3 The Doxastikon of the Aposticha of St. John Damascus Λαμπρῶς πανηγυρίσωμεν σήμερον ὦ φιλέορτοι, a Composition of Panayiotis Chrysafis Dimos A. Papatzalakis School of Music Studies Aristotle University of Thessaloniki University Campus Thessaloniki GREECE Abstract This paper examines some aspects of the so-called Sticherarion of the New Embellishment (Neos Kallopismos) as it has been written down during the second half of the 17 th century by Panayiotis Chrysafis the Younger. After a brief presentation of the life and works of this author, the paper concentrates on a multi-level musicological analysis of the Doxastikon of the Aposticha for the feast of St. John of Damascus Λαμπρῶς πανηγυρίσωμεν σήμερον ὦ φιλέορτοι (Let s celebrate brightly today, oh friends of the feasts) which was set to music by Panayiotis Chrysafis, firstly in the original composition according to the manuscript MS87 of Duke University, North Carolina, USA 1, and secondly, by comparing the old notation to its slow exegesis in new-byzantine notation by Chourmouzios Chartophylax, according to the manuscript Sancti Sepulcri MPT 762. The analysis comprises several approaches, such as textual, music-architectural, modal, microsyntactical, rhetorical, macro-syntactical, generative, and comparative. Through these analyses we aim at understanding the main idea of the musical composition of the Old Sticherarion at the era which we are examining. Keywords Panayiotis Chrysafis, doxastikon, New Embellishment, Sticherarion, St. John Damascene 1. Introduction The time period between the mid 17 th and early 18 th centuries is characterized as the great golden age of post Byzantine music. It s distinctively known as the period of the New Embellishment (Neos Kallopismos). A prominent figure during this time, amongst other important composers, is Panayiotis Chrysafis the Younger. 1 The photographing of the manuscript was done by Michael Lagoudakis; the description by Emmanuel Giannopoulos (2005: 84 85).
4 16 Dimos A. Papatzalakis Not much is known about the life of Panayiotis Chrysafis, for the evidence is not very clear. What is known to us from sources is that the melodist flourished between (Chatziyiakoumis 1999: 41). His birth is estimated by researchers to be around , while the last attestation mentioning him as Protopsaltes of the Patriarchal Church in Constantinople dates back to the year Fact is though, that in a manuscript of the Monastery of Great Lavra in Mount Athos (I 172), written in 1700 A.D. by Arsenios Kydonias, Chrysafis is referred to as deceased makarites (Stathis 1996: 10). He was a student of Georgios Raidestinos, a Protopsaltes of The Great Church (Patrinelis 1973: 150), whereas from the year 1655 until at least 1682, he served as Protopsaltes himself at the Patriarchal Church. Amongst his students were Germanos Neon Patron, hieromonk Dionysios, Ioannis Kampazournas, and others. Moreover, Dionysios in one of his autographs (Iviron 961) from the end of the 17 th century, records his teachers chants inscribing in many parts his name as Panayiotou (Stathis 1996: 12). The work of Chrysafis the Younger is multifarious and voluminous. His most important contribution consists in the development and the dissemination of a new style of composition, based always on the tradition s old standards that the great composers used, for the Sticherarion and Anastasimatarion. The value of this contribution is supported by the fact that the Anastasimatarion of Chrysafis was in use even after its new musical setting by Petros Peloponnesios, a century later (Chatziyiakoumis 1999: 41 43). Chrysafis dealt with all the genres of Byzantine composition. He wrote the New embellished Sticherarion, the New embellished Anastasimatarion, heirmologic compositions, papadic melodies (Theotokia, Polyeleos, Cherubic Hymns, Communion Hymns, Amomos, Pasapnoaria of Mattins etc.), whilst important was also his codicographic activity, with 8 autograph codices. He was the Protopsaltes and melodist who managed to enforce the renewal of the traditional melody and to facilitate the release and expression of musical concerns of his time, as is stated by musicologist Manolis Chatziyiakoumis (1999: 41 43). 