Hans-Ulrich Wiemer (JLU Gießen) Festivals in Hellenistic Cities: Reflections on their meaning and functions

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1 Hans-Ulrich Wiemer (JLU Gießen) Festivals in Hellenistic Cities: Reflections on their meaning and functions I. The Festival of the Ptolemies (Ptolemaieia) in Alexandreia Place: Alexandreia (Egypt) Organizer: Ptolemaios II Date: early 3rd century, probably 279/8 BC Source: Kallixeinos in Athenaios 5, 25-35, 196A 203B = FGrHist 627 F 2. English translation (by C. B. Gulick) to be found in the Loeb edition of Athenaios s Deipnosophists, Vol. II. Select Bibliography: P. M. Fraser, Ptolemaic Alexandria, Oxford 1972, Vol. I, ; Vol. II, n ; F. Dunand, Fête et propagande à Alexandrie sous les Lagides, in: La fête, pratique et discours. D Alexandrie hellénistique à la mission de Besançon (Centre de Recherches d Histoire Ancienne 42 = Annales Littéraires de l Université de Besançon 262), Paris 1981, 13-40; E. E. Rice, The Grand Procession of Ptolemy Philadelphus, Oxford 1983; H. von Hesberg, Temporäre Bilder oder die Grenze der Kunst. Zur Legitimation frühhellenistischer Königsherrschaft im Fest, JdI 104, 1989, 61-82; F. Coarelli, La pompé di Filadelfo e il mosaico di Palestrina, Ktèma 15, 1990, ; F. W. Walbank, Two Hellenistic Processions: A Matter of Self-Definition, SCI 15, 1996, ; also in: id., Polybius, Rome and the Hellenistic World. Essays and Reflections, Cambridge 2002, 79-90; D. J. Thompson, Philadelphus Procession: Dynastic Power in a Mediterranean Context, in: L. Mooren (Ed.), Politics, Administration and Society in the Hellenistic and Roman World (Studia Hellenistica 36), Leuven 2000, II. The Festival of Zeus Sosipolis in Magnesia Place: Magnesia on Maiandros (Asia Minor) Organizer: the polis of Magnesia (Magnetes) Date: soon after 196/186 BC Source: Inschriften von Magnesia 98 ; Syll ; LSAM 32. Bibliography: M. P. Nilsson, Griechische Feste von religiöser Bedeutung mit Ausschluß der attischen, Leipzig 1906, ,

2 [στε]φανηφοροῦντ[ος Ἀ]ρ ιστέως τοῦ [ η]µητρ[ί]ου τοῦ ω νος, µηνὸς Σµισιῶνος, φυλῆς προεδρευ ούσης [Ἀττα]λ ίδος, γραµµατεύοντος τῆι βουλῆι Πυθο[κλ]εί- [δου τ]οῦ Ἡγησίππου, τετράδι ἀπιόντος, ἐν νοµαίαι ἐκ- 5 [κ]λ ησίαι, προέδρων ἐπιστατοῦντος Μενεστράτου τοῦ Ἀρτεµιδώρου, ὑπὲρ τοῦ ἀναδείκνυσθαι ἑκάστου ἐνιαυτοῦ τῶι ιῒ ταῦρον ἀρχοµένου σπόρου καὶ ὑπὲρ κατευχῆς καὶ ποµπῆς καὶ θυσίας καὶ ὑπὲρ τοῦ πήγνυσθαι θόλον ἐν τῆι ἀγορᾶι καὶ στρώννυσθαι στρωµνάς. 10 ἔδοξε τῆι βουλῆι καὶ τῶι δήµωι γνώµη δήµου ὅπως οt οuκονόµοι οt ἐνεστηκότες ἀγοράσωσιν ταῦρον καὶ οt ἀεὶ καθιστάµενοι ἀγοράvωσιν ταῦρον Wς κάλλιστον τοῦ µηνὸς τοῦ Ἡραιῶνος ἐν τῆι πανηγύρει ἑκάστου ἔτους καὶ ἀναδεικνύωσι τῶι ιῒ ἀρχοµένου σπόρου µηνὸς 15 Xρονιῶνος ἐν τῆι νουµηνίαι µετy τοῦ Tέρεω καὶ τῆς Tερείας τῆς Ἀρτέµιδος τῆς Zευκοφρυηνῆς καὶ τοῦ στεφανηφόρου καὶ τοῦ Tεροκήρυκος καὶ τοῦ λητουργοῦντος θύτου τῆι πόλει, ἀποστέλλειν δὲ το[ς παιδονόµους πα\δας ἐννέα ἀµφιθαλε\ς, ἀποστέλλειν 20 δὲ καὶ το[ς γυναικονόµους παρθένους ἐννέα ἀµφιθαλε\ς καὶ ἐν τῶι ἀναδείκνυσθαι τὸν ταῦρον κατευχέσθω ] Tεροκῆρυξ µετy τοῦ Tέρεω καὶ τῆς Tερείας καὶ τοῦ στεφανηφόρου καὶ τῶµ παίδων καὶ τῶν παρθένων καὶ τῶµ πολεµάρχων καὶ τῶν Tππάρχων καὶ τῶν οu- 25 κονόµων καὶ τοῦ γραµµατέως τῆς βουλῆς καὶ τοῦ ἀντιγραφέως καὶ τοῦ στρατηγοῦ ὑπέρ τε σωτηρίας τῆς τε πόλεως καὶ τῆς χώρας καὶ τῶµ πολιτῶν καὶ γυναικῶν καὶ τέκνων καὶ τῶν ^λλων τῶν κατοικούντων ἔν τε τῆι πόλει καὶ τῆι χώραι ὑπέρ τε εuρήνης καὶ 30 πλούτου καὶ σίτου φορᾶς καὶ τῶν ^λλων καρπῶν πάντ ων καὶ τῶν κτηνῶν. δεδόχθαι τῆι βουλῆι καὶ τῶι δήµωι τὸν στεφανηφόρον τὸν ἀεὶ γινόµενον µετy τοῦ Tέρεω καὶ τῆς Tερείας τῆς Ἀρτέµιδος τῆς Zευκοφρυην<ῆ>ς ἐξά- [γ]ειν τ_µ ποµπ_ν τοῦ µηνὸς τοῦ Ἀρτεµισιῶνος τῆι δω- 35 δεκάτηι καὶ θύειν τὸν ταῦρον τὸν ἀναδεικνύµενον, συµποµπεύειν δὲ τήν τε γερουσίαν καὶ το[ς Tερε\ς καὶ το[ς ^ρχοντας τούς τε χειροτονητο[ς καὶ [τ]ο[ς κληρωτο[ς καὶ το[ς ἐφήβους καὶ το[ς νέους καὶ το[ς πα\δας καὶ το[ς τy ZευκοφρυηνY νικῶντας καὶ 40 το[ς ^λλους το[ς νικῶντας το[ς στεφανίτας ἀγῶνας, ] δὲ στεφανηφόρος ^γων τ_ν ποµπ_ν φερέτω ξόανα πάντων τῶν δώδεκα θεῶν ἐν ἐσθῆσιν Wς καλλίσταις καὶ πηγνύτω θόλον ἐν τῆι ἀγορᾶι πρὸς τῶι βωµῶι τῶν δώδεκα θεῶν, στρωνύτω δὲ καὶ στρωµνyς τρε\ς Wς 45 καλλίστας, παρεχέτω δὲ καὶ ἀκρόαµατα α`λητ_ν συριστ_ν κιθαριστ_ν, παριστανέτωσαν δὲ καὶ οt οuκονόµοι οt ἐν τῶι µηνὶ τaι Ἀρτεµισιῶνι τῆι δωδεκάτηι Tερε\α τρία, [b] θύσουσιν τῶι τε ιῒ τῶι Σωσιπόλει καὶ τῆι Ἀρτέµιδι [τ]ῆι Zευκοφρυηνῆι καὶ τῶι Ἀπόλλωνι τῶι Πυθίωι, τῶι µὲν 50 [ ιῒ] κριὸν Wς κάλλιστον, τῆι δὲ Ἀρτέµιδι αcγα, τd δὲ Ἀπόλλ[ω]- νι ἀττηγὸν, θύοντες τῶι µὲν ιῒ ἐπὶ τοῦ βωµοῦ τοῦ ιὸ[ς] τοῦ Σωσιπόλιος, τῆι δὲ Ἀρτέµιδι καὶ τῶι Ἀπόλλωνι ἐπὶ τ[οῦ] βωµοῦ τῆς Ἀρτέµιδος, λαµβάνειν δὲ τy γέρα τy Uθισµέν[α] το[ς Tερε\ς τῶν θεῶν τούτων τὸν δὲ βοῦν ὅταν θύσωσιν, 55 [δ]ιανεµέτωσαν το\ς συµποµπεύσασιν, τὸν δὲ κριὸν καὶ τ_ν αcγα καὶ τὸν ἀττηγὸν διανεµέτωσαν τῶι τε στεφανηφό- [ρ]ωι καὶ τῆι Tερείαι καὶ το\ς πολεµάρχαις καὶ το\ς προέδροις [κα]ὶ νεωποίαις καὶ ε`θύνοις καὶ το\ς λητουργήσασιν, διανε- [µέ]τωσαν δὲ ταῦτα οt οuκονόµοι. ὅταν δὲ ἀναδειχθe ] ταῦ- 60 [ρ]ος, ἔγδοσιν ποιείσθωσαν οt οuκονόµοι ὅπως τρέφηται ὑπὸ τοῦ ἐργολαβήσαντος, ἀγέτω δὲ ] ἐργολαβήσας τὸν ταῦρον εuς τ_ν ἀγορyν καὶ ἀγειρέτω παρά τε τῶν σιτοπωλῶν 2

3 καὶ παρy τῶν ^λλων ἀγοραίων b ἀνήκει εuς τ_ν τροφ_ν, καὶ ^- µεινον εcναι το\ς διδοῦσιν, τὸ δὲ fήφισµα τόδε ἀναγρά- 65 fαι το[ς οuκονόµους εuς τὸ Tερὸν τοῦ ιὸς εuς τ_ν παραστάδα, ἀναλισκέτωσαν δὲ εuς ταῦτα πάντα τy γεγραµµένα οt [οu]- κονόµοι ἐκ τῶν πόρων gν ἔχουσιν εuς πόλεως διο[ίκησιν, τὸ δὲ [f]ήφισ[µα τόδε] εcναι εuς φυλακ_ν [τῆς πόλεως] When Aristeas, son of Demetrios, grandson of -on, was stephanephoros, in the month of Smision, when the phyle Attalis presided and Pythokleides, son of Hegesippos, was secretary to the council, on the twentyseventh day, in a regular assembly, when Menestratos, son of Artemidoros, held the chair of the (board of) prohedroi, concerning the fact that every year a bull shall be consecrated to Zeus when the sowing begins and concerning the prayer, the procession and the sacrifice, and that a tholos is to be constructed in the agora and that sofas are to be put up. Resolved by the council and the people, proposed by the people: The treasurers (oikonomoi) in office are to buy a bull, and those who will succeed them will buy a bull, that is as fine as possible, each year during the festival in the month of Heraion; together with the priest, the priestess of Artemis Leukophryene, the stephanephoros, the sacred herald (hierokeryx) and the butcher serving the city, they will consecrate it to Zeus in the month of Kronion when the sowing begins and a new moon appears. The magistrates in charge of the boys (paidonomoi) are to send nine boys whose parents are both alive and the magistrates in charge of the women (gynaikonomoi) are to send nine maidens whose parents are both alive. And while the bull is consecrated, the sacred herald (hierokeryx) together with the priest, the priestess, the stephanephoros, the boys and the maidens, the magistrates in charge of the military (polemarchoi), the magistrates in charge of the cavalry (hipparchoi), the treasurers (oikonomoi), the secretary to the council and the secretary who checks on him (antigrapheus), and the general (strategos) are to say a prayer for the well-being of the city and its territory, of the citizens, their wives and their children, and for the other inhabitants of both city and country, for peace and prosperity, for the growth of the grain, of all the other fruits and of the cattle. To be resolved by the council and the people: The stephanophoros in office shall, together with the priest and the priestess of Artemis Leukophryene, lead the procession on the twelfth day of the month Artemision and sacrifice the bull that was consecrated. The council of the elders (gerousia), the priests, the magistrates, those elected and those chosen by lot, the epheboi, the young men (neoi) and the boys (paides), the winners at the festival of Artemis Leukophryene (Leukophryena) and all others who have won at Panhellenic competitions (agones stephanitai) are to follow in the procession. The stephanephoros leading the procession shall have wooden images (xoana) of all the twelve gods carried along, dressed in their most beautiful robes; he is to have a tholos constructed in the agora near the altar of the Twelve gods and to have three sofas put up. He is to provide performing artists (akroamata), a flut-player, a syrinx-player and a cithara-player. The treasurers (oikonomoi) are to supply three sacrificial animals on the twelfth of the month of Artemision that are to be sacrificed to Zeus Sosipolis, to Artemis Leukophryene and to Apollon Pythios: for Zeus, a ram as fine as possible, for Artemis, a nanny goat, for Apollon a goat, with the sacrifice to Zeus being offered on the altar of Zeus Sosipolis and that for Artemis and Apollon being offered on the altar of Artemis. The priests are to receive their usual share from (the sacrifices to) these gods. During the sacrifice, the bull shall be distributed among the