1 Poetic Language and Religion in Greece and Rome Edited by J. Virgilio García and Angel Ruiz This book first published 2013 Cambridge Scholars Publishing 12 Back Chapman Street, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE6 2XX, UK British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Copyright 2013 by J. Virgilio García, Angel Ruiz and contributors All rights for this book reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner. ISBN (10): , ISBN (13):
2 TABLE OF CONTENTS Preface... viii José Virgilio García Trabazo and Angel Ruiz Indo-European Poetic Language Gods And Vowels... 2 Joshua T. Katz Some Linguistic Devices of the Greek Poetical Tradition Jordi Redondo In Tenga Bithnua y la Lengua Angélica: Sus Fuentes y su Función Henar Velasco López Rumpelstilzchen: The Name of the Supernatural Helper and the Language of the Gods Óscar M. Bernao Fariñas Religious Onomastics in Ancient Greece and Italy: Lexique, Phraseology and Indo-european Poetic Language José L. García Ramón Two Epithets of Zeus in Laconia in the Light of Homeric Phraseology Ana Vegas Sansalvador Τάρταρος Daniel Kölligan Religious Etymology and Poetic Syncretism at Rome Colin Shelton Ancient Linguistic, Literary and Religious Elements in Kallimachos and Chrysorrhoe Edwin D. Floyd
3 vi Table of Contents Religious Language in Greek and Latin Literature Poesía y Ritual en la Grecia Antigua: Observaciones Sobre los Peanes Délficos Emilio Suárez de la Torre Consulting the Gods in the Odyssey Claudia Zatta Religious Register and Comedy: The Case of Cratinus Francesco Paolo Bianchi Oracles and Riddles Ambo Fratres: Cultural (and Family) Relations Between Oracula and Aenigmata Simone Beta Late Antique Oracles: Samples of Ασάφεια or Σαφήνεια? Lucia Maddalena Tissi En Torno al Vocabulario Religioso Helenístico: Temis y dike en Euforión y su Hipotexto Hesiódico Josep A. Clúa Serena Intertextuality and the Cultic Dimension in Lycophron s Rewriting of Myth: Iphigenia and Childbirth Giulia Biffis The Achilles Oath in Hom. Il : Intertextuality and Survival Manuel Pérez López Plegaria e Himno Literario: Los Dioscuros en las Inscripciones de Prote, Alceo y dos Himnos Homéricos José B. Torres Guerra The Magicians who Sang to the Gods Miriam Blanco Thesea Devovi: Magic, Ritual and Heroes in Ovid s Heroides Nathalie Sado Nisinson El Himno de Adrasto a Apolo en la Tebaida de Estacio José Manuel Vélez Latorre
4 Poetic Language and Religion in Greece and Rome vii Poetic and Religious Traditionalism in Avienus: The Prooemium of the Aratea Amedeo Alessandro Raschieri Venus, Ceres and Ovid: Divinity, Knowledge and the Generation of Poetry in Book IV of Ovid s Fasti Charles Bartlett Magic as a Poetic Process: Vergil and the Carmina Mathieu Minet Poetic and Religious Language in Roman Tragic Fragments Concerning Medea Maria Jennifer Falcone Index
5 RELIGIOUS ONOMASTICS IN ANCIENT GREECE AND ITALY: LEXIQUE, PHRASEOLOGY AND INDO- EUROPEAN POETIC LANGUAGE* JOSÉ L. GARCÍA RAMÓN UNIVERSITY OF COLOGNE 1. The epithets used to invoke gods in a ritual context (hence the term ἐπίκλησις) attested in inscriptions or quoted in literary texts, reveal a lot of information about the respective god s characteristics: they therefore occupy a special position within the representations of divine beings by the Greeks and Romans. The numerous cultic and literary epithets of gods, inasmuch as they are understandable ex graeco ipso, ex latino ipso or by linguistic comparison, reflect different aspects of their divine personality: in fact they can show astonishing characteristics, which are highly instructive about the respective god s powers and the religious knowledge codified in local traditions. Divine epithets appear in epigraphical texts or are quoted in poetry or historical texts; epithets of only literary provenance, albeit sometimes based on the poet s free imagination, often also reflect the imagery of the cultic epithets and thus basically agree in their portrayal of the god s characteristics. Local epithets can reflect the * This paper has been written within the framework of the Research Project Divine epithets in Ancient Greece: a linguistic and philological approach (PPP- Programme DAAD/Vigoni: Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore / Seminario di Filologia Classica e Papirologia / Universität zi Köln, Historisch-Vergelichende Sprachwissenschaft, 2011/2012. It is a part of the Loeb Lecture Indo-European Continuity in Greek and Latin Onomastics, held April 17 th 2012 at the Department of Classics at Harvard. It is a pleasant duty to express my gratitude to Daniel Kölligan (Köln), Daniele Maras (Roma), José Marcos Macedo (Saô Paulo / Köln), José Luis Melena (Vitoria), Paolo Poccetti (Roma), Ana Vegas Sansalvador (Köln), and M. Weiss (Cornell) for their remarks and criticism. My warm thanks also go to Karolina Gierej, Denise Hübner, and especially Lena Wolberg (Köln) for her invaluable help in the material preparation of the manuscript.
6 José L. García Ramón 61 panhellenic divine imagery, i.e. the standard imagery of the Olympic and lesser gods without geographical distinction. But each Greek and Italic region attests in its epigraphy numerous typical, sometimes also unexpected epithets. They may be unique, or related to a god for the first time only from one source, and even appear completely strange for a specific god. The first question when dealing with epithets concerns the distinction between cultic and exclusively literary epithets, i.e. whether epithets quoted in literature are of cultic provenance or a poetic invention. That cultic epithets are usually written with majuscule, whereas literary epithets are with minuscule (except when they are directly used as the name of the god) is, of course, purely conventional. It must be noted that literary epithets can be of a cultic nature, too: the absence of a corresponding ritual context may be due to the lack of documentation. Even if an epithet was invented by the poet (thus showing perhaps an occasional nature), it has the same function as a traditional epithet, inasmuch as it describes the god s essence (or a part of it). Lexicographical literature, which quotes many epithets with or without indication of their regional or dialectal provenance, is often astonishingly precise in their explanation. The