PHILOSOPHICAL GREEK AN INTRODUCTION FRANCIS H. FOBES. Πάντες άνθρωποι του εΐδέναι ορέγονται φύσει 'Αριστοτέλης έν πρώτω των Μετά τά Φυσικά g8oa2i

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2 PHILOSOPHICAL GREEK AN INTRODUCTION BY FRANCIS H. FOBES Πάντες άνθρωποι του εΐδέναι ορέγονται φύσει 'Αριστοτέλης έν πρώτω των Μετά τά Φυσικά g8oa2i. All men by nature desire to know THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PRESS CHICAGO ILLINOIS

3 Library of Congress Catalog Number: THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PRESS, CHICAGO 37 Cambridge University Press, London, N.VV. 1, England The University of Toronto Press, Toronto 5, Canada Copyright under the International Copyright Union, All rights reserved. Published Second Impression 1959, Composed in the Netherlands by E.J. BRILL, Leiden. Printed by the UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PRESS, Chicago, Illinois, UjS.A.

4 To HARRY AUSTRYN IVOLFSON

5

6 PREFACE The last thirty or forty years have seen the publication of a number of books designed to introduce the beginner in Greek, not to prose narrative, but to some other kind of writing, Plato, for instance, or Homer, or even, as in the case of one of the best of these books, to writing of several very different kinds. The chief aim of the present book is to acquaint the beginner with technical philosophical terms and to give him practice in reading Greek that deals with philosophical ideas; the book is intended, however, not only for students of philosophy but also for students of linguistics, literary criticism, physics, biology, or of other disciplines in which the acquisition of a technical vocabulary is of importance. The author holds out no promise of "Greek Without Tears". He has followed the old-fashioned order in his presentation of forms and of syntax; in the first twenty-four lessons the paradigms are given in the body of the book as well as in the paradigm sections ( ) at the back. He has not hesitated to manufacture Greek forms for the paradigms (for a particularly flagrant instance see the forms of όρύττω in ) or, in the first part of the book, to concoct Greek sentences for translation into English, or to repeat the time worn "beneficial lie" about the sign of the first aorist active ( 86). He has not dodged technical grammatical terms. He has not tried to make the lessons of equal length. He has not always presented the material in the order in which the beginner should study it; in 31-32, for instance, he has made many general statements about the Greek verb which serve little immediate purpose but which, as the student progresses, will form a frame within which the parts of the verb may eventually combine to constitute an intelligible picture. The Aristotelian passages do not purport to contain, in every case, the gist of their respective arguments; they are in part little more than drill material for the acquisition of the vocabulary. Although they have been so chosen as to touch on many of Aristotle's chief doctrines, they are not intended as an abridged statement of Aristotelian philosophy. For the main idea of the book, and for help in selecting the Aristotelian passages, the author is indebted to Professor Harry Austryn Wolfson of Harvard University; in interpreting the passages the author has vii

7 Vlll PREFACE drawn freely upon Sir David Ross's editions of the Metaphysics and the Physics and upon the late R. D. Hicks's edition of the De Anima; also upon the Smith-Ross translation of Aristotle into English. Professor F. Stuart Crawford of Boston University, Professor Wendell V. Clausen of Amherst College, and Professor Benedict Einarson and Dr. Eric Hamp of the University of Chicago have been so kind as to go through the greater part of the book in manuscript and have placed the author under great obligation by freeing the book from numerous errors. The author is under obligation also to Professor Thomas F. Gould of Amherst College, who has made a number of valuable suggestions. Amherst, Mass., October, 1955 F. H. F.

8 CONTENTS Lesson Sections Page I. i- 17 Introduction: Letters, Syllables, Accents. 1 II The First Declension: Oxytone Feminine Nouns in α 7 III The First Declension: Oxytone Feminine Nouns in η ίο IV Ω-Verbs: Present Indicative Active V The Second Declension: Oxytone Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter Nouns and Adjectives; Article.. 17 VI Ω-Verbs: Future Indicative Active VII The First Declension: Proparoxytone Feminine Nouns 23 VIII The First Declension: Paroxytone and Properispomenon Feminine Nouns IX The Second Declension: Proparoxytone and Paroxytone Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter Nouns and Adjectives.. 27 X \^erbs: Imperfect Indicative Active.. 30 XI The Second Declension: Properispomenon Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter Nouns and Adjectives 33 XII The, First Declension: Masculine Nouns. 35 XIII Ω-Verbs: Aorist Indicative Active XIV Ω-Verbs: Perfect and Pluperfect Indicative Active 41 XV Ω-Verbs: Stems in λ, μ, ν, ρ 4^ XVI. HI-I20 The Third Declension: Nouns with Mute Stems 49 XVII The Third Declension: Nouns with Nasal or Liquid Stems or with Stems in σ. 53 XVIII The Third Declension: Nouns with Vowel or Diphthong Stems 57 ix

9 χ CONTENTS Lesson Sections Page XIX Ω-Verbs: Indicative of Perfect Middle System 60 XX Ω-Verbs: Present, Imperfect, Future, and Aorist Indicative Middle and Passive. 66 XXI Pronouns: Intensive and Demonstrative Pronouns 70 XXII Participles: Active Participles; εκών, ακων, πάς. 74 XXIII Participles: Middle and Passive Participles; Uses of the Participle 79 XXIV Pronouns: Relative, Interrogative, and Indefinite Pronouns; Enclitics; Indicative of ειμί 84 XXV Ω-Verbs: Indicative, Infinitives, and Participles of Verbs in άω 88 XXVI Ω-Verbs: Indicative, Infinitives, and Participles of Verbs in έω and όω 90 XXVII Pronouns: Personal, Reflexive, and Reciprocal Pronouns; εις, ουδείς, μηδείς; Double Negatives 92 XXVIII The Third Declension: Adjectives of Third and First Declensions; Adjectives of Third Declension 95 XXIX Adjectives: Comparison of Adjectives; Formation and Comparison of Adverbs. 97 XXX Ω-Verbs: Subjunctive 101 XXXI Ω-Verbs: Subjunctive (Concl.) 104 XXXII Ω-Verbs: Optative 107 XXXIII Ω-Verbs: Optative (Concl.) XXXIV Conditional Sentences; Numerals XXXV Contract Nouns and Adjectives; Object Clauses 114 XXXVI Ω-Verbs: Imperative 116 XXXVII MI-Verbs: τίθημι 119 XXXVIII MI-Verbs: δίδωμι 122 XXXIX MI-Verbs: ίστημι 124 XL MI-Verbs: δείκνϋμι 127 XLI Irregular MI-Verbs: ειμί, ειμι, φημί XLII Irregular MI-Verbs: ίημι, κεΐμοα, κάθημαι. 132