participants in the procession; the ram, the nanny goat and the goat shall be alloted to the stephanephoros, the priestess, the magistrates in charge of the military (polemarchoi), the prohedroi, the neopoiai, the euthynoi, and those who have taken on liturgical duties, and the distribution is to be made by the treasurers (oikonomoi). When the bull is consecrated, the treasurers (oikonomoi) are to call for bids so that he will be feeded by the contractor. The contractor shall lead the bull into the Agora and collect from the grain dealers and from who else does business there the sum needed to pay for the feeding. And may those who contribute prosper! The treasures (oikonomoi) are to inscribe this decree on the side wall. And the expenses for all the tasks here specified in writing, the treasurers (oikonomoi) shall meet them from the funds put at their disposal for the administration of the polis. And this decree is to be classified among those passed in defence of the polis. (my translation) 3

4 III. The Festival for King Antiochos III and Queen Laodike (Antiocheia kai Laodikeia) in Teos Place: Date: Organizer: Source: Teos (Asia Minor) 203 BC the polis of Teos (Teioi) P. Herrmann, Antiochos der Große und Teos, Anadolu 9, 1965 [1967], (editio princepsd with detailed commentary) ; SEG 41, 1003, I + II (text improved by Herrmann himself) ; J. Ma, Antiochos III and the Cities of Western Asia Minor, Oxford 1999, no (with select Select bibliography) a) Public worship for Antiochos and Laodike in the temples and within the rites of Dionysos hιµού[χων καὶ στρατηγῶν γνώµη ἐπειδ_ βασιλε[ς] Ἀντίοχ[ος ] ι στη[ ] [ ±9 π]ρ οαίρεσιν κ[αὶ δια]φ[υ]λ άσσω[ν ±4 ]ijiπ [ ] 5 [ ±9 ]ν ἑαυτῶι διy προ[γόνω]ν ὑπάρχουσα[ν εk]ν οιαν κα [ὶ] [ ±8 ] τασθαι προαιρούµενος πολαπλασ[ι ]ν, κοινὸς [ε`]- [ἐργέτης πρ]οείρηται γίνεσθαι τῶν τε ^λλων lλληνίδωµ [πό]- [λεων καὶ τ]ῆς πόλεως τῆς mµετέρας, καὶ πρότερόν τε ὑπάρ- [χων] ἐν τe ἐπέκεινα τοῦ hαύρου πολλῶν ἀγαθῶν ἐγίνετο παραί- 10 τιος mµ\[ν] καὶ παραγενόµενος ἐπὶ το[ς καθ mµᾶς τόπους ἀποκατέστη σε τy πράγµατα εuς συµφέρουσαν κατάστασιν καὶ ἐ- πιδηµήσας ἐν τe πόλει mµῶν καὶ θεωρῶν ἐξησθενηκότας mµᾶς κα[ὶ] ἐν το\ς κοινο\ς καὶ ἐν το\ς Uδίοις διά τε το[ς συνεχε\ς πολέµου[ς] καὶ τὸ µέγεθος gν ἐφέροµεν συντάξεων καὶ βουλόµενος 15 τά τε πρὸς τὸν θεὸν ε`σεβῶς διακε\σθαι gι καθιέρωσεν mµῶν τ_ν πόλιν καὶ τ_ν χώραν <καὶ> θέλων χαρίvεσθαι τῶι τε δήµωι καὶ τῶι κοινῶι τῶν περὶ τὸν ι όνυσον τεχνιτῶν παρελθaν εuς τ_ν ἐκκλησίαν α`τὸς ἀνῆκε τ_[ν] πόλιν καὶ τ_γ χώραν mµῶν TερYν καὶ ^συλον καὶ ἀφορολόγη τ ον κ[αὶ] τῶν ^λλων gν ἐφέροµεν συντάξεων βασιλε\ Ἀττά- 20 λωι ὑπεδέξατο ἀπολυθήσεσθαι mµᾶς δι α`τοῦ, nνα γενοµένης ἐ- παυξήσ[ε]ως τῶν κατy τ_ν πόλιν µ_ µόνον ε`εργεσίας λάβo τ_ν ἐπιγραφ[_]ν τῆς τοῦ δήµου, ἀλλy καὶ σωτηρίας ἐπεδήµησε δὲ καὶ ἐν τe πόλει µετά τε τῶµ φίλων καὶ τῶν ἀκολουθουσῶν α`τῶι δυνά- µεων ἀπόδιξεν ποιούµενος µεγίστην τῆς προpπαρχούσης α`τῶι πίσ- 25 τεως πρὸς ^παντας ἀνθρώπους, καὶ µετy ταῦτα πολλῶν ἀγαθῶν πα- <ρ>αίτιος δ[ι]ατελε\ γινόµενος mµ\ν παράδειγµα πᾶσιν ἐκτιθεὶς το\ς qλλη[σι]ν rν τρόπον προσφέρεται πρὸς το[ς ε`εργέτας καὶ εkνους ὑπάρχοντας α`τῶι, κα[ὶ τ]y µὲν συ[ν]τελε\ τῶν ἀγαθῶν δι gν εuς ε`δαιµονίαν παραγίνεθ m πόλις mµ [ῶ]ν, τy δ ἐ[πι]τελέσει ἐπιστείλας δὲ πρὸς τὸν δῆµον ὑπέλαβε δε\ν πέµfει [πρὸ]ς 30 [α`τὸν π]ρεσβείαν s συνλαλήσει περὶ gν ἔφη πεπε\σθαι καὶ τῶι δήµ[ωι] συµ- [φέρειν,] κ αὶ τοῦ δήµου πρεσβευτyς ἐξαποστίλαντος ιονύσιον Ἀπολλο- [.±4.], lρµαγόραν tπιµένου, uεόδωρον vωπύρου ἐνεφάνισε τούτοις [ὅτι πα]ραλέλυκε τ_µ πόλιν εuς ἀεὶ καθότι ἐπηγίλατο gν συνετάξα- [µεν φ]όρων βασιλε\ Ἀττάλωι ὑπὲρ gν καὶ γράfας ἔφη ἐντετάχθαι το\ς 35 [πρεσβευτα\]ς ἀναγγέλλειν mµε\ν καὶ οt πρεσβευταὶ ἀνήγγ[ ]λαν ταῦ- [τα τῶι δήµ]ωι κατy τα`τy δὲ καὶ m ἀδελφ_ α`τοῦ βασίλισσα Zαοδίκη ἐν [wπασι καιρ]ο\ς τ_ν α`τ_ν ἔχουσα γνώµην διατελε\ τῶι βασιλε\ καὶ [ἀδελφῶι κ]α ὶ ἐν το\ς πρὸς τ_µ πόλιν φιλανθρώποις ἐκτενῆ καὶ πρό- [θυ]µ ον ἑ[αυτ]_ν παρέχεται πρὸς τyς ε`εργεσίας, καὶ τy µέγιστα 40 [τῶ]ν ἀγα[θῶ]ν ] δῆµος εxληφε παρ ἀµφοτέρων nνα οyν καὶ mµ\ς ἐµ [πα]ντὶ κα[ιρῶ]ι φαινώµεθα χάριτας ἀξίας ἀποδιδόντες τῶι τε βασι- [λε]\ καὶ τe [βα]σιλίσσo καὶ ὑπερτιθέµενοι mαυτο[ς ἐν τα\ς τ[ιµ]α\ς τα\ς πρὸς [τ]ούτους κα[τy] τyς ε`εργεσίας καὶ φανερὸς z πᾶσιν ] δῆ[µος] ε`πορίσ- 4

