1 Newsletter, June 2012 V
2 Newsletter, June 2012 V Editorial Antonios Stamos Faraklas President of the International Propeller Club of the United States, International Port of Piraeus As Greece is going through one of the toughest periods in its modern history, and in the midst of an economically, socially and politically unstable environment, it is preparing for hosting this year s Posidonia, the biggest and most prestigious international maritime event. At the time of writing, Greece may be up for a second round of election, where the people will be called to decide which party, or policy, is the most able to bring the Nation out of its historic problems. The new government, whichever that may be, will have a very difficult task putting the country back in order. For Greece to realize its potential, the Greeks have to realize that it has it. We need vision, and a will to take the bold steps required to achieve the goals which will bring long term stability and growth to the country. From a shipping perspective, this means not only maintaining the country s present role as a leader in the global shipping industry, but to take it to even higher levels, helping the country restore its pride as it moves further into the 21st century. We therefore hope that the new government will put high up in its agenda of revitalizing Greece, the positive steps required to support Greek deep sea and coastal shipping, steps which the Industry has long promoted. At the top of the state priorities, through the reinstatement of the Ministry of Mercantile Marine, should be to provide motives and actively encourage the youth into a maritime or seagoing career, supporting the upgrading of the country s maritime education and training, while at the same time providing a safe and user-friendly environment for shipowners to register more vessels with the Greek flag. Implementing a constructive and planned policy towards the Greek shipping industry, would contribute to the long term revitalization of the Greek economy, offering thousands of jobs in the Greek controlled fleet and substantially increasing the inflow of income in the real economy. While freight markets continue to suffer and the short to mid-term prospects are uncertain in most of the individual sectors, the industry itself is constantly improving the quality of its service, offering the international community and the environment safe and quality shipping. Indeed, to ensure long term sustainability in this highly risky and competitive environment, a shipping organization needs to be not only cost but also quality minded. We hope that from its end, the State will do what it takes to safeguard the industry, in effect supporting one of the country s strongest economic pillars. 2 I look forward to a successful and fruitful Posidonia 2012.
3 2012 AMVER AWARDS CEREMONY THURSDAY, OCTOBER 25TH-ATHENS, ATHENAEUM INTERCONTINENTAL HOTEL The Board of Governors of the International Propeller Club of the United States, International Port of Piraeus, in cooperation with the U.S. Coast Guard, are pleased to invite you to a dinner on the occasion of the presentation of the AMVER Awards Date: Thursday, October 25th, 2012 Venue: Intercontinental Hotel Dress Code Officers: Uniform 8 Gentlemen: Business Suit Ladies: Cocktail Outfit Please contact: Tel , Fax BRAVERY AWARDS The Board of Governors of The International Propeller Club of the United States, International Port of Piraeus, contemplates establishing Bravery Awards (Heroes Hall) annually along the lines of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and other Institutions. Readers are invited to provide their input (ideas & proposals) for due consideration by the Bravery Awards Committee constituted for this purpose. Interested parties please contact the secretariat of The Propeller Club: 87, Akti Miaouli, Piraeus Tel: , Fax:
4 Newsletter, June 2012 V Η Ελλάδα είναι «δεμένη» με το ευρώ Άρθρο του: Kου.Νικόλαου Α. Βερνίκου Πρόεδρου Διεθνούς Εμπορικού Επιμελητηρίου-Ελλάδος Μέλος του International Propeller Club of the United States, International Port of Piraeus Το τελευταίο διάστημα επανέρχεται σε τακτικά χρονικά διαστήματα η συζήτηση γύρω από το αν θα συνέφερε την Ελλάδα να παραμείνει στο Ευρώ, ή αν θα ήταν καλύτερο να επιστρέψει στο εθνικό της νόμισμα, αποκτώντας ελευθερία νομισματικής πολιτικής, έξω από το σκληρό κοινό νόμισμα [και μακριά από τη διελκυστίνδα Δολαρίου - Ευρώ και Γιέν Γουάν]. Κατά την άποψή μου μία τέτοια επιλογή δεν θα έδινε λύση στο πρόβλημά μας, καθώς πολύ απλά, αν αυτή τη στιγμή αισθανόμαστε ότι ως χώρα και ως οικονομία βρισκόμαστε σε πολύ κακή κατάσταση, μία επιστροφή σε νέα δραχμή, ή οποιοδήποτε άλλο νόμισμα, πολύ απλά θα μας έβαζε ακόμα βαθύτερα στον λάκκο της οικονομικής δυσπραγίας και της πολιτικής ανυποληψίας. Θα γινόμασταν ένα τραγικό παράδειγμα χώρας προς αποφυγή, ανίκανης να ακολουθήσει τις δεσμεύσεις της, ενώ παράλληλα μία τέτοια εξέλιξη θα μείωνε το βιοτικό μας επίπεδο κατά τουλάχιστον 40% σε σχέση με αυτό που ζούμε σήμερα. Ποιος επενδυτής θα ερχόταν σε μία τέτοια χώρα; Την ίδια στιγμή, ως αποτυχημένη θα εμφανιζόταν και η Ευρώπη, καθώς θα έστελνε παγκοσμίως το μήνυμα, ότι δεν κατάφερε να βγάλει από την ύφεση και να βοηθήσει μία μικρή χώρα που αποτελεί μόλις το 2% του ΑΕΠ της ευρωζώνης. Το πρόβλημα το αντιμετωπίζει ήδη η Ευρώπη, με την κρίση χρέους να προχωρά ως ντόμινο και να έχει ήδη φτάσει στην Ιταλία και το Βέλγιο. Πόσο μάλλον αν αρχίσουν οι αποχωρήσεις μελών από την ευρωζώνη 4 Τα επιχειρήματα Όσοι είναι υπέρ της επαναφοράς στη δραχμή παρουσιάζουν κυρίως δύο επιχειρήματα: * Την δυνατότητα της χώρας να τυπώνει το δικό της νόμισμα και * Την δυνατότητα η χώρα να υποτιμά το νόμισμα αυτό ώστε να βελτιώνεται η ανταγωνιστικότητα των προϊόντων στο εξωτερικό και ο τουρισμός. Ξεχνάνε όμως κάποια πράγματα που η χώρα μας τα έχει ζήσει κατά την περίοδο της Δραχμής: * Επιτόκια δανεισμού που έφταναν για το δημόσιο στο 20%, το οποίο στη συνέχεια οι Τράπεζες το μετακυλούσαν στις επιχειρήσεις επιβάλλοντάς δάνεια που πλησίαζαν το 30% και * Την αδυναμία πραγματικής βελτίωσης της οικονομίας μας λόγω του κακού κράτους, της γραφειοκρατίας, της κακοδιαχείρισης της έλλειψης προγραμματισμού και της αναξιοκρατίας, τα οποία παρά την βελτίωση των τιμών μας, διατηρούσαν την οικονομία μας στις τελευταίες θέσεις της ανταγωνιστικότητας, θέσεις που άλλωστε διατηρούμε και σήμερα. Άλλωστε οι υποτιμήσεις στην πραγματικότητα έχουν μόνο βραχυπρόθεσμα θετικά αποτελέσματα, τα οποία πολύ γρήγορα χάνονται μέσα στον φαύλο κύκλο του πληθωρισμού, τον φόβο για νέα υποτίμηση και την έξοδο των κεφαλαίων από τη χώρα, μια και όλοι θα προσπαθούν να μετατρέψουν την αποταμιευσή τους σε ξένο νόμισμα. Θεωρώ λοιπόν ότι και μόνο η συζήτηση για την επιστροφή στη δραχμή είναι καταστροφική για την πατρίδα για τους εξής λόγους: 1. Όσο συζητούμε για το ποιο νόμισμα θα έπρεπε να έχουμε, δεν θα έρθει κανείς να επενδύσει. Η αβεβαιότητα είναι το νούμερο ένα απωθητικό των επενδυτών. 