2. The Doxastikon Λαμπρῶς πανηγυρίσωμεν σήμερον ὦ φιλέορτοι In this article we deal with the doxastikon of the aposticha of the feast of St. John Damascene Λαμπρῶς πανηγυρίσωμεν σήμερον ὦ φιλέορτοι, who is commemorated by the Orthodox Church on the 4 th of December, in a musical setting by
5 The Doxastikon of the Aposticha of St. John Damascus 17 Panayiotis Chrysafis. The reason for our preoccupation with this composition was, first and foremost, to honor a great saint of our church, and on the other hand an important hymnographer-melodist, who is one of the founders of our church s poetry and music. Another important reason we dealt with the examination of this doxastikon is its text, which is not included in the service of the saint that is found in the Menaia of modern times, nor is it included in the Standard Abridged Version of the Sticherarion (SAV) (Troelsgård 2003: 3 20), but is encountered in handwritten codices of the time of Manuel Chrysafis (Flourished ca ) (Conomos 1985: 11) and is a poem of his, as testified in the Manuscript Sancti Sepulcri 729, where at folio 107r we read the following: First sticheron to this saint; text and melody by Manuel Chrysafis 2 (Stathis 2003: 174). The text runs as follows 3 :  Λαμπρῶς πανηγυρίσωμεν σήμερον ὦ φιλέορτοι πάλιν καὶ λαμπρῶς πανηγυρίσωμεν σήμερον ὦ φιλέορτοι  χορεύσωμεν ἐν ὕμνοις καὶ σκιρτήσωμεν ἀγαλλόμενοι λέγε  ἐπὶ τῇ πανενδόξῳ πανηγύρει  τοῦ χαριτωνύμου Ἰωάννου. Λαμπρῶς πανηγυρίσωμεν καὶ χορεύσωμεν ἐπὶ τῇ πανενδόξῳ πανηγύρει τοῦ χαριτωνύμου Ἰωάννου τοτο τερε τεριρι τερεε τρρε τερερε αῑαῡεῑαῡε τερε τερερε ἐπὶ τῇ πανενδόξῳ πανηγύρει τοῦ χαριτωνύμου Ἰωάννου.  Οὖτος γὰρ ἀνεδείχθη μουσικώτατος κύκνος, πάλιν, οὖτος γὰρ ἀνεδείχθη μουσικώτατος κύκνος, λέγε,  τερετί τιρρι τιτι τιρι ριρι τερετίζων ᾄσματα καὶ ὑπὲρ μέλιτος γλυκύτερα  λύρα παναρμόνιος καὶ εὐκελάδητος κιθάρα,  ὄργανον κρουόμενον ταῖς θεϊκαῖς ἐπιπνοῖαις  τοῦ Ἁγίου Πνεύματος  καὶ σάλπιγξ χρυσόφωνος καὶ χελιδὼν ὡραιοτάτη  καὶ εὔλαλος ἀηδών, δαυιτικὴ κιννύρα,  καί ψαλτήριον δεκάχορδον  καὶ σηρήνιος γλώσσα πολύφθογγος,  στόμα χρυσοστόλιστον καὶ πυρίπνουν, 2 In the Manuscript Vlatadon 46, f. 177v (A.D. 1551), we can read: Μηνὶ Δεκεμβρίῳ δ. Τοῦ ὁσίου πατρὸς ἡμῶν καὶ ὀμολογητοῦ Ἰωάννου τοῦ δαμασκηνοῦ. Στίχοι κυροῦ Μανουὴλ μαΐστορος τοῦ χρυσάφου (Fig. 1). 3 Punctuation marks added by the author of this article.
6 18 Dimos A. Papatzalakis  καταφλέγων ἅπασαν τῶν αἱρετικῶν κακόνοιαν,  καταφωτίζων δὲ πᾶσαν τὴν ἐκκλησίαν τοῦ Θεοῦ  τοῖς μελιρρύτοις καὶ χρυσοφαέσιν ᾄσμασι τιτιτι τιρριῑτιῑ τιρρι τιτι τερερε χρυσοφαέσιν ᾄσμασι.  Αὐτὸν καθικετεύσωμεν  πρεσβεύειν ἀπαύστως τῷ πανοικτίρμονι Θεῷ,  ὑπὲρ τῶν πίστει τελούντων τὴν πάνσεπτον μνήμην αὐτοῦ 4. In the musical setting that Panayiotis Chrysafis the Younger has delivered, one can observe some small differentiation in certain words of the original text. Verses [3 4] have undergone a differentiation from ἐπὶ τῇ πανενδόξῳ πανηγύρει τοῦ χαριτωνύμου Ἰωάννου to ἐπὶ τῇ ἐτησίῳ πανηγύρει τοῦ χαριτωνύμου ὑμνογράφου. Also, verses [18 19] Αὐτὸν καθικετεύσωμεν πρεσβεύειν ἀπαύστως τῷ πανοικτίρμονι Θεῷ of the text of Manuel Chrysafis the Elder have been changed to Ὃν καθικετεύσωμεν πρεσβεύειν ἀπαύστως τῷ ἐλεήμονι Θεῷ by Panayiotis Chrysafis the Younger. 