evaluation of divine epithets meets with different possibilities: (1) the meaning of the epithet is obscure; in this case there is no other possibility than to associate it, as far as possible, with non-greek or non-italic proper names (toponyms, theonyms, ethnics), in other words, to admit that it is not Indo-European and to renounce a linguistic explanation. (2) the epithet, inasmuch as it is interpretable within Greek or Latin / Sabellic by way of comparison with other Indo-European traditions, indicates a particularity (specific or not) of the god; in this case, we are dealing with various possibilities: (a) the epithet perfectly fits into the pattern of the god s nature. Ideally, the divine character is indicated by epithets, poetry and iconography at the same time: this is e.g. the case of Apollo with the silver bow (ἀργυρότοξος), or Artemis who holds the arrow in her hands (ἰοχέαιρα). (b) the epithet informs us about the god s imagery in the region in which it appears, although iconographical support is lacking. This is e.g. the case of Χαμύνη of Demeter in Olympia, or that of Ἐριούνιος of Ηermes. Χαμύνη who has her bed (εὐνή) on
7 62 Religious Onomastics the ground (χαμαί) 1 reflects ex Graeco ipso the liaison of the goddess with mortal Iasion, as transmitted since Hοmer (Od ), as shown by A. Vegas Sansalvador. For its part, Ἐριούνιος, Ἐριούνης who is highly (ἐρι ) runner / helper conceals in its second member an abstract οὖνος* (or a denominative οὐνο/ε-* run ), *οὔνη course, 2 of the same root *h 2 eu h 1 - as Hitt. ḫuu ai - / ḫui a- ḫḫi run (HLuv. ḫuu ia- mi, CLuv. ḫūi a- mi ), Ved. av i /ū, Lat. iūuō,-are help, as shown by E. Langella, 3 which illustrates the coexistence of both activities as characteristic of Hermes. (c) the epithet is intelligible, but without any recognizable relation to the god s nature, e.g. Apollo Δελφίνιος, who is characterized in many regions by a strong connection with the local political institutions of various communities, where he is venerated, and with ephebical institutions (Graf 1979). In such a case where meaning and function are not in agreement, the epithet is unlikely to be explained satisfactorily on the strength of its etymology. The present contribution will make the case for the importance of the phraseology (within Greek or Latin and/or of Indo-European origin) to interpret divine epithets and names in a threefold approach. Firstly, compounded epithets: literary compounds with ὀρσι and ὀρσο, ἐγερσίμαχος (Atena), ἐριβόας (Dionysus), Lat. opitulus (Iuppiter). Secondly, non-compounded epithets, coexisting or not with compounds having the same lexical item as one of its members: Κεραυνóς, Στóρπᾱς (both of Zeus), Thess. κορουταρρα (En(n)odia), Ζητήρ (Ζeus), Lat. Stator (Iuppiter). Finally an attempt will be made to detect the forerunners (or correspondences) of gods which are not mentioned by name in the Mycenaean and the Sabellic domain in light of onomastics and 1 Or having the earth (χαμ ) as bed (with υνή as the zero-grade of εὐνή, cf. χαμαιεύvης [Hom.], χαμεύvης [Hsch.]), see Od ὣς δ ὁπότ Ἰασίωνι ἐϋπλόκαμος Δημήτηρ, /, μίγη φιλότητι καὶ εὐνῇ / νειῷ ἔνι τριπόλῳ, also Hes. Th. 968/9 Δημήτηρ μὲν Πλoῦτoν ἐγείνατo,..., / Ἰασίωv ἥρῳ μιγεῖσ ἐρατῇ φιλότητι / νειῷ ἔνι τριπόλῳ (Vegas Sansalvador 1992). 2 Cf. the Hesychian glosses οὔνη δεῦρο. δράμε. Ἀρκάδες, οὖνον [ὑγιές.] Κύπριοι δρόμον, οὔνιος, οὔνης δρομεύς. κλέπτης. 3 Cf. on the one hand HH 19.28/9: οἷόν θ Ἑρμείην ἐριούνιον / ὡς ὅ θοὸς ἄγγελός ἐστι, HH 2.407: Ἑρμῆς ἐριούνιος ἄγγελος ὠκύς, on the other HH 4.28f Διὸς δ ἐριούνιος υἱὸς / / σύμβολον ἤδη μοι μέγ ὀνήσιμον,/ 34 ὄφελός τί μοι ἔσσῃ. Further details in Langella (forthcoming).
8 José L. García Ramón 63 phraseology: Demeter and Apolo (not attested in Linear B), and Juno (non attested in Sabellic Italy). I. Compounded Epitheta Deorum and Phraseology 2. Let us start, in memory of our friend Juan José Moralejo, with the essentials of some literary epithets, namely the compounds with ὀρσι and ὀρσo as the first member, which were in part dealt with extensively in my contribution to his Festschrift 4 : ὀρσίαλoς (Bacchylides) of Poseidon, ὀρσιβάκχας (Ba.) and ὀρσιγύναικα (lyr. adesp.) of Dionysus, ὀρσίκτυπoς and ὀρσινεφής (Pindar) of Zeus, ὀρσίμαχος (Ba.) of Αthena, also ὀρσοτρίανα (Pi.) of Poseidon. A crucial point must be stressed at random: ὀρσι may actually conceal two lexemes, which are perceived as different, at least in Homeric synchrony, namely (a) ὄρνυμι to rise (up), to put in vertical motion (aor. ὀρσα-, med. ὦρτο, perf. ὄρωρε, quoted as ὀρ- in what follows), and (b) ὀρίνω to stir (up), whirl, agitate, rouse (aor. ὀρινα-, perf. ὀρώρεται: ὀρινo/ε- in what follows), as phraseological collocations clearly show. A first member ὀρσι is the regular reflex of (a) ὀρ-. Whereas for (b) ὀρινο/ε-, whichever its etymology could be (surely connected with Ved. riṇā ti), 5 one would have expected *ὁρισι (cf. φθισι :: φθίνω, τ(ε)ισι :: τίνω): the choice of ὀρσι instead of regular + ὀρισι was probably favoured by the absence of an aor. + ὀρισα-. In fact ὀρ- to rise and ὀριvο/ε- to stir (up), whirl may occur in identical collocations: they partially overlap, although they were not used as exact synonyms 6. Both senses are also attested for Ved. ar / r (pres. [úd-]iyárti), 4 García Ramón Most probably *h 3 rei H- wallen, wirbeln (Rix 1965, 29ff., LIV 2 s.v.), which may be an enlarged variant of *h 1 er-: OCS rějǫ (-ati) to flow, Ved. rīyate flows. Gk. ὀρῑ νω (*-nh-i o/e-) surely continues a nasal pres. *h 1 ri-n-éh- (Ved. riṇā ti sets in violent motion [of liquids], Goth. rinnan to run ). 6 Other referents may be attached to (a) ὀρ- or to (b) ὀρινο/ε- even if they are (fully or in part) synonym, for instance: to (a) ὀρ- cf. νόος (ὅππῃ οἱ νόος ὄρνυται Od.1.347), μένος (καί μοι μένος ὤρορε Il ), στόνος (τῶν δὲ στόνος ὄρνυτ ἀεικής Il et al.). To (b) ὀρινο/ε-, cf. ἦτορ ( μηδέ μοι ἦτορ / ἐν στήθεσσιν ὄρινε Od.17.47), κῆρ (ὄρινε δὲ κῆρ Ὀδυσῆος Od ) and especially θυμός ( den θυμός aufwühlen, ihn aus der Ruhe in Wallung, Erregung, durcheinander bringen Rix 1965, 23-24, cf. Ἴρῳ δὲ κακῶς ὠρίνετο θυμός Οd , πᾶσιν ὀρίνθη θυμός Ιl , τοῖσι δὲ θυμὸν ἐνὶ στήθεσσιν ὄρινε Il , et al.), also with perf. ὀρώρεται (ἐπεί μοι ὀρώρεται ἔνδοθι θυμὸς / κήδεσιν Od , ἐμοὶ δίχα θυμὸς ὀρώρεται ἔνθα καὶ ἔνθα ibid. 524).