2. Η νέα δραχμή θα θεωρείται από την αρχή ένα νομισματικό σκουπίδι σε όλες τις αγορές του κόσμου. 3. Το νέο μας νόμισμα θα είναι τόσο υποτιμημένο που θα έχει τα αντίθετα αποτελέσματα στην ανταγωνιστικότητά μας, καθώς θα καταβαραθρώσει την οικονομική δραστηριότητα στο εσωτερικό, κάτι που φυσικά θα επηρεάσει και τις εξαγωγές. 4. Η κατάρρευση μισθών και εισοδημάτων, κινητών και ακίνητων αξιών -που έχει ήδη αρχίσει- θα συνεχιζόταν, αυτή τη φορά όμως με γεωμετρική πτώση. 5. Το τραπεζικό σύστημα θα κατέρρεε, καθώς όλοι θα τραβούσαν τα χρήματά τους από τις τράπεζες. Παράλληλα θα εξαφανιζόταν η εμπορική πίστη, καθώς οι συναλλαγές θα γίνονταν με ρευστό, με όλα τα επακόλουθα και τους περιορισμούς που θα έφερνε κάτι τέτοιο. 6. Μέχρις ότου δημιουργηθούν ελληνικές μονάδες παραγωγής κάθε είδους προϊόντος, τα καταστήματα θα είναι άδεια, λόγω αδυναμίας εισαγωγών. 7. Οι πολιτικοί μας όταν θα βρίσκονται στην Κυβέρνηση θα τυπώνουν λεφτά για να αγοράζουν ψήφους, μια και αυτό έμαθαν να κάνουν μέχρι τώρα με δανικά. 8. Τέλος το χρέος δεν θα το γλυτώναμε. Θα εξακολουθούσε να μας βαραίνει και να αποτιμάται σε ευρώ. Αυτό σημαίνει ότι -αν υιοθετήσουμε τις δραχμές- θα έπρεπε να το πληρώσουμε με την τρέχουσα αξία των δραχμών, η οποία αποκλείεται να είναι 340,75 ανά ευρώ όπως όταν μπήκαμε στην ευρωζώνη. Όπως εξηγούν σε ένα άρθρο τους στην Καθημερινή οι οικονομολόγοι Γ. Ιωαννίδης και Χ. Πισσαρίδης,(Νόμπελ Οικονομικών) η νέα δραχμή το πιθανότερο είναι να είναι υποτιμημένη κατά 70%. Με έναν απλό υπολογισμό δηλαδή μπορεί ένα ευρώ να φτάσει τις 580 δραχμές. Αυτό σημαίνει ότι αν σήμερα έχουμε 350 δισ. ευρώ χρέος, αυτό δεν θα αποτιμηθεί σε 119 τρισ. δραχμές αλλά σε πάνω από 200 τρισ. δραχμές. Όπως εξηγούν οι δύο οικονομολόγοι, «με μία υπέρμετρα υποτιμημένη δραχμή, ακόμη και αν η Ελλάδα δώσει στους πιστωτές της μόλις 35 σεντς για κάθε δολάριο που χρωστάει (όπως έκανε η Αργεντινή) το χρέος της θα παραμείνει (σε πραγματικούς όρους) στα ίδια επίπεδα που είναι σήμερα.» Τί πρέπει να γίνει Το βασικότερο βήμα που θα πρέπει να γίνει στην Ευρώπη (πάντα με την Ελλάδα στους κόλπους της) θα είναι να προχωρήσουμε από την νομισματική ένωση στην δημοσιονομική. Να υπάρξει δηλαδή ακόμη μεγαλύτερη σύνδεση των κρατών και η δυνατότητα βελτίωσης της ανταγωνιστικότητας των χωρών με την μεταφορά πόρων για την ανάπτυξη της ευρωζώνης όπου αυτό είναι απαραίτητο. Επίσης, η Ευρώπη θα πρέπει να γίνει πιο ευέλικτη αντιδρώντας ταχύτερα στις κινήσεις των αγορών. Να τυπώσει χρήμα για να ενισχύσει τον EFSF, να αποσύρει και να διαγράψει τα ομόλογα που έχει στην κατοχή της η ΕΚΤ που φτάνουν στα 50 δισ. ευρώ και φυσικά να προχωρήσει ταχύτατα με το ελληνικό PSI. Αν γίνουν όλα αυτά, το πιθανότερο είναι ότι οι αγορές θα ηρεμήσουν. Αυτά βέβαια είναι εκείνα που πρέπει να γίνουν σε ευρωπαϊκό επίπεδο, διότι εντός συνόρων εμείς το μόνο που μπορούμε να κάνουμε είναι να συνεχίσουμε τις μεταρρυθμίσεις που αρνούμαστε να κάνουμε 30 χρόνια τώρα και όχι να αναζητούμε νέους τρόπους για να τις αποφύγουμε όπως είναι η επιστροφή στη δραχμή, μία κίνηση η οποία απλά θα μας δώσει άλλη μία γωνίτσα στο χαλί για να κρύψουμε από κάτω τα προβλήματά μας, τα οποία φυσικά και θα τα δούμε λίγο αργότερα να ορθώνονται και πάλι μπροστά μας. Και αυτή τη φορά μεγαλύτερα από ποτέ.
