TAX OF THE MOODS AND TENSES OF THE GREEK VERB

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5 TAX OF THE MOODS AND TENSES OF THE GREEK VERB

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7 SYNTAX OF E MOODS AND TENSES OF THE GEEEK YEEB BY WILLIAM WATSON GOODWIN, LLD. LIOT PROFESSOR OF GREEK LITERATURE IN HARVARD UNIVERSITR ILonfcon MACMILLAN AND CO.

8 415 G b5 Js m 7 LA TROBE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY

9 PREFACE. resent work is the result of an attempt to revise the smaller hook which was first published under the itle in 1860, and again, somewhat enlarged, in it falls to the lot of a writer to revise, under the sense of responsibility which doubled years and more doubled experience have brought him, a book written enthusiasm of youth as an ephemeral production, sure to be his own severest critic; and what he as a revision inevitably becomes, as he proceeds, and more a new and independent work. I cannot that this book is addressed in great part to a different tion of scholars from that to which the former one ffered; and a treatment of the subject which was sible in 1860 would be far from satisfactory now. attempted chiefly to give "a plain and practical ent of the principles which govern the relations of eek Moods and Tenses," avoiding theoretical discuss far as possible. At that time prevailing theories, chiefly on abstract speculations, had obscured some most important facts in the syntax of the moods, rhaps no better service could be rendered by a new than the clearing away of some of the clouds. Few r scholars are aware how modern are many of the atical doctrines which are now taught in all classical. It is hard to believe that so elementary a principle by which the aorist infinitive is past in φησϊν e\0e?v ture in βονχεται ελθεΐν was never distinctly stated

10 PREFACE x of Professor Madvig at Copenhagen and in the k Grammar of Professor Sophocles at Harvard Univer- Something more than mere statement of facts has attempted in the present work, although nothing has further from my thoughts than a complete theoretical ssion of all the principles which govern the use of the s. He who ventures far upon that sea is in great er of being lost in the fog or stranded; for, while parative Philology has thrown much and most welcome on the early history of the Greek language, it has made us more painfully aware of our ignorance, ugh it is a more enlightened ignorance than that of predecessors. ince the publication of the first edition, many most rtant additions have been made to our resources. Of I can undertake to notice only a few. Delbriiek's rate treatise on the Greek Subjunctive and Optative is Syntaktische Forschungen, vol. i.), with a comparison reek and Sanskrit usages, is familiar to all scholars. tever may be thought of Delbriiek's main thesis, the ction of the subjunctive as the mood of will from the ive as the mood of wish, none can fail to be impressed instructed by his attractive and original treatment of subject, which has made an epoch in grammatical ce. Lange's unfinished work on the Particle Et in er is a model of careful and thorough investigation. n I think of my deep and continued indebtedness to e's learned discussions, which include a treatment of he 200 examples of el with the optative in Homer, I rieved to dissent so frequently from his most important lusions. His chief argument is discussed in Appendix Schanz, in his Beitrage zur Griechischen Syntax, has rtaken a work of immense extent, involving an amount bour which it is hard to over-estimate. His plan is ve full and accurate statistics of the use of every contion bearing on the history of Greek syntax, and thus ake a true historic syntax of the language a possibility. work of collecting, classifying, and discussing the

11 PREFACE vii to a large number of colleagues, and every year s to substantial progress. The following treatises g on the construction of the moods and tenses have y been published by Schanz: Weber, Enwickelungshte der Absichtssdtze; Sturm, Geschichtliche Entwickelr Constructionen mit Tlpiv; Schmitt, Weber den TJrdes Substantivsatzes mit Relativpartikeln im Griech- ; Griinewald, Der freie formelhafte Infinitiv der Limitam Griechisehen ; Birklein, Entwickelungsgeschichte des tivirten Infinitivs. The amount of patient labour d to these compilations, in which the exact number mples of each construction in each Greek author Aristotle is given, while the most important passages oted and nearly all are cited, will be most gratefully iated by those who would be least willing to underthe work themselves. The results of such dry rations are often interesting and surprising. No one whether statistics will be dry and barren or not, hey are collected and classified; and though it may useless task to count the examples of each of the articles in all Greek literature before Aristotle, it is ting to know that in all the Attic prose, except hon, o>? final occurs only five or six times while "va 999 times. Some of the results derived from 's statistics of the use of the final particles are given pendix III., and an account of Xenophon's peculiar ώ?, ώ? αν, and όπως αν in Appendix IV., for the t of those who have not Weber's book at hand, or the patience to follow his elaborate historical state- Monro's Homeric Grammar is one of the best of recent English scholarship, and for the study of ic usages in the moods it is invaluable. I regret e new edition of this book, soon to be published, has me in time to benefit the present work. It seems a form to acknowledge my obligations to the standard ars; but I must repeat my former expression of to Madvig, Kriiger, and Kiihner, not to mention a f others. To Madvig I am indebted for the first