10 CONTENTS XI Lesson XLIII. XLIV. XLV XL VI. XLVII. XLVIII. XLIX. Sections L LI. 337 LII. 338 LIII. 339 LIV. 340 LV. 341 LVI. 342 LVII. 343 LVIII. 344 LIX. 345 LX. 346 LXI. 347 Page Indirect Discourse and Indirect Questions; What is "Happiness"? Ethica Nicomachea i. io97ai Temporal Clauses: What is "Happiness"? (Cont.), Ethica Nicomachea i. iog7a24~b6 138 The Infinitive; What is "Happiness' 3? (Cont.), Ethica Nicomachea ^ Verbal Adjectives; What is "Happiness"? (Cont.), Ethica Nicomachea i. i097b Uses of the Accusative; What is "Happiness"? (Concl.), Ethica Nicomachea i. I097b34-i098ai2, I098ai5-i8 148 Uses of the Genitive; A Teleological Approach to Biology, De Partibus Animalium i. 639ai-n 150 Uses of the Dative; A Teleological Approach to Biology (Cont.), De Partibus Animalium i. 639ai A Teleological Approach to Biology (Concl.), De Partibus Animalium i. 63ga23-64ob4 156 The Categories, Categoriae 4-5. ib25-2ai9 160 The Predicables, Topica i. i03b The Causes, Metaphysica Δ. 10:1^ Chance and Spontaneity, Physica ii. 195b 31-36, ig6bio-i97a2i, 197^ Chance and Spontaneity (Concl.), Physica ii. I97a36-b22, ig8ai Nature, Physica ii. I92b8~ Nature (Concl.), Physica ii. I93a9-i2, 28-31, I93b6-i2 167 Change and Motion, Physica iii. 200bi2-i5, 2oob26-20ia8, 20iai0-i5 168 Change, Physica v. 224a2i2-28, 224a30-b6, 224bn-i3, The Infinite, Physica iii. 203b30-204a7, 2o6a25~29, 2o6a33-b27, 206b33~207ai Place, Physica iv. 2o8bi-22, 27-29, 2oga2-22, 209a2g-bii, 209b2i-33, 2iob32-2iia6, 2iib5-2i2a6, 2i2ai4-2i

11 χπ CONTENTS Lesson Sections Page LXII. 348 The Void, Physica iv , 15-19, 2i3b3i-34, , 2iyb20~2S LXIII. 349 Time, Physica iv. 2iSbg-20, 219a!-10, 219b 2-9, , 22ia26-b7, 223a29-bi, 223b LXIV. 350 Continuity, Physica vi. 23ia2i-b LXV. 351 The Prime Mover, Physica viii. 25ia8-2i, 23-27, 25ibio-i3, 19-28, 254b7-24, 257a 25-27,25^4-9, 259a6-i3, 267^ LXVI. 352 The Soul, De Anima ii. 4i2a3-b22, 413a 20-b4 183 LXVI I. 353 Charmides Desires a Cure for the Headache, Charmides LXVIII. 354 Μενάνδρου Γνώμοα Μονόστιχοι igo Some Consonant Changes Paradigms: Nouns Paradigms: Adjectives Paradigms: Participles Paradigms: Cardinal Numbers and ούδείς Numerals Article Paradigms: Pronouns Paradigms: Verbs Verb Endings Some Present Stems Some Noun Suffixes Conditional Sentences Verbs Introducing Indirect Discourse Word Lists Some Correspondences in Mutes 263 Abbreviations 264 Greek-English Vocabulary 265 English-Greek Vocabulary 298 English Index 315 Greek Index 321

12 I. INTRODUCTION Letters, Syllables, Accents 'Αρχή δέ -rot ήμισυ παντός. Γνώμη αδέσποτος. Well begun is half done. 1. The Ionic Alphabet. Attic Greek, the language spoken by the Athenians of the fifth and fourth centuries B.C., was written during the fifth century in an alphabet that failed to distinguish certain marked differences of sound. This alphabet was officially supplanted in 403 B.C. by the Ionic alphabet of twenty-four capital letters. Rapid writing of these letters led to cursive forms, and eventually, in the ninth century of our era, to a minuscule book hand from a late stage of which the present small letters have developed. Form Equivalent Name Sound A α a αλφα alpha aha Β β b β-ητα. beta bag Γ Τ S γάμμα gamma go or sing (6) Δ δ ά δέλτα delta dealt Ε ε e ε ψιλόν epsilon [layette] episode (2) Ζ ζ dz ζήτα zeta adze (7) Η η e ήτα eta [there] prey (2) Θ 0 th θήτα theta [at /tome] thm (6) I ι i ιώτα iota bel^ve Κ κ k, c κάππα kappa cap Α' λ 1 λάμβδα lambda /amb Μ μ- m μΰ mu men Ν V n νυ nu now Ξ X ΧΪ wax 0 0 δ ο μικρόν 0 micron [.French mot] soft (2) II π P πΐ pi ^>ick Ρ Ρ r ρώ rh6 row Σ ς final s σίγμα sigma signal

13 ιό PHILOSOPHICAL GREEK Form.1, Name Sound Τ τ t ταυ tau /own Y υ u > y ύ ψϊλόν upsilon French u, German ύ φ φ ph ψϊ phi j~to/> Mnge] gra^ic (6) X Χ ch Χ1 chi \\\ke /ziml German Buc/i (6) τ ψ P s ψϊ psi gypsum Ω ω ό ώ μέγα omega ί'french encore] tone (2) 2. The vowels are α, ε, η, ι, ο, υ, ω. ε and ο are always short; η and ω are always long. Few English-speaking scholars try to give to ε, η, ο, ω their ancient values, which are roughly indicated by the bracketed words above (i); whereas in English the short e-sounds and short o-sounds are open, and the long e-sounds and long ο-sounds are closed, the opposite was the case in Greek. otj ι, υ are sometimes short and sometimes long. In this book small α, ι, υ, when they are long, are marked α, Ζ, ϋ unless they have the circumflex accent (δί, Ζ, υ), which stands only on a syllable long by nature (8). In three diphthongs (αυ, ευ, ηυ) υ was sounded like Latin u. 3. The diphthong s are: Form Sound Example Latin Form At, αι. aisle Αίθήρ, αίθήρ aether Ει, ει eight Ειρήνη, ειρήνη Irene Οι, οι. oil Οίστρος, οίστρος oestrus Υ ι υ'. French lui "Αρπυι,αι, άρπυιαι harpyiae Αυ αυ on r Αυρα, αΰρα aura Ευ ευ eh'-oo Ευκλείδης, εύκλείδης Euclides Ηυ ηυ eh'-00 Ηΰρηκα, ηΰρηκα eureka Ου ου group Μούσα, μοΰσα Musa Αι α [α + ι] a Γ Άι,δης, αδης Hades θραξ, θρ^ξ Thraex or Thrax Ηι. η L 7 ] ~Τ ι ] η Ήιών, ήών Κληθρα, κληορα clatra -ε [ω ( ιί ω Ώιδή, ωδή ode Κωμωδία, κωμωδία comoedia All diphthongs are long. In the last three ("improper diphthongs") the first vowel is itself long, and soon after the classical period the