9 64 Religious Onomastics which occurs partly in the same collocations, whereas Ved. ray i /rī is restricted to flowing liquids: in fact, comparison with Vedic is not always helpful to elucidate the sense of compounds with ὀρσι. Consequently for each of the Greek divine epithets with ὀρσι appurtenance to both (a) ὀρ- and (b) ὀρινο/ε- should be taken into account. Α decision in favour of one or the other, or of both, is only possible on the basis of the collocations actually attested. 3. Let us remember some collocations attested with both ὀρ- and ὀρινο/ε-, namely with γόος wipe, lament, ὀρυμαγδός loud noise, din, and μῆνις and νεῖκος, synonyms for wrath, strife, as well as with κῦμα wave. As to γόος 7, cf. (a) Od μῆτερ ἐμή, μή μοι γόον ὄρνυθι μηδέ μοι ἦτορ / ἐν στήθεσσιν ὄρινε φυγόντι περ αἰπὺν ὄλεθρον do not make my weep rise (ὄρνυθι), nor agitate (ὄρινε) my heart in my breast at having escaped and (b) Il Ὣς ἔφατο κλαίουσα, γόον δ' ἀλίαστον ὄρινε and roused endless weep/lament. As to ὀρυμαγδός, cf. (a) Il πολὺς δ ὀρυμαγδὸς ὀρώρει a great din was arisen and (b) πολὺν δ ὀρυμαγδὸν ὄρινε Il [: ] and stir up a great din..., Οd ἠὲ σοὶ ἀντεβόλησεν ὀρινομένῳ κατὰ δῶμα or he met you when you were storming through the palace 8. Αs to νεῖκoς / μῆνις, cf. (a) Il τoῦ εἵνεκα νεῖκoς ὄρωρε for whose sake this strife is arisen and (b) Ba ὁππότε Πη [λείδας / τρα[χε ]ῖαν [Ατρείδαισι μ]ᾶνιν / ὠρίνατ[o when the Pelide stirred hard strife against the Atrides. The same applies to κῦμα wave which is (a) risen up (ὀρ-) by the wind and/or from the sea, but also (b) stirred (up) (expressed not by ὀρινo/ε- but by synonymous κινεο/ε-). As to (a) cf. Od ὦρσε δ ἐπὶ μέγα κῦμα Πoσειδάων ἐνoσίχθων Poseidon, shaker of the earth, made to rise up drove on a great wave (also Il with the winds as the agent). As to (b) cf. Il κινήθη δ ἀγορὴ φὴ κύματα μακρὰ θαλάσσης / πόντου Ἰκαρίοιο, τὰ μέν τ' Εὖρός τε Νότος τε / ὤρορ (ε)... and the assembly became stirred up (κινήθη : ὠρίνθη) like the long waves of the Icarian see, which the East wind or the South Wind has raised (τὰ... ὤρορ [ε]). The comparison with Vedic (ūrmí- wave, ar / r ) is straightforward and allows a step further to be taken: 7 Also with ἵμερος γόοιο (τοῖσι δὲ πᾶσιν ὑφ' ἵμερον ὦρσε γόοιο Il ). 8 There is no need to assume that σοὶ... ὀρινομένῳ has been created on the model of *σοὶ...ὀρνυμένῳ (pace Rix 1965, 25ff.). The occurrences of ὀρινο/ε- in contexts where ὀρ- is also attested are not neccesarily to be understood as homerische Wörter.
10 José L. García Ramón 65 Il oὔτε θαλάσσης κῦμα τόσoν βoάᾳ πoτὶ χέρσoν πoντόθεν ὀρvύμενoν πνoίῃ Βoρέω ἀλεγεινῇ not such is the roaring of the wave of the sea on the shore driven/risen up from the deep/sea by the dread blast of the North Wind RV X 123.2a samudrā d ūrmím úd iyarti venáḥ from the sea the seer raises the wave. This allows for the assumption of a phraseological pattern, which may be inherited WAVE RAISE UP from SEA (by WIND) κῦμα ὀρ- ποντόθεν + ūrmí- úd- ar/r samudrā d - 4. Some of the literary compounds with ὀρσι reflect essential peculiarities of the god, but do not allow a decision to be made between to raise (up) and to stir (up), whirl, agitate. This is the case of the epithets of Dionysus ὀρσιβάκχας and ὀρσιγύναικα: (1) ὀρσιβάκχας who excites the Bacchants (: Βάκχαι) : Ba τὸν ὀρσιβάκχα[ν /... Διόνυσoν [. 9 In fact ὀρσι may conceal (a) ὀρ-, cf. Nonn. D ὣς ὅ γε / εἰς ὄρος ἤλασε Βάκχας (with ἐλαυνο/ε-, the lexical continuant if ὀρ-, cf. νῆυς... ὀρνυμένη (Od /3 : Ved. iyarti nā vam) νῆα ἐλαυνέμεν (Il ), but also (b) ὀρινο/ε-, as expressed by means of σευο/ε- by Eust. Il ἀφ ἧς ὁ Διόνυσος ὠνομάσθαι δοκεῖ, περὶ ἣν ὁ δηλωθεὶς Λυκοῦργος ἔσευε τὰς Βάκχας. (2) ὀρσιγύναικα who excites the women (γυναῖκες): Lyr. adesp. 131 [PMG 1003] εὔιoν ὀρσιγύναικα μαινoμέναις Διόνυσoν ἀνθέoντα Other epithets, on the contrary, are transparent, as the interpretation of ὀρσι is supported by the attested phraseology. This is the case of ὀρσίκτυπoς (Zeus), where ὀρσι matches ὀρ-, and of ὀρσίαλoς (Poseidon) and ὀρσινεφής (Zeus), which reflect Homeric collocations with only (b) ὀρινο/ε- (and synonymous): 9 Eust. ad Il ἀφ ἧς ὁ Διόνυσος ὠνομάσθαι δοκεῖ, περὶ ἣν ὁ δηλωθεὶς Λυκοῦργος ἔσευε τὰς Βάκχας. 10 Cf. also the antonym γυναιμανής mad for women (of Dionysus, -ές HH ἵληθ' εἰραφιῶτα γυναιμανές Nonn.), firstly of Paris (Δύσπαρι γυναιμανές Il.3.39, ), glossed as γυναιμανές γυναικομανές (Hsch.), γυναιμανής ἐπὶ γυναιξὶ μαινόμενος (Sud.). Late γυναιμανέων was wrongly reinterpreted as making women mad (Q.S. 735, Nonn. D ).
11 66 Religious Onomastics (1) ὀρσίκτυπoς (Zeus) who raises bang (: κτύπος): Pi. O ὀρσικτύπoυ Διὸς. See Il τόσσoς ἄρα κτύπoς ὦρτo θεῶν ἔριδι ξυνιόντων so great was the crash that arose when the gods clashed in strife 11. (2) ὀρσίαλoς (Poseidon): who stirs the sea : Βa ὀρσιάλῳ δαμασίχθoνι. The epithet reflects *ὀρίνει ἅλα as shown by the parallel with Od : πoλλῇ, τήν μoι ἐπῶρσε Πoσειδάων ἐvoσίχθων, ὅς μoι ἐφoρμήσας ἀνέμoυς κατέδησε κέλευθoν ὤρινεν δὲ θάλασσαν ἀθέσφατoν with great woe (scil. ὀιζυῖ), which Poseidon rose 12 upon me, he who, raising up the winds and stirred up an unspeakable sea. More precisely, the passages make clear that the god (a) raises up the winds (ἐπῶρσε, ἐφoρμήσας 13 ), and (b) stirs (up) the sea (ὤριvεv) 14. This characteristic activity of Poseidon 15 is also expressed by means of other synonym verbs (ταράσσω, κινέω) 16. On the other hand, the collocation (b) [WIND STIR UP SEA] is well attested by means of synonyms also in Vedic: Il. 9.4 ὡς δ ἄνεμoι δύo πόντoν ὀρίνετoν ἰχθυόεντα 17 just as two winds stir up the sea full of fishes RV IX 84.4c... samudrám úd iyarti vāyúbhiḥ (this soma) its liquid raises (?)/stirs up the sea beneath the winds (vāyúbhiḥ) All this allows the reconstructing of an inherited phraseological pattern: (by) WIND RAISE UP / STIR UP SEA ἄvεμoς ὀρινο/ε- πόντoς vāyú- úd ar/r samudrá- 11 Cf. also Il ὑπὸ δὲ κτύπoς ὤρνυτo πoσσὶν / ἀνδρῶν. 12 Cf. also Od ὄρσας [scil. Poseidon] ἀργαλέων ἀvέμων ἀμέγαρτoν ἀυτμήν. 13 Gk. ἐφορμαο/ε-, a synonym of ὄρνυμι (*h 3 r -néu -), is in fact a denominative of ὁρμή (*h 3 or-sméh 2 ) of the same root (cf. denominative τιμάo/ε- honour :: τίo/ε- id. ). 14 Cf. also ὀρινομένη τε θάλασσα (Il ), ὅς τ ὤρινε θάλασσαν (Hes. Op. 676). 15 Nonetheless, both verbs are considered to be close semantically by the glosists, cf. ὀρίνετον ὥρμων (Hsch.). See also ὀρίνετον: δυϊκῶς, ὥρμων, ἐκίνουν (Ap.Soph.). 16 Cf. ἐτάραξε πόντoν / χερσὶ τρίαιναν ἑλὼν (Od ), Πoσειδάωνα... γαίης κινητῆρα καὶ ἀτρυγέτoιo θαλάσσης (HH ) 17 Cf. also Il /8 ἶσος ἀέλλῃ / ἥ τε καθαλλομένη ἰοειδέα πόντον ὀρίνει.