12 PREFACE he realm of common sense. To Kriiger I have been bted in the study of every construction; and I have retained most of the remarks on the tenses of the cative which were originally borrowed from him. The sed edition of Kiihner's Griechische Grammatik has lied a large store of examples, to which I have uently had recourse. I am under especial obligation to for many of the examples which illustrate the uses e Supplementary Participle, and the corresponding uses he infinitive with many of the same verbs. Frequent ences are made in the notes to the authorities which I mentioned, and to many others. t is with pride and pleasure that I acknowledge my est indebtedness to an American scholar, whose writings thrown light upon most of the dark places in Greek x. I need not say that I refer to my friend, Professor ersleeve of Baltimore. As editor of the American al of Philology he has discussed almost every construcof the Greek moods, and he has always left his mark. two reviews of Weber's work on the Final Sentence ols. iii. and iv. of his Journal may well save many lars the trouble of reading the book itself, while they in much new matter which is valuable to every one. acute observation, that the use of av and tee in final tructions depends on the force of ώς, όπως, and οφρα nditional relative or temporal adverbs, explains much h before seemed inexplicable. His article on πριν in ii. stated important principles of classic usage which confirmed by Sturm's statistics; and this, with the review of Sturm's volume, has done much to correct nt errors and to establish sounder views about πριν. articles on the Articular Infinitive in the Transactions e American Philological Association for 1878 and in hird volume of his Journal practically anticipated the ts of Birklein's statistics. I can mention further only rticle in vol. vi. of the Journal on the Consecutive nce, which gives (it seems to me) the clearest stateever made of the relations of ώστε with the infinitive

13 PREFACE ΪΧ tedness to these and other writings of Gildersleeve ccasion has required; but I have also often referred s articles in his Journal hy the simple mention of that dical. I have sometimes omitted a reference where might seem proper, lest I should appear to make him nsible for what he might deem some dangerous heresy. am also under the greatest obligation to my friends colleagues in Harvard University, Professors Allen, nough, Lane, Lanman, White, and Wright, and Dr. an, for valuable suggestions, and to most of them for rtant help in revising and proof-reading. I regret I have not had the advantage of their aid in reading proofs of the last two-thirds of the work. To my dship of twenty-one years with Dr. Henry Jackson, rinity College, Cambridge, I am indebted for some of ost important suggestions which I have received since ublication of the former editions. he Index to the Examples includes all of the more 4800 examples quoted or cited in the main body of ork, but not those in the Appendix nor those which iven in the classified lists in the footnotes on pp. 92, 152, 172, and 290. It may seem useless to index examples which merely illustrate a common principle, those of a simple aorist infinitive or present indicabut it would be difficult to discriminate here, and seldom knows what may make an example useful to er. The same consideration has induced me to give eat a variety of examples as possible, from authors of rent classes, illustrating many constructions which rently need no such aid. is hardly necessary to remark that the work, in its nt enlarged form, is not intended for use as a gramal text-book in the class-room, except perhaps the on printed in the largest type. On the other hand, it ped that the increased fulness and the greater space to discussions will make the work more useful for te study and for reference. he Dramatists are cited by Dindorf's lines ; except the

14 PBEFACE c fragments, which follow Kock. The lyric fragments w Bergk's Poetae Lyrici. Plato is cited by the pages letters of Stephanus, and the Orators by the numbers he orations and the sections now in universal use. other citations will be easily understood. n conclusion, I must express my grateful thanks to the ersity Libraries of Heidelberg and Leyden, and to the l Library at The Hague, for the hospitality which was ly shown me while I was correcting the proofs. W. W. GOODWIN. PALLANZA, LAGO MAGGIORE, 2Jfth September 1889.