5 τως διακείµε[ν]ος πρὸς χάριτος ἀπόδοσιν τύχo ἀγαθe π [α]ρ αστῆσαι 45 τῶι ἀγάλµατ[ι] τ οῦ ιονύσου ἀγάλµατα µαρµάρινα Wς κάλλιστ[α καὶ Tε]- ροπρεπέστατ[α] τοῦ τε βασιλέως Ἀντιόχου καὶ τῆς ἀδελφῆς α`[τ]οῦ [βα]- σιλίσσης Zαο [δί]κης, ὅπως ἀφέντες τ_µ πόλιν καὶ τ_ν χώραν TερYν καὶ ^συλον καὶ [π]αραλύσαντες mµᾶς τῶµ φόρων καὶ χαρισ[ά]µενοι ταῦτα τῶι τε δήµ [ω]ι καὶ τῶι κοινῶι τῶµ περὶ τὸν ιόνυσον τ ε χνιτῶν πα- 50 ρy πάντων τ[yς] τιµyς κοµίvωνται κατy τὸ δ [υνατὸν] κ [α]ὶ ναοῦ καὶ τῶν ^λλων µε[τέχ]οντες τῶι ιονύσωι κοιν[οὶ σωτῆρε]ς ὑπάρχωσι τῆς [πό]λε[ως m]µ ῶν καὶ κοινe διδῶσιν m[µ\ν ἀγ]αθά nνα δὲ καὶ τy [ἐf]ηφισ[µένα συν]τελῆται ἀποδε\ξαι ἐπισ[τάτας δ]ύο ἐξ {πάντων [τῶµ] π ο[λιτῶν οnτιν]ες ἐπιµελήσονται τ[ῆς τε κα]τασκευῆς τῶν ἀγαλ- 55 [µάτ]ω[ν καὶ τῆς ἀν]αθέσεως τὸ δὲ ἀργ[ύριον τὸ] εuς ταύτα διδόναι Timouch[oi s and strategoi s proposal. Since King] Antiochos intention and, preserving the goodwill which is his from his ancestors and choosing to manifold, he has resolved to become the common benefactor of all the Greek cities and especially of ours, and, whilst staying on the other side of the Taurus, he was responsible for many advantages towards us, and, having come our region, he restored the affairs to a profitable conclusion and, having stayed in our city and seen our weakness in matters both public and private, on account of the continuous wars and the size of the contributions which we paid, and wishing to be piously disposed towards the god to whom he has consecrated our city and our territory, and wishing to favour the people and the corporation of the Dionysiac artists, he went into the assembly and personally granted that the city and the territory be sacred and inviolate and free from tribute, and, as for the other contributions which we paid to King Attalos, promised that we should be freed through his agency, so that on account of the increase of the affairs of the city, he should not only receive the title of benefactor (euergetes) of the people, but also that of saviour (soter); he stayed in the city with his friends and the forces that accompanied him, making a very great display of the trustworthiness, which was his before, towards all men, and after that, he consistently is responsible for many favours towards us, giving an example to all the Greeks of the disposition he adopts towards those who are his benefactors and show goodwill towrds him; and some of the favours through which our city comes to happiness he now brings about, others he will bring about; in his letter to the people, he was of the opinion that it was necessary to send an embassy [to him], to discuss the matters which he was convinced would benefit the people also, and when the people sent as ambassadors Dionysios son of Apollo [, Hermagoras son of Epimenes, Theodoros son of Zopyros, he made clear to them that he had freed the city in perpetuity, as he had announced, from the taxes which we paid to King Attalos; in his letter he said that he had instructed the ambassadors to report to us on these matters, and the ambasadors did so; in the same manner, his sister, queen Laodike consistently adopts the same disposition as the king and shows h[erself] eager and zealous in benefactions towards the city, and the people has received the greatest of benefits from both; in order that we too may be seen to return appropriate tokens of gratitude, in every occasion, to the king and the queen, and to surpass ourselves in the honours for them in relation to their benefactions, and in order that the people may show to all that it is generously disposed towards the returning of gratitude, with good fortune, (it seemed good) to set up, by the cult image of Dionysos, marble cult-images, as beautiful [and] as fitting for sacred matters as possible, of King Antiochos and his sister, queen Laodike, so that, for having granted that the city and the territory should be sacred and inviolate and having released us from the tribute and having accomplished these actions as favours to the people and the corporation of the Dionysiac artists, they should receive from everyone the honours, as much as possible, and that they should share in the temple and the other rituals of Dionysos and be the comm[on saviours] of the city and in common bestow favours on us; in order that the content of the decree be executed, to choose [two epis]tatai out of all the citizens, who will see to the making and the dedication of the statues; to provide the money for this purpose (translation by John Ma) b) Additional hours for Antiochos and Laodike, including a festival of their own (lines 1 63 only) {Two lines missing} [ ] µετ έχων [ ] [ ]ης διαφυλάσση [ ] 5