14 AN INTRODUCTION 3 τ, ceased to be sounded; this ι is "adscript" with capitals, "subscript" with small letters. 4. A vowel or diphthong beginning a word always has a breathing: rough ( r ) if the vowel or diphthong is preceded by the sound h, smooth (') if it is not. The breathing goes with the second letter of a proper diphthong and with the first letter of an improper diphthong; it stands over a small letter and in front of a capital. Words beginning with υ, υ ι, or ρ always have rough breathings. ήδονή (hedone) pleasure Αί'μων (Haimon) Haemon άγορα (agora) market Αίσωπος (Aisopos) Aesop ιδέα (idea) form "Αιδης or αδης (Hades) Hades Ελληνικός (Hellenikos)6Vee ωδή or Ώιδή (ode) ode Αθηναίος (Athenaios) Athenian ΰλη (hyle) material αίμα (haima) blood υιός (huios) son οάτία (aitia) cause ρυθμ.ός (hrythmos) rhythm 5. The consonants of the classical period are shown in TABLE I, p. 4. The only consonants that can stand at the end of a word are ν, ρ, ς (including ξ and ψ); all other final consonants are dropped. 6. The mutes or stops (explosive sounds) form three classes [labial, palatal, dental), in which the explosion takes place at the hps, at the palate, at the teeth and tongue respectively. They form three orders [smooth or voiceless, middle or voiced, rough or aspirate); in the first of these the explosion is not accompanied by vibration of the vocal chords, in the second it is, in the third it is not and is followed by an h-sound (φ."= π'; χ =κ'; 0 -τ'). The values of 9, χ, θ in the classical period are indicated by bracketed words above (1); the later values (fricative) are generally adopted in the classroom. γ before κ, γ, χ, or ξ is nasal; cf. η in bank, lingo, anchor, Manx. 7. ζ, ξ, and ψ are double consonants; ζ was originally pronounced dz or zd. 8. There are as many syllables in a word as there are separate vowels or diphthongs. When a word is divided into its syllables, any group of consonants that can begin a word is put with a following vowel.:

15 PHILOSOPHICAL GREEK b pi Ρ Ο HH Ρί w PH 0) 'o > (Π tv r/1 u cd α Ο β g I i- Ϊ > β W hj PQ <i Η ο HH CO en < Ο W Η h Ο en Η < Ο (Λ Ο ο ο "Ό c/) -I ^ -s ο ί> ^ T3 Ί3 υ ε g 55 CCL ra QJ ixp χ 'o > br 'ο E> eo τ3 Κ PU, C <υ

16 AN INTRODUCTION 5' όγδοος eighth, γι-γνώ-σκω I come to know, έ-θνος nation, κέ-κτη-μοα I have acquired, λί-μνη marshy lake, ά-πτε-σθοa to touch, έ-χοές yesterday. But compounds divide at the point of union: εΐσ-άγω I introduce. A syllable is long by nature if it contains a long vowel or a diphthong: τΐ-μή honor, τρεις three; long by position if it contains a short vowel followed by a double consonant (ζ, ξ, ψ) or by two consonants (except a mute followed by a liquid or a nasal): ά-ξι-ος worthy, άγ-γε-λος messenger, ά-γρός (^ or field. But β, γ, δ before μ or ν, and generally before λ, "make position": δόγ-μα decree. In a compound word whose first part ends with a mute and whose second part begins with a liquid or nasal any two consonants make position; cf. εκλείπει ( ) he abandons with!~κλεπτε or he was stealing. 9, The marks of accent are said to have been invented by Aristophanes of Byzantium (ca. 200 B.C.) to designate inflection or pitch; the syllables of most Greek words had strong differences of pitch and (probably) slight differences of stress. These marks were not regularly used, however, until many centuries later, by which time the language had become strongly stressed. In most classrooms, as in Modern Greek, the accented syllable is stressed and the inflection is disregarded. 10. The acute accent ('), which stands only on one of the last three syllables of a word, indicated a high pitch: υπερβολή a throwing beyond, hyperbole. The grave accent ('), which stands only on the last syllable, indicate/d a low pitch: υπερβολή ήν it was an hyperbole. The circumflex (~), which stands on!y on one of the last two syllables and only on a long vowel or a diphthong, indicated that the syllable began on a high pitch and ended on a low: υπερβολής of an hyperbole. Syllables on which no accent is written had low pitch: υπερβολή was pronounced υπερβολή. Greek words are named according to their accent : oxytone (όξύ-τονος sharp-toned) (with acute on the last syllable, the "ultima"): θεά goddess paroxytone (with acute on the next to the last syllable, the "penult"): αιτία cause proparoxytone (with acute on the third syllable from the end, the "antepenult"): θάλαττα sea perispomenon (περι-σπώμενον drawn around) (with circumflex on ultima): θεας of a goddess

17 ιό PHILOSOPHICAL GREEK properispomenon (with circumflex on penult): πείρα trial barytone (βαρύ-τονος deep-toned) (with no accent on ultima): αιτία cause θάλαττα sea πείρα trial 11. The antepenult, if accented, takes the acute, as βασίλεια queen; but it can have no accent if the ultima is long, as βασιλείας of a queen. 12. If the vowel of the penult is long and the vowel of the ultima is short, the penult, if accented, takes the circumflex, as κήρυξ (--) herald, οικείος domestic; in all other cases the penult, if accented, takes the acute, as φύλαξ watcher, βασιλεία kingship, δέλτα delta, άγγελο υ (- -) of a messenger. 13. The ultima, if accented, takes the acute if its vowel is short, as αδελφός brother, εξ six\ otherwise the acute or circumflex, as αρετή virtue, αρετής of virtue. The acute of an oxytone word is changed to the grave when the word is followed immediately, i.e. without punctuation, by another word (except an enclitic) in the same sentence, as άρετή φυσική natural virtue. 14. In determining the accent final αι and final οι are counted as short except in the optative (31, 234) and in the adverb οίκοι at home: βασίλειαι queens, βασίλειαι kingships, άγγελοι messengers, οίκοι houses, παύσαι may he check, ύγιαίνοι may he be healthy. 15. A proclitic (προ-κλίνω lean forward) is a monosyllable having no accent and connected closely with the following word: ή άγορα the market. 16. An enclitic (έγ-κλίνω lean on) is a monosyllable or dissyllable connected closely with the preceding word and usually (179) losing its accent: άγορα τε Lat. forumque, άγοραί τίνες some markets. 17. The marks of punctation are comma (,), colon ( ), period (.), interrogation mark (;).

18 II. THE FIRST DECLENSION (A-STEMS) Oxylone Feminine Nouns in α ' Εν άρχη ήν ο λόγος. Έκ του κατά Ίωάννην 'Αγίου Ευαγγελίου i. ι. In the beginning was the Word. 18. There are three declensions (a-stems, o-stems, stems in a consonant or in ι or υ); three numbers- (singular, dual, plural); five cases (nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, vocative). In the dual of all declensions the accusative and the vocative are like the nominative, and the dative is like the genitive; in the plural of all declensions the vocative is like the nominative. The dual, which is not commonly used, indicates a pair: τώ όφθαλμώ the eyes. The genitive, dative, and accusative are called oblique cases. Of the ablative, instrumental, and locative cases few traces remain. Separation is expressed by the genitive. Instrument and place where are expressed by the dative. Locatives, as in Latin, are better treated as adverbs: χαμαί on the ground, Lat. humi. 19. The name of a living creature may by its form indicate the sex (ό λέων the lion, ή λέαινα the lioness), or the sex may be indicated by the article only (ό βοΰς the ox, ή βοΰς the cow), or the sex may not be indicated either by the form or by the article (ή χελΐδών the swallow, whether male or female; ο αετός the eagle, whether male or female); a name of this last sort is called epicene. Names of rivers, winds, and months are generally masculine; names of countries, towns, islands, trees, qualities, and conditions are generally feminine. In the first declension most nouns are feminine, ending in α, η, or a; the rest are masculine, ending in ας or ης; when ε, ι, or ρ precedes, feminines generally end in α or α and masculines generally end in ας. 7

