1 Θαλάσσιες Μεταφορές και Εφοδιαστικές Αλυσίδες: Ευκαιρίες για την Ελληνική Ναυτιλία και τους Ελληνικούς Λιµένες Καθηγητής Ελευθέριος Ιακώβου Πρόεδρος, Τµήµα Μηχανολόγων Μηχανικών Διευθυντής, Εργαστήριο Στατιστικής, Μεθόδων Ποσοτικής Ανάλυσης, Logistics και Διαχείρισης Εφοδιαστικής Αλυσίδας Α.Π.Θ. Πρόεδρος, Ελληνική Εταιρεία Logistics Βορείου Ελλάδος Εκδήλωση Economia, ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΗ ΝΑΥΤΙΛΙΑ: Χθες-Σήµερα-Αύριο, 7 Απριλίου 2014, Πειραιάς
2 Agenda The Globalized Supply Chain Networks Global Transport and Trade Key Sustainability Challenges Shipping Trends & Opportunities The National Logistics System of Greece Logistics Performance Index (LPI) Opportunities for Greece Necessary Interventions Wrap-up
3 Global Transport and Trade Emerging and developing markets will account for 34% of the world s wealth by 2025 (from 20% in 2005) Cost-efficient transport, access to markets, and energy use are integral components of most economies today Cost efficiencies can help generate new trade flows between nations.
4 Global Trends of Concern for CEOs CEO Responses in 2007: Increasing Constraints in Supply or Use of Natural Resources Global Labor and Talent Markets Emerging Economies with Changing Consumer Markets Shift of Economic Activity Between and Within Regions Greater Ease of Obtaining Information and Knowledge Growth of Public Sector More Intense Social Backlash Against Business Shifting Industry Structures and Emerging Organizations New Management Techniques and Approaches Technological Innovation. CEO Responses in 2013: Energy (Shale gas and oil) Sustainability Offshoring/Near-Shoring/Re-shoring SC Risk Management (Security) Resilience Global Economic Issues Port Congestion Free Trade Backlash Disruptive Technologies and Businesses Leadership Gaps Loss of Competitive Advantages.
5 Key Sustainability Challenges Shipping has a sizeable environmental impact It accounts for 3-4% of man-made CO 2 emissions globally Sulphur oxides (SO x ) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ) are additional challenge (adverse impact on air quality and health) Other challenges in global containerized transport that add to cost of trading: corruption, illegal cargo and piracy.
6 Facilitating Trade at a Lower CO 2 Footprint: The Role of Container Transport Every ton of CO 2 cut saves 200$ (source: Maersk Tankers). Three relevant interventions: A. Optimizing the energy efficiency of global transport supply chains: Selecting the most energy efficient suppliers & modes of transport Optimizing supply chain networks Providing customers with visibility of door-to-door carbon footprint and services to reduce the impact of transport in the SC.
7 Facilitating Trade at a Lower CO 2 Footprint: The Role of Container Transport B. Improving Port efficiency Efficient ports have a knock-on effect on improving vessels turnaround time, further reducing fuel consumption and emissions in coastal areas Port capacity and CT productivity lead to elimination of congestion and delays. further reducing truck CO 2 emissions.
8 Facilitating Trade at a Lower CO 2 Footprint: The Role of Container Transport C. Increasing the energy efficiency of maritime trade Economies of scale (Triple-E vessels lead to a 50% reduction of CO 2 emissions per container), new technologies (retrofitting, slow steaming). Additionally, the sector needs to prepare for stricter SO x (and NO x ) regulations IMO: fuel sulphur content<3.5% in 2012 to <0.50% in 2020 Stricter requirements within 200 miles of US and Canadian coastlines, the Baltic and North Sea and parts of the Caribbean Sea.
9 Changes in Container Line Consortia (2013) P3 Network: Maersk Lines (the world s largest ocean container shipper), Switzerland s Mediterranean Shipping Co & France s CMA CGM (pending reg. approval). G6 Network: Hapag-Lloyd, NYK Lines, Orient Overseas Container Line, Hyundai Merchant Marine, APL and Mitsui O.S.K. Lines. Pressures on ports, planned expansion of the Panama Canal (pushed back to 2016) Depths, port rotations...
10 The Net effect of Pooling Resources Sailing larger vessels (at least 8,000 TEUs) Cost efficiencies of larger vessels: a key driver Pressures on ports to handle mega-vessels CMA CGM s Jules Verne (16,000 TEUs) (2013) Maersk, with a Triple-E fleet of 4 (out of 20) 18,000 TEU vessels (2013) China Shipping Container Lines ordered five 18,400 TEU vessels from Hyundai (2013).