15 CONTENTS. CHAPTER I. ON GENERAL VIEW OF THE MOODS. PAGE X. The four Moods, the Infinitive, the Participle, and the Verbal in -rtos 1-5. I. Uses of the Indicative 1,2 11. II. Uses of the Subjunctive 3, 4 7. III. Uses of the Optative IV. Uses of the Imperative 6 CHAPTER II. THE TENSES. 0. The seven Tenses 7 1. Primary and Secondary Tenses 7 2. Relative and absolute time of the Tenses.... 7, 8 I. TENSES OF THE INDICATIVE. PRESENT. 3. Meaning of the Present 8 2. Various uses of the Present Indicative Historic Present ] j IMPERFECT. 4. Meaning of the Imperfect n 5. Relations of the Imperfect to other Tenses... 11, Various uses of the Imperfect PERFECT AND PLUPERFECT.

16 ON CONTENTS P A O E 52. Uses of Perfect and Pluperfect, and compound forms with (ΙμΙ and Ιχω AORIST. 55. Meaning of the Aorist Relation of Aorist to Imperfect 16, Various uses of the Aorist 18 FUTURE. 63. Meaning of the Future 18, Various uses of the Future 19, Periphrastic Future with μίλλω Past Future with μέλλω 20, 21 FUTURE PERFECT. 77. Meaning of the Future Perfect Various uses and forms of the Future P e r f e c t... 21, 22 II. TENSES OF THE DEPENDENT MOODS. 85. Distinction of Tenses in the Dependent Moods.. 22 A. NOT IN" INDIRECT DISCOURSE. 86. General Principles 22 PRESENT AND AORIST. 88. Distinction of Present and Aorist here , Present and Aorist Subjunctive and Imperative Present and Aorist Optative Present and Aorist Infinitive PERFECT. 02. Use of Perfect in the Dependent Moods , Perfect Subjunctive and Optative 32, Perfect Imperative Perfect Infinitive ,' 35 FUTURE. 12. Future seldom used except in Indirect Discourse.. 35, Exceptional uses of Future Infinitive elsewhere Future Perfect Infinitive used only in Indirect Discourse 37 B. OPTATIVE AND INFINITIVE OF INDIRECT DISCOURSE.

17 SECTION CONTENTS 116. (1-4.) Four uses of Present Optative.. 37,38 117,118. Present Infinitive as Present , 120. Present Infinitive as Imperfect (I, 2.) Two uses of Perfect Optative Perfect Infinitive as Perfect Perfect Infinitive as Pluperfect (1-3), 125. Three uses of Aorist Optative ,42 126, 127. Aorist Infinitive Future Optative , 136. Future Infinitive 45, Future Perfect Infinitive '47 xiii P A O E III. TENSES OF THE PARTICIPLE General Principle Present Participle as Present and Imperfect.. 47, Perfect Participle Ordinary use of Aorist Participle , Aorist Participle (generally not past in time) with λανθάνω, τυγχάνω, and φθάνω Other peculiar uses of Aorist Participle Future Participle.53 GNOMIC AND ITERATIVE TENSES. GNOMIC AORIST AND PERFECT In the Indicative , 160. Gnomic tenses in Optative, Infinitive, and Participle 55, Imperfect not a Gnomic Tense Iterative Imperfect and Aorist with"aj< , 164. Ionic Iterative Forms in -σκον and -σκίμην.. 56 DEPENDENCE OF MOODS AND TENSES General Principles of Dependence Tenses of the Indicative as Primary or Secondary. 57, , 175. Tenses of the Subjunctive and Imperative Tenses of the Optative in various Constructions Tenses of the Infinitive and Participle... 62, 63 C H A P T E R III. THE PARTICLE "AN. 192, 193. Two uses and meaning of & Distinctions of &v and κέ 65 INDICATIVE WITH AV.