19 ιό PHILOSOPHICAL GREEK 20. Feminines in α: goddess army market Sing. N. θεα στρατιά άγορα stella G. Οεας στρατιάς άγοράς stellae D. θεχ στρατιά άγορα stellae A. θ~άν στρατιαν άγοράν stellam V. θεα στρατιά άγορα stella Dual N. Α. V. θεα στρατιά άγορα G. D. θεαΐν στρατιαΐν άγοραΐν Plur. N. V. θεαί στρατιαί άγοραί stellae G. θεών στρατιών αγορών stellarum D. θεαΐς στρατί αΐς άγοραΐς stellis A. θεάς στρατιάς άγοράς stellas 21. Oxytones of the first and second declensions take the circumflex in the genitive and dative of all numbers. For the genitive singular cf. the old Latin genitive in fater familids. 22» VOCABULARY άγορα, ας, ή 1 [agora 2 ], market, market place. γενεά, ας, ή [genealogy], race, birth. διαφορά, ας, ή, C/I/FERENCE, 2 DIFFE- RENTIA. 2 έχει, Ae, s&e, or it has. ϋχουσι, they have. ή (nom. sing. fem. of def. art. 3 ), THE. ήν, he, she, «7, or there was (470). ήσαν, they or there were. θεά, ας, ή [theology, Dorothea], goddess. μεταφορά, ας, ή, irahsference, metaphor, μικρά, ας 4 [microphone], small, little, slight. νευρά, ας, ή [neuralgia, NERVE], bowsiring. στρατιά, ας, ή [strategy], army, φορά, ας, ή [BEAR, Lat, FERO], locomotion, movement, TRA Ν SLA Τ10. ώ (interj., with voc.), Ο (usually not to be translated). 23. (1) γενεαί, γενεά, γενεαΐς. (2) μεταφοράν, μεταφοραΐν, μεταφορών. (3) διαφοράς, διαφοράς, διαφοραΐς. (4) στρατιών μικρών, μικράν νευράν. ι. The gender of a noun is shown by placing after it the art. 6 (masc.), ή (fern.), -or τό (neut.); see Words in boldface type arc derived from the Greek. Words m SMALL CAPITALS are either (like "bear 53 ) cognate with the Greek or (like "difference") derived from Latin words cognate with the Greek, i. e. the word in small capitals and the Greek word are derived from a common ancestor. Words in ITALIC CAPITA LS are technical Lat. equivalents of Greek philosophical terms. 3. Greek has 110 indef. art.; αγορά -= market or a market. 4. First declension forms of adjectives are used to modify only fem. nouns. Adjectives modifying masc. or neut. nouns have other forms, which will be given later (42).

20 AN INTRODUCTION 9' (5) ήσαν θεαί, ή ν άγορά. (6) έχουσι μικράν στρατί-άν; (7) ώ θεά, ώ θεαί, (8) ήσαν δ^αφοραί μϊκραί; (9) ή άγορα μΐκρά ήν. (ίο) φορα ήν. (ΐΐ) ήσαν γενεαί. 24. (ΐ2) Of movements, of a movement. (13) He has small armies. (14) Has he a market? (15) Have they bowstrings? (16) There were small bowstrings. (17) Was there a difference? (18) They have small markets. (19) She was a goddess. (20) The motion was slight. (21) Ο goddess. (22) It was a metaphor.

21 III. THE FIRST DECLENSION (A-STEMS) Oxytone Feminine Nouns in η Κακής άπ' άρχής γίγνεται τέλος κακόν. Εύρϊπίδου άπόσπασμα 32. A bad beginning makes a bad ending. 25. If the nominative singular ends in η (19), η is kept throughout the singular. 26. Feminines in η: plan a long life the beautiful form s. N. βουλή ζωή μακρά ή καλή μορφή G. βουλής ζωής μακρας της καλής μορφής D. βουλή ζωή μακρα τη καλή μορφή A. βουλήν ζωήν μακράν τήν καλήν μορφήν V. βουλή ζωή μακρά καλή μορφή D. N. Α. V. βουλά ζωα. μακρά τώ καλα μορφά G. D. βουλαΐν ζωαΐν μακραΐν τοΐν καλαΐν μορφαΐν P. N. V. βουλαί ζωα! μακραί αι καλα! μορφαί G. βουλών ζωών μακρών τών καλών μορφών D. β-ουλαϊς ζωαΐς μακραΐς ταΐς καλαΐς μορφαΐς A. βούλας ζωάς μακράς τας καλας μορφάς 27. The article : is inflected in all three genders but has no vocative (425) ή and cd are proclitic (15). In the dual the masculine forms τώ, τοΐν are used in place of the feminine. 28. VOCABULARY άγαθή, ής [Agatha], good, brave. δέ (adversative conj., postpos. 1 ), but, άρεχή, ής, ή, goodness, courage, VIRTUS. and. βουλή, ής, ή, plan, plot, senate. ζωή, ής, ή [zoology], life. ι. A postpositive word is a word that never stands first in a sentence or clause. ro

22 AN INTRODUCTION 22' xod (copul. conj.), and; as adv., also, even; και.... καί, both... and. κακή, ής [cacophony], bad, cowardly. κακία, ας, ή, badness, cowardice, vice, καλή, ης [calisthenics], beautiful, noble, honorable, καλώς (adv.), beautifully. μακρά, ας [macron, macrocosm], long. μορφή, ής, ή [morphology], form. Περσική, ης, Persian, πομπή, ής, ή [pomp], procession. σκηνή, ής, ή [scene], tent, booth, stage. στολή, ής, ή, rofcg, dress, stole. τε (τ' or Ο 5 in elision: 5 ) [Lat. -QUE] (copul. conj., encl.), and, τε... και or τε και, both... and. τροπή, ής, ή [trope, heliotrope, trophy, Lat, tropaeum, Late Lat. trophaeum], turn, rout. φυγή. ής, ή [FUGITIVE], flight, Lat. FUGA. φωνή, ής, ή [telephone], sound, voice, speech. ψϋχή, ής, ή [psychology], soul, life, AN1MA. 29. (i) μακρα ήν ή Περσική πομπή. (2) ή της θεας στολή καλή ήν. (3) αϊ δέ βουλαί, καλαι. ήσαν. (4) άγαθήν ψϋχήν έχει. (5) και κακή και μακρα ήν ή φυγή. (6) εχουσι φωνή ν και ψϋχήν; (7) ή Περσική τροπή κακή ήν. (8) αί θεαί. καλή ν β ουλή ν έχουσι. (9) τροπή ή ν της κακής στρατιας. (ίο) άγαθαί και καλαί ήσαν. (ΐΐ) ή δέ μορφή καλή ήν. (ΐ2) άρετήν εχει ή -στρατέ, (13) καλαί. δέ ήσαν αί. άρεταί. 30. (ΐ4) Of the virtues, for a life, to the form. (15) Of a tent, for voices, of forms. (16) The Persian robes were both long and beautiful. (17) But the plan was bad. (18) Have they brave souls? (19) And it was a long and brave life. (20) The tents were long. (21) The flight was cowardly. (22) It has both voice and form. (23) There was a long motion. (24) Was the race noble? 1 ι. The first two elements in a direct question in English are generally the first two in Greek,