6 [ ]το καὶ θυσιῶν καὶ σ [πονδῶν ] [ ] πρὸς α`τὸν ἐπαύξo δια[ ] 5 [ ]σαν ε`χαρίστως ^γ [ειν ] [ Ἀντιόχ]εια καὶ Zαοδίκεια τ[ ] [ κα]ὶ συνε\ναι ἐν τe mµέ[ρ ταύτo πάντας] [το[ς τῆς πόλεως ^ρχο]ντας καὶ το[ς περὶ [τὸν ιόνυσον τεχ]- [νίτας ±13 ]ς. κατασκευάσασθ[αι δὲ βωµὸν ἑκάστην] 10 [τῶν] συµ[οριῶν ἐν τῶι] Uδίωι τόπωι }να παρy [τὸν βωµὸν τῆς συµο]- [ρίας] τοῦ τε β[ασιλέως] Ἀντιόχου Μεγάλου καὶ [τῆς ἀδελφῆς] [α`τ]οῦ βασιλ[ίσσης Z]αοδίκης καὶ συντελε\ν τ_ν [θυσίαν] [ἐπὶ] τούτου καὶ κα[τάρ]χεσθαι τῶν Tερῶν τὸν Tερέα το[ῦ βασι]- [λέ]ως καὶ τῶν σπο[ν]δ ῶν καὶ τῶν ^λλων πάντων προ[~στασ]- 15 [θαι] α`τὸν ἐν τe ἑορ[τ]e ταύτηι τῶν συντελουµένων ὑπὸ [τῶν] [συ]µ οριῶν καθάπε[ρ] ] Tερε[ς τοῦ Ποσειδῶνος ἐν το[\ς ] [ ±3 ]ε οις προέστηκεν τὸ δὲ ἐσόµενον ἀνάλωµ[α καθ ἑ]- [καστον] ^νδρα τάξαι µὲν [τὸ]ν δῆµον [wπ]αξ ἐν τα\ς [πρώταις] [ἀρχα]ιρεσίαις, το[ς δὲ ταµίας το[ς ἑκάστοτε γιν[οµένους] 20 [διδό]ναι το\ς τῶν συµοριῶν προστάταις τὸ ταγὲν ἐκ τ[ῆς διοι]- [κήσε]ως ἔσχατον τe τετράδι τοῦ Zευκαθεῶνος λαβόν[τας τ_ν] [ἀπογ]ραφ_ν παρy τῶν π[ρ]οστατῶν τοῦ πλήθους τῶν ἐν τα\ς [ ±4 ] [ κα]ὶ τῶν ἐν mλικίαι κα[ὶ] τῶν ἀπογραfαµένων πρὸς α`το[ς [ ±4 ] [ ±3 ] θύειν δὲ καὶ ἑορτάvειν καὶ το[ς ^λους πάντας το[ς ο[uκοῦν]- 25 [τας] τ_µ πόλιν mµῶν ἐν το\ς Uδίοις οxκοις ἑκάστους κατy δύν[αµιν ] [στε]φανηφορε\ν πάντας το[ς ἐν τe πόλει ἐν mµέραι ταύτ[o παύε]- [σθαι δ]ὲ καὶ τyς ἐργασίας πάσας τάς τ ἐν τe πόλει καὶ τe χώ[ρ καὶ εc]- [ναι ἐ]χεχιρίας πᾶσι πρὸς πάντας ἐν τe <m>µέραι ταύτo ἀναγ[ράfαι] [δὲ τ]αύτην τ_ν ἑορτ_ν εuς τ_ν TερYν βύβλον nνα δὲ καὶ καθιε[ρωµέ]- 30 [νος] ] τόπος z τῶι βασιλε\ Ἀντιόχωι Μεγάλωι ἐν gι τy µὲν ἐ[τέλεσε] [τῶν ἀ]γαθῶν, τy δὲ ὑπέσχετο καὶ µετy ταῦτα ἐπετέλεσεν, ἀ[ναθε\]- [ναι ^]γαλµα χαλκοῦν ἐν τῶι βουλευτηρίωι Wς κάλλιστον [τοῦ βα]- [σιλέ]ως καὶ συντελε\ν θυσίαν ἐπὶ τῆς κοινῆς τῆς πόλεως ἑ[στίας] [ἐν τ]ῶι βουλευτηρίωι τῶι τε βασιλε\ καὶ άρισιν καὶ Μνήµo καθ }κ[αστον] 35 [ἔτο]ς τyς ἀρχyς µετy τοῦ Tερέως καὶ τοῦ πρυτάνεως τήν τ[ε τῶν] [στρ]ατηγῶν καὶ τ_ν τῶν τιµούχων καὶ τ_ν τῶν ταµιῶν κατy το[.±3.] [..] εuσιτητήρια τῆς ἀρχῆς ἀρχοµένας ἀπ ἀγαθῶν τῆι νουµη[νίαι] [τοῦ] Zευκαθεῶνος καὶ θύειν Tερε\ον τέλειον, συντελε\ν δὲ θυσίαν [το[]ς ἐκ τῶν ἐφήβων µετy τοῦ γυµνασιάρχου τe α`τe mµέραι καθότι γέγ[ρα]- 40 [πτ]αι, nνα µηθὲν πρότερον ^ρξωνται πράσσειν τῶν κοινῶν πρὶν χάρ[ι]- [τα]ς ἀποδ[ο]ῦναι το\ς ε`εργέταις καὶ ἐθίvωµεν το[ς ἐξ mαυτῶν πά[ν]- [τα] στερα καὶ ἐν ἐλάσσονι τίθεσθαι πρὸς ἀποκατάστασιν χάριτος [καὶ] τ_µ πρώτην α`το\ς εxσοδον εuς τ_ν ἀγορyν ἐπὶ τα`τy καλλίστην [ποι]ήσο[µ]εν τy δὲ Tερε\α τy εuς τyς θυσίας παριστάναι το[ς πριαµέ- 45 [νους] τd πρότερον ἔτει τ_ν παράσχεσιν τῶν Tερείων, το\ς δὲ εuσιοῦσιν [^ρχ]ο υσιν καὶ το\ς ἐκ τῶν ἐφήβων το[ς ταµίας ὅσοι δ ν νικήσαντες [το[]ς στεφανίτας ἀγῶνας εuσελαύνωσιν εuς τ_µ πόλιν, παραγίνεσθα[ι] [.±3.]ους ἀπὸ τῆς {ἀπὸ τῆς} πύλης πρῶτον εuς τὸ βουλευτήριον καὶ στεφ[α]- [νοῦν] τὸ ^γαλµα τοῦ βασιλέως καὶ συντελε\ν θυσίαν καθότι ἐπάνω γέ- 50 [γραπ]τ αι ἐπειδ_ ο` µόνον εuρήνην mµ\ν ] βασιλε[ς παρέσχεν, ἀλλy καὶ [τῶν] βαρέων καὶ σκληρῶν ἐκ<κ>ούφισιν εuς τὸ µετy ταῦτα τελῶν παραλύ- [σας] τῶν συντάξεων καὶ λυσιτελε\ς τyς ἐν τe χώραι µετ ἀσφαλεί- [ας π]εποίηκεν ἐργασίας καὶ τyς καρπείας, τιθέναι πρὸς τὸ ^γαλµα [τοῦ] βασιλέως ἀπαρχyς καθ }καστον ἔτος το[ς πρώτους ἐν τe 55 [χώρ]αι ξυλίνους φανέντας καρπούς ὅπως δὲ καὶ διy παντὸς z τὸ ^γαλ- [µα τ]οῦ βασιλέως ἐστεφανωµένον στεφάνωι τῶι κατy τyς ƒρας γινο- [µέν]ωι ἐπιµελε\σθαι τὸν Tερέα τοῦ βασιλέως προσπωλε\ν δὲ τe νe [τῆς] στεφανοπωλίας το[ς ἑκάστοτε γινοµένους ταµίας τ_ν [παρ]άσχεισιν τῶν στεφάνων τούτων ἀποδε\ξαι δὲ καὶ ἐπιστάτας δύο 60 [ἐξ {]πάντων τῶµ πολιτῶν οnτινες ἐπιµελήσονται τῆς τε κατασκευ- [ῆς τ]οῦ ἀγάλµατος καὶ τῆς ἀναθέσεως καθότι ν οt τιµοῦχοι καὶ οt στ[ρ]ατηγοὶ παραγγέλλωσιν τὸ δὲ ἀργύριον τὸ εuς ταῦτα διδόναι το[ς ταµίας ἐκ τῶν τιµῶν τῶµ βασιλέων ἐκ τῆς διοικήσεω[ς ] 6

7 sharing in preserving of sacrifices and l[ibations] should increase towards him through (?) with gratitude to conduct [ Antioch]eia and Laodikeia to have on this day [all the magistrates of the city] and the Dionysiac artists] assemble for a feast ; and to have [each of the symmoriai] build on its own place next to [the altar of the symmoria] one [altar] of King Antiochos and [his sister] Queen Laodike, and to perform the sacrifice on it and to have the priest of the king inaugurate the rituals and to have him preside in this festival over the libations and all the other rites which are performed by the symmoriai just as the priest of Poseidon presides at the [Leukath]ea; and to have the people determine once and for all the future expenditure per head, and to have the successive tamiai give the fixed amount to the prostatai of the symmoriai out of the state