11 Globalized Supply Chains and National Logistics Systems Ability to connect to the physical internet is becoming a key determinant of a country s competitiveness Providing access to vast new markets For those with weak logistics connection to global supply chain networks the costs of exclusion are becoming increasingly devastating
12 The Logistics Performance Index Captures comprehensively supply chain performance: Customs procedures, logistics costs, infrastructure quality Ability to track and trace shipments Timeliness in reaching Destination Competence of Private and Public Logistics Service Providers Customs-Border Agencies Transparency-Corruption Supply Chain Reliability. Source: Connecting to Compete 2014, The World Bank.
13 LPI Ranking (2007) 1 - Singapore 2 - Netherlands 3 - Germany 14 U.S.A Greece, 34 - Turkey, 37 - Slovenia, 51 - Romania, 55 - Bulgaria, 63 - Croatia, 88 - Bosnia-Herzegovina, 90 - FYROM, Moldova, Serbia-Montenegro, Albania.
14 LPI Ranking (2010) 1 - Germany 2 - Singapore 3 - Sweden 4 - Netherlands 5 - Luxemburg U.S.A Turkey, 54 - Greece, 57 - Slovenia, 59 - Romania, 63 - Bulgaria, 73 - FYROM, 74 - Croatia, 83 - Serbia, 87 - Bosnia-Herzegovina, Albania.
15 LPI Ranking (2012) 1 - Singapore 2 - Hong Kong 3 - Finland 4 - Germany 5 - Netherlands 6 - Denmark 7 - Belgium 8 - Japan 9 - United States 10 - United Kingdom 12 - France 24 - Italy 25 - Spain 27 - Turkey 42 - Croatia 69 - Greece
16 LPI (2014): Finally, some good news! 1 - Germany 2 - Netherlands 3 - Belgium 4 - United Kingdom 5 - Singapore 6 - Sweden 7 - Norway 8 - Luxemburg 9 - United States 10 - Japan 13 - France 18 - Spain 20 - Italy 30 - Turkey 44 - Greece
17 The Role of China Hutchsinson Whampoa, privately held Hong Kong conglomerate has long had a global network of ports Cosco Pacific ( ) took minority stakes in terminals in Antwerp, Suez and Singapore In 2009 operates half of Piraeus Port (thinking to invest more in Greece) It has invested $1 billion abroad.
18 Greece as a Logistics Hub It is located on one of the three largest globally intercontinental routes with 19 million TEUs going through the region (2009) From trade flows passing by Greece grew at 8% annually reaching 85 billion. Transshipment for Piraeus and gateway maritime flows for Thessaloniki and Piraeus Value added: /TEU from transshipment and /TEU from gateway flows.
19 Greece as a Global Supply Chain Hub: A Vision for the Future Re-inventing a supply chain Merge products and components from Asian sources Localize products to individual European, African and Middle East markets Postpone assembly Increase flexibility Lower risk of inventory Use competitive labour costs
20 Supplying into the Greater Region Taking control Establish logistics hub for supply of goods into the greater region Centralize control and inventory Control the distribution channel Get closer to customers Increase inventory visibility Decrease stock levels and stock outs Increase customer service
21 Requirements for a Greek Success Story Upgrading of Greek port facilities for capturing future flows and handling larger vessels. Improvements of rail infrastructure and operational efficiency and stability 11 days for Piraeus and Thessaloniki for import customs clearance and discharge port handling vs 6 days for competitor ports in the region Reduction of customs clearance and hinterland transportation costs (these costs for Piraeus are the highest in the region). Improvement of educational programs specializing in Transportation & Logistics (Prof. C. Grammenos ). Source: McKinsey Report, Greece 10 Years Ahead (2012)
22 Conclusions The globalized economic landscape imposes new challenges and opportunities for Hellenic shippers and ports The Greek National Logistics System has indeed improved. The transformation of Piraeus and Thessaloniki into hubs will contribute to the Greek economy 1.3 billion of annual GVA and at least 9,000 new jobs in the next 10 years. Still challenges ahead as Greece is still under-penetrated by global players. Need for systemic, poised and scientific planning despite pressures by the lenders
23 Greek Association of Supply Chain Management (EEL of Northern Greece) Established in 1997, >250 members (2013) A non-for-profit organisation; the oldest and dominant official body promoting the science and practice of supply chain management and Logistics in Northern Greece. Range of activities: Workshops, Seminars, Webinars, interventions and support of policy-making for governmental bodies, cooperation with other national and international organizations or institutions involved in the Logistics sector. 18 th Panhellenic Logistics Conference, Thessaloniki, 6-7/11/
24 Τέλος Θερµά Συγχαρητήρια στην ΟΙΚΟΝΟΜΙΚΗ ΕΠΙΘΕΩΡΗΣΗ για τα 80 χρόνια αδιάκοπης κυκλοφορίας και προσφοράς στον τόπο!