3. Analysis of the Doxastikon 5 Due to the limited extent of the article it is not possible to present the entire collations and analyses that have been done for the whole doxastikon. As an example, we present the first colon and we indicate different approaches of analysis, with the hope to give rise for further study on the matter of examining the melodies of the New embellished Sticherarion. Figure 2a-b contains a transnotation of the doxastikon by Panayiotis Chrysafis the Younger, and also a transcription of the slow exegesis by Chourmouzios 4 The translation of the poetic text, without the anagrammatisms, is as follows:  Let s celebrate brightly today, oh friends of the feasts,  let s rejoice through hymns  and be joyful in happiness  on the celebration of the graceful hymnographer.  For he became truly a musical swan,  singing chants sweeter than honey;  most harmonic lyre and well tuned kithara;  instrument played through the divine inspiration  οf the Holy Spirit,  and golden tuned trumpet and most beautiful swallow  and eloquent nightingale, David s kinnor,  and psalterium with ten strings  and verbous tongue of the sirens  golden adorned and fire-breathing mouth  burning every evil heretical thought,  enlightening the entire Church of God  through the honey-like and golden-shining chants.  Him we should ask to pray  without cessation to the merciful God  for those who celebrate with faith his most holy memory. 5 We considered the Alexandru s articles (2006/2013) as models of our multi-level analyses.
7 The Doxastikon of the Aposticha of St. John Damascus 19 Chartophylax in New Byzantine notation 6. In the context of a micro-syntactical analysis, indicated above the neumatic text, one can find the characteristic melodic formulas (theseis) that are suggested by the combination of interval signs (emphona) with big signs (megala semadia). Afterwards, we propose a reductional analysis of the exegesis, with the indication of the number of beats per syllable, followed by the inquiry of the melodic range per syllable, as well as the indication of contour of the melodic flow and the structural notes of the composition (notes without filling on the staff). Table 1 includes a structual and metric analysis based on the poetic text divided into periods according to the meaning of the text. These periods are further divided into verses and into colons. The colon represents the smallest unit of poeticalmusical division and elaboration. The number of syllables for each colon is indicated, in order to explore the metrics of the doxastikon. On a second level, we attempt at a modal analysis, noting the mode in which every musical phrase flows, the signature or the cadential note, as well as the type of cadence used. In the context of syntactical analysis of the piece, the different melodic formulas are indicated by their Byzantine names, in order to easily note the formulaic character of the melodic lines and the most favorite theseis. On Table 2, a similar process is done on the exegesis in new-byzantine music notation by Chourmouzios Chartophylax. In the text the anagrammatisms are intercalated and the colons are separated also taking into consideration musicological criteria. In the counting of the numbers of syllables the anagrammatisms are included within parenthesis. The column which follows with the number of beats per syllable indicates the slow melodic elaboration of the musical text. The second half of the table indicates the cadences with the corresponding signatures or cadential tones, and also their type, while in the last column we present the melodic contours. 3.1 Brief Commentary of the Composition of Panayiotis Chrysafis the Younger During the study of the musical setting by Panayiotis Chrysafis the Younger, the following conclusions were drawn: The melodist is fond of repeating the same melodic formulas relatively frequently. The composition flows primarily in the first pentachord of the plagal of the fourth mode, with a brief modulation to the tetrachord of agia (Di-d tone). Its lowest 6 Bassed on Alexandru (2010).