12 José L. García Ramón 67 (3) ὀρσινεφής (Zeus) who stirs up/wilds the clouds : Pi. N ὀρσινεφὴς... Ζεύς. The epithet actually reflects *ὀρίνει/ὤρινε νέφος (expressed by means of synonymes in Homer) better than *ὄρνυσι / ὦρσε. As in the case of ὀρσίαλος, Homeric phraseology shows a combination of two actions: (a) the god raises up the winds (Od ἐπῶρσ' ἄνεμoν Boρέην νεφεληγερέτα Ζεύς) and (b) the winds wild (κλονεο/ε-, στυφελιζο/ε-, δονεο/ε-) the clouds. Τhis is evident in Il ff:, τοὶ δ ὀρέοντο ἠχῇ θεσπεσίῃ νέφεα κλονέοντε πάροιθεν. αἶψα δὲ πόντον ἵκανον ἀήμεναι, ὦρτο δὲ κῦμα πνοιῇ ὕπο λιγυρῇ and they (scil. the winds) rose (ὀρέοντο) with a wondrous din, stirring (κλονέοντε) 18 the clouds in confusion / tumultuously before them and the wave rose (ὦρτο... κῦμα) under the whistling wind. The contrast between (b) winds stirring clouds and waves risen up by the actions of winds is straightforward. The situation in Vedic (ar/r ) is similar as seen in RV I 116.1b: stómām iyarmy abhríyeva vā taḥ I raise songs of praise, like the wind (raises [or wilds]) the clouds ). 19 In this verse iyarmi matches the sense raise, impel with stóma- as the object, but its elliptic occurrence with abhríya- may reflect also the second sense to wild (: ὀρινο/ε-). This is clear in the case of the thunder, which fulfills the very same activity in RV VI 44.12ab, as again the rising up fulfilled by Indra with the presents: úd abhrā ṇīva stanáyann iyarti índro rā dhāṃsi áśviyāni gávyā like the thunder wilds the clouds, so let Indra the equine and bovine presents rise up. The following collocational pattern may therefore be considered as inherited: WIND RISE / STIR UP CLOUD ἄvεμoς ὀρινο/ε- νέφεα vā ta- ar / r abhrí- 18 Cf. also πυκνὰ Θρηικίου Βορέω νέφεα κλονέοντος (Hes. Op. 553). With other verbs, cf. ὡς ὁπότε νέφεα Ζέφυρoς στυφελίξῃ (Il ), ἄνεμoς νέφεα δoνήσας (Il ). 19 Ved. abhríya-, a derivative of abhrá- cloud (IE *n b h -ró-: Lat. imber), which is currently kept apart from Gk. ἀφρός foam, slaver because of the difference of meaning.
13 68 Religious Onomastics 6. The epithet ὀρσοτρίαινᾰ, as a designation of Poseidon in Pindar (4x), e.g. Ol ὀρσοτρίαινα δ ἐπ Ἰσθμῷ ποντίᾳ / ἅρμα θοὸν τάνυεν 20 is transmitted in this form. The first member ὀρσο was actually not felt to be as remarkable by scholiasts and not deserving of any comment at all. This strongly suggests that it was considered to be a mere variant of *ὀρσι-τρίαινα, i.e. who raises (: ὀρ-) the trident or who whirls (ὀρινο/ε-) the trident : both senses fitting the image we have of the god 21. In fact, ὀρσοτρίαινα is forma difficilior, namely a possessive compound of the type ἀγλαoτρίαινα having a bright trident, εὐτρίαινα having a goodly trident (both in Pindar) referring to the same god, with ὀρσo as its first member: the adjective matches Ved. r ṣvá- high (: Av. ǝrǝšuua- id. ), which is also attested in compounds of the same type as Ved. r ṣvá-vīra- having prominent men, r ṣvaújas- having prominent force 22. The epithet ὀρσοτρίαινα describes Poseidon as the god who has a high trident or who keeps his trident high (in a horizontal position), as he is widely depicted in Greek tradition (e.g. A. Pr , Ar. Eq. 840) and iconography. This matches the figure of the god who whirls the sea with his trident (Od ἐτάραξε δὲ πόντον / χερσὶ τρίαιναν ἑλών, Od Πoσειδάων ὤρινεν δὲ θάλασσαν, see 5). Nevertheless, ὀρσο-τρίαιναν could alternatively be understood as a conventional Doric orthographic variant with <σ> for <θ> for a possessive compound *ὀρθο-τρίαιναν who keeps his trident standing upright (of the type ὀρθóθριξ A. Ch. 32), which would actually match the collocation τρίαιναν ὀρθὴν στᾶσαν in a fragment of Euripides Erecteus referring to the dispute between Poseidon and Athena for the hegemony of Athens (F Cropp-Collard: speaks Praxithea vv. 44 ff.): οὐδ ἀντ ἐλάας χρυσέας τε Γοργόνος τρίαιναν ὀρθὴν στᾶσαν ἐν πόλεως βάθροις Εὔμολπος οὐδὲ Θρῇξ ἀναστέψει λεὼς στεφάνοισι, Παλλὰς δ οὐδαμοῦ τιμήσεται. nor shall Eumolpos or his Thracian folk crown a trident planted upright instead of the olive and the golden Gorgon in the foundations of the city, nor dishonor Pallas. 20 Also ὁ πόντιος Ὀρσ[oτ]ρίαινα (Pae. F 52k. 47), ὀρσοτρίαιναν εὐρυβίαν καλέων θεόν (P. 2.12), N However, the Scholia do not give any guidance on this point, for instance, Schol. O (schol. rec.) ὁ ὀρσοτριαίνης δέ (64), ἤγουν ὁ Ποσειδῶν ὁ τὴν τρίαιναν φέρων. 22 Cf. also Hom. ὀρσοθύρη a door high up (or back) in the wall, actually a compound of the type ἀκρόπολις.