5 V e s s e l A c c i d e n t s The last accident of Cruise Vessel Costa Concordia that put on risk 4000 men, women and children stirred up my mind and bothered me as to what is going on. The last years we have several big accidents which have created big damages. Those accidents though seam to be unique cases each one they have high degree of similarities and have established similar nasty circumstances and big damages. One accident was a Tanker vessel named Prestige that developed a crack. After much hard effort she was put to a port of refuge. The Port and Municipality Authorities without letting the vessel be repaired to a safe permanent stage or to a safe temporary degree, put her back out of the port. Other ports too refused to allow her to get into those ports but let her to continue being at sea with heavy weather until she parted to two parts causing a lot of damage to offshore environment in Southern East part of Atlantic. Another accident is a container vessel named Bunga Teratai Segu. She run aground too near the Cairns, Australia, she destroyed a large area of special coral reefs, then caused pollution that developed to be a big damage too. Then with almost same scenario a container vessel named Rena run aground too at Astrolabe reef, the assistance deployed to her was not enough or not the proper one and the vessel after 4 weeks parted and many containers drawn to sea. That incident caused pollution too, the vessel sank and the damage is big. As an ex Seaman, it makes me much annoyed and raised the question to me, what is going on and how it can be stopped or reduced? Thinking of those four accidents come to my mind quite few more accidents it happens to know and the last of those incident, is the cruise vessel.. that run aground at Italy. People better than me who spend much time on details, have find out that 85% of Marine accidents and damages are due to human error. That is a true fact and bravo to those who have declared that. That information has passed to person s / authorities, responsible to work on that problem they attended to deploy ways, methods and means to stop or reduce the problems. I do not think that the results are satisfactory. The most important is not what I think but it is what is proven. The accidents are keep going on, people is suffering few die and huge amounts spent for the after accident effort to clear and clean up the mess. As I know after each accident, from the conclusion of the cause of accident, implied new regulations, are implied new equipment installed on board that cost many thousands of Dollars - Euros and new methods implied that is believed those will prevent accidents to happen but I am sorry to say it seem that those means do not work. So what are we doing: Shall we continue the same way to suffer loses from accidents? I do not think so. Having been sailing with the ships as apprentice, third, second, Chief Engineer, Trouble shooting Engineer, Superintendent Engineer, Marine consultant and ship Owner, I was performing my duties with due diligence on every rank. I was studying the circumstances and the problems encounter to vessels and was finding thus to dissolve them Therefore I believe that I have the right to express my opinion as to how we can avoid or reduced the accidents. My opinion too is, that the human error is the major cause of accidents. The accidents do not occur at once, hey start from negligence of those on board who are responsible to do certain duties and they care half way or not at all. That is the beginning of the trouble, which by the time develops to a serious accident and / or a disaster, as it can be when a loaded VLCC having over 300, M.T. oil she gets in trouble. The negligence is a result of lack of proper education and training for the marine risks. As well as the ability to fight the circumstances that may cause Risks. The lack of ability to select the right persons who can carry out successfully the duties they have to perform and for that they are paid much. The negligence is a result of Lack of discipline. The negligence is the result of laysure. Many people do not work hard. Seafarers duties, jobs professions, involve hard work, study and to be prepared to meet contingency, it is a must, because if you do not care about your duties and your colleague does the same, both of you are going to have problem and may cause serious accident / damages / losses. If you have not the guts to be / become a Seafarer do not go you may cause those accidents as the ones referred above. I met people on board who were claiming that they were getting tired by work and the same people in the athletics room had and / have gear for exercise / body building. I met people who when joined the vessel they did not study the SOLAS - ISM rules and instructions how to prevent accidents but they were spending hours to organize the stereos and videos for pleasure and Karaoke. Most of them were never properly dressed to meet an alarming case so they could assist to fight it. One solution that can work to reduce the accidents / disaster is companies to be big (many vessels) to have persons educated by the companies, experts who could teach the other persons of the companies / crews the right way and those experts can select the ones who are worthy to be kept to serve the needs of the company and progress with the company. When employing outsiders it is dangerous and does not work have to suffer the losses. Article by: Mr. Evangelos Zouppas Marine Consultant Drassis Shipping Co. SA Member of the International Propeller Club of the United States, International Port of Piraeus 5