8 20 Dimos A. Papatzalakis points are located at the words τερετίζων ἄσματα and ὃν καθικετεύσωμεν, on the second verse of the second period, and on the first of the third, while its highest notes are found on the melodic formula (thesis) of ouranisma on the word χρυσόφωνος. Most imperfect cadences are made at the note ananes (Pa-a tone). Twice an imperfect cadence occurs at the antiphonos agia (low Di-D tone), and twice at the note agia (Di-d tone). The perfect cadences are made on neagie (Ni-G tone), as it is in the case of the final cadence. At the word χορεύσωμεν we note the extensive thesis of kolafismos, while at the word καταφλέγων we locate the thesis of the xiron klasma. Τhe thesis of ouranisma appears apart from the word χρυσόφωνος also at the word Θεῷ in verse . Also appearing in great frequency is the thesis of paraklitiki. No alteration sign (fthora) is used in the entire composition, even though it s an extensive musical piece. The composer utilizes masterfully the melodic formulas of the plagal of the fourth mode and its relative modes, consequently resulting to the absence of the use and need of further alterations to enrich the melody. The exegete does not use fthorai at any point of the piece, even though the elaboration of the melody is melis-matic. Indicatively we mention that for every note of the original composition of Panayiotis Chrysafis the Younger, approximately 8 beats correspond in the exegesis of Chourmouzios, as is seen on Table Conclusions Dealing with this specific musical composition in different styles, such as the Kalophonia (Manouel Chrysafis the Elder), the New-Embellishment (Panayiotis Chrysafis the Younger), and also with the exegesis in new-byzantine notation (Chourmouzios Chartophylax) we observe many similarities in the elaboration of the melody, but also some differences. During the period of Kalophonia the technique of repetition is extensively used for the development of the melody. Entire colons, or even verses are repeated, while some brief kratimata are intercalated. During the period of the New-Embellishment, development of melody is not noticed with the extension of the poetic text, but with extensive use of the big signs (megales hypostaseis), while in the exegesis by Chourmouzios, several anagrammatisms are interpolated in verses of the text that reinforce the slow development of the melody. Another impressive element is the respect the composers of later periods show when elaborating on the original composition. The original idea of the composition is maintained as the primary material, while every composer
9 The Doxastikon of the Aposticha of St. John Damascus 21 simply captures in the piece the musical tradition of his time, introducing some new elements, respecting always however the rules of musical setting of each period. The melodist manages to musically clothe the poetic text masterfully and to present a composition that undoubtedly is characterized as classic. References Alexandru, Maria 2006: Aναλυτικές προσεγγίσεις και ιχνηλασία του κάλλους στη Βυζαντινή Μουσική. Ο Ευχαριστήριος Ύμνος Σὲ Ὑμνοῦμεν. Proceedings of the symposium: Μουσική Θεωρία και Ανάλυση-Μεθοδολογία και Πράξη (29 Σεπτεμβρίου-1 Οκτωβρίου 2006, Θέρμη Θεσσαλονίκης). Thessaloniki: Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. Alexandru, Maria 2010: Εξηγήσεις και Μεταγραφές της Βυζαντινής Μουσικής. Σύντομη εισαγωγή στον προβληματισμό τους. Thessaloniki: University Studio Press. Alexandru, Maria 2013: Παρατηρήσεις για την ανάλυση, υφή και μεταισθητική της Βυζαντινής Μουσικής. Ο ύμνος Σιγησάτω πᾶσα σὰρξ βροτεία. In: Proceedings of the international conference Crossroads: Greece as an intercultural pole of musical thought and creativity, June 6 10, Thessaloniki 2011, organized by Aristotle University of Thessaloniki and International Musicological Society. Thessaloniki: Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. Chatziyiakoumis, Manolis 1999: Η εκκλησιαστική Μουσική του Ελληνισμού μετά την Άλωση ( ). Athens: Σχεδίασμα Ιστορίας. Κέντρον Ερευνών & Εκδόσεων. Conomos, Dimitri 1985: The Treatise of Manuel Chrysaphes, the Lampadarios: On the Theory of the Art of Chanting and on Certain Erroneous Views That Some Hold About it. Wien: Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Giannopoulos, Emmanuel 2005: Ταμεῖον Χειρογράφων Ψαλτικῆς Τέχνης. Thessaloniki: Εταιρεία Μακεδονικῶν Σπουδῶν. Patrinelis, Christos 1973: Protopsaltae, Lampadarii, and Domestikoi of the Great Church during the post-byzantine Period [ ]. In: Wellesz Egon/Velimirović Miloš: Studies in Eastern Chant, vol III. London et al.: Oxford University Press. Stathis, Gregorios 1996: Παναγιώτης Χρυσάφης ο Νέος και Πρωτοψάλτης. In: Coralia Soteriadou: Μελουργοί του ΙΖ αιώνα. Μέγαρο Μουσικής Αθηνών Athens: Κύκλος Ελληνικής Μουσικής. Stathis, Gregorios 2003: Οι Αναγραμματισμοί και τα μαθήματα της Βυζαντινής Μελοποιίας. Athens: Ίδρυμα Βυζαντινής Μουσικολογίας. Troelsgård, Christian 2003: A List of Sticheron Call-Numbers of the Standard Abridged Version of the Sticherarion. Part I [The Cycle of the Twelve Months]. In: Université de Copenhague. Cahiers de l Institut du Moyen-Âge Grec et Latin 74. Copenhague: Museum Tusculanum Press.
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