14 José L. García Ramón 69 Two facts may speak in favour of the interpretation as * ὀρθο-τρίαινα having his trident upright : (a) Greek traditions on the dispute make clear that Poseidon hit the earth with his trident in a vertical position, making a spring rise up (Paus ), as is also widely reflected in the iconography 23 ; (b) the expression τρίαιναν ὀρθὴν στᾶσαν obviously reflects the inherited collocation Hom. στῆ δ ὀρθός (e.g. Il [et al.] στῆ δ ὀρθὸς καὶ μῦθον ἐν Ἀργείοισιν ἔειπεν #), which is well attested also in Vedic and Avestan, cf. RV II 30.3ab ūrdhvó hy ásthād ádhy antarikṣé dhā vr trā ya prá vadhám... upright he stood up in the air and addressed his weapon against Vr tra, Yt yā taδa ǝrǝduuā hištǝṇta those who were standing upright 24. In this assumption, the occurrence of <σ> for <θ> would reflect the Doric convention, as seen in type σιός (: θεός), παρσένος (: παρθένος) in the text of Alcman 25. The possibility of conventional Doric spellings in the text of Pindar is not excluded: this is, in my opinion, the case for the forms ὥτε as, like (*Hi ō-), ὧτε so (*sō-) as against ὥστε + infinitive (4x), ὥς, ὥσπερ (instead of Dor. *ὥ, *ὥπερ), which actually reflect the distribution attested in the text of Alcman, e.g. ὤτ ἄλιον fr (ϝ ὤτ ), ὤ/τ ὄρνις 82.1/2 vs. τόσσος κόρος ὤστ ἀμύναι Nevertheless, the assumption of a compound *ὀρθο-τρίαινα, with artificial Doric spelling, encounters a major difficulty: the epithet ὀρθός is regularily attested with <θ> in the transmitted text of Pindar 27, also in the same construction as τρίαιναν ὀρθὴν στᾶσαν (see above): P τοὺς δὲ τομαῖς ἔστασεν ὀρθούς and others he put upright (i.e. raises up ) with surgeries. This leaves as the only possibility for a putative basic form *ὀρθοτρίαινα, the assumption that ὀρσο in ὀρσοτρίαινα reflects the crossing of the formae faciliores ὀρσι (*ὀρσι-τρίαινα who raises/wilds the trident ) and ὀρθο (*ὀρθο-τρίαινα who has the trident upright ). Anyway, ὀρσοτρίαινα may simply mean who keeps his trident high (: ὀρσο high, Ved. r ṣvá- id. ), i.e. in horizontal position, which was not 23 Cf. Hdt. 8.55; πλήξας τῇ τριαίνῃ (Apollod. 3.14), τύψεν Λυκτονίην γαίην χρυσῇ τριαίνῃ (A. Orph. 1280), τὴν τρίαιναν ἔπηξεν (Schol. in E. Ph. 187). For the iconography cf. the material of Simon 2004 in García Ramón 2011, 322 no Cf. Schmitt 1967, 248ff. for an extensive overview. 25 Hinge 2006, 70ff. The variant with <σ> is actually attested in Ar. Lys ὀρσὰ Λακεδαίμων πᾶἁ (: ὀρθὴ... πᾶσα) καὶ τοὶ σύμμαχοι / ἅπαντες ἐστύκαντι (: ἑστᾶσιν), in the Pseudo-Laconian dialect of the Spartan ambassador. 26 García Ramón 1985, 94ff., 82ff. 27 ὀρθόμαντις (N. 1.61), ὀρθόβουλος (P , 8.75), ὀρθοδίκας (P. 11.9), ὀρθόπολις who upholds ( put upright ) the town (O. 2.7 ἄωτον ὀρθόπολιν).
15 70 Religious Onomastics understandable within Greek and was reinterpreted as a formal variant of ὀρσι, which ultimately expressed the same content. 7. Let us turn to two literary epithets of Athena, ὀρσίμαχος who raises / stirs up the fight (Ba.) and Athena ἐγρεμάχη who awakes the fight (HHCer.), which reflect phraseological patterns, attested in Greek and in other languages, in which the second member μάχη, and other quasisynonymous terms (πόλεμος, φύλοπις, also μῆνις, νεῖκος wrath, strife, also ἔρις), to be subsumed under [EVIL], occur in collocations with (a) ὀρ- and (b) ὀρινο/ε- (i.e. [RISE UP EVIL] or [STIR UP EVIL]), as well as with (c) ἐγειρο/ε- [AWAKE EVIL]: (a) and (b) are to be considered as stylistically non-marked as against (c), which is marked. 28 Both epithets in any case reflect the characteristic image of the warrior goddess, who is otherwise referred to as ἀγέστρατος (Hes., also Thess. λαγείταρρα as an epiclesis in Larisa), ἐγχειβρόμος (Pi.), λαοσόος (Hom.), πάμμαχος (Ar.), περσέπολις (Ar.), πολεμόκλονος (Batr.), πρόμαχος (AP). The epithet ὀρσίμαχος of Athena in Ba ] Παλλάδος ὀρσιμάχου reflects the phraseme [RISE UP EVIL] with (a) ὀρ-, which is well attested, also by means of synonyms of both the verb (Hom. ἀειρο/ε-, Att. αἰρο/ε- to lift up ) and often the object (πόλεμος, φύλοπις), with a human (Il ) or a god (Il ) as subject: Il οὐκ ἐθέλεσκε μάχην ἀπὸ τείχεος ὀρνύμεν Ἕκτωρ, 29 Hector would not drive his attack beyond the wall s shelter. Il ἤ ῥ αὖτις πόλεμόν τε κακὸν καὶ φύλοπιν αἰνὴν / ὄρσομεν,... whether we again stir up grim warfare and the terrible fighting (Zeus to Hera). As to the continuity with ἀείρεσθαι /αἴρεσθαι (with people as the agent) in Classical Greek, see Hdt oἱ Ἕλληνες oἱ τῷ βαρβάρῳ πόλεμoν ἀειράμεvoι, Thuc πόλεμον γὰρ αἰρομένων ἡμῶν, as well as ἀερσίμαχ ος who raises/stirs battle (Ba υἷας ἀερσιμάχ [ους, of Ajax and Achilles). Whether ὀρσι in ὀρσίμαχος could also originally mean (b) stir, agitate, whirl must remain open. Anyway the collocation, expressed by κινεο/ε-, is attested in Classical Greek (see Thuc δεόμενοι τὸν ἐκεῖ 28 That it is about the same state of affairs is clear in the light of the glosses explaining forms belonging to (or connected with) ὄρνυ-, namely ἔρσεο : διεγείρου, ἔρσῃ : ὁρμήσῃ neben ὄρσο, ὄρσεο : ἐγείρου, ὄρσαι : ὀρμῆσαι ἤ ἐγεῖραι... (Hsch.). 29 As to μάχην... ὀρνύμεν cf. MN Ὀρσίμαχος (Boeotia).