23 IV. Ω-VERBS 1 Present Indicative Active Σκηνή πας ό βίος. Παλλάδα επίγραμμα προτρεπτικών All the world's a stage. ('Ανθολογία Παλατίνη x. 72). 31. The Greek verb has Three Voices: Active Middle (indicating action on oneself, for oneself, or on something belonging to oneself) Passive Four Finite Moods: Indicative Subjunctive ( , 228) Optative ( , 239) Imperative Infinitives Participles Verbal Adjectives ( ) Seven Tenses: Present: I instruct, I am instructing, or I keep instructing Future: I shall instruct or I will instruct Perfect: I have instructed Future Perfect (rare in active): I shall have died, i.e. I shall be dead I Primary Imperfect: I instructed, I was instructing, or I tried to instruct Aorist: I instructed Pluperfect: I had instructed Secondary Three Numbers: Singular: first, second, and third persons Dual: second and third persons Plural: first, second, and third persons 1. Ω-vbs. are vbs. in which, the first pers. sing, of the pres. ind. act. ends in ω; in MI-vbs. this form ends in μι, e.g. τίθημι put. 12

24 Λ Ν INTRODUCTION Common to all forms is the verb stem, which, though sometimes changing, carries the permanent meaning. To this stem may be added one or more prefixes and suffixes, which, singly or in combination, indicate in the finite moods, Person and Number, Tense, Mood, Voice; in the infinitives, Tense, Voice, in the participles, Case, Ν timber, Gender, Tense, Voice; in the verbal adjectives, Case, Number, Gender, Voice. The prefixes are, in finite moods: Augment, which occurs only in secondary tenses of the indicative; Reduplication, which occurs only in the present, aorist, perfect, and perfect middle systems (see TABLE II, p. 14). The suffixes are, in finite moods: Tense Sign; Thematic (or "Variable") Vowel, which is ο in the optative, elsewhere ο or ω before suffixes beginning with μ or ν, ε or η before suffixes beginning with other letters; Mood Sign (in optative only); Personal Endings. Of these there are, in the indicative, subjunctive, and optative, four sets: primary active, primary middle and passive, secondary active, and secondary middle and passive. In the imperative there are two sets: active and middle and passive. The first person plural perfect indicative active of παιδεύω is πε-παιδεύκα-μεν, which is made up of reduplication, verb stem, tense sign, and personal ending. The first person plural pluperfect indicative middle of παιδεύω is έ-πε-παιδεύ-μεθα, which is made up of augment, reduplication, verb istem, and personal ending. The first person plural future optative middle of παιδεύω is παιδευ-σ-ο-ί-μεθα, which is made up of verb stem, tense sign, thematic vowel, mood sign, and personal ending. The principal parts of a regular verb are: (1) First person singular present indicative active (2) First person singular future indicative active (3) First person singular aorist indicative active (4) First person singular perfect indicative active (5) First person singular perfect indicative middle (6) First person singular aorist indicative passive. From these six parts it is possible to derive all of the many of forms. hundreds

25 Μ PHILOSOPHICAL GREEK TABLE II Systems Tenses Active Middle Passive ι. Present Present Present Present Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect 2. Future Future Future 3. First Aorist First Aorist First Aorist 4. Second Aorist Second Aorist Second Aorist 5. First Perfect First Perfect First Pluperfect Second Perfect 6. Second Perfect Second Pluperfect Perfect 7. Perfect Middle Pluperfect Future Perfect Perfect Pluperfect Future Perfect 8. First Passive First Aorist First Future 9. Second Passive Second Aorist Second Future Number of tenses 6 7 7

26 AN INTRODUCTION 26' 33. Present Indicative Active: instruct send pursue tell S. I παιδεύ-ω πέμπ-ω διώκ-ω φράζ-ω 2 παιδεύ-εις πέμπ-εις διώκ-εις φράζ-εις 3 παιδεύ-ει πέμπ-ει διώκ-εί, φράζ-ει D. 2 παιδεύ-ε-τον πέμπ-ε-τον διώκ-ε-τον φράζ-ε-τον 3 παιδεύ-ε-τον πέμπ-ε-τον διώκ-ε-τον φράζ-ε-τον Ρ. ι παιδεύ-ο-μεν πέμπ-ο-μεν διώκ-ο-μεν φράζ-ο-μεν 2 παιδεύ-ε-τε πέμπ-ε-τε διώκ-ε-τε φράζ-ε-τε 3 παιδεύ-ουσι(ν) πέμπ-ουσι (ν) διώκ-ουσι(ν) φράζ-ουσι(ν 34. The thematic vowel is here E /o. This added to the verb stem παιδευ gives the present tense stem παιδευ ε /ο. Only in the dual and in the first and second persons plural of this inflection can the component parts (verb stem, thematic vowel, primary active personal ending) be readily distinguished. In the third person plural the ending was originally ντι (cf. Latin am-a-nt); before the final ι the τ softened to σ (cf. nation); and before this σ the ν disappeared (371), leaving no trace except the compensatory lengthening of ο to ου. See The accent here, as in most verb forms, is recessive; i. e. it recedes from end of the word as far as the rules of accent allow (11). 36. The present infinitive active is πα',δεύ-ειν, formed by adding εν to the present tense stem παίδευε (34); εε contracts to ει. 37. VOCABULARY αρπάζω (477) [harpy], seize, plunder. διώκω, pursue. εις [eisodic] {procl. prep,), usr/o (with acc, Lat. IN with. acc.). Iv [enclitic] (procl. prep.), TN (with dat. = Lat. IN with abl,). έξ before vowel, έκ before consonant [exodus, ecstasy] (procl. prep.), out of (with gen. = Lat. i X with abl.). κελεύω, ord.er, command, urge (with acc. of pers. and inf.). μή (neg. particle), not (in protases of conditions, with subjv.. with impv., and with inf. except in indir. disc,). ού before consonant, ούκ before smooth breathing, ούχ before rough breathing, ού at end of clause (neg. particle, procl.). not. ούτως before vowel, ουτω before consonant (adv.), thus, so, as aforesaid. παιδεύω [pedagogue], train, instruct. πέμπω [πομπή send. φράζω (φραδ-νω: 377, 477) [phrase], tell. φυλακή, ής, ή [prophylactic], garrison, guard. ώδε (adv.), thus, as follows. 1. When a vb. and a noun or adj. of the first or second declension are derived from the same root (the vb. not being derived from the noun or adj.,. and the noun or adj. not being derived from the vb.), an e-sound in the pres. of the vb. is frequently paralleled by the corresponding ο-sound in the noun or adj.: λέγω λόγος, λείπω λοιπός, σπεύδο) σπουδή.

27 ιό PHILOSOPHICAL GREEK 38. (i) ού πέμπομεν τας νευράς. (2) φράζετον, φράζετε, ού φράζεις. (3) την δέ φυλακή ν κελεύουσι τας στολάς μή άρπάζειν. 1 (4) έν δε τή μΐκρα άγορα ού διώκει. (5) ούτως άρπάζουσι τάς Ιίερσικάς στολάς. (6) έκ της άγοράς διώκει τήν κακήν φυλακή v. (j) έν ταΐς άγοραις ήσαν νευραί μακραί και καλαί. (8) τάς δέ σκηνάς ώδε άρπάζομεν. (9) ού κελεύεις ούτω παιδεύε ιν; (ίο) εις τήν άγοράν πέμπετε τήν άγαθήν φυλακή ν. 39. (ιι) Were there Persian dresses in the small market? (12) We send the bowstrings in the following way. (13) I urge sending the guards out of the markets. (14) They are not pursuing the garrisons into the Persian market. (15) Is she not seizing the beautiful robes? (16) Has the soul a voice and a form? {17) They are sending robes for the goddess. (18) But in the market there was a Persian garrison. {19) Is he not pursuing and plundering? (20) He is sending the robe into the market. 1. A dependent vb. stands ordinarily at the end of its clause.