6 Newsletter, June 2012 V The Salvor s Viewpoint Environmental / Liability Salvage Concern for the environment has seen the role of the salvor transformed over the past 30 years, and there is every likelihood this trend will continue. Salvage contractors remain the best line of defence in combating environmental pollution created by oil spills and other marine casualties. It is one of the salvor s main roles to keep pollutants in the ship or safely remove them and thereby prevent an emergency turning into a pollution catastrophe. They operate under increasing public scrutiny brought about as a result of extensive media coverage and a policy of zero tolerance adopted by government authorities. Nowadays, salvors must meet the ever higher and unyielding expectations of both the public and the politicians, when carrying out salvage operations. The growing concern of coastal states, keen to protect and preserve the marine environment, has also led to greater government interference in dealing with marine casualties and salvage operations. Today there is hardly a salvage event that is not driven by the environment look only at the recent examples of DEEPWATER HORIZON in US Gulf (2010), RENA in New Zealand (2011) and most recently COSTA CONCORDIA in Italy (2012). In this way the major focus of salvage activity has shifted with pollution abatement now frequently taking priority over property salvage. This often creates a conflict of interest between competing property insurers and liability insurers. The cost of salvage seems modest when compared to the eye watering costs that a major spill will incur. On the other hand, the increased magnitude of casualties with an environmental dimension, often results in greater work load and higher risk together with lower salved value. This results in an increased expense for salvage services, not recoverable in line with the traditional no cure no pay salvage principle, where a salvor was not successful. The level of income earned 6 by professional salvors is insufficient to encourage further and continuing investment by salvors. Many international salvors, in order to compete commercially and meet the environmental demands placed upon them, have invested heavily in maintaining 24/7 preparedness to attend to salvage operations - globally. Only a handful of cases offer salvors the opportunity to recoup their costs or return on investment. The decreased workload has also resulted in there being fewer salvors and large-scale consolidation in the marine salvage industry. Salvors are not given sufficient financial incentives to undertake mega salvage operations, where environmental concerns are at stake, in view of the civil and criminal penalties to which they are being increasingly exposed. Furthermore, this creeping criminalisation has the further consequence of destroying no-blame cultures, discourages openness and erodes seafarer s morale; indeed it deters salvors in circumstances where they are needed most. The International Salvage Union (ISU) has been concerned for a number of years that its members are not always fairly rewarded for the benefit they confer in protecting the environment. Following the publication of the new edition of Lloyd s Open Form (LOF 2011) contract, and the accompanying standard arbitration clauses, the changes made to the contract make it fit for use in the modern shipping environment. However the present system (under the 1989 Salvage Convention), and the commercial arrangements under Lloyd s Form 2011, and (where applicable) the Special Compensation P&I Club Clause (SCOPIC 2011), do not provide proper recognition of the salvor s efforts in carrying out their obligations. Special environmental/liability salvage awards should recognize the environmental/financial benefit conferred by salvors. The Comite Maritime International (CMI) and the International Salvage Union (ISU) propose that Environmental/Liability Awards (which recognize the environmental benefit conferred by salvors) could be achieved primarily by amending the relevant provisions of the 1989 Salvage Convention. Salvors have expressed their concern in recent years to shipowners and marine insurers and believe that (with appropriate modifications) it is possible to achieve a fairer mechanism to reward salvors for protecting the environment and averting liabilities. It is important to point out that salvors do not expect to be paid unless there is added value conferred and they fully expect the Special Reward to be commensurate with that benefit. Salvors do not expect to receive unearned income and are content to leave the appropriate level of extra remuneration to the discretion of the salvage Tribunal. Reviving the concept of environmental (and liability) salvage would necessitate unraveling the complex compromises agreed in the salvage convention - unless it is achieved by a small change to the existing wording of Article 14. Although, one can well understand the liability insurers reluctance to change the current status quo, the improvement proposed will ultimately be as much to their benefit as to everyone else. There will be a fairer distribution of what is awarded between shipowners, cargo interests, property insurers and liability insurers. More importantly, the shipping industry and the public will be more secure, because services provided by emergency contractors will be properly rewarded for what is actually done. Finally salvors will be encouraged, both to remain in business and to invest for the future. Article by: Mr. Nicolas A. Tsavliris Principal, Tsavliris Salvage Group Member of the International Propeller Club of the United States, International Port of Piraeus
