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1 Wilfred E. Major Page 1 It s Not the Size, It s the Frequency: The Value of Using a Core Vocabulary in Beginning and Intermediate Greek Wilfred E. Major Foreign Languages and Literatures Department Louisiana State University Teachers and students in the early stages of learning ancient Greek face a number of challenges: a different writing system, morphological changes with seemingly as many exceptions as rules, flexible and daunting syntax, complex and deep literature, a strikingly alien cultural context, and so on. Most often as teachers we simply have to argue or plead that these extra difficulities are worthwhile because the payoff of reading Greek is so great. Rarely, if ever, do we get to say that some aspect of Greek is actually easier than that of other languages. The core vocabulary of ancient Greek, however, is one such area. This article presents various ways to make use of Greek s relatively small core vocabulary in beginning and intermediate classroom. The key points are: 1. Ancient Greek has a high-frequency core vocabulary scarcely half the size of many other languages. 2. Using 50% and 80% core vocabulary lists enhances student learning in the beginning and intermediate stages of learning Greek. Examples of such lists are included in this article. 3. Awareness of the relative frequency of certain morphological categories encourages students and teachers to focus on paradigms which are most common and therefore most rewarding when reading. 4. Grouping subsets of the core vocabulary in different ways (e.g., by logical groups or morphological type) improves acquisition of vocabulary by making relevant patterns clear and by reinforcing vocabulary in different contexts. Greek s Smaller Core Vocabulary: The 50% and 80% Lists The frequency and distribution of vocabulary can seem like an arcane topic, but especially for Greek, it is a helpful one for teachers and students in the early stages. Simply put, beginning students should learn vocabulary that they will encounter most often when they read. Reinforcing these high frequency items improves students comfort level, since they master the elements which they encounter most often. Linguists have studied and quantified key levels in the core vocabulary of a number of languages. Computers have aided this research in recent years, although ideally the basic results match the intuition of native speakers. An adult speaker of English, for example, typically carries a vocabulary between 10,000 and 15,000 items. In a given conversation or even if writing an entire book (say over 100,000 words) an adult is unlikely to use anything close to their entire vocabulary. Nor do speakers or writers distribute their vocabulary usage at all evenly. A text of 100,000 words, for example, consisting of 5,000 different lexical items, does not include each word twenty times. On the contrary, a small 1

2 Wilfred E. Major Page 2 number of words are repeated very often and some more specialized vocabulary will be used only once or rarely. Core vocabulary tends to cluster at two levels, 50% and 80%. The percentage refers to the proportion of a text made up by a certain amount of vocabulary. Half of most English texts, for example, consist of the same one hundred or so lemmas 1 repeated as the situation demands. Words like the to and is, for example, generate a fair amount of text by themselves. In these statistics, linguists count lemmas, so different forms of a word ( is and was ; camel and camels ) count as a single lemma, not separate vocabulary items. Despite some irregular words ( go and went ) and vocabulary items of considerable flexibility ( do ), these are words absolutely fundamental to any communication and comprehension of English. The Perseus Project (http://www.perseus.tufts.edu) provides an invaluable database, and its vocabulary tool (http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/vocab?lang=greek) has allowed scholars to generate similar analyses for Greek. Whereas an English 50% list consists of more than a hundred lemmas, which is normal enough for languages, a comparable Greek list contains about 65 (the exact number can vary depending on whether some items are grouped together as a single lemma or separated as distinct lemmas). The list itself, with further discussion, follows later in this article, but the key points now are that Greek has a much smaller list at this level and that these are unquestionably vocabulary items a student of Greek will need to be comfortable with. The next significant plateau arrives at 80%, that is, the number of lemmas which typically generate 80% of a text. In English such a list consists of 2,200-2,300 words, and a list between 2,000 and 3,000 lemmas is typical of many languages (Latin, for example, is comparable to English in this regard). The 80% list for ancient Greek consists of fewer than 1,100 lemmas, less than half of that typical for other languages. Here is an area, then, where we can actually streamline the presentation of Greek. While some areas of morphology, semantics and syntax can prove more difficult for students of Greek than in the study of other languages, core vocabulary represents a topic where students can rightly feel Greek will be easier than other languages and so in some way offset the additional struggles in other areas of grammar. My version of this 80% list is appended to the end of this article and I will present a number of ways I believe that taking advantage of this list is helpful in the classroom, but some general observations now. There is no single, simple explanation as to why Greek has a smaller core vocabulary. Certainly part of the reason consists of the sampling of Greek we have. A limited number of ancient Greek texts on a relatively limited number of topics survive. For a resident of Classical Athens, there were probably a number of words for plants, foods, tools, and the like which would have been core items for them but which appear only rarely in Greek texts as we have them. For good or ill, anyone today who learns Greek is constrained by the survival of the texts that we have, so the frequency in these texts, simply as a pragmatic matter, should focus our priorities in beginning classes. Indeed, the texts we have can contain very narrow core vocabularies. For example, the corpus of Plato is one of the larger compared to that of other authors, but an 80% core vocabulary consists of fewer than 500 words. The relatively narrow topics and focus of Plato s writings mean he has a much more repetitive vocabulary. Finally, a few words about the remaining 20% of Greek vocabulary. As in most languages, this vocabulary is more diverse and technical, and the sheer number of lemmas increases significantly. Many adults carry 10,000 lemmas or more which they use for this 20%. 1 For the purposes of this article, a lemma is defined as a single vocabulary item encompassing the multiple word forms of that item. 2

3 Wilfred E. Major Page 3 A discussion of ships, for example, would likely contain the technical vocabulary for parts of ships, lemmas which may appear rarely if at all in other contexts. Other types of vocabulary can also swell the numbers. A proper name that appears once, for example, can count as an additional lemma, even though it is not part of learning the language in particular. The 50% list follows immediately on the next page. An 80% list is appended to the end of this article. The 50% list below contains the 65 different words which make up 50% of the Greek database of 4.1+ million words in the Perseus Project, compiled March 31, 2006 and subsequently revised. It updates a similar list compiled by Prof. Helma Dik of the University of Chicago. The 80% was similarly compiled and revised in stages from 2004 to

