί Pulleyn 2000 p171: this is a dative of advantage. A.171 ἐνθάδ' ἄτιμος ἐὼν ἄφενος καὶ πλοῦτον ἀφύξειν. A.172 τὸν δ' ἠμείβετ' ἔπειτα ἄναξ ἀνδρῶν Ἀγαμέμνων A.173 φεῦγε μάλ', εἴ τοι θυμὸς ἐπέσσυται οὐδέ σ' ἐγώ γε A.174 λίσσομαι εἵνεκ' ἐμεῖο μένειν πάρ' ἐμοί γε καὶ ἄλλοι A.175 οἵ κέ με τιμήσουσι, μάλιστα δὲ μητίετα Ζεύς. κε μητίετα Goodwin 1897 s196: future + κε in Homer is more contingent than the future alone; it has a force approaching that of optative + ἄν. Pulleyn 2000 p172: this word comes from the vocative of Μῆτις "counsel", the name of Zeus' first wife as Hesiod says in Theogony 886: Ζεὺς δὲ θεῶν βασιλεὺς πρώτην ἄλοχον θέτο Μῆτιν. A.176 ἔχθιστος δέ μοί ἐσσι διοτρεφέων βασιλήων A.177 αἰεὶ γάρ τοι ἔρις τε φίλη πόλεμοί τε μάχαι τε. A.178 εἰ μάλα καρτερός ἐσσι, θεός που σοὶ τό γ' ἔδωκεν. εἰ Goodwin 1897 s402: this is a simple supposition, which can have an εἰ + indicative if-clause, and any verb form in the then-clause. A.179 οἴκαδ' ἰὼν σὺν νηυσί τε σῇς καὶ σοῖς ἑτάροισιν τε Monro 1891 s367(1): the caesura of this line clearly doesn't fall after this enclitic (i.e. right in the middle of the line), but more likely after σῇς (which would rhythmically have been read with the words before it rather than after it). A.180 Μυρμιδόνεσσιν ἄνασσε σέθεν δ' ἐγὼ οὐκ ἀλεγίζω A.181 οὐδ' ὄθομαι κοτέοντος. ἀπειλήσω δέ τοι ὧδε My Iliad A notes C. Bochan, Sydney Last updated 27 December 2006 No copying or extraction permitted 25

26 A.182 ὣς ἔμ' ἀφαιρεῖται Χρυσηΐδα Φοῖβος Ἀπόλλων, ἀφαιρεῖται Chantraine 1958 s17: -ει- in this word could be a modernisation of the form -εε-, i.e. ἀφαιρέεται. A.183 τὴν μὲν ἐγὼ σὺν νηΐ τ' ἐμῇ καὶ ἐμοῖς ἑτάροισιν A.184 πέμψω ἐγὼ δέ κ' ἄγω Βρισηΐδα καλλιπάρηον ἄγω Monro 1891 s275(a): in affirmative clauses, the first person subjunctive expresses what the speaker resolves to do or insists upon doing, and κε shows that the purpose is conditional on something else happening. So here, the subjunctive ἄγω expresses Agamemnon's threatened action, and κ' shows it is conditional on what he has to do first (i.e. give back his γέρας). A.185 αὐτὸς ἰὼν κλισίηνδε, τεὸν γέρας, ὄφρ' εὖ εἰδῇς αὐτός Pulleyn 2000 p174: this can mean in Greek "by my authority" here rather than "by my hand". A.186 ὅσσον φέρτερός εἰμι σέθεν, στυγέῃ δὲ καὶ ἄλλος A.187 ἶσον ἐμοὶ φάσθαι καὶ ὁμοιωθήμεναι ἄντην. A.188 ὣς φάτο Πηλείωνι δ' ἄχος γένετ', ἐν δέ οἱ ἦτορ A.189 στήθεσσιν λασίοισι διάνδιχα μερμήριξεν, A.190 ἠ' ὅ γε φάσγανον ὀξὺ ἐρυσσάμενος παρὰ μηροῦ A.191 τοὺς μὲν ἀναστήσειεν, ὃ δ' Ἀτρείδην ἐναρίζοι, ἀναστήσειεν Goodwin 1897 s677: in indirect questions after a secondary tense verb in the main clause, the verbs keep the same tense but are put in the subjunctive or optative mood, i.e. here the main verb is μερμήριξεν, aorist, and so this verb, and ἐναρίζοι, are also aorist but in the optative mood. A.192 ἦε χόλον παύσειεν ἐρητύσειέ τε θυμόν. A.193 ἕως ὃ ταῦθ' ὥρμαινε κατὰ φρένα καὶ κατὰ θυμόν, My Iliad A notes C. Bochan, Sydney Last updated 27 December 2006 No copying or extraction permitted 26