budget, at the latest on the fourth of Leukatheon, after having received from the prostatai the return of numbers of those in, those in the age-classes and those registered with them ; and to have all the others who live in our city sacrifice and celebrate the festival in their own houses, each according to his means; and to have all wear crowns in the city on that day; and [to suspend] all working activities in the city and in the countryside, and to have on that day court holidays for all towards all; and to inscribe this festival in the sacred book (hiera byblos); and in order that the place be consecrated to King Antiochos Megas where he accomplished some of his favours, and promised the others, which he accomplished later, to dedicate in the bouleuterion a bronze cult-image of the king, as fine as possible, and to have the colleges of the strategoi and the timouchoi and the tamiai and along with the priest and the prytanis perform in the bouleuterion a sacrifice upon the common hearth of the city to the king and the Charites and to Memory, as Eisiteria (entrance-ritual) each year when these colleges enter office, for good result, upon the first of Leukatheon, and to have them offer a full-grown victim; and to have those who leave the ephebes offer a sacrifice with the gymnasiarch on the same day, as it is written, so that they do not start to handle anything among the common affairs before returning gratitude to the benefactors and so that we should accustom our progeny to value everything less than the returning of gratitude and so that we should make their first entrance into the agora as fine as possible, in the same spirit (?); and to have those who in the previous year have bought the right to supply the sacrificial victims make available the victims for the sacrifices, and to have the tamiai supply the victims to the magistrates entering office and those who leave the ephebes; and to have those who after a victory in the crown-games (agones stephanitai) make a solemn entrance into the city go from the gate to the bouleuterion first, and crown the cult-image of the king and offer a sacrifice as is written above; and since the king brought us not only peace but also an alleviation of the heavy and harsh taxes for the future, by releasing us from the syntaxeis, and made the working and harvesting in the land profitable and safe, (it seemed good) to place before the cult-image (agalma) of the king the first produce from trees that appear each year in the land, as first-fruit offerings; and to have the priest make sure that the cult-image of the king should be crowned at all times with the crown that fits the season; and to have the successive tamiai add the right to supply these crowns to the auction (of the contract) of the crown-supplying and to appoint two epistatai out of all the citizens who should see to the work on the cult-image and the dedication, following the orders of the timouchoi and the strategoi; to have the tamiai give the money for this purpose out of the honours for the king or out of the state budget (dioikesis) (translation by John Ma) IV. The Festival for King Attalos III in Pergamon Place: Organizer: Date: Source: Pergamon (Asia Minor) the Polis of Pergamon (Pergamenoi) 138/133 BC Inschriften von Pergamon 246 = OGIS 332 = B. Virgilio, Lancia, diadema e porpora. Il re e la regalità ellenistica, Pisa , no. 14. Select Bibliography: L. Robert, Un décret de Pergame, BCH 108, 1984, (on the inscription s provenance); id., Le décret de Pergame pour Attale III, BCH 109, 1985, (on the route taken by the procession); P. Hamon, Les prêtres du culte royal dans la capitale des Attalides: note sur le décret de Pergame en l honneur du roi Attale III (OGIS 332), Chiron 34, 2004, (on lines 26-27); cp. SEG 54, 2004,

8 [ χώραν π]ο[λ]εµί[α]ν s ν [π]ρῶ[τος ] [.] [, ο`δενὸ]ς τὸµ βασιλέα ε`νοίαι ὑπερτ ι θ εµ [ένου εu]ς ἑα υ τ όν, fηφίvεσ- [θ]α [ι] τỵς πρεπούσας α`τῶι τιµάς, ὅπως ἐπὶ το\ς γεγενηµένοις ἀγαθο\ς τῶι βασιλε\ ἐκτενε\ς οt πολ\ται φαίνωνται καὶ ἀποδιδόντες α`τῶι τyς καταξίας χάριτας τῶν ε`ηµερηµάτων καὶ τῶν εuς ἑαυτο[ς ε`εργεσι ῶ ν ἀγαθῆι τύχηι δεδόχθαι τῆι βουλῆι καὶ τῶι δήµωι στεφανῶσαι τὸµ βασιλέα χρυσῶι στεφάνωι ἀριστείωι, καθιερῶσαι δὲ α`τοῦ καὶ ^γαλµα πεντάπηχυ τεθωρακισµένον καὶ βεβηκὸς ἐπὶ σκύλων ἐν τῶι ναῶι τοῦ Σωτῆρος Ἀσκληπιοῦ, nνα ἦ[ι] σύνναος τῶι θεῶι, στῆσαι δὲ α`τοῦ καὶ εuκόνα χρυσῆν ἔφιππον ἐπὶ στυλίδος µαρµαρίνης παρy τὸν τοῦ ιὸς τ οῦ Σωτῆρος βωµόν, ὅπως ὑπάρχηι m εuκaν ἐν τῶι ἐπιφανεστάτωι τόπωι τῆς ἀγορᾶς, ἑκάστης τε