4 Wilfred E. Major Page 4 GREEK VOCABULARY 50% LIST VERBS γίγνομαι become, happen εἰμί be εἶπον say ἔχω have λαμβάνω take λέγω say ποιέω make φημί say NOUNS ἀνήρ, ἀνδρός, ὁ man βασιλεύς εως, ὁ king λόγος ου, ὁ word πόλις εως, ἡ city ADJECTIVES ἄλλος η ον another ἐκεῖνος η ο that μέγας, μεγάλη, μέγα big, great, ὁ, ἡ, τό the οὗτος, αὗτη, τοῦτο this πᾶς πᾶσα πᾶν all, every, whole πολύς πολλή πολύ many πρότερος α ον prior τοιοῦτος η ον such as this PRONOUNS αὐτός ή όν (s)he, it ἐγώ, μου I ὅς, ἥ, ὅ who, which ὅστις, ὅτι anyone who, anything which οὐδείς, οὐδεμία, οὐδέν no one σύ, σου you τις, τι someone, something τίς, τί who? which? ADVERBS ἄν γε especially δή now ἔτι still μή not νῦν now οὐ not οὔτε and not οὕτως this way ὡς as PREPOSITIONS ἀνά up ἀπό from διά through εἰς into ἐκ out of ἐν in ἐπί on κατά down μετά with, after παρά from beside περί around πρός to ὑπό from under, by CONJUNCTIONS ἀλλά but γάρ for, because δέ and, but ἐάν, εἰ, if ἤ or καί and μέν on the one hand ὅτι that, because οὖν therefore τε, and ὡς so that 4

5 Wilfred E. Major Page 5 The Greek 50% List This list contains no surprises for experienced readers of Greek. All the items here are very common and fundamental for reading nearly any extended passage of ancient Greek. Nonetheless, depending on textbooks or other pedagogical materials, students at the beginning level and even sometimes the intermediate level might find this list surprising. In many popular beginning Greek textbooks, some of these lemmas appear rather late, occasionally even not at all. The particular items within each part of speech deserve some comment. The list contains no more than eight verbs, but even these might startle students only part way through a beginning textbook. In terms of raw frequency, γίγνομαι is perhaps the second most common verb in Greek, after εἰμί. This is not surprising, given that γίγνομαι often serves as little more than a substitute for εἰμί, but since it is deponent, students might encounter it late and receive little reinforcement. When students encounter it so frequently in an unadapted reading, then, they can still be unsure about it (and especially its principal parts) and thus feel unnecessarily unprepared and insecure about their reading skills in general. The listing of λέγω, εἶπον and φημί points up another issue. While the vocabulary items on this list certainly generate half of the words in the Perseus database, how to group them into lemmas is not always a straightforward matter. Related is another issue, especially when trying to introduce high frequency items at an early stage: which forms are truly high frequency? Some Greek verbs can appear in literally hundreds of forms, but many of them are low frequency. This is yet another possible partial explanation for the smaller core vocabulary in ancient Greek. Native speakers may have needed to maintain multiple forms of some lemmas more than speakers of other languages, and this combination may have effectively brought their core to a level parallel with speakers of other languages. In any case, we have a tendency to teach a large vocabulary and a great many more forms than most speakers use routinely, so a more realistic level of material for beginning students is needed. In this particular case, I would suggest that we can profitably view this grouping of three semantically overlapping verbs as a single lemma with the meaning say : λέγω provides the present tense, φημί the imperfect and εἶπον the aorist. While these three verbs do exist in other tenses, the forms are not nearly as common. Moreover, the present, imperfect and aorist tenses make up 90% of the verb forms in Greek texts in general, and so serve as proper tenses to emphasize early on. 2 Frequency of tenses leads to another strength of even this small list. These verbs include good examples of many standard and high frequency forms. Consider: εἶπον and λαμβάνω have a second aorist; ποιέω represents the most common type of contract verb and has a regular first aorist. γίγνομαι is regular, just deponent, in these three tenses, so it is a good model for middle endings. Thus this small group of the most common verbs in Greek also provides good paradigms for the most common indicative forms of verbs. The nouns, pronouns, and adjectives are more complex but, because of their frequency, deserve attention. Some follow a common paradigm (λόγος, ἄλλος, ἐκεῖνος, πρότερος, τοιοῦτος), but others have irregularities of some sort. In most textbooks, the unusual paradigms of these words are not given particular emphasis as very common words, and indeed not distinguished from paradigms which are equally irregular but far less common. A beginning 2 Anne Mahoney The Forms You Really Need to Know. CO 81:

6 Wilfred E. Major Page 6 Greek textbook might well include μέλας, μέλαινα, μέλαν black, for example, but not point out that only two adjectives in all of Greek share this paradigm (τάλας, τάλαινα, τάλαν is the other), and neither are nearly as high frequency as the items on this list. The frequency of the lemmas on the 50% list, however, means they deserve to be introduced early and reinforced often. They should not, of course, all be introduced at once, but a teacher should be aware that some of the difficult paradigms here (especially μέγας, οὗτος, πᾶς, πολύς, ἐγώ, οὐδείς, σύ, and τις) are simply crucial to developing a comfort level with Greek. Two of the nouns (ἀνήρ, βασιλεύς) are quite irregular but worth extra attention because of their frequency. All words on this list should be introduced as early as can be done comfortably and reinforced as often as possible. Finally, note that nearly half of the list consists of adverbs, prepositions and conjunctions, which do not inflect, but I would recommend teaching alternate forms (e.g, ἀπό, ἀπ, ἀφ ) of these items as early as possible. While these words are often given in the vocabularies, their importance as high frequency items rarely receives attention. Students are going to encounter these lemmas constantly and a little time spent practicing these words pays off richly. With conjunctions and some prepositions in particular, however, be aware that some textbooks inexplicably make little or delayed use of these very common words. Thus students at the intermediate stage can become very frustrated when a word like οὖν appears constantly, if they were exposed to it only briefly toward the end of their beginning sequence, when they were already overwhelmed by other material. The Greek 80% List A version of this list I have used in recent years in my classes is appended to the end of this article. Some analysis follows below, but first a few words about the creation of this list. It began with the raw list of lemmas generated by the Perseus vocabulary tool. The raw list consists of 1,193 lemmas, but I have modified it in three basic ways. First, the raw list included a considerable number of proper nouns and related words. I deleted words for Athens, Athenian, Odysseus and so on. Second, a certain number of anomalies appear in the list because of the way Perseus vocabulary tool works. When the tool meets a form which could be generated by more than one lemma, it has no means to distinguish the source, so it distributes all instances equally among the potential sources. In reality, of course, this can distort the true frequency. For example, listed 559 th in frequency was the word ἔχις, a type of viper. Certainly Greek texts do not use this extremely rare word often enough that intermediate students should be learning it. As it happens, however, the dative singular of this word is ἔχει. In practice ἔχει is almost always the 3 rd person singular present indicative active of ἔχω, but the tool automatically credits ἔχις with half of the occurrences. Note that this means half of the instances of ἔχει are sufficient to put it in the 80% list. This does not undermine the credibility of the list as a whole; it just can distort the relative frequency of the lemmas on the list. The verb ἔχω should in fact appear a little higher in terms of frequency, but it should still appear. A little common sense is needed, however, to remove statistical dust like ἔχις. Deletions of this type and of proper names removed 168 lemmas from the raw list. I added 79 lemmas into this newly reduced list. The reasons varied. In some cases, I added a verb like ἀγγέλλω, which appeared on the list only in compound forms, as I felt it was pedagogically worthwhile to be able to learn the root verb along with the compounds. In some 6