27 A.194 εἵλκετο δ' ἐκ κολεοῖο μέγα ξίφος, ἦλθε δ' Ἀθήνη δέ Denniston 1954 p179: this particle here doesn't have its normal connective sense; it's used in the then-clause, or apodosis, following the when-clause, or temporal protasis, in the previous line; it's thus called apodotic δέ. A.195 οὐρανόθεν πρὸ γὰρ ἧκε θεὰ λευκώλενος Ἥρη, A.196 ἄμφω ὁμῶς θυμῷ φιλέουσά τε κηδομένη τε. ἄμφω Sihler 1995 s52.2: this form comes from PIE *H2embhoH1 "both", with the H2 laryngeal changing *-e- to α-, and the H1 laryngeal lengthening *-o- into -ω. A.197 στῆ δ' ὄπιθεν, ξανθῆς δὲ κόμης ἕλε Πηλείωνα, A.198 οἴῳ φαινομένη, τῶν δ' ἄλλων οὔ τις ὁρᾶτο. SCHOLIA [through Aristonicus, through Venetus A scholium breve in margine interiore codicis A scriptum] <ὁρᾶτο:> ὅτι Ζηνόδοτος γράφει writes, 3rd sg pres <ὁρῆτο> saw, imperf ind mid 3rd sg. τοῦτο this, neut nom sg δὲ Δώριον Doric dialect, neut nom sg complement. A.199 θάμβησεν δ' Ἀχιλεύς, μετὰ δ' ἐτράπετ' αὐτίκα δ' ἔγνω A.200 Παλλάδ' Ἀθηναίην δεινὼ δέ οἱ ὄσσε φάανθεν. δέ οἱ φάανθεν Pulleyn 2000 p179: this word here is equivalent to γάρ. Pulleyn 2000 pp : this probably refers to Athena, i.e. "Athena's eyes", but it could also refer to Achilles. Chantraine 1958 s34: -αα- in this word could be a result of the assimilation of -ε- in -αε-, i.e. *φαένθην. A.201 καί μιν φωνήσας ἔπεα πτερόεντα προσηύδα πτερόεντα Pulleyn 2000 pp : this word probably metaphorically links the ἔπεα to feathered arrows, although some argue it links the ἔπεα to birds. My Iliad A notes C. Bochan, Sydney Last updated 27 December 2006 No copying or extraction permitted 27

28 A.202 τίπτ' αὖτ', αἰγιόχοιο Διὸς τέκος, εἰλήλουθας; τίπτε αἰγιόχοιο Pulleyn 2000 p181: this is a syncopated form of τί ποτε. Pulleyn 2000 p181: this word probably comes from αἰγίς "aegis", a shield which when shaken can make storms or put an enemy to flight, + ἔχω with epsilon changed to an o-vowel as is regular in the second element of compounds. A.203 ἦ ἵνα ὕβριν ἴδη' Ἀγαμέμνονος Ἀτρείδαο; ἦ ὕβριν Denniston 1954 p283: this particle often introduces a suggested answer, expressed as a question, to a question just asked, as here. Pulleyn 2000 p182: this word doesn't mean "pride towards the gods" but an action which lessens the τιμή "honour" of another, man or god. A.204 ἀλλ' ἔκ τοι ἐρέω, τὸ δὲ καὶ τελέεσθαι ὀΐω A.205 ᾗς ὑπεροπλίῃσι τάχ' ἄν ποτε θυμὸν ὀλέσσῃ. ὑπεροπλίῃσι ἄν ὀλέσσῃ Pulleyn 2000 p182: this word probably comes from ὑπέρ "in excess" + ὅπλα "arms". Miller 1982 s14: while ἄν and κε are both modal particles, there may be a slight difference in meaning: Miller suggests that ἄν almost always "affirms with certitude", whereas κε "expresses possibility". Monro 1891 s275(b): in affirmative clauses, the third person subjunctive is usually an emphatic future, sometimes approaching the force of an imperative. Here, it is in effect a threat of what Achilles will do. A.206 τὸν δ' αὖτε προσέειπε θεὰ γλαυκῶπις Ἀθήνη A.207 ἦλθον ἐγὼ παύσουσα τεὸν μένος, αἴ κε πίθηαι, αἴ Pulleyn 2000 p185: this word + κε here means " to see if" or "in case". A.208 οὐρανόθεν πρὸ δέ μ' ἧκε θεὰ λευκώλενος Ἥρη, A.209 ἄμφω ὁμῶς θυμῷ φιλέουσά τε κηδομένη τε. My Iliad A notes C. Bochan, Sydney Last updated 27 December 2006 No copying or extraction permitted 28