18 . Origin and Relations of the Potential Optative.. 77, 78. Examples of pure Potential Optative with ίν... 78, 79. Potential Optative in Commands and Exhortations. 79. Potential Optative expressing what may prove to be N CONTENTS, A O E 96. "kv with Future Indicative in early Poets... 65, "kv with Future Indicative in Attic Greek (rare)., "kv with Secondary Tenses of the Indicative SUBJUNCTIVE AND OPTATIVE WITH ay. 0. "kv withjtjie Subjunctive i^conditional ^nd^final 1. "A^^^^^^~Subjunctive in Potential sense and in other uses (Epic) 66, 67^. 3. "A* with the Optative. 67^ INFINITIVE WITH ay. 4. General Principle of ίν with the Infinitive Present Infinitive with ίν 67, Perfect Infinitive with ίν Aorist Infinitive with ίν Future Infinitive with ίν 68, Various uses of the Infinitive with ίν , 70 PARTICIPLE WITH ay. 3. General Principle of ίν with the Participle Present Participle with ίν 70, Aorist Participle with ίν Future Participle with ίν Participle with ίν never forms a Protasis Position of ίν Repetition of ίν 73, Elliptical uses of ίν 75 CHAPTER IV. USE OF THE MOODS. 1. Classification of Constructions (I.-X.) SECTION I. e Potential Optative and Indicative with ay and KL 2. Meaning of Potential Forms I. POTENTIAL OPTATIVE.

19 CONTENTS XV PAGE 9. Potential Optative with definite condition implied or expressed (as Apodosis) Potential Optative without foor κέ... 80, 81 II. POTENTIAL INDICATIVE. 3. Meaning and Relation of Potential Indicative.. 81, Pure Potential Indicative, with no unfulfilled^ condition implied 82, Potential Indicative with indefinite unfulfilled condition implied 83, Time of Potential Indicative 84, Potential Indicative with definite unfulfilled condition implied or expressed Iterative Indicative with iv 86 SECTION II. ative and Subjunetive in Commands, Exhortations, and rohibitions. Subjunetive and Indicative with μη and η ov in Cautious Assertions. -"Oirws and OVOJS μη with he Independent Future Indicative OF Subjunetive. 0. Imperative in Commands etc "Αγβ, φ(ρε, etc. with Imperative 86, Πάί with second person of Imperative Οϊσθ' S etc. with Imperative Imperative in Assumptions First person of Subjunctive as Imperative Present Imperative or Aorist Subjunctive with μή in Prohibitions Independent Subjunctive with μή (Homeric) expressing object of Fear to be averted 90, Μή ού with the Subjunctive Independent μή and μή ού after Homer Μή and μή ού with Subjunctive in cautious assertions and negations (chiefly in Plato) , Μή and μή ού with Indicative (as above)... 93" 0. Μή ού in dependent clauses 2. "O ims and iirws /«jgeneraliy with Future Indicative V. (independent) Subjunctive rarely used with δττωι μή , 97 SECTION III. nctive, like Future Indicative, in Independent Sentences in Homer. Interrogative Subjunctive. 6. Independent Subjunctive in Homer , Interrogative Subjunctive (with or without βούλεί or

20 CONTENTS 1. Negative μή of Interrogative Subjunctive Future Indicative and Potential Optative with μή in sense of Interrogative Subjunctive , M17 with Subjunctive in Affirmative Questions Ρ Α Ο Β SECTION IV. Οΰ μή with Subjunctive and Future Indicative. 4. Double negative ού μή in Denials and Prohibitions.. 101, Οι) μή with Subjunctive or Future Indicative in Denials. 102, Same construction in dependent sentences Ού μή with Future Indicative (sometimes with Subjunctive) in Prohibitions 103, Ού μ-ή followed by μηδέ, by άλλί or Si, or by και Ού and μή in separate questions Interrogative theory of Elmsley Subjunctive in Prohibitions with ού μή SECTION V. l and Objeet Clauses after ίνα, S>% mr<os, δφρα, and μή. 2. The Final Particles Classification 106, Negative μή, and μή ού...., ELOPMENT OF CLAUSES WITH ίνα, ΏΪ, OTTIOS, όφρα, AND μή. 0. History of Final Constructions Use of ha, cis, βιτακ, and (,φρα Negative Final Clauses Attic final use of Past Tenses of Indicative A. PORE FINAL CLAUSES. 7. Subjunctive and Optative after ha., as, δπως, 6ψρα, and Μ 1. Subjunctive after Secondary Tenses 3. Optative after Primary Tenses 4. Future Indicative in Final Clauses 8. "Ax or κέ in Final Clauses with Subjunctive 0. "Ay or κ( in Final Clauses with Optative 2. "Ινα τί; Omission of leading Verb 7. Secondary Tenses of Indicative with iva etc. 8. Other expressions of Purpose. 113, , , , BJECT CLAUSES WITH 6JTU>S AFTER VERBS OF STRIVING ETC.