7 Wilfred E. Major Page 7 cases I added words important culturally or valuable for their English derivatives and equivalents (e.g., δαίμων). The resulting list is approximately 1,100 words (allowing for some variation depending on how one counts the lemmas). Generally I would recommend that this sort of list form the core vocabulary for beginning and intermediate students. Whatever the textbook, hold students accountable for vocabulary that also appears in the core vocabulary. This provides a rationale for prioritizing the vocabulary in a textbook and some security for the students that the vocabulary they learn will be that which they need as they continue to read Greek. After the beginning sequence (usually the first year in college or the second year in high school), when students have as their primary focus the navigation of readings, students can continue reviewing and working on the rest of the vocabulary list. And whatever readings they go on to, from Homeric to Biblical, they should have a valuable foundation on which to build. Subsets of the Greek 80% List The complete 80% list can serve as, among other things, a goal of vocabulary acquisition for students in beginning and intermediate classes. Subsets of this vocabulary can prove at least as useful. On the one hand, subsets can form useful groups of vocabulary for students to study (simply proceeding through the whole list alphabetically is perhaps the least efficient method of learning it, although it can be a worthwhile review) but subsets can further serve to establish priorities for other material in the early stages of learning Greek. Most of the subsets discussed in what follows can be downloaded from (the lists are in pdf format, and users may need to be sure they have a sufficiently recent version of the free Adobe Acrobat reader so the Greek appears properly). Verbs: The 80% list of 1,100 lemmas includes 404 verbs. Verbs make up only a small part of the 50% list but more than a third of this list. Thus verbs will make up a substantial part of students growth from one list to the other. At least in part, students will also be learning an increasing number of verb forms even as they are learning the verb vocabulary on this list. As students learn some of the eccentricities of Greek verbs, subsets of the core vocabulary can provide for students a context for the features they are learning and for teachers a means to prioritize vocabulary and grammatical features. Characteristics of the Core Verbs: Sixty of the verbs generate 157 compound forms on the list. Effectively, then, there are 247 basic verbs plus compound forms. Among the ways to group vocabulary profitably is to gather together all the compound forms of a verb and to group verbs together by prefix (compound forms are indented in the main list). Some smaller subsets have grammatical features students are likely to be learning in beginning courses: there are 28 deponent verbs, 33 verbs with deponent futures, and 36 with a 2 nd (aka strong ) aorist. The vocabulary meaning is only part of the challenge of mastering verbs. Learning principal parts is often one of the most daunting areas of beginning Greek. Having a controlled core vocabulary makes it possible to present, study and test principal parts in ways that highlight the patterns of principal parts. Rather than it seeming like there are no regular verbs in Greek, verbs can fall into recognizable patterns and categories. I find five groupings particularly helpful for highlighting the main patterns of principal parts. 7

8 Wilfred E. Major Page 8 1. Vowel stems: The most stable subset of Greek verbs contains those whose stems end in ύω (which is why λύω makes such a good paradigm). Explaining the rule for each part and an example of the pattern of each subset makes Greek verbs seem predictable and straightforward to recognize. For example: Present Future Aorist Perfect Active Perfect Middle Aorist Passive Meaning augment reduplication reduplication augment stem + ω stem + σω + stem + σα + stem + κα + stem + μαι + stem + θην λύω λύσω ἔλυσα λέλυκα λέλυμαι ἐλύθην loosen There are twenty such verbs in the core vocabulary, plus six which have some irregularity in one or more of their principal parts. Verbs with other vowels ending their stems also tend to be stable, except that these vowels contract with the endings in the present and imperfect tenses. The largest group by far consists of verbs in -έω. Recall also that ποιέω is on the 50% list: There are 50 regular verbs in this group plus 20 others with some irregularity in their parts. ε lengthens to η in the future, aorist and perfect stems: pattern: stem + έω, ήσω, ησα, ηκα, ημαι, ήθην example: ποιέω, ποιήσω, ἐποίησα, πεποίηκα, πεποίημαι, ἐποιήθην make, do The next largest group are -άω verbs, with 17 regular examples and 9 with irregularities.: α lengthens to η in the future, aorist and perfect stems: pattern: stem + άω, ήσω, ησα, ηκα, ημαι, ήθην example: νικάω, νικήσω, ἐνίκησα, νενίκηκα, νενίκημαι, ἐνικήθην conquer Finally, there are -όω verbs, with ten regular specimens and five with irregularities: ο lengthens to ω in the future, aorist and perfect stems: pattern: stem + όω, ώσω, ωσα, ωκα, ωμαι, ώθην example: δηλόω, δηλώσω, ἐδήλωσα, δεδήλωκα, δεδήλωμαι, ἐδηλώθην show In addition there are 35 verbs with contract futures (mainly with liquid stems; see category #5 below). 2. Labial stems: Verbs with consonant stem endings are also easier to learn when grouped into subsets of the core vocabulary, even when several individual verbs have irregularities. These irregularities tend to be minor and to occur only in one or two parts. There are 18 verbs with labial stems, of which five are entirely regular. Verbs whose stems end in labials have present stems which end in β, π, πτ, or φ: + σ ψ, therefore ψ in future and aorist + κ φ, therefore φ in perfect active + μ μμ, therefore μμ in perfect middle + θ φθ, therefore φθ in aorist passive Example: τρίβω, τρίψω, ἔτριψα, τέτριφα, τέτριμμαι, ἐτρίφθην rub 8