7 COLLEGE YEAR IN GREECE College Year in Athens is proudly celebrating its 50th Anniversary in Founded in 1962, CYA was the first study-abroad program in Greece for English-speaking undergraduates. Founder Ismene Phylactopoulou ( ) arrived in Greece from Smyrna as a refugee in A graduate of Wellesley College, Massachusetts, she recognized Greece s tremendous historical and cultural importance to liberal arts studies as well as its potential draw for the developing study abroad movement. A woman of great energy and resolve, she set about creating a serious academic program that would open the hearts and minds of college-age North American students to Greece while maintaining a genuine concern for each student s educational and personal growth. Beginning with a pioneering first class of five, CYA quickly grew in size and recognition and currently serves about five hundred students from the United States every year from top-tier colleges and universities. The program of studies originally focused on the contributions of Archaic and Classical Greece to Western Civilization. Over time the historical range has expanded to include courses from prehistoric to modern times. Appreciating that a full understanding of ancient and contemporary Greece must include the role of the country within the greater geopolitical region, CYA has broadened its curriculum to include Balkan, East Mediterranean, and Middle East studies as well as Athens-based service-learning programs, volunteer work, and internships. To best serve university students and to stay abreast of the dynamic world of study abroad CYA is an active member of NAFSA: Association of International Educators; EAIE: European Association for International Education; and is a charter member of FORUM: Forum on Education Abroad. In view of the fast and often dramatic developments in the world, and especially considering the political and economic juncture in which Greece finds itself, a semester abroad in Greece at this time can be an enormously valuable experience for North American college students. Seeing one s world from the perspective of a geographically small European country can be very enlightening. For CYA students study abroad in Greece is a life-changing experience, one that increases their awareness and perception in the best possible way. CYA s mission is to offer each student an academically rigorous program of studies combined with the vibrant experience of day-to-day contact with people, monuments, and the landscapes of Greece, taking advantage of its uniquely varied past and its rapidly changing present. CYA is dedicated to fostering in its students an engagement with Greece that encourages personal discovery, growth, and cross-cultural sensitivity. Today CYA students have the opportunity to experience the thrill of living in the center of socioeconomic events that may alter the very essence of the European Union, and may affect finances worldwide. These are the interesting times we live in, and our students have a front-row seat to the unfolding of events that are going to shape the future of Greece and Europe. College Year in Athens ultimate goal is for participants to return home academically inspired, intellectually stimulated, and with a passionate commitment to the furtherance of international and intercultural understanding. In the past half century CYA has turned out about seven thousand alumni, many of whom were so touched by Greece and their experience here that they went on to become active academics on subjects related to Greece and things Greek. The mission of College Year in Athens is best fulfilled when its students, after their time at CYA, feel as citizens of the world. Article by: Mr. Alexis Phylactopoulos President College Year in Athens/DIKEMES Member of the International Propeller Club of the United States, 7
8 Newsletter, June 2012 V BALLAST WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS AN INTRODUCTION Ballast water contains organisms ( bacteria, viruses etc). When ballast water is discharged from ships, organisms may survive and thrive in their new environment. This may result in ecological damage. Public health is also a concern and economic consequences. In 2004, the Member Nations of the IMO adopted the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ship s Ballast Water and Sediments. Read the full text : Umweltschutz/Ballastwasser/Konvention_ en.pdf This Convention will enter into force 12 months after a total of 30 states representing 35% of the world s shipping tonnage, has ratified it. So far (April 2012) 33 states representing about 26.46% of the world tonnage have ratified the convention. The convention will require all ships to implement a Ballast Water Management Plan. All ships will have to carry a Ballast Water Record book and to filter/clean /disinfect or exchange (until Reg. B-3 is applicable) ballast water so that when it is discharged it does not contaminate the new environment. SEDIMENT REGULATIONS - References to the requirements for management of ballast tank sediments are made in several locations throughout the text of the Convention. See article 5 on page 5 of the above mentioned site. Regulation B-1 ( see page 17 of the convention) covers Ballast Water Management Plans, and includes requirement 3 that states : each ship s plan shall detail the procedures for the disposal of Sediments: 1) at sea; and 2) to shore. Regulation B-5 states that All ships shall remove and dispose of sediments from spaces designated to carry Ballast Water in accordance with the provisions of the ship s Ballast Water Management Plan. And that ships should be designed and constructed with a view to minimize the uptake and unnecessary entrapment of Sediments, facilitate removal of Sediments, and provide safe access to allow for Sediment removal and sampling, taking into account guidelines developed by the Organization. There are no discharge standards for Sediment, and no Guidelines for testing equipment to address it. Therefore it appears the method of complying with Regulation B-5 is left up to the operator and the Ballast Water Management Plan. Sediment can be disposed at sea or ashore. Regulation B-3 Regulation B-3 of the Convention (page 18) describes the schedule for the implementation of the Convention. It can be found on page 18 of the above mentioned site This regulation was revised with IMO Resolution A.1005(25) / And with MEPC.188(60)/ asp?data_id=28813&filename=188(60).pdf What that means in words is that : all ships after 2016 will have to comply.