mµέρας ] στεφανηφόρος καὶ ] Tερε[ς τοῦ βασιλέως καὶ ἀ γωνοθέτης ἐπιθυέτωσαν λιβανωτὸν ἐπὶ τοῦ βωµοῦ τ[ο]ῦ ιὸς τοῦ Σωτῆρος τῶι βασιλε\. τ_ν δὲ ὀγδόην, ἐν ἧι παρεγένετο εuς Πέργαµον, Tεράν τε εcναι ε [U]ς wπαντα τὸν χρόνον καὶ ἐν α`τῆι ἐπιτελε\σθαι κατ ἐνιαυτὸν ὑπὸ τοῦ Tερέως τοῦ Ἀσκληπιοῦ ποµπ_ν Wς καλλίστην ἐκ τοῦ πρυτανε[ί]- ου εuς τὸ τέµενος τοῦ Ἀσκληπιοῦ καὶ τοῦ βασιλέως συµποµπευόντων τῶν εuθισµένων. καὶ παρασταθείσης θυσίας καὶ καλλιερηθείσης συναγέσθωσαν ἐν τῶι Tερῶι οt ^ρχοντες, δίδοσθαι δὲ εxς τε τ_ν θυσίαν καὶ τ_ν σύνοδον α`τῶν ὑπὸ τοῦ ταµίου τῶν ἀµετοίστων προσόδων ἀπὸ τοῦ πόρου τοῦ Ἀσκληπιείου ἀργυρίου δραχµyς πεντήκοντα, τ_ν δὲ θυσίαν [ἐπ]ὶ τῆς ὑποδοχῆς ἐπιµελείσθωσαν οt Tερονόµοι. γενέσθαι δὲ καὶ ἐπιγραφάς, ἐπὶ µὲν τοῦ ἀγάλµατος ] δῆµος βασιλέα Ἄτταλον φιλοµήτορα καὶ ε`εργέτην θεοῦ βασιλέως Ε`µένου σωτῆρος ἀρετῆ[ς] }νεκεν καὶ ἀνδραγαθίας τῆς κατy πόλεµον, κρατήσαντα τῶν ὑπεναντίων, ἐ [πὶ] δὲ τῆς εuκόνος ] δῆµος βασιλέα Ἄτταλον φιλοµήτορα καὶ ε`εργέτην θεοῦ βασ[ιλέ]- ως Ε`µένου σωτῆρος ἀρετῆς }νεκεν καὶ φρονήσεως τῆς συναυξούσης τy πράγ [µα]- τα καὶ µεγαλοµερείας τῆς εuς ἑαυτόν. ὅταν δὲ παραγίνηται εuς τ_ν πόλιν mµῶν, σ τ ε φανηφορῆσαι πάντα<ς> κα<ὶ> τὸν στεφανηφόρον τῶν δώδεκα θεῶν καὶ θεοῦ βασιλέως Ε`µένου καὶ το[ς Tερε\ς καὶ τyς Tερε[ί]ας ἀνοίξαντας το[ς ναο[ς τῶν θε- ῶν καὶ ἐπιθύοντας {τὸν} λιβανωτὸν εkχεσ θαι νῦν τε καὶ εuς τὸν ἀεὶ χρόνον διδόναι βασιλε\ Ἀττάλωι φιλοµήτορι καὶ ε`εργέτηι ὑγίειαν σωτηρίαν νίκην κράτος καὶ ἐπὶ [γῆ]ς <καὶ> κατ[y] θά[λατταν] κ[α]ὶ ^ρχοντι καὶ ἀµυνοµένωι, καὶ τ_ν βασιλείαν α`τοῦ διαµ<έ>ν[ε]ιν [εuς] τὸν wπαντα αuῶνα ἀβλαβῆ µετy πάσης ἀσφαλείας. ἀπαντῆσαι δὲ α `τῶ [ι] τ ού[ς] τε προγεγραµµένους Tερε\ς καὶ τyς Tερείας καὶ το[ς στρατηγο[ς καὶ το[ς ^ρχοντας καὶ το[ς Tερονίκας ἔχοντας το[ς ἀπὸ [τῶν] ἀ]γῶνω]ν [στεφάν]ους καὶ τ ὸγ [γυ]µνασίαρχον µετy τῶν ἐφήβων κα ὶ τ[ῶ]ν νέ [ων] κ α [ὶ τ]ὸν [π]α ι δ ο[ν]όµ ον µετy [τ]ῶ µ παίδων καὶ το[ς πολίτας καὶ τy ς [γυνα\κας καὶ παρθένους πάν]τας καὶ το[ς ἐνοικοῦντας ἐν ἐσθῆ σιν λα [µπρα\ς ἐστεφανοµένους]. ε [c]ναι δὲ καὶ τ_ν mµέραν Tεράν, ἐν ἧ ι µ παραγ[έ]νη ται [εuς τ_]µ π όλ[ι]ν, [καὶ θ]ῦσα ι το[ς πολίτας πανδηµεὶ κατy φυλyς παρασ[χοµέ]ν[ω]ν τῶν φυλάρχων θύµατα, δοθῆναι δὲ εuς ἑκάστην φυλ_ν [ε]uς [α`τy ἐξ Tερῶν κ]α ὶ πολιτικῶν προσόδων δραχµyς εxκοσιν. παραστα[θ]ε [ί]σ ης δὲ κ[αὶ θ]υσ ία ς Wς καλλίστης ὑπὸ τοῦ δήµου ἐπὶ τοῦ β ω µοῦ τοῦ ιὸς τοῦ Σω τῆρ[ος τῶ]ι βασιλε\, [ποιή]σ ασθ αι τὸν T ε [ρ]ο κήρυκα τ_ν ἀναγ γ ε λίαν τήνδε ] δ [ῆµ]ο[ς ἐτίµησε βα]σ[ιλ]έ [α] Ἄτ[τ]αλον φιλοµήτορα καὶ ε`εργέτην θ εοῦ βασιλέ[ως Ε`µέν]ου σ[ωτ]ῆρ[ος] χρυσῶ[ι σ]τεφάν[ω]ι ἀ[ριστ]είωι καὶ ἀγάλµα [τι πενταπήχει καὶ εuκόνι <χρυσῆι> ] ἀρετ ῆ[ς }νε]κεν [κ]αὶ µ[ε]γαλοµ[ερ]είας τῆς εuς ἑαυτόν. πά ν [τ]α ς ἀν[ευφηµῆσαι κε[λ]εύο]ν[τα, θῦ]σαι δὲ α`τῶι καὶ ^λλας θυσίας µ [εγί]στωι ἀ [ναλώµατι το[ς Tερέας (?) ἐπὶ τῶι β]ω [µ]ῶ ι τῆς Βουλαία ς lστίας [κ]αὶ τ οῦ [ ]ιὸ[ς τοῦ Β]ου[λαίου, οt δὲ στρατηγοὶ] κα [λ]ε ίτωσαν α`τὸν εuς τὸ πρυτανε\ο[ν ἐπὶ] τ[_ν κοιν_ν ἑστίαν καὶ νεµέτωσαν α`τd] µε[ρίδας ἐ]ν το\ς τῶν χαριστηρίων Tερο\ς το\ς θυοµένοις ὑφ' mµῶν ὑπὲρ] τοῦ βα [σ]ιλέως. [Ἵνα δὲ καὶ ] β α σ]ιλε[ς εuδe [τy ἐfηφισµένα τd δήµῳ, πεµfάτωσαν α`τd οt ^ρχοντ]<ε>ς τὸ fήφισµα κα ὶ παρακαλε ί τω[σ]αν εkνουν [ὄντα] καὶ ε` ε ρ γέτην τοῦ δήµου, συντηροῦντα τ_ν ὑπάρχουσαν διy προγόνω ν [ε`µ]έ [νει]αν πρὸς τ_ν πόλιν [ἀ]εί τινος ἀ γα[θ]οῦ παραίτι ον γίνεσθαι α`τὸν δ [ι]y τὸν δ ῆ µον, ὅπως εuς βελτίονα καὶ ε`δαιµονεστέραν πα ραγίνηται κατά στασ[ι]ν τy κοινy τοῦ πολ [ι]τεύµατος. nνα δὲ τy γεγενηµέ να [ἐπιτ]εύγµα[τ]α τ ῶ ι β α σ ι [λ]ε \ ἐν το\ς κατy πόλ ε µον ἀγῶσιν ἐκφανῆ δι αụ[ῶ]ν[ος πᾶσιν] ὑπάρχ[η]ι καὶ m [διy α`τ]οῦ [µεγ]α λοµ έ ρε ια προ[σοῦσα] ὑπὸ πάντων θεῶν [mµ\ν], ἀναγρ[άfαι] τ ὸ fήφισµα εuς στήλην µαρµαρίνην καὶ στῆσαι ἐν τῶι το[ῦ] Ἀσκληπιοῦ Tερῶι πρὸ τοῦ να οῦ, τ_ν ἐπιµέλειαν πορισαµένων τῶν στρατηγῶν. τὸ δὲ fήφισµα τόδε κ ύριον εcναι εuς wπαντα τὸν χρόνον καὶ κατ[α]τε[θῆν]αι α`τὸ ἐν νόµο[ις] T ε[ρο\]ς. 8