9 Wilfred E. Major Page 9 3. Dental stems: 25 regular verbs plus 17 with some irregularity. Verbs whose stems end in dentals have present stems which end in δ, ζ, θ, or σ: + σ σ, therefore -σ- in future and aorist + κ κ, therefore -κ- in perfect active + μ σμ, therefore -σμ- in perfect middle + θ σθ, therefore -σθ- in aorist passive Example: δικάζω, δικάσω, ἐδίκασα, δεδίκακα, δεδίκασμαι, ἐδικάσθην judge 4. Palatal stems: 18 regular verbs plus 19 with some irregularity. Verbs whose stems end in palatals have present stems which end in γ, κ, χ, or σσ (= ττ in Attic). + σ ξ, therefore -ξ- in future and aorist + κ χ, therefore -χ- in perfect active + μ γμ, therefore -γμ- in perfect middle + θ χθ, therefore -χθ- in aorist passive Example: ἄρχω, ἄρξω, ἦρξα, ἦρχα, ἦργμαι, ἤρχθην rule 5. Liquid stems: Because this stem ending is unstable, only two of the 42 verbs in this class are entirely regular in their principal parts, but mostly the irregularities are minor differences in the less commonly used stems, so the pattern still helps a great deal. Contract and deponent futures crop up most often in this group, so this is a good opportunity to review these features. Verbs whose stems end in liquids have present stems which end in λ, μ, ν or ρ. + σ loss of σ, therefore -εω- in future and no σ in aorist + κ γκ, but more often just -κ- in perfect active + μ μ, therefore -μ- in perfect middle + θ θ, therefore -θ- in aorist passive Example: κρίνω, κρινῶ, ἔκρινα, κέκρικα, κέκριμαι, ἐκρίθην decide Irregular stems: Among the most feared and challenging verbs in Greek are athematic verbs, also known as -μι verbs. These are high frequency verbs, however, especially counting all their compound forms, and are thus core verbs. The 80% list includes four athematic verbs which use the -μι conjugation in the present, imperfect and aorist tenses, 13 which have -μι forms only in the present and imperfect, plus six which have -μι forms in the aorist only. For all of Greek verbs reputation for irregularity, there are only ten verbs on the core list with truly mixed principal parts or with irregularities in their parts which make them difficult for even passive recognition (αἱρέω, ἀποθνῄσκω, ἔρχομαι, ἐσθίω, ἔχω, λέγω, ὁράω, πάσχω, τρέχω, φέρω). Nouns: Greek nouns do not generate the sheer number of forms that verbs can, but beginning Greek textbooks routinely present a great many different noun paradigms without indicating the relevant frequency and importance of the variations. Again a core vocabulary can provide a means to prioritize. The 80% list includes 325 nouns, nearly equally distributed between the 9

10 Wilfred E. Major Page 10 three declensions: st declension, nd declension, and rd declension. Each declension, of course, allows for some variation and knowing the relative importance of these variations is helpful. 1 st Declension: Nouns of the first declension vary in their paradigms almost always only in the vowel used in the endings of the singular. Of the 114 first declension nouns, 46 are of the canonical form with η (like τιμή), 38 have a long α (like οἰκία), four have a short α while retaining η in the genitive and dative singular (like γλῶσσα); ten alternate a long α with a short one (like μοῖρα). Twelve nouns are masculine (like πολίτης). Four nouns have some individual variation (γῆ, κόρη, μνᾶ, νεανίας). 2 nd Declension: Nouns of the second declension differ only in gender and the attendant restrictions on neuter nouns. Of the 103 second declension nouns, 74 are masculine, four are feminine and 25 neuter. Three nouns have some rarer variation (νοῦς, λεώς, νεώς). 3 rd Declension: Nouns of the third declension display greater variation than those in the first two declensions, but these variations involve primarily the nominative singular and dative plural. The sigmas in each ending (the nominative singular -ς and the dative plural -σι) cause these variations. Like verb stems, third declension nouns benefit from being classified by stem ending: Palatal stems like κῆρυξ: 5 Dental stems Masculine and feminine like ἐλπίς: 9 Neuters like σῶμα: 20 There are only two nouns on the list like ἄρχων, but these are valuable for also being the paradigm for active participles. Liquid stems like δαίμων: 7 Sigma stems like κλέος: 21 Vowel stems like πόλις: 14 Recall that πόλις was also on the 50% list. The remaining 31 nouns have individual minor irregularities or belong to a category with three or fewer nouns. The number of variations even within this small sample suggests that teaching the more stable parts of third declension paradigms is prudent, but it is advisable for teachers to notice when textbooks give full declensions of nouns which are paradigms for no other common nouns. It is not unusual for declensions of fundamentally irregular nouns to appear side by side with paradigms for more common types. Distinguishing and prioritizing among third declension nouns is too often left up to the unsuspecting reader. Adjectives: The adjectives on the 80% list do not vary nearly as much as third declension nouns. The list includes 188 adjectives. The largest subgroup consists of 1 st /2 nd declension adjectives like 10

11 Wilfred E. Major Page 11 ἀγαθός or the mechanical variant (like μικρός) sporting an α in the feminine forms, with 52 and 67 entries respectively, for a total of 119. There are seven two-termination adjectives, using only second declension endings (like ἄδικος) and two contract adjectives (χρυσοῦς and διπλοῦς), plus one of the so-called Attic declension (πλέως). The third declension adjectives fall into three types: like εὐδαίμων (7), like ἀληθής (9) and like ταχύς (7). The three types of irregular adjectives (μέγας, πᾶς and πολύς) already appear on the 50% list. There are still other ways to group and present the vocabulary on the core list. Logical semantic groups are especially valuable (parts of the body, words for time, animals, English derivatives, and so on). I have also found that maintaining a stricter control over vocabulary makes it easier to bring in exterior readings. If I use a reading unconnected with the textbook, I gloss the vocabulary not on the core list (or whatever part of the core list we have covered). Doing so makes the process of glossing vocabulary straightforward for me and reinforces the core vocabulary for students. Furthermore, I have generally found that the core list does indeed generally cover the highly repetitive vocabulary of readings across time and genre. Conclusion There remains much to discuss, refine and improve in these vocabulary lists, and I sincerely hope lively debate will ensue. More important than any specifics, however, I believe that we as teachers of Greek need to rethink vocabulary. The vocabulary selection in textbooks varies wildly in terms of quantity and quality. Vocabulary lists tend to be dominated by the needs of a narrative, reading passage, or grammatical construction. This haphazard approach not only hinders students in their acquisition of the language but in their appreciation of what this vocabulary has bequeathed to modern languages (Latin too often takes credit for bringing Greek vocabulary to English). We also too readily chalk up difficulties in textbooks to something inherent in the complexity of Greek. Greek does pose multiple challenges and rewards, but speakers of the language in antiquity for the most part were no more intellectual giants than students of the language are today. If we are to provide the access to the ancient Greek world and to the most influential writings in Greek, we owe it to our students and other devotees to ease their journey wherever we legitimately can. A high frequency core vocabulary is one such entry point where we can and should hold the gate open wider. Wilfred E. Major Classics Louisiana State University 11