16 José L. García Ramón 71 πόλεμον κινεῖν, Pl. R. 566e πρῶτον μὲν πολέμους τινὰς ἀεὶ κινεῖ). The expression, which is certainly banal, may be inherited in view of close parallels with reflexes (or cognates) of *h 3 er- attested in Vedic (with ar / r, both to rise and to whirl ), in Latin (with intransitive orīrī, consurgere, and transitive mouēre) and in Hittite (with arai-/arii a- ḫḫi ): 30 RV ab yád udī rata ājáyo dhr ṣṇáve dhīyatedhánā when fights 31 arise, for the courageous the booty prize stands / has been placed Verg. Aen addiderat subitoque nouum consurgere bellum Romulidis Tatioque seni Curibusque seueris he had added that a new war had suddenly arisen between the Romulids and the old Tatius and the strict men of Cures 32. KUB xxii 7 Vs. 1 k]u-u-ru-ri HI.A a-ra-iš-kat-ta-ri enemities rise up repeatedly 33. Cf. also KUB iv 4 TUKU.TUKU-an a-ra-a-i he rouse wrath. 8. Athena is referred to as ἐγρεμάχη in the Homeric Hymn to Demeter (HH Παλλάς τ ἐγρεμάχη καὶ Ἄρτεμις ἰοχέαιρα), as well by later authors 34. A variant ἐγερσιμάχη (cf. ἐγρεμάχας ἐγερσιμάχας (Hsch.) is also attested in Late Poetry (AP τίς νύ σε θῆκε θεᾷ δῶρον ἐγερσιμάχᾳ). 35 The epithet conceals a collocation [AWAKE EVIL (WAR)] which is stylistically marked and may be assumed to reflect IE Dichtersprache on the basis of it also occurring in Latin, and especially in Old Germanic languages and in Armenian. 36 The collocation is well attested in Greek since Homer, both with men and gods as the subject and with μάχην, πόλεμον (Zeus!), Ἄρηα as the object: 30 Lat. orīrī and Ved. ar / r can almost certainly be traced back to *h 3 er- rise up. Whether this applies to Hitt. arai- ḫḫi / arii a- (with deletion of laryngeal in a De Saussure context *h 3 or-) or to *h 3 rei H- (Rix, LIV 2 ) remains open to question at this point. 31 Cf. Ved. ājí- fight, dispute, cf. Gk. ἀγών, OIr. āg id.. 32 Cf. also Aen cum saepe coorta est / seditio, oriturque miserrima caedes. 33 Cf. also KBo 5: 4 ii 21f. ma-an tu-uk-ma ku-iš-ki... [LÚKÚR] a-ra-a-i when an enemy rises up against you (also KBo 17:151, v 4 Rs. 27). 34 Cf. σὺ δ εὐχόμενος Κρονίωνι / Παλλάδι τ ἐγρεμάχῃ γλαυκώπιδι καὶ Διὸς υἱῷ / Φοίβῳ (D.S [oracle]), Παλλάδα τ ἐγρεμάχην κούρην (Orph.17.38). The epithet is also referred to men, cf. ἐργεμάχαν / Θησέα (Soph. OC ). 35 The MN Ἐγέρτιος, Ἐγρέσις (Attica) may be considered as short forms of compounds with a first member Ἐγερτι, Ἐγρεσι (cf. the gloss ἔγρετο ἐγείρετο [ad Il. 2.41] Hsch.) and a highly probable second member μαχος. 36 Cf. García Ramón 2007 (extensive presentation of the Latin material).
17 72 Religious Onomastics Il ἐξ οὗ γὰρ παρὰ νηυσὶ μάχην ἤγειρας ἑταίρων, for since that time when by the ships you [775 Ἕκτορ] wakened the battle of our companions (also Hes. Th. 713 μάχην δριμεῖαν ἔγειραν). Cf. also Il Ὣς ἔφατο Κρονίδης, πόλεμον δ ἀλίαστον ἔγειρε, Il ἴομεν, ὄφρα κε θᾶσσον ἐγείρομεν ὀξὺν Ἄρηα. The same collocation occurs in Latin, although expressed in other terms, namely by compounds of citō, -āre to put in motion, to whirl, agitate 37, both in poetry (suscitāre, excitāre with caedem, iras, irarum aestus, mollem belli as the object) and in prose (suscitāre with bellum, iras, seditionem) 38. Aen terribilis saeuam nullo discrimine caedem / suscitat,... he frightful and indiscriminately stirs a terrible slaughter up. See also Liv obtestans ne Romanum cum Saguntino suscitarent bellum. The use of ºcitāre points to a lexical renewal of inherited IE *h 1 g er- (: ἐγείρειν, Ved. jár-a- te, with perf. ἐγρήγορα : Ved. jāgā ra, YAv. jaγāra), the reflex of which is expergere to awake, expergēfacere id., which is not attested for [AWAKE EVIL]. 39 The collocation in Latin poetry could a priori be due to Greek influence but its occurrence also in Prose seems, however, to speak in favour of an inherited phraseological pattern, which made its way into the former language. Old Germanic languages are rich with the same collocation, namely with the verb PGmc. *wakja-: OE weccean, ONors. vekja (with víg fight /struggle, hilde id., vǫ evil ), also Goth. us-wakjan ἐξυπνίζω, OSax wekkian, OHG weckan excitare, suscitare (Gloss.). 40 Some instances from Old English and Old Norse are: Beow. 2044/6 onginneð geōmor-mōd geongum cempan þurh hreðra gehyad, higes cunnian wīgbealu weccean Frequentative citāre actually reflects the meaning of ciēre (causat. *koi -e i eo/e- put in violent motion ) which matches the collocations of Gk. κινεῖν. 38 Cf. e.g. quantam... molem excitarit belli Paris (Acc. trag. 610). In prose, cf. magnas excitari iras (Liv ),... multi temere excitati tumultus sunt ), also , From Lat. *exper-g-o/e-, beside expergīscī to become awake : YAv. fra-γrisa-, by dissimilation from * per-gro/e-, * per-grisco/e-. Anyway Lat. pergere still survives in Span. despertar. 40 Cf. Lat. uegēre to vivify, excite (vs. uigēre to be strong : stat. * u g-ē-), Ved. vāj-áya- ti id. (RV +) which actually continues IE causat. *u og -éi o/e- to make live (RV+) as against stat.*u eg -ē- be vivified, excited (Watkins 1973: 490).
18 José L. García Ramón 73 he began, sad in mind, through his heart and thought to test the spirit of a young warrior, to awake the evil of war. Rþ 38.3 víg nam... at vekja he began, to awake the fight. 41 An identical collocation is attested in Armenian (zart ean paterazmownk ), as Daniel Kölligan has kindly pointed out to me: yor yawowrs mer zart ean paterazmownk ič oric kołmanc in our days wars awake in all four (heaven) directions (Aristakes Lastiverc i, 1 st AD). To sum up: in the light of comparative evidence, it may be stated that the epithet ἐγρεμάχη of Athena (HHCer.), like its late variant ἐγερσιμάχη, reflects a marked phraseological pattern which may be traced back to IE poetic language. 9. The compounded epithet Ἑριβόας loud-shouting, in fact having high louds 42, is explicitely used, like Βρόμιος, as a designation of Dionysus 43 by Pindar (Dith. F 75.12): ἐπὶ τὸν κισσοδαῆ θεόν, / τὸν Βρόμιον, τὸν Ἑριβόαν τε βροτοὶ καλέομεν to that ivy-knowing god, whom we mortals call Bromios and Eriboas (Loud- Roarer, Loud-Shouter). The collocation [HIGH SHOUT] underlying the epithet actually reflects a well known peculiarity of the god, like contiguous βρόμιος noisy sounding, ἐριβρεμέτης (HOrph.), ἐρίβρομος (HH 7.56, 26.1, Anacr.), πυρίβρομος (Nonn.). Its structure as a possessive compound is straightforward: the first member ἐρι is synonymous of μεγα, ἀγα, ὑψι (cf. ἐρι πολὺ μέγα. ἰσχυρόν Hsch.), namely a loc. *ser-i of *ser- top, upper point (Hitt. šēr on, over, direct. šarā, Lyc. hriº) 44. The collocation is expressed by means of synonymous μέγα (Hom. μέγα βοήσας): Il ἔγνω ἐς ἄντα ἰδών, μέγα δ Ἕκτορα εἶπε βοήσας (Aeneas) recognized (sc. Apollo) when he saw his face and called aloud 41 Cf. also Akv 15.3 at vekja gram hilde to awake the thorny struggle. 42 Its second member, βόας, is actually βοᾱ shout, clamor, not an agentive βόος), like δουπος, κτυπος in Hom. ἐρί(γ)δουπος id., ἐρίκτυπος of high bang. 43 See also ἐριβόας κᾶρυξ of Hermes (AP). 44 As per Willi ἐρι 'high, to a high degree has Ionic-Homeric psilosis for *ἑρι.