29 A.210 ἀλλ' ἄγε λῆγ' ἔριδος, μηδὲ ξίφος ἕλκεο χειρί A.211 ἀλλ' ἤτοι ἔπεσιν μὲν ὀνείδισον, ὡς ἔσεταί περ. A.212 ὧδε γὰρ ἐξερέω, τὸ δὲ καὶ τετελεσμένον ἔσται A.213 καί ποτέ τοι τρὶς τόσσα παρέσσεται ἀγλαὰ δῶρα δῶρα Sihler 1995 ss52.3, 119.3: it's not certain whether -ω- in this word comes from an e-grade or o-grade PIE root, i.e. from *deh3 (s52.3) or from *doh3 (s119.3); in either case, the H3 laryngeal would change the preceding vowel to -ω-. A.214 ὕβριος εἵνεκα τῆσδε σὺ δ' ἴσχεο, πείθεο δ' ἡμῖν. εἵνεκα Chantraine 1958 s61: -ει- in this word came from -ε- following historical loss of Ϝ after -ν-. A.215 τὴν δ' ἀπαμειβόμενος προσέφη πόδας ὠκὺς Ἀχιλλεύς A.216 χρὴ μὲν σφωΐτερόν γε, θεά, ἔπος εἰρύσσασθαι, χρή Chantraine 1963 s1: this word introduces a nominal phrase, i.e. a clause without a real verb; nominal phrases are used introduce general truths or advice. A.217 καὶ μάλα περ θυμῷ κεχολωμένον ὣς γὰρ ἄμεινον. ὥς Pulleyn 2000 p186: this word should be accented ὥς, not ὧς as it commonly read. A.218 ὅς κε θεοῖς ἐπιπείθηται, μάλα τ' ἔκλυον αὐτοῦ. ἐπιπείθηται τε ἔκλυον Monro 1891 s298(1): although in Homer the subjunctive is not normally used in a subordinate clause to express a past condition, it can be used that way where the governing verb is a gnomic aorist (as here, ἔκλυον). Monro 1891 s332(b): this is used in gnomic aorist constructions, i.e. to show that the sense is general or universal. Pulleyn 2000 p186: this is a "gnomic" aorist, used to express a general truth. My Iliad A notes C. Bochan, Sydney Last updated 27 December 2006 No copying or extraction permitted 29

30 A.219 ἦ, καὶ ἐπ' ἀργυρέῃ κώπῃ σχέθε χεῖρα βαρεῖαν, A.220 ἂψ δ' ἐς κουλεὸν ὦσε μέγα ξίφος, οὐδ' ἀπίθησεν ἀπίθησε Pulleyn 2000 p187: this word doesn't mean "to disobey" but "to fail to be persuaded". A.221 μύθῳ Ἀθηναίης ἣ δ' Οὔλυμπόνδε βεβήκει A.222 δώματ' ἐς αἰγιόχοιο Διὸς μετὰ δαίμονας ἄλλους. A.223 Πηλείδης δ' ἐξαῦτις ἀταρτηροῖς ἐπέεσσιν A.224 Ἀτρείδην προσέειπε, καὶ οὔ πω λῆγε χόλοιο A.225 οἰνοβαρές, κυνὸς ὄμματ' ἔχων, κραδίην δ' ἐλάφοιο, A.226 οὔτέ ποτ' ἐς πόλεμον ἅμα λαῷ θωρηχθῆναι A.227 οὔτε λόχονδ' ἰέναι σὺν ἀριστήεσσιν Ἀχαιῶν A.228 τέτληκας θυμῷ τὸ δέ τοι κὴρ εἴδεται εἶναι. A.229 ἦ πολὺ λώϊόν ἐστι κατὰ στρατὸν εὐρὺν Ἀχαιῶν A.230 δῶρ' ἀποαιρεῖσθαι, ὅς τις σέθεν ἀντίον εἴπῃ. A.231 δημοβόρος βασιλεύς, ἐπεὶ οὐτιδανοῖσιν ἀνάσσεις δημοβόρος βασιλεύς Pulleyn 2000 p190: this word comes from δῆμος "people" and the βρ- root in βιβρώσκω "eat". Monro 1891 s163: this is a nominative used as an exclamation. ἀνάσσεις Goodwin 1897 s713: the verb in a causal sentence, like this one beginning ἐπεί, is in the indicative after both primary and secondary tense verbs in the main clause. A.232 ἦ γὰρ ἄν, Ἀτρείδη νῦν ὕστατα λωβήσαιο. γάρ Pulleyn 2000 p191: this word here means "otherwise". A.233 ἀλλ' ἔκ τοι ἐρέω, καὶ ἐπὶ μέγαν ὅρκον ὀμοῦμαι My Iliad A notes C. Bochan, Sydney Last updated 27 December 2006 No copying or extraction permitted 30

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