12 Wilfred E. Major Page 12 CORE GREEK VOCABULARY for the FIRST TWO YEARS of GREEK This list contains approximately 1,100 words, based on the 1193 different words which make up 80% of the Greek database of 3.8+ million words in the Perseus Project. Compiled September 2, 2004 and subsequently revised. ἀγαθός ή όν good ἄγαλμα ατος, τό glory, statue ἄγαν too much ἀγανακτέω be annoyed with ἀγάπη ης, ἡ love, charity ἀγγέλλω announce ἄγγελος ου, ὁ messenger, angel ἀγνοέω not know ἀγορά, ᾶς, ἡ market place ἀγορεύω say, proclaim ἄγω lead, bring ἀγών, ῶνος, ὁ contest ἀγωνίζομαι contend for a prize ἀδελφή ῆς, ἡ sister ἀδελφός οῦ, ὁ brother ἀδικέω do wrong ἀδίκημα, ατος, τό a wrong, an injustice ἄδικος ον unjust ἀδύνατος ον impossible ἀεί always ἀείδω (Attic ᾄδω) sing ἀέκων ουσα ον (Attic ἄκων) unwilling ἀθάνατος ον immortal ἄθλιος α ον wretched ἆθλον ου, τό prize ἀθροίζω muster ἀθρόος α ον crowded αἰδώς, αἰδοῦς, ἡ shame αἷμα ατος, τό blood αἰνέω praise αἱρέω take (mid: choose) αἴρω raise αἰσθάνομαι perceive αἰσχρός ή όν disgraceful αἰσχύνω dishonor αἰτέω ask αἰτία ας, ἡ cause αἰτιάομαι accuse, blame αἴτιος α ον responsible, guilty αἴχμάλωτος ου, ὁ prisoner of war ἀκολουθέω follow ἀκούω hear ἀκριβής ές exact ἄκρος α ον top ἄλγος ους, τό pain ἀλήθεια ας, ἡ truth ἀληθής ές true ἁλίσκομαι be taken ἀλλά but ἀλλήλων (oblique cases only) one another ἄλλος η ον other ἀλλότριος α ον someone elseʹs ἄλλως otherwise ἅμα at the same time ἁμαρτάνω make a mistake, miss the target ἀμείβω change ἀμείνων ον better ἀμελέω not worry ἀμύνω ward off ἀμφί + gen, dat, acc about, around ἀμφισβητέω argue ἀμφότερος α ον both ἄμφω, ἀμφοῖν both ἄν generalizes dependent clauses with the subjunctive; makes independent clauses less real (contrary to fact) ἀνά + gen, dat, acc up, on ἀνάγω lead up ἀναιρέω raise ἀναλαμβάνω pick up ἀναβαίνω board, cross ἀναγιγνώσκω recognize ἀνέχω hold up ἀνίστημι stand up 12

13 Wilfred E. Major Page 13 ἀνατίθημι put up, set on ἀναχωρέω go back ἀναγκάζω force, compel ἀναγκαῖος α ον necessary ἀνάγκη ης, ἡ necessity ἀνάθημα ατος, τό a curse ἄναξ, ακτος, ὁ ruler, lord ἀνδρεῖος α ον manly, brave ἄνεμος ου, ὁ wind ἄνευ + gen without ἀνήρ, ἀνδρός, ὁ man ἄνθος ους, τό flower ἄνθρωπος ου, ὁ/ἡ human being ἀνοίγνυμι open up ἀντί + gen opposite ἄνω up ἄξιος α ον worthy ἀξιόω consider worthy ἀπαλλάσσω release, escape ἀπαντάω + dat meet ἅπαξ once ἅπας ασα αν all together ἄπειρος α ον inexperienced, ignorant ἀπό + gen from ἀπαγγέλλω announce ἀπάγω carry off ἀφαιρέω take from ἀποβαίνω step from ἀποδείκνυμι point away ἀποδίδωμι give back ἄπειμι be away ἀπέρχομαι go away ἀπέχω keep away ἀποθνῄσκω die ἀφίημι let go ἀφικνέομαι come to ἀφίστημι remove, revolt ἀποκρίνω separate (mid: answer) ἀποκτείνω kill ἀπολαμβάνω take from ἀπολείπω leave behind ἀπόλλυμι kill (mid: die) ἀπολογέομαι defend oneself ἀπολύω set free from ἀποπέμπω send away ἀποπλέω sail away ἀποστέλλω send away ἀποστερέω deprive ἀποφαίνω display ἀπορία ας, ἡ helplessness ἅπτω join (mid: touch) ἄρα so then ἀργύριον ου, τό silver, a silver coin ἀρέσκω please ἀρετή ῆς, ἡ excellence ἀριθμός οῦ, ὁ number ἄριστος η ον best ἀρκέω ward off ἅρμα ατος, τό chariot α ρμόζω (Attic ἁρμόττω) join ἀρόω plow ἁρπάζω snatch ἄρτι just now ἀρχαῖος α ον ancient ἀρχή ῆς, ἡ beginning, rule ἄρχω rule ἄρχων οντος, ὁ ruler, archon ἀσπίς, ίδος, ἡ a round shield ἄστυ, ἄστεως, τό town ἀσφάλεια ας, ἡ security ἀσφαλής ές safe ἀτάρ but ἅτε just as, because ἄτη ης, ἡ blindness, destruction αὖ, αὖθις again αὐξάνω increase αὖτε again αὐτίκα immediately αὐτόθι on the spot αὐτός ή ό self, same, s/he/it ἄφνω suddenly βαίνω walk βάλλω throw βάρβαρος α ον foreign, barbarous βαρύς εῖα ύ heavy βασιλεία ας ἡ kingdom βασίλειος α ον kingly, royal τὰ βασίλεια palace βασιλεύς, βασίλεως, ὁ king βασιλεύω be king, rule, reign βασιλικός ή όν royal, kingly βέβαιος α ον firm βέλος ους, τό missile, weapon 13