9 (even ships whose ballast tank capacity does not exceed 1500 m3 ) If the convention enters into force earlier, ship newbuildings larger than dwt will have to comply with immediate effect. (ships with ballast tank capacity exceeding 5000 m3) Existing Ships with ballast capacity of between 1500 and 5000 m3 will have to comply after 2014 Regulation D-2 Regulation D-2 of the Convention ( page 22) describes the discharge (or treatment) standards for ballast water. i.e. deballasted water should not contain more than 10 plankton organisms per M3 which are greater than 50 micrometres in size. Furthermore, deballasted water should contain limited numbers of microbes affecting human health. The new VGP includes specific BWT technology review and approval criteria. Listed below are some important details: Effective December 19, 2013, in accordance with VGP Section : Vessel owner/operators utilizing a ballast water treatment system (BWTS) must use a system which has been shown to be effective by testing in accordance with the EPA-ETV protocol for the verification of ballast water treatment technology conducted by an independent third party laboratory, test facility or test organization. The new VGP lists five BWT technologies that have been accepted by the U.S. Government as having demonstrated the ability to meet the IMO D-2 discharge standard in accordance with EPA s review criteria. samples from the ballast water tanks. The samples are to be tested, results issued and if the ballast water satisfies the requirements then it can be released into the new eco system. See also IMO G2 Guidelines It has been noted that one major shipping company has adopted a system that employs a combination of Filters, UV lamps and Ozone injection Another major shipping company selected a system that employs a combination of filters and chlorination technology (like for the swimming pools) The space that is required to accommodate the BWT system is comparable to the space required by the auxiliary diesel generators, just to give an order of magnitude. Therefore in retrofitting existing vessels it will be necessary to consider deck space if the engine room is compact. Method Advantages Disadvantages Filtration of the ballast water Self cleaning Pressure drop Easy installation Flow rate reduction Easy maintenance Sediments reduce efficiency Ultra Violet Light radiation of the water Easy installation Sediments reduce efficiency High power consumption Electrolysis On board dissinfection Corrosion Hydrogen as by product Depends on the water salinity Chemical injection Easy installation Corrosion Safety Ozonation Independent of salinity Corrosion Safety De oxygenation Flexible installation Inert gas system maintenance A combination of the above methods This is the regulation that makes the installation of a costly Ballast Water Treatment Plant on ships, mandatory. The methods and technologies which can enable a ship to comply with the Convention: The equipment that implement these methods and technologies must have an approval by a Flag Administration. They must obtain a type approval certificate. Flag Administrations assign Classification Societies to carry out this work. On November 30th 2011, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released its draft Vessel General Permit (VGP). The complete VGP Draft and VGP Factsheet can be downloaded from the EPA website at: Deoxygenation+cavitation Filtration+chlorinedioxide Filtration+UV Filtration+UV+TiO2 Filtration + electro-chlorination The EPA s Science Advisory Board (SAB) evaluated all available BWT technologies, resulting in selection of the five technologies listed above. USCG has released Standards for Living Organisms in Ship s Ballast water Discharged in U.S. Waters in in March 2012 which supersede the previous twm regulations. Discharge standard is identical to IMO. Practical Aspects Sampling devices will be required to draw Article by: Mr. Yiannis Iacovides Naval Architect Member of the International Propeller Club of the United States, International Port of Piraeus 9