28 VIII. THE FIRST DECLENSION (A-STEMS) Oxytone Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter Nouns and Adjectives; Article Μηδέν άγαν. Nothing in excess. 40. Most nouns of the second declension are masculine (ending in ος) or neuter (ending in ov); a few are feminine (ending in ος). 41. Most adjectives of the second and first declensions end in ος (when modifying masculines), α (when modifying feminines), ov (when modifying neuters) if the ος is preceded by ε, ι, orp; otherwise in ος, η, ov. Some, including most compounds, have only two sets of endings, the feminine being like the masculine: βάρβαρος barbarian, βάρβαρος feminine, βάρβαρον neuter. 42. the beautiful river the long road 0 καλός ποταμός ή μακρά οδός servus τοϋ κάλου ποταμού της μακράς όδου servr τω καλω ποταμώ τ ϊί μακρα όδώ servo τον καλόν ποταμόν την μακράν όδόν servum καλέ ποταμέ μακρά όδέ serve τώ καλώ ποταμώ τώ μακρά όδώ ambo τοΐν καλοΐν ποταμοΐν τοΐν μακραΐν όδοον οι καλοί ποταμοί αί μακραί οδοί servi των καλών ποταμών των μακρών οδών servoru: τοις καλοΐς ποταμοΐς ταΐς μακραΐς όδοΐς servis τούς καλούς ποταμούς τάς μακράς οδούς servos the beautiful drink τό καλόν ποτόν helium τοϋ καλού ποτού belli τω καλω ποτώ bello τό καλόν ποτόν bellum καλόν ποτόν bellum 17

29 ιό PHILOSOPHICAL GREEK the beautiful drink τώ χαλώ ποτώ τοΐν καλοΐν ποτοΐν τά καλά ποτά belia τών καλών ποτών bell5rum τοις καλοΐς ποτοΐς bellls τά καλά ποτά bella small narrow μικρός μικρά μικρόν στενός στενή στενόν μικρού μΐκράς μικρού στενού στενής στενού μ,ΐκρώ μΐκρα μΐκρώ στενώ στενή στενώ μικρόν μικράν μικρόν στενόν στενήν στενόν μικρέ μικρά μικρόν στενέ στενή στενόν μΐκρώ μΐκρα μΐκρώ στενώ στενά στενώ μϊκροΐν μϊκραΐν μικροίν στενοΐν στεναΐν στενόϊν μίκροί μΐκραί μικρά στενοί στεναί στενά μικρών μικρών μικρών στενών στενών στενών μϊκροΐς μϊκραΐς μΐκροΐς στενοΐς στεναϊς στενοΐς μικρούς μΐκράς μικρά στενούς στενάς στενά 43. ο and οί, like ή and αί, are proclitic (15). In all neuter words (whether of the second or of the third declension) the nominative, accusative, and vocative are the same in the singular, the same in the dual, and the same in the plural. For the accent of the genitive and dative see Adjectives, adverbs, prepositional phrases, and possessive genitives, when they directly modify a noun that has an article, stand ordinarily in an attributive position (i.e., the modifier immediately follows the article). The first attributive position is the normal one: ή στενή οδός the narrow road αί τότε οδοί the roads of that time το εν τώ ποταμώ φυτόν the plant in the river ό του αδελφού αγρός the brother"s field οι τότε (sc. άνθρωποι) the men of that time If the noun has greater emphasis, the modifier stands in the second attributive position: ή οδός ή στενή the road, the narrow one (I mean) το φυτόν τό έν τώ ποταμώ the plant, the one in the river (I mean)

30 AN INTRODUCTION 19' Rarely, and when the modifier is added as an afterthought to a noun that is at first envisaged as indefinite, the modifier stands in the third attributive position: φυτά τά έν τοις άγροΐς plants, I mean the plants in the fields Any other position is called predicate position: έν τοις άγροΐς τά φυτά the plants ή οδός στενή the road is narrow are in the fields τά καλά των φυτών (partit. gen.) plants that are beautiful τό φυτόν μου (poss. gen. of personal pron.) my plant (194} oi άγροί αύτου (poss. gen. of personal pron.) his fields (155.3) 45. VOCABULARY < γρός, οΰ, 0 [AGRiculture, ACRE], field, δ δέ and he. Used as a weak poss. in country (as opposed to city), Lat. cases where it is plain who the pos- AGER, sessor is: πέμπει τον άδελφόν he sends άγριος, δ, ov [άγρός], living in the fields, his brother. Often generic: τά φυτά wild., Lat. AGRESTIS. plants. Αδελφός, οΰ, 6 [Philadelphia], brother. οδός, οΰ, ή [exodus, method, period], (Voc. sing, αδελφε.) road, journey. άθροίζω (477), collect (trans.}. ποταμός, οΰ, ό [Mesopotamia], river. αριθμός, οΰ, ό [arithmetic], number. στενός, ή. όν [stenography], narrow. βεός, οΰ, ό, ή, god, goddess. (Nom. sing. τότε (dem. pronom. adv.), at that time, used for voc. sing.) then (always temporal), ό, ή, τό (article), THE. Had originally τρέπω [τροπή], turn (trans.). dem. force, which it retained in cer- φανερός, ά, όν [phanerogam], visible, tain phrases, e.g. ό μεν... 6 δέ the evident. one... the other, οί μεν... οί δέ some φυτόν, οΰ, τό [neophyte], plant.... others, ό μεν... ή δέ he... she, 46. (ι) έν τοις άγροϊς άθροίζουσιν οί άδελφοί στρατιάν. (2) ό δέ Περσικός 6εός φανερός ουκ ήν. (3) μικρόν ήν τό έν τω άγρω φυτόν. (4) μικροί οί αριθμοί. (5) ή έκ των άγρών οδός μακρα ήν.- (6) τήν στρατιαν τήν του άδελφοΰ εις τους άγρούς τρέπει. (7) τά δέ τότε φυτά μϊκρά ήν. 1 (8) ήν τά έν τω ποταμφ φυτά φανερά; παταμόν τρέπειν. (g) κελεύει τον άδελφόν τήν στρατιαν εις τον (ίο) τότε δέ φανεροί ήσαν οί έκ της φυλακής άδελφοί. 47. (ιι) The brothers are collecting plants in the fields. (12) Was not the river narrow? (13) Was the number small? (14) The gods and goddesses were not visible (masc.). small and narrow. (15) The brothers' field was (16) At that time there was a procession in the road. (17) Is not your brother turning the procession out of the road? (18) Then the Persian tents were visible. (19) Are you collecting plants? (20) The life of the plants was long. 1. Neut. plur. subjects, having once had collectivc meaning, take sing, verbs.