14 Wilfred E. Major Page 14 βέλτιστος η ον best βελτίων ον better βία ας, ἡ force βιάζω, βιάω force, compel βίβλος ου, ὁ book βίος ου, ὁ life βιόω live βλάπτω hurt βλέπω see βοήθεια ας, ἡ help βοηθέω help βουλεύω deliberate βουλή ῆς, ἡ plan, council βούλομαι want, wish βοῦς, βοός, ὁ/ἡ ox βραχύς εῖα ύ short βροτός οῦ, ὁ mortal βωμός οῦ, ὁ altar γαῖα ας, ἡ earth γαμέω marry γάμος ου, ὁ wedding, marriage γάρ for, because γε for sure γελάω laugh γεννάω beget γένος ους, τό race, family γέρας ως, τό prize γέρων οντος, ὁ old man γῆ, γῆς, ἡ earth γῆρας ως, τό old age γίγνομαι become, be γιγνώσκω come to know, learn γλυκύς εῖα ύν sweet γλῶσσα ης, ἡ tongue, language γνώμη ης, ἡ thought, intelligence, opinion γοῦν so then, for sure γράμμα ατος, τό letter γράφω write γύμνος η ον naked γυνή, γυναικός, ἡ woman δαίμων ονος, ὁ spirit, god, demon δακρύω cry δέ and, but δεῖ it is necessary δείδω fear δείκνυμι show δειλός ή όν cowardly δεινός ή όν awesome δεῖπνον ου, τό feast δέκα, ten δένδρον ου, τό tree δεξιός ά όν right δέος ους, τό fear δεσπότης ου, ὁ master δεῦρο (to) here δεύτερος α ον second δέχομαι welcome δέω (1) bind δέω (2) need δή now δῆλος η ον clear δηλόω show δῆμος ου, ὁ people δήπου perhaps, maybe διά + gen, acc through διαιρέω divide, cut apart διαβαίνω step across διαβάλλω throw across διέρχομαι go through διάκειμαι be arranged (pass. of διατίθημι) διαλέγω discuss διαλύω dissolve διάνοια ας, ἡ thought, intention διοικέω manage a house διαπράσσω pass over, accomplish διατελέω finish διατίθημι arrange διατρίβω consume, spend time διαφέρω carry on, make a difference διαφεύγω escape διαφθείρω destroy διαθήκη ης, ἡ arrangement, last will and testament δίαιτα ης, ἡ lifestyle διακόσιοι αι α two hundred διδάσκω teach δίδωμι give δικάζω judge δίκαιος α ον just δικαιοσύνη ης, ἡ justice δικαστήριον ου, τό court δικαστής οῦ, ὁ judge, juror δίκη ης, ἡ justice, lawsuit 14

15 Wilfred E. Major Page 15 διό, διόπερ because of this δῖος α ον divine διότι since διπλοῦς ῆ οῦν double δισχίλιοι αι α two thousand δίχα apart διώκω pursue δόγμα ατος, τό opinion, dogma δοκεῖ it seems δοκέω think δόλος ου, ὁ trick δόξα ης, ἡ glory, opinion δόρυ, δόρατος, τό spear δοῦλος ου, ὁ slave δράω do δύναμαι be able, can δύναμις εως, ἡ power δυνατός ή όν able δύο, two δώδεκα twelve δῶμα ατος, τό house δῶρον ου, τό gift ἐάν = εἰ + ἄν ἔαρ, ἔαρος, τό spring ἑαυτοῦ ῆς οῦ him/her/itself ἐάω allow ἐγγύς near ἐγείρω wake up ἐγώ, ἐμοῦ I ἐθέλω wish ἔθνος ους, τό nation ἔθος, ους, τό custom, character ἔθω be accustomed εἰ, εἴπερ if εἴδομαι, εἶδον see (cf. ὁράω) εἶδος ους, τό form εἰκός, εἰκότος, τό proper, probable εἴκοσι twenty εἰκών όνος, ἡ image εἰμί be εἶμι go (cf. ἔρχομαι) εἶπον say (cf. λέγω, φημί) εἴργω confine εἰρήνη ης, ἡ peace εἰς + acc into εἰσάγω lead εἰσέρχομαι go into, enter εἰσφέρω carry into, pay taxes εἷς, μία, ἕν one εἶτα then, next εἴτε either or ἐκ, ἐξ + gen from, out of ἐξάγω lead out ἐξαιρέω take out ἐξαπατάω deceive ἐκβάλλω throw out ἐκδίδωμι surrender ἐξελέγχω refute ἐξέρχομαι go or come out ἔξεστι it is allowed, it is possible ἐκλείπω leave out ἐκπέμπω send out ἐκπίπτω fall out ἐκτείνω stretch out ἐκφέρω carry out ἕκαστος η ον each ἑκάτερος α ον each of two ἑκατόν hundred ἐκεῖ there ἐκεῖθεν from there ἐκεῖνος η ον that ἐκκλησία ας, ἡ assembly ἐκτός outside ἑκών οῦσα όν, willing ἐλάσσων ον smaller, less ἐλαύνω drive ἔλεγος ου, ὁ a lament ἐλέγχω refute ἐλευθερία ας, ἡ freedom ἐλεύθερος α ον free ἐλευθερόω set free ἐλπίζω hope for ἐλπίς ίδος, ἡ hope ἐμαυτοῦ my own ἐμός ή όν my, mine ἐν + dat in ἐμβάλλω throw in ἐνδίδωμι give in ἐνθυμέομαι ponder ἐγκαλέω accuse ἐμπίπτω fall on ἔμπροσθεν in front 15

16 Wilfred E. Major Page 16 ἐντυγχάνω meet with ἐναντίος α ον opposite ἕνεκα because of ἔνθα there ἐνθάδε from there ἐνιαυτός οῦ, ὁ year ἔνιοι αι α some ἐνίοτε sometimes ἐνταῦθα here, there ἐντεῦθεν from here, from there ἐντός inside ἕξ six ἐξετάζω examine ἐξαίφνης suddenly ἑξήκοντα sixty ἐξουσία ας, ἡ authority ἔξω outside ἕοικα be like ἐπεί after, since, when ἐπείγω press hard (mid: hurry) ἐπειδάν whenever ἔπειτα then, next ἐπί + gen at; + dat on; + acc on to, against ἐπαγγέλλω announce ἐπάγω bring on ἐπαινέω praise ἐπανέρχομαι go back, return ἐπιβάλλω throw on ἐπιβουλεύω plan against ἐπιγίγνομαι be born after, come after ἐπιδείκνυμι exhibit ἐπέρχομαι come to ἐπέχω hold on to ἐπιθυμέω desire ἐφίστημι set upon ἐπιμέλεια ας, ἡ care, attention ἐπιμελέομαι take care of ἐπιτίθημι put on ἐπιτρέπω entrust ἐπιφανής ές evident ἐπιφέρω put upon ἐπιχειρέω attempt ἐπίσταμαι know ἐπιστήμη ης, ἡ knowledge ἐπιστολή ῆς, ἡ message, letter ἐπιτήδειος α ον convenient ἕπομαι follow ἔπος ους, τό word ἐργάζομαι work ἔργον ου, τό work ἐρῆμος η ον deserted ἔρις, ιδος, ἡ strife ἔρομαι ask ἔρχομαι come, go ἐρῶ will say ἔρως ωτος, ὁ love ἐρωτάω ask ἐσθής ῆτος, ἡ clothing ἐσθίω eat ἑσπέρα ας, ἡ evening ἔσχατος η ον last ἑταῖρος ου, ὁ companion ἕτερος α ον other ἔτης ου, ὁ kin, cousin ἔτι still ἕτοιμος or ἑτοῖμος η ον ready ἔτος ους, τό year εὖ well εὐδαίμων ον happy, lucky, blessed εὐθύς εῖα ύ straight εὔνοια ας, ἡ good will εὑρίσκω find εὐρύς εῖα ύ broad εὔχομαι pray ἐχθρός ά όν hated ἔχω have, hold ἕως until ζάω live Ζεύς, Διός, ὁ Zeus ζητέω seek ἤ or, than ἦ [strengthening particle] or [introduces lively questions] or = ʺs/he said from ἠμί or = 1 st sg impf indic act of εἰμί ᾖ [3d sg pres subj act of εἰμί] ἡ [feminine article nom sg] ἥ [relative pronoun, fem nom sg, who, which ] ᾗ [relative pronoun, fem dat sg] or [ where ] ἡγεμών, όνος, ὁ leader ἡγέομαι lead, consider ἥδη already 16