9 hostile territory that he first as nobody has surpassed the king s goodwill towards themselves to decree honours as are fitting for him in order that the citizens, because of these good news, be seen to be eager to return to the king the gratitude that is owed to him because of his victories and his benefactions towards them. For good fortune! Be it resolved by the council and the people to honour the king with a golden victory crown, to consecrate in the temple of Asklepios a cult-image of him which is five cubits high, wears a cuirass and strides over booty, so that he will be the god s associate (synnaos) in the temple, and to erect an equestrian statue of him on a marble column beside the altar of Zeus Soter so that his statue will be in the most conspicuous place of the agora. Every day the stephanephoros and the priest and agonothetes of the king are to burn incense on the altar of Zeus Soter as a sacrifice to the king. The eighth day, however, when the king reached Pergamon, shall be sacred forever and on this day the priest of Asklepios shall each year lead a most magnificent procession from the Prytaneion to the sanctuary of Asklepios with the usual groups of people joining them. After the victim has been brought up and sacrificed the magistrates are to assemple in the sanctuary. For the sacrifice and for the ensuing banquet, the treasurer (tamias) is to give 50 silver drachmas from the non-transferable funds in the account of Asklepios. The sacrifice and the banquet shall be taken care of by the hieronomoi. The following inscriptions shall be carved: on the cult statue (agalma) (the following): The people honour King Attalos, the Motherloving and Benefactor (Philometor kai Euergetes), the son of the God and King Eumenes, the Saviour (Soter), because of his virtue and valour in war, after he has defeated the enemies. On the statue (Eikon) (the following): The people of Pergamon honour King Attalos, the Motherloving and Benefactor (Philometor kai Euergetes), the son of the God and King Eumenes, the Saviour (Soter), because of his virtue and his sagacity that makes his empire (ta pragmata) grow and because of his generosity towards them. When he reaches our city, everybody shall wear a wreath, and the stephanephoros of the Twelve gods and of the King and God Eumenes and all the other priests and priestesses shall open the temples of the gods, burn incense and pray that King Attalos, the Motherloving and Benefactor (Philometor kai Euergetes), be given, now and forever, health, well-being, and victory on both land and sea, whether he attacks or defends himself, and that his rule as a king (basileia) may remain unscathed and in total security forever. To receive him shall be the duty of the aforementioned priests and priestesses, the generals (strategoi), the magistrates, and the winners at Panhellenic games (agones stephanitai) wearing the crowns won in these competitions, the magistrate in charge of the gymnasion (gymnasiarchos) together with the epheboi and the young men (neoi), the magistrate in charge of the boys (paidonomos) together with the boys, the citizens, their wives and the maidens and the inhabitants, dressed in bright clothes and wearing wreaths. The day when he reached the city is to be sacred, and the citizens are to offer sacrifice all together, divided into phylai and provided with sacrificial animals by the heads of the phylai (phylarchoi). For this purpose, every phyle is to receive twenty drachmas from the sacred and political funds. After the people have put a faultless victim on the altar as a sacrifice to the king, the sacred herald (hierokeryx) is to make the following announcement: The people have honoured King Attalos, the Motherloving and Benefactor (Philometor kai Euergetes), the son of the God and King Eumenes, the Saviour (Soter), with a golden victory crown, with an cult image five cubits high and with a gilded statue because of his virtue and his generosity towards himself. And then he shall command everybody to rejoice. And there are to be further sacrifices on the altar of Hestia Boulaia and Zeus Boulaios. The generals (strategoi) shall invite him into the prytaneion to the common hearth and allot him portions of the victims sacrificed as a thanksgiving. In order that the king is informed of what the people have resolved, the magistrates are to send him the decree and to ask him to be benevolent and beneficent to the people, to retain the generous attitude towards the city already shown by his ancestors and always to confer benefits on behalf of the people, so that the common affairs will always get into a better and more prosperous state. In order that the successes of the king fighting in war will be visible for all eternity and that his generosity will be seen by everybody, this decree is to be inscribed on a stele of marble and to put up in the sanctuary of Asklepios in front of the temple, and the generals (strategoi) will see to this. This decree will be valid forever and classified among the sacred laws (hieroi nomoi). (my translation) 9

INTERTEXTUALITY AND EXEMPLA *

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