2 Table of Contents What is the Greek Participle? How do I recognize it? How should I translate it? What do I need to memorize?
3 What Is a Participle?
4 What Is a Participle? It is often said that mastery of the syntax of participles is mastery of Greek syntax (Daniel B. Wallace, Grammar beyond the Basics, 613). The Participle is difficult to master because it is very versatile: It can be used as a noun, adjective, adverb, or verb. In order to know how to translate a participle, you need to understand its function in the sentence. The context influences the participle more than any other area of Greek.
5 What Is a Participle? The term Participle comes from the Latin participium, which is a translation of the Greek μετοχή (sharing, participation). The participle shares or participates of the characteristics of verbs and adjectives. It is normally identified in english by the -ing and -ed endings.
6 What is the Greek Participle? Voice Active, middle, or passive Case, genitive, dative, or accusative Gender Masculine, feminine, and neuter Number Singular or plural Declinable Verbal Adjective Adjective Verb Tense Present, aorist, perfect, or future
7 Declinable Verbal Adjective Adjective Verb What is the Greek Participle? Work as a Verb John is running in the park Work as a Noun Running helps your health Work as an Adjective The running man arrived first Work as an Adverb John entered the room running
8 What is the Greek Participle? If it has the article, the participle is a noun or an adjective: Translate: the one (the participle) If it does NOT have the article, the participle may be an adverb, a verb, (or still a noun or an adjective) Determine what its function is. Adverbial participles are often translated with -ing and -ed endings.
12 The Present Participle Present Active Middle Passive ὁ λύων The one loosing λύων loosing ὁ λυόμενος The one loosing (for) himself λυόμενος loosing (for) himself ὁ λυόμενος The one being loosed λυόμενος being loosed
14 Present = 1st Aorist = σα 2d Aorist = (Mod. stem) Aorist Passive = θη Perfect = Redupl. κα Future = σ Future Passive = θησ λυ NO Tense Identifier λυομενου Middle/Passive = μεν λυομενης PRESENT MIDDLE/PASSIVE Participle Loosing (for) himself / The one loosing (for) himself Being loosed / The one being loosed Masculine Neuter Feminine λυόμενος λυομένου λυομένῳ λυόμενον λυόμενον λυομένου λυομένῳ λυόμενον λυομένη λυομένης λυομένῃ λυομένην λυόμενοι λυομένων λυομένοις λυομένους λυόμενα λυομένων λυομένοις λυόμενα λυόμεναι λυομένων λυομέναις λυομένας Active = οντ/ουσ μεν Endings of ἀγαθός Singular Active Participles = 3rd. Decl. (Masc/Neut) Endings of γλωσσα (Fem) Midd./Pass. Participles = ἀγαθος endings Plural
15 The Future Participle Future Active Middle Passive ὁ λύσων The one who will loose λύσων will be loosing ὁ λυσόμενος The one who will loose (for) himself λυσόμενος will be loosing (for) himself ὁ λυθησόμενος The one who will be loosed λυθησόμενος will be loosed
17 Present = 1st Aorist = σα 2d Aorist = (Mod. stem) Aorist Passive = θη Perfect = Redupl. κα Future = σ Future Passive = θησ λυ σ Middle/Passive = μεν μεν λυσόμενου λυσομένης FUTURE MIDDLE Participle will be loosing (for) himself / The one who will loose for himself Masculine Active = οντ/ουσ Endings of ἀγαθός Singular Neuter λυσόμενος λυσόμενον λυσομένου λυσομένου λυσομένῳ λυσομένῳ λυσόμενον λυσόμενον Feminine λυσομένη λυσομένης λυσομένῃ λυσομένην Active Participles = 3rd. Decl. (Masc/Neut) Endings of γλωσσα (Fem) Midd./Pass. Participles = ἀγαθος endings Plural λυσόμενοι λυσομένων λυσομένοις λυσομένους λυσόμενα λυσόμεναι λυσομένων λυσομένων λυσομένοις λυσομέναις λυσόμενα λυσομένας
18 Present = 1st Aorist = σα 2d Aorist = (Mod. stem) Aorist Passive = θη Perfect = Redupl. κα Future = σ Future Passive = θησ λυ θησ μεν Endings of ἀγαθός λυθησόμενου λυθησομένης FUTURE PASSIVE Participle will be loosed / The one who will be loosed Masculine Active = οντ/ουσ Middle/Passive = μεν Neuter Feminine Singular λυθησόμενος λυθησομένου λυθησομένῳ λυθησόμενον λυθησόμενον λυθησομένη λυθησομένου λυθησομένης λυθησομένῳ λυθησομένῃ λυθησόμενον λυθησομένην λυθησόμενοι λυθησομένων λυθησομένοις λυθησομένους λυθησόμενα λυθησομένων λυθησομένοις λυθησόμενα Active Participles = 3rd. Decl. (Masc/Neut) Endings of γλωσσα (Fem) Midd./Pass. Participles = ἀγαθος endings Plural λυθησόμεναι λυθησομένων λυθησομέναις λυθησομένας
19 The Aorist Participle? Aorist Active Middle Passive ὁ λύσας The one who loosed λύσας having loosed ὁ λυσάμενος The one who loosed (for) himself λυσάμενος having loosed (for) himself ὁ λυθείς The one who was loosed λυθείς having being loosed
25 Τhe Perfect Participle Perfect Active Middle Passive ὁ λελυκώς The one who has loosed λελυκώς having loosed ὁ λελυμένος The one who has loosed (for) himself λελυμένος having loosed (for) himself ὁ λελυμένος The one who has been loosed λελυμένος having being loosed
27 Present = 1st Aorist = σα 2d Aorist = (Mod. stem) Aorist Passive = θη Perfect = Redupl. κα Future = σ Future Passive = θησ λε λυ μεν λελυμένος Endings of ἀγαθός λελυμένη PERFECT MIDDLE/PASSIVE Participle Active = οντ/ουσ having loosed (for) himself / The one who has loosed (for) himself having being loosed / The one who has been loosed Masculine Middle/Passive = μεν Singular Active Participles = 3rd. Decl. (Masc/Neut) Endings of γλωσσα (Fem) Midd./Pass. Participles = ἀγαθος endings Plural Neuter λελυμένος λελυμένον λελυμένου λελυμένου λελυμένῳ λελυμένῳ λελύμενον λελύμενον λελύμενοι λελυμένων λελυμένοις λελυμένους Feminine λελυμένη λελυμένης λελυμένῃ λελυμένην λελύμενα λελύμεναι λελυμένων λελυμένων λελυμένοις λελυμέναις λελύμενα λελυμένας
28 How Should I Translate It? PLEASE GO TO THE NEXT PRESENTATION
29 What Do I Need to Learn? What are the characteristics of a participle How is the participle formed Tense, voice, case, gender, number. stem tense identifier voice identifier ending How is the participle translated Recognize the tense of the participle Determine the function of the participle If it has the article: add the one If it does not have the article: Use -ing and -ed endings.
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