17 Wilfred E. Major Page 17 ἥδομαι rejoice ἡδονή ῆς, ἡ pleasure ἡδύς εῖα, ύ sweet ἥκιστος η ον least ἥκω have come, be present ἡλικία ας, ἡ time of life, age ἥλιος ου, ὁ sun ἧμαι sit ἡμέρα ας, ἡ day ἡμέτερος α ον our ἠμί say ἥμισυς εια υ half ἤπειρος ου, ἡ the land ἥρως, ἥρωος, ὁ hero ἡσυχία ας, ἡ quiet ἡσσάομαι be inferior, be defeated ἥσσων ον less, weaker θάλασσα ης, ἡ the sea θάνατος ου, ὁ death θάπτω bury θαρσέω be bold, courageous θαυμάζω be in awe θαυμαστός ή όν awesome θεά ᾶς, ἡ goddess θεάομαι watch θεῖος α ον divine θεός οῦ, ὁ god θεραπεύω serve θέρμος ου, ὁ heat θέω run θεωρέω look at θνήσκω die θρόνος ου, ὁ seat θυγάτηρ, θυγατρός, ἡ daughter θυμός οῦ, ὁ soul, spirit θύρα ας, ἡ door θυσία ας, ἡ sacrifice θύω sacrifice θώραξ ακος, ὁ breastplate ἰατρός οῦ, ὁ doctor ἴδιος α ον oneʹs own ἰδιώτης ου, ὁ a private person, an individual ἰδοῦ look! ἱδρύω make sit down, seat ἱερεύς έως, ὁ priest ἱερόν οῦ, τό temple ἱερός ᾶ ον holy ἵημι throw ἱκανός ή όν sufficient ἱκνέομαι come ἵνα there, so that ἱππεύς έως, ὁ horseman ἵππος ου, ὁ horse ἴσος η ον equal ἵστημι stand ἱστορία ας, ἡ inquiry ἰσχυρός ά όν strong ἰσχύς, ἰσχύος, ἡ strength καθά just as καθαρός ά όν pure καθό in so far as καί and καίπερ although καιρός οῦ, ὁ the right time καίτοι and indeed, and yet κακός ή όν bad καλέω call κάλλος ους, τό beauty καλός ή όν beautiful κάμνω work κἀν = καί + ἐν κἄν = καί + εἰ + ἄν καρδία ας, ἡ heart καρπός οῦ, ὁ fruit κατά + gen. or acc. down καταβαίνω step down καταγιγνώσκω have prejudice, charge κατάγω lead down κάθημαι sit καθίστημι set down καταλαμβάνω take hold of καταλείπω leave behind καταλύω put down καταπλήσσω strike down κατασκευάζω equip καταστρέφω subdue καταφεύγω flee for refuge καταφρονέω despise (+ gen.) κατέχω restrain κατηγορέω accuse κατοικέω dwell, settle κεῖμαι lie down κελεύω order κενός ή όν empty 17

18 Wilfred E. Major Page 18 κέρας ατος, τό horn κεφαλή ῆς, ἡ head κῆρυξ υκος, ὁ messenger κινδυνεύω risk κίνδυνος ου, ὁ danger κινέω move κλέος ους, τό glory κλέπτω steal κλίνω bend κοινός ή όν common κολάζω punish κόλπος ου, ὁ womb, bay κομίζω bring κόπτω cut κόρη ης, ἡ girl κοσμέω arrange κόσμος ου, ὁ order κρατέω rule (+ gen.) κράτιστος η ον strongest κράτος ους, τό strength κρείσσων ον stronger κρίνω judge, decide κρίσις εως, ἡ judgment, decision κριτής ου, ὁ judge κρύπτω hide κτάομαι acquire κτείνω kill κύκλος ου, ὁ circle κυρέω meet (+ gen.), happen κύριος ου, ὁ lord, master κύων, κυνός, ὁ or ἡ dog κωλύω prevent κώμη ης, ἡ village λαγχάνω obtain by a lottery λαλέω talk, babble λαμβάνω take λαμπρός ά όν bright λανθάνω do without being noticed λέγω say, speak λείπω leave λευκός ή όν white λεώς, λεώ, ὁ the people λίθος ου, ὁ stone λιμήν ένος, ὁ harbor λίμνη ης, ἡ pool, swamp λιμός οῦ, ὁ or ἡ hunger λογίζομαι calculate λόγος ου, ὁ word λοιπός ή όν remaining λόφος ου, ὁ crest (esp. of a helmet), mane, ridge λυπέω hurt λύω loosen, destroy μακρός ά όν long μάλα very, very much μάλιστα very, very much μᾶλλον more, rather μανθάνω learn μανία ας, ἡ insanity μάντις εως, ὁ prophet μαρτυρέω witness, give testimony μαρτυρία ας, ἡ witness, testimony, evidence μάρτυς, μάρτυρος, ὁ or ἡ witness μάχη ης, ἡ battle μάχομαι fight μέγαρον ου, τό a large room μέγας, μεγάλη, μέγα big μέγεθος ους, τό magnitude μέλας, μέλαινα, μέλαν black μέλει it is a problem, or worry, for (+ dat.) μέλλω intend, going to μέν on the one hand, on the other hand μέντοι however, of course μένω stay μέρος ους, τό part μέσος η ον middle μετά with (+ gen.) after (+ acc.) μεταβάλλω change μεταπέμπω summon μετέχω be involved (+ gen.) μεταξύ between μέχρι until μή not (οὐ with indicative verbs) μηδέ and not μηδείς no one μήτε and not μῆκος ους, τό length μήν [emphasizes preceding particle] μήτηρ, μητρός, ἡ mother μηχανή ῆς, ἡ device μικρός ά όν small μιμνήσκω remind, (in perfect middle) remember μισέω hate 18