19 74 Religious Onomastics in a great shout to Hector 45. This is also recognizable in the redundant expression γόον ὀξυβόαν, including the quasi synonym γόος (cf. infra), in A. Ag ὕπατος δ ἀίων ἤ τις Ἀπόλλων / ἢ Πὰν ἢ Ζεὺς οἰωνόθροον / γόον ὀξυβόαν τῶνδε μετοίκων...or some Apollo on high or Pan, or Zeus, hearing the loud shrill wailing cries of the birds. The epithet Ἐριβόας helps to interpret the Mycenaean personal name e-ri-ko-wo (PY An 656.2, Ep 212.2, Jn 845.7, Jn 944) as /Eri-gowos/ weeping aloud 46, i.e. * having high weeping (: γόος weeping, lament ). 47 It must be stated that shout (βοή) and lamentation (γόος), two words not in fact etymogically connected 48, have some features in common: (a) someone raises them up (ὄρνυσι, ὦρσε), and (b) both stand (perf. ὄρωρε, ὀρώρει) high (μέγας, i.e. aloud ). This is shown by collocational coincidences attested in Homer and in Poetry: As to (a) cf. Od μή μοι γόον ὄρνυθι, Pi. P /3 ὦρσεν / ἐκ Δαναῶν γόον. The same applies to the desire for lamentation (ἵμερος 45 The βοή is raised up by the utterer and remains in the high (ὀρώρει), cf. Il βοὴ δ ἄσβεστος ὄρωρεν and the ceaseless clamour has risen / is at the highest (also with ὀρώρει). 46 Actually the one who has loud weepings, better than /Eri-kōwos/ having a big / high fleece (cf. Myc. ko-wo /kōwos/ fleece, Hom. κῶας) instead of regular /Erikōwēs/, which is formally possible, cf. Ἐρί-ανθος besides Ἐρι-άνθης, probably Myc. pe-ra-ko /P h erakos/ or /P h erākos/ : PN Φέρακος), Hom. μέγαν κῶας (García Ramón 2012). 47 The basic meaning of γόος is * shouting, affected speaking cf. γόης wizard (PGk. *gou ā-t-). 48 Gk. γόος lamentation from *góu h 2 -o-, cf. γοάω from *gou h 2 -éi o/e- (Hackstein 2003, 192-3, or denominative of γόος), IE *geu h 2 -, cf. Ved. intensive jóguve calls repeatedly, OHG gi-kewen call and loud (OHG kūma lament ). The meaning and collocations of βοάω do not match those of γοάω, and are basically coincident with those of IE *g h eu H- shout, call (Ved. hvā, OCS zъvati and Toch. kwā-). I would temptatively suggest that βοάω is a non-strictly phonetic outcome of IE *g h eu h 2 -, namely of intensive *g h uh 2 -éi o/e-. This would allow the absence of a counterpart of Ved. hav i - (hváya- ti ) to be ignored: βοάω would match Ved. hváya- ti : Av. zβaiia- ti and could be ultimately traced back to IE *g h uh 2 -éi o/e-, which would have yielded + φάο/ε- (homophonous with Hom. φάε was visible : *b h éh 2 -e-t) and have been remodelled as + φοάο/ε- (by formal similaritywith γοάο/ε-) and onomatopoetically to βοάο/ε-, as I have previously tried to demonstrate (García Ramón 2010: 95ff.). Aliter Hackstein, loc.cit, who operates with the Schwebeablaut variants *geu h 2 - and *gu eh 2 -, reflected as γοάο/ε- (*gou h 2 -éi o/e-) and βοάο/ε- (*gu oh 2 -éi o/e-) respectively: this is formally in order and remains a good explanation, but the semantic and collocation of both Greek verbs remain different.
20 José L. García Ramón 75 γόοιο) 49 : Il μετὰ δέ σφι Θέτις γόου ἵμερον ὦρσε (also.108, 153, Od ). As to (b) cf. μέγαν γόον (HHDem. 82/3 ἀλλὰ θεὰ κατάπαυε μέγαν γόον yet, goddess, cease your loud lament and ἐρικλάγκταν γόον, s. above), which is parallel to Hom. μέγα βοήσας, and ἐρικλάγκταν γόον (Pi. P ὄφρα τὸν Εὐρυάλας / μιμήσαιτ ἐρικλάγκταν γόον so that she might imitate the echoing/loud sounding wail of Euriale ). The overlap of γόος and βοή is evident in light of the Aeschylean γόον ὀξυβόαν (cf. supra). To sum up: the epithet ἐριβόας having high louds of Dionysus (Pindar) reflects poetic phraseology and allows the elucidation of the Mycenaean MN e-ri-ko-wo as /Eri-gowos/ having high lamentations (cf. ἐρικλάγκταν γόον Pind.) on the strength of the semantic overlap of βοή loud and γόος lament in Greek. 10. Lat. opitulus is quoted as an epithet of Iuppiter by Festus (p. 184 M.): opitulus Iuppiter, et opitulator dictus est, quasi opis lator. The form is currently explained as the compound opi-tulus (*opi-tl h 2 -o- 50 : ops help, tulus who brings ; cf. perf. [te]tulī of ferō) and interpreted as who brings. The two forms given as synonymous by Festus do actually exist: opitulus (cf. sodalis opitulator, App. Flor. 3, p. 353) underlies the denominative opi-tulor, -ārī (Cato, Plaut.+; active -ō, -āre Liv. Andr.) with the current meaning of to give help/assistance, also bring relief to someone s plight. As to lator proposer, mover (of suffrage, Cic.+), it is attested as terminus technicus; nonetheless, opis lator is not directly supported by direct textual evidence. The sense help, aid of ops (type ope mea, ope eius, 51 Acc. inc. 5 W. quorum genitor fertur esse ops gentibus 52 ) is secondary as compared 49 The same applies to thud (δοῦπος), which, like γόος or βοή, is mentioned as μέγας and as rising up ὄρνυτο, ὀρώρει), cf.... τοῖος γάρ κε μέγας ὑπὸ δοῦπος ὀρώρει (Hsd. Th. 703 = fr ) or in the formula / δοῦπος ὀρώρει // (Il , , Hes. Th. 70) and ὥς τῶν ὄρνυτο δοῦπος. 50 Of the type foedi-fragus, sacri-legus (Bader 1962, 17, 125; Lindner 1996, 76; Livingston 2004, 57 ff.). The MN Οπίτωρ, Ὀπιτώριος can with difficulty be interpreted as short forms /Opitor-/ of opitulus, i.e. /-tor-/ (: opi-tulus), or /-or-/ (: opit-ulus), of the Greek type Κάσ-τωρ (καστι : κέκασμαι), Νέστωρ (Νεστι : νέομαι). This possibility, though, lacks practically any support in Italic (perhaps Stator, beside Statius to a putative *Stāt[i], as per Weiss, Handout). 51 Cf. nisi quid mi opis di dant, disperii (Pl. Cist. 671) if the gods do not give me some help, I am lost, ope consilioque tuo (Cic. Nat.deor. 3.74). 52 Prisc. Gl.Lat. II glosses ops in this passage as opem ferens et auxilium, but stresses that it meant opulentus in Archaic Latin. This is actually a confusion with the back-formed adjective ops (Livingston 2004: 60).