31 VI. Ω-VERBS Future Indicative Active 'Έργον εστί σπουδαίο ν είναι. 'Αριστοτέλης έν τφ δευτέρω των Νΐκομαχείων It is no easy task to be good. 48. (i) In verbs whose stems end in a diphthong, a long vowel, or a mute (TABLE I, p. 4) the future indicative active is made up of verb stem, tense sign (σ), thematic vowel ( E /o), and primary active personal endings (474): παιδευ-σ-ο-μεν, πεμπ-σ-ο-μεν, διωκ-σ-ο-μεν, φραδ-σ-ο-μεν. παιδευσ*/ο is called the future tense stem. For the effect of σ on a preceding mute see instruct send pursue tell παιδεύ-σ-ω παιδεύ-σ-εις παιδεύ-σ-ει παιδεύ-σ-ε-τον παιδεύ-σ-ε-τον παιδεύ-σ-ο-μεν παιδεύ-σ-ε-τε παιδεύ-σ-ουσιίν) πέμψ-ω πέμψ-εις πέμψ-ει πέμψ-ε-τον πέμψ-ε-τον πέμψ-ο-μεν πέμψ-ε-τε πέμψ-ουσι(ν) διώξ-ω διώξ-εις διώξ-ει διώξ-ε-τον διώξ-ε-τον δί.ώξ-0-μεν διώξ-ε-τε διώξ-ουσι(ν) φρά-σ-ω φρά-σ-εις φρά-σ-ει φρά-σ-ε-τον φρά-σ-ε-τον φρά-σ-ο-μεν φρά-σ-ε-τε φρά-σ-ουσι(ν) (2) In some verbs the σ of the future is dropped between vowels, and the vowels are contracted: έλαύνω (έλα) drive έλα-σ-ω έλώ καλέ ω (καλε) call καλε-σ-ω καλώ The resulting future is inflected like the present of a contract verb in άω or έω (185, 452, 454). (3) Certain other verbs add the tense sign σε (not σ), and, the σ remaining, the vowels are contracted: πλέω (πλε-f: 129.3) sail πλεf-σε-o-μα^. πλευσοΰμαι (4) Verbs of more than two syllables in ίζω have futures -in ιέ ω, the last two vowels being contracted: κιθαρίζω play the cithara κιθαρι-εω κιθαριώ 20

32 AN INTRODUCTION 21' 49. The future infinitive active is formed by adding εν to the future tense stem: παιδευ-σ-ε-εν gives παιδεύσεων to be about to instruct; πεμπ-σε_εν gives πέμψεlv ; διωκ-σ-ε-εν gives διώξειν; φραδ-σ-ε-εν gives φράσειν. 50. Elision. A short vowel may sometimes be elided when the next word begins with a vowel. Oxytone prepositions and conjunctions, also τινά (178) and ποτέ (152), lose their accent with the elided vowel: έπ' άδελφόν against a brother, αλλ' ειπεν (άλλά είπε ν) but he said, τίς ποτ' ανθρώπων (τις ποτε ανθρώπων) who, pray, of men, οΰτε ποτ' είς nor ever into. Other oxytones throw the acute back on the penult: φήμ' εγώ (φημί εγώ) I say, πόλλ' επαθον (πολλά έπαθον) much did I suffer. A smooth mute is roughened before a rough breathing: άφ' όδοϋ (άπο όδοΰ) from a road. οτι, περί, and πρό do not suffer elision. 51. ν movable. Most words ending in σι (including ξι and ψι), εστί is, Ύ\ει went, all third person singular pluperfects active (ending in ει), and all verbs of the third person singular ending in ε, may add ν movable before a vowel or at the end of a sentence: πέμψουσιν άγγελον or άγγελον πέμψουσιν they will send a messenger. 52. VOCABULARY Από [apology, OFF, OF] (prep.), from (with gen.), αρχή, ής, ή [archetype, monarchy], beginning, principle, rule, province. γράφω, γράψω [graphic], write, draw, paint. 'Ελληνικός, ή, όν, Hellenic, Greek. έπί (prep.), on, upon, in the case of (with gen,); on, besides, by, at (with dat.); upon, to, against (with acc.). Ιπιστολή, ής, ή, letter, epistle, κλέπτω (κλεπ-νω: 477), κλέψω [cleptomaniac, LIFT, shoplifter], steal. λέγω, λέξω [dialect], say (with acc. or with otl or ώς: ); mention (with acc.); call (with double acc.). λείπω, λείψω [eclipse], leave (trans.), be missing (intrans.). λύω, λϋσω [analyse, LOSE, Lat. LUG], LOOSE, break, destroy. νυν (adv. and particle), NOW, at present, as things are, Lat. NUNC. οτ& (conj.), that, because. (Does not suffer elision.) ούν (inferential particle, postpos.), in fact, therefore, accordingly,; δέ ούν, at any rate. πείθω, πείσω, persuade (with. acc. or with acc. and inf.). ποτόν, οΰ, το [symposium, POTION], drink. 53. (l) τγι φυλακή γράψομεν έπιστολήν. (2) άπό των οδών, έξ όδοΰ, εφ' όδόν (5θ). (3) καλή ήν ή αρχή της πομπής. (4) γράψει ό θεός έπιστολήν Έλληνικήν; (5) λέγει οδν ότι κλέψουσιν. (6) νυν δέ λϋομεν τήν Έλληνικήν στρατιάν. (7) λείψουσιν ούν τας νευρδίς. (8) πείσεις δέ τήν φυλακήν έπιστολας γράφειν; (9) τότε S' ούκ ήν ποτά. (ίο) λέγουσιν ούν 6τι οί Οεοι ού κλέπτουσιν.

33 ιό PHILOSOPHICAL GREEK 54. (n) Has he a province now? (12) He orders the garrison not to steal. (13) Accordingly we shall urge writing (use infinitive) a long letter. (14) He says that they will write a letter. (15) I shall say that they have a small province. (16) Are you persuading the guard not to steal? (17) At any rate they say that he has a large province. (18) Does he say that he is collecting plants? (19) We shall not steal the Persian letters. (20) It was not a Greek drink.

34 VIII. THE FIRST DECLENSION (A-STEMS) Proparoxytone Feminine Nouns Μέγας γάρ ό άγων, & ςπλε Γλαυκών, μέγας, ούχ οσος δοκεϊ. Πλάτωνος Πολιτείας x. 6o8b. For great is the issue, my dear Glaucon, aye, greater than doth appear, 55. In proparoxytone feminine nouns of the first declension the nominative, accusative, and vocative singular have ά; if the ά is preceded by ε, l, or p, the genitive and dative singular have ά; otherwise, η. The accent of the nominative singular of nouns and of adjectives must be learned from the dictionary. Whereas the accent of verbs is recessive (35), the accent of most nouns is persistent, i. e. it stays on the same syllable as in the nominative singular so long as the quantity of the ultima permits, and the accent of most adjectives stays on the same syllable as in the nominative singular masculine so long as the quantity of the ultima permits (11). In the genitive plural all first declension nouns have ών, which is from άων, originally asom, whence also Lat. arum; whereas in Latin the s between vowels became r, in Greek it was lost, άων (ίο) becoming ών with circumflex ( M = ~). queen sabre sea βασίλεια μάχαιρα θάλαττα βασιλείας μαχαίρας θαλάττης βασιλεία μαχαίρα Οαλάττη βασίλειαν μάχαιραν θάλατταν βασίλεια μάχαιρα θάλαττα βασιλεία μαχαίρα θαλάττα βασιλείαιν μαχαίραιν θαλάτταιν βασίλειαι μάχαιραι θάλατται βασιλειών μαχαιρών θαλαττών βασιλείαις μαχαίραις θαλάτταις βασιλείας μαχαίρας θαλάττας 56. The dative with the verb to be, or with similar verbs, may denot e the possessor: τη βασιλεία ήν μάχαιρα the queen had a sabre. In this con" 23