19 Wilfred E. Major Page 19 μισθός οῦ, ὁ pay μνᾶ μνᾶς, ἡ mina, = 100 drachma = 1/60 talent μνήμη ης, ἡ memory μοῖρα ας, ἡ fate μόνος η ον alone, single μῦθος ου, ὁ story μυριάς άδος, ἡ 10,000, a countless amount μυρίος α ον countless ναί yes ναυμαχία ας, ἡ sea battle ναῦς, νεώς, ἡ ship ναυτικός ή όν naval νεανίας ου, ὁ young man νεκρός οῦ, ὁ corpse νέμω distribute νέος α ον young νεώς, νεώ, ὁ temple νῆσος ου, ἡ island νικάω conquer, win νίκη ης, ἡ victory νοέω have in mind νομίζω consider νόμιμος η ον customary νόμος ου, ὁ custom, law νοῦς, νοῦ, ὁ mind νόσος ου, ὁ disease νύμφη ης, ἡ bride νῦν, νυνί now νύξ, νυκτός, ἡ night ξένος ου, ὁ foreigner, stranger ξύλον ου, τό wood ὁ, ἡ τό the ὅδε ἥδε τόδε this ὁδός οῦ, ἡ road ὅθεν from where οἶδα know οἰκεῖος α ον domestic οἰκέτης ου, ὁ servant οἰκέω inhabit, occupy οἰκία ας, ἡ house, household οἰκοδομέω build a house οἶκος ου, ὁ house οἶμαι, οἴομαι think οἷος α ον such a kind οἷος α ον τʹ εἰμί be able οἴχομαι be gone ὀκτώ eight ὀλίγος η ον few ὄλλυμι destroy, lose ὅλος η ον whole ὄμνυμι swear ὅμοιος α ον or ὁμοῖος α ον like ὁμοιόω make like ὁμολογέω agree ὁμόω unite ὅμως nevertheless ὄνομα ατος, τό name ὀνομάζω call by name ὀξύς εῖα ύ sharp ὁπλίτης ου, ὁ heavily armed soldier, hoplite ὅπλον ου, τό weapon, tool ὁποῖος α ον of what sort ὁπόσος η ον as many as ὁπότε when ὅπου wherever ὅπως how, as, so that ὁράω see ὀργή ῆς, ἡ anger ὀργίζω make angry ὀρθός η ον straight ὀρθόω set straight ὅρκος ου, ὁ oath ὁρμάω rush ὁρμή ῆς, ἡ attack ὄρος, ὄρου, ὁ mountain, hill ὅρος, ὅρου, ὁ boundary ὅς ἥ ὄ who, which, that ὅσος η ον however much ὅσπερ, ἥπερ, ὅπερ the very one who, the very thing which ὅστε ἥτε ὅτε who, which ὅστις ὅτι any one who, anything which ὅταν = ὄτε + ἄν whenever ὅτε when ὅτι because, that οὐ, οὐκ, οὐχ not (with indicative verbs) οὐδέ but not οὐδείς, οὐδεμία, οὐδέν no one, nothing οὐκέτι no longer οὔτε and not οὔτις no one, nobody οὔπω not yet οὗ where οὐκοῦν therefore 19

20 Wilfred E. Major Page 20 οὖν therefore, so οὐρανός οῦ, ὁ sky, heaven οὐσία ας, ἡ substance, property οὗτος, αὕτη, τοῦτο this οὕτως in this way ὀφείλω owe ὀφθαλμός οῦ, ὁ eye ὄφρα so that, until ὄχλος ου, ὁ crowd, mob ὄψις, εως, ἡ sight, appearance πάθος ους, τό suffering παιδεύω educate παῖς, παιδός, ὁ, ἡ child παλαιός ά όν old πάλιν back παντάπασι altogether πάντῃ entirely πάνυ altogether παρά, παρʹ from (+ gen.), beside (+ dat.), to (+ acc.) παραγγέλλω transmit παραγίγνομαι be present παραδίδωμι hand over παράδοξος ον contrary to expectation, paradoxical πάρειμι be present πάρεστι it is possible (+dat.) παρέρχομαι pass by παρέχω provide παρίστημι set or stand beside παρακαλέω call for παραλαμβάνω receive παραπλήσιος α ον resembling παρασκευάζω prepare παρασκευή ῆς, ἡ preparation παραχρῆμα immediately παρθένος ου, ἡ girl πᾶς πᾶσα πᾶν all πάσσω sprinkle πάσχω suffer, experience πατήρ, πατρός, ὁ father πάτριος α ον of or belonging to oneʹs father πατρίς, ίδος, ἡ fatherland παύω stop πεδίον ου, τό plain πεζός ή όν on foot πείθω persuade πειράζω test πειράω try πέλας near πέμπω send πεντακόσιοι αι α five hundred πέντε five πεντήκοντα fifty πέρ [emphasizes preceding word] περάω pass through πέρθω destroy περί around, about (+ gen., dat., acc.) περίειμι be around περιίστημι place round πέτρα ας, ἡ rock πηρός ά όν disabled πίμπλημι fill πίνω drink πίπτω fall πιστεύω trust πίστις, εως, ἡ trust πιστός ή όν faithful πλεῖστος η ον most πλείων, πλέων more πλέω sail πλέως, πλέα, πλέων full of πλῆθος ους, τό crowd πλήν except (+ gen.) πληρόω fill πλησίος α ον near πλήσσω strike πλοῖον ου, τό ship πλούσιος α ον rich πλοῦτος ου, ὁ wealth πνεῦμα ατος, τό wind, breath ποιέω make ποιητής οῦ, ὁ creator, poet ποῖος α ον what sort of? πολεμέω make war πολέμιος α ον hostile (m.pl.: the enemy) πόλεμος ου, ὁ war πολιορκέω besiege πολιορκία ας, ἡ siege πόλις, εως, ἡ a city πολιτεία ας, ἡ constitution, citizenship, republic πολιτεύω participate in government or politics πολίτης ου, ὁ citizen 20

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