21 76 Religious Onomastics against the original wealth, resource, whence abundance, might, 53 although it is already attested in Old Latin: there is therefore no major difficulty for an interpretation of opi as help in opitulus. In fact, the term is used as the name of the goddess Ops (also nom. Opis in Plaut. Bacch. 893) 54, wife of Saturn and mother of Zeus (Pl. Mil quam Iuppiter ex Ope natust). It underlies, moreover, the epithet Opigena the midwife 55 of her daughter Juno, which cannot be separated from Iupiter opitulus. However, an interpretation of opi-tulus as who brings help, i.e. as a synonym of opi-fer (Ennius+) 56 is not without its difficulties: (1) Lat. opifer ʻwho brings help occurs with healing deities e.g. Diana (DIANAI OPIFER.(AE) ǀ NEMORENSEI CIL1,1480 [Tivoli]), Phoebus (deus opifer Ov. met f. opiferque per orbem / dicor of (: Aesculapius), Fortuna (FORTUNAE OPIFERAE ). Lat. opifer obviously reflects the construction opem ferre bring help which is actually attested, cf. Ter. And. 473 Iuno Lucina, fer opem, serua me, obsecro help me, save me, I beseech you. The coexistence of opifer and opitulus with the very same sense brings (of suppletive ferō :: (te)tulī) is in fact exceptional: we do not have clear instances of two agentive compounds having in common the first member and the suppletive stems of infectum and perfectum in the second member. 57 For this reason, one would expect for the agentive tulus, at least originally, the sense of ( )tollō, -ere ʻto rise up, 53 A third sense of ops, as a synonymous of opulentum (P.F. 191 M. ops antiqui dicebant opulentum, unde e contrario inops (v.l. quem nunc opulentum, ut testimonio est, non solum ei contrarium inops ) may be as an isolated backformation from inops. 54 Cf. P. Fest. p.186/7: Opima spolia dicuntur originem quidem trahentia ab Ope Saturni uxore; Itaque illa quoque cognominatur Consiua, et esse existimatur terra. Ideoque in Regia colitur a populo Romano quia omnes opes humano generi terra tribuat. 55 Iuno Opigena is the tutelar goddess of lying-in women cf. Opigenam Iunonem matronae colebant, quod ferre eam opem in partu laborantibus credebant (Fest., p. 200 M.). 56 Trag. 124 Ribb : o pie eam secum aduocant [cj. fidem] opiferam sociam aduocant Vahlen, omnes secum aduocant Heinsius]). 57 It has been assumed that Lat. grātulāre goes back to *grāti-tulāre (: grātēs ferre) with a compound *gratulus (*grati-tulus), and that postulāre is the outcome of *po(r)sci-tulāre (: *porscam ferre). Even if this is so (discussion in Mignot 1969, 317), the fact is that only *grātulus may be assumed, and there is no trace of *grātifer.
22 José L. García Ramón 77 increaseʼ, perf. sustulī (IE *telh 2 -), namely who rises up, not that of (te)tulī I have brought (: ferō). (2) opi may conceal not only ops help, but also plur. opēs ʻresourcesʼ58. In other compounds opi may also conceal opus work, performance, e.g. opifex artificer, craftsman (Plaut. +), opificium ʻwork(ing)ʼ, opificus ʻhandworkerʼ. Iuppiter is referred to as opifex aedificatorque mundi deus (Cic. nat.deor , Ov.), opifex rerum (Lucan), opifex rerum aeternus (Col ). In fact, the occurrence of opitulor, -ārī in close vicinity with opēs, inopia speaks in favor of opēs resources as the first member of opi-tulus, which may be interpreted as who rise up the resources/power(s) : 59 Liv. Andr W. Da mihi hasce opes, quas peto, quas precor! Porrige, opitula! grant to me the powers for which I ask, and pray! hold them out, bring me help! Cf. also Plaut. Curc. 332ff.... noluit frustrarier, / ut decet velle hominem amicum amico, atque opitularier: /... / quod tibi est item sibi esse, magnam argenti inopiam.... he didn`t want to dissapoint you, he wanted to do the proper things between friends and help you... what is common to you and to him, a major lack of funds, Sall. Cat saepe maiores vostrum, miserti plebis Romanae, decretis suis inopiae eius opitulati sunt your forefathers often took pity on the Roman commons and relieved their necessities by decrees (it is also remembered that because of their debts - propter magnitudinem aeris alieni- it was allowed to pay silver in copper - argentum aere solutum est). These passages suggest that the help implied by opitulāre could in the first instance be of a fairly concrete type, in the form of opēs resources (as against inopia), which should grow. This seems to be confirmed by the invocation to Iuppiter in Plaut. Capt. 768: Iuppiter supreme, seruas me measque auges opes; maximas opimitates opiparasque offers mihi. O Iuppiter, on high, thou dost preserve me and make prosper my resources! Your highest and 58 According to Livingston 2004, 57ff., the form goes back to IE *h 1 ep- cf. epula(e) ʻbanquetʼ, *ʻa religious performanceʼ. 59 The sense bring help is clear, in spite of ex opibus summis in Plaut. Mil ea te expetere ex opibus summis mei honoris gratia / mihique amanti ire opitulatum for me to look to you to help me with all your might, out of regard for me, and to have you aiding me in my love affair.
23 78 Religious Onomastics splendid abundance, do offer to me!, in close parallel with Ter. And. 473 Iuno Lucina, fer opem, serua me, obsecro. Iuppiter is also invoked in this sense in Pl. Poen magne Iuppiter, / restitue certas mi ex incertis nunc opes. now make my happiness turn from uncertain to certain! To sum up: Iuppiter opitulus who brings help meant originally who increase, rise up the resources (opēs), and tulus reflects the original meaning of tollō rise, increase. II. Non-Compounded Compared to Compounded Divine Names and Phraseology 11.A divine epithet related to a given reality or activity presents the deity as being connected with the same characteristic, e.g. Zeus Kεραύνιος (Elis, Thessaly, et al.; Orph.) (: κεραυνός thunderbolt ). When the substantive is used as epithet, one may assume that the deity is identified with the reality it denotes: this is, for instance, the case of Zeus Κεραυνός and Zeus Στóρπας (or Στορπᾶς (cf. στροπά, στορπά lightening, a synonym of ἀστραπή, στεροπή and ἀστεροπή). The connection of κεραυνός with βροντή, βρόμος and with ἀστραπή, στεροπή lightening and its variants is well known, see Hes. Th Ζεὺς δ (ὲ)..., εἵλετο δ ὅπλα, / βροντήν τε στεροπήν τε καὶ αἰθαλόεντα κεραυνόν 60. (1) Zeus Κεραυνός IG 5: (Arcadia, Mantinea) fits the pattern of other epithets 61 which reflect his mastering of the thunderbolt 62 (cf. Od [ναῦς] ἡ δ ἐλελίχθη πᾶσα Διὸς πληγεῖσα κεραυνῷ): ἀργῐκέραυνος with bright thunderbolt (lightning) (Il ) and τερπικέραυνος enjoying the thunderbolt (Il , Od. 20, 75+), ἐγχεικέραυνος hurling the thunderbolt with his spear (Pi. P , O ) and κεραυνεγχής with a thunderbolt as spear (ὦ Ζεῦ κ[ε]ραυνεγχές Ba. 8.26), also κεραυνοβρόντης thunderer like thunderbolt 60 Also ἀστράπτων ἔστειχε συνωχαδόν, οἱ δὲ κεραυνοὶ / ἴκταρ ἅμα βροντῇ τε καὶ ἀστεροπῇ ποτέοντο (Th ), as well as Διὸς βροντῶντος καὶ Ἀστράπτοντος (Thera IG 12:3 supp., 1359), ἀστραπὴ ἐξ αἰθρίης καὶ βροντὴ ἐγένετο (Hdt. 3.86). 61 Cf. the rich list of epithets by Schwabl 1978, 253ff. 62 κεραυνός is a formally non direct continuant of IE *Perk w ūno- the one who has [is connected with] the oak (*perk w u-: Lat. quercus, Celt. Herkynia silva, ethnic Querquerni (Hispania): OLth. perkúnas Thunder(god), ORuss. Perunŭ id..
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