35 ιό PHILOSOPHICAL GREEK struc.tion the emphasis is generally on the fact of possession, whereas a predicate genitive of possession emphasises the possessor: της βασιλείας ήν ή μάχαιρα the sabre belonged to the queen. 57. VOCABULARY δγω, άξω [pedagogue], drive, lead, Lat. tion is to contrast the word or clause AGO., or sentence with which it stands with αλήθεια, ας, ή, truth; τη άληοεία, in something that is to follow (with δέ). truth, really. See 45. βασίλεια, ας, ή [basilica], queen. μετά (prep.), with, in company with -ένέργεια, ας, ή [energy], activity (as (with gen.); behind, after (with acc.). opposed to Suva μις potentiality), actu- In composition, sharing in or with, alizaiion, actuality, ACTUS, ACTUA- time after, search after, or change LITAS. from one place to another (as in μετα- ένταϋθα (dem. pronom. adv.), here, φορά a transference [of a word] from there. one application to another). έτι (adv. of time and degree), yet, still, που (interrog. pronom. adv.), where. further. σπεύδω, σπεύσω, hasten (trans, and θάλαττα, ης, ή [thalassocracv], sea. intrans.). μάχαιρα, ας, ή, sabre, knife. σύν [synod, sympathy] (prep.), witht μέν (postpos. particle), on the one hand. with the help of (with dat.). Often not to be translated; its func- ύγίεια, ας, ή [hygiene], health. 58. (i) ό μέν ένταϋθα ήν, ό δ' οΰ. (2) ή δέ βασίλεια άξει τήν Περσικήν στρατιαν. (3) ό δέ τη αλήθεια θεός ήν. (4) ενταύθα δ' ήν ή ένέργεια. (5) που ήσαν αί της φυλακής μάχαιραι; (6) μετά της βασιλείας ήσαν θεοί και θεαί. (7) λέγεις ούν οτι ύγίειαν εχουσιν. (8) φορά μέν ήν, φωνή δ* οΰ. (9) καλή μέν ή 1 άρετή, καλή δ' ή ύγίεια. μαχαίρας πέμπειν. (ίο) τήν φυλακήν κελεύει ή βασίλεια 59. (ιι) The gods command the queen to hasten. (12) Were there really plants in the sea? (13) The Persian queen still has the small sabre. (14) Some of the dresses were Greek and some were not. (15) They say that there was no road from the river. (16) The queen says that she will hasten against the Greek army. (17) With the help of the gods they will lead the army away from the sea. (18) But there was little activity here. (19) The gods command the queen not to pursue the Persian garrison. (20) They are hastening with the queen away from the river. 1. Generic.

36 VIII. THE FIRST DECLENSION (A-STEMS) Paroxytone and Properispomenon Feminine Nouns "Ανευ γάρ αρετής ού ρφδιον φέρειν έμμελώς τά ευτυχήματα. 'Αριστοτέλης έν τετάρτη Νϊκομαχείων 1124^ For without virtue it is not easy to bear gracefully the goods of fortune. 60. Paroxytone feminine nouns of the first declension may be divided into three groups: those ending in ά (ε, ι, or ρ preceding), those ending in η (some letter other than ε, ι, or ρ preceding), and those ending in α (some letter other than ε, ι, or ρ preceding). Those in ά and in η are inflected like θεά (20) and βουλή (26) respectively except for accent. Those in ά are inflected like θάλαττα (55) except for accent. Properispomenon feminine nouns of the first declension (ending in a) may be divided into two groups: those in which the α is preceded by ε, l, or ρ and those in which the ά is preceded by some other letter. Those of the first group are inflected like βασίλεια (55) except for accent. Those of the second group are inflected like θάλαττα (55) except for accent. The accent of the nominative singular may show the quantity of a final α (as in πεΐρά trial, χώρα country) or it may not (as in δόξα opinion, ρίζα root): if the α of πεΐρά were long, the accent of the penult could not be circumflex (12); if the α of χωρά were short, the accent of the penult could not be acute (12); since ο is always short, the acute is the only possible accent for the penult of δόξα whatever the quantity of the ultima (10); if the t of ρίζα were long, the acute would show the α to be long (12); since the 1 is short, the accent shows nothing about the length of the a. But when a final α is not preceded by ε, ι, or p, it must be short, since a final ά is only found after ε, ι, or p. 61. spectacle force country battle root trial Muse θέα βία χώρα μάχη ρίζα πείρα Μοΰσα θέας βίας χώρας μάχης ρίζης πείρας Μούσης θέα θέάν θέά βία βίάν βία χώρα χωράν χώρα μάχη μάχην μάχη ρ^ζη ρίζαν ρίζα πείρα πει ρ αν πείρα Μούση Μουσαν Μοϋσα 25

37 ιό PHILOSOPHICAL GREEK spectacle force country battle root trial Muse θέα βία χώρα μάχά ρίζα πείρα Μούσα θέα&ν βίαιν χώρα ιν μάχαιν ρίζαιν πείρα ι ν Μ ούσα ιν θέαι βίαι χώραι μάχαι ρίζαι, πεϊραι Μουσαι θεών βιών χωρών μαχών ριζών πείρων Μουσών θέαις βίαις χώραις μάχαις ρίζαις πείραις Μούσαις θέας βίας χώρας μάχας ρίζας πείρας Μούσας 62. VOCABULARY άπο-λείπω, απολείψω, leave by going away from, abandon (trans.); cease (intrans.). βία, ας, ή, force; βία (dat. of manner as adv.), by force, violently. γάρ (causal particle, postpos.), for. γνώμη, ης, ή [gnomic], opinion, purpose, maxim, SENTENTIA. δή (postpos. particle), i«to be sure, now. 6όξα, ης, ή [orthodox, paradox, doxology], opinion (what seems to be the case to the person spoken of), reputation (what seems to others to be the case with the person spoken of), expectation, fame. ci (2d sing. pres. ind. of ειμί), you are. κ-λείπω, εκλείψω [eclipse], leave by going out of, abandon. έπεί. (temporal and causal conj.), when, since, because. επειδή (temporal and causal conj.), when, since, because. θέα, ας, ή [theatre], spectacle, sight. κώμη, ης, ή, village. μάχη, ης, ή [μάχαφα, logomachy], battle. οίκίδ, ας, ή [economy, diocese, WICK [village), VICINITY], house. παρά [parallel] (prep.), from the side of (with gen.); ai the side of {with dat.); to the side of, along by, beyond, besides, contrary to (with acc.}. πείρα, ας, ή [pirate, empirical], trial, attempt, C^PERIENCE. ίζα, ης, ή, root. χώρα, ας, ή, country, space. 63. (ΐ) τότε δ' άπολείψουσι τάς οικίας. (2) βία γάρ πέμπε', την φυλακή ν εις τήν κώμην. (β) ή δέ γνώμη ήν καλή. (4) εκλείψει ούν ή φυλακή τήν χώροϊν; (5) ή δόξα ή της "Ελληνικής φυλακής καλή ήν, (6) παρά της βασιλείας πέμψομεν τους αδελφούς. (7) λέγεις οτι ή θέα καλή ήν; (8) παρά δόξαν αθροίζει στρατιαν ΙΙερσικήν. (g) έν τή κώμη ήσαν οϊκίαι καλαί. (ίο) αί έν τή χώρα οίκίαι καλαί ήσαν, 64. (ιι) Have the plants long roots? (12) The garrison was at the side of the queen. (13) The garrison was small but the battle was long (use μέν...δέ). (14) When the brothers were in the village, there was a beautiful sight. (15) You will not steal, for you are good. (16) Will he say that the attempt was noble? {17) They will leave the letter in the queen's house. (18) Therefore he is collecting his (45) army by violent means. {19) The country was small but beautiful (use μέν...δέ). (2o) He says he will pursue the garrison along the river.

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