21 ION CONTENTS xvii PAGE 347. Homeric construction after φράζομαι, and other early uses 124, "Οπως Άν with Subjunctive in Attic Greek "ΟΠΟΚ ίν and SKUS &V with Optative (rare) 'Os, LIS IR, and OTTUS ΊΝ in Xenophon , Negative Object Clauses Μή for SITUS μή in Object Clauses "Oirws after Verbs of Asking, Commanding, etc , Object Infinitive for Clause with SITUS Indirect Questions "OTTUS with sigmatie Aorist Subjunctive Dawes's Canon 129, 130 C. CLAUSES WITH μή AFTER VERBS OF FEARING ETC Subjunctive and Optative after μή 131, Future Indicative after μή Μή with Optative and Sir Μή with Present and Past Tenses of Indicative.. 133, "Οπως μή for μή with Verbs of Fearing Indirect Discourse with cos or SITUS , Infinitive after Verbs of Fearing etc 135, Indirect Questions Causal STL 136, 137 SECTION VI. Conditional Sentences Protasis and Apodosis. Conditional Particles "Av or κέ in Protasis and Apodosis 137, Negative Particles 138, Classification of Conditional Sentences Origin of the Conditional Sentence , Early combinations of el with ni or &v I. FOUR FORMS OF ORDINARY CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. (a) PRESENT AND PAST CONDITIONS. 1. Simple Suppositions (chiefly Particular) Simple Present and Past Suppositions , General Suppositions sometimes with Indicative Future Indicative expressing Present Intention.. 146, Potential Optative and Indicative in these conditions With Supposition contrary to Fact Secondary Tenses of Indicative with ΊΝ in Apodosis Apodosis not always denied here 149, Relations of Tenses in unreal Conditions

22 ON CONTENTS PAGE 22. "Εδει, χρήν, etc. with Infinitive (without ίν) "EJfi ίν 156, "Ωφιλον, {βουλόμην, ίμελλον, etc. with Infinitive Protasis for Infinitive in construction of Homeric Peculiarities Homeric usages in Herodotus and Attie Greek (6) FUTURE CONDITIONS. ubjunctive or Future Indicative in Protasis with a Future Apodosis. 46. Subjunctive with ήν, ίάν, or & in Protasis Future Indicative in Protasis 165, Homeric Peculiarities 166, Optative in Protasis and Apodosis. 59. Optative with el in Protasis, with ίν in Apodosis.. 168, Homeric Peculiarities 169, 170 II. PRESENT AND PAST GENERAL SUPPOSITIONS. 66. Subjunctive and Optative in Protasis , Indicative for Subjunctive or Optative , Homeric and other Poetic Peculiarities , 173 PECULIAR FORMS OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. Substitution and Ellipsis in Protasis Protasis without a Verb. 72. Protasis contained in Participle, Adverb, or other word. 173, Future Participle representing Future Indicative (407) Homeric el δ' iye Ώϊ el or lis et re in Comparisons 175, Ei μή without a Verb. Πλήκ el 176, E( δέ μή, otherwise 177 Substitution and Ellipsis in Apodosis. 81. Apodosis contained in Infinitive, Participle, Noun, etc Apodosis omitted for effect Apodosis represented by ίν 'fis el and iiairep el in Similes 179, ISO Apodosis contained in Protasis. 86. General statement of Principle Ef KC or ΉΝ with Subjunctive in Homer, expressing Hope or Desire

23 CONTENTS xix N 91. Subjunctive and Optative with et ice, el, etc. after oua, PAGE euov, etc 185, Comparison of the Protases of 491 with Clauses with μ-ή (366) Relation of the Protases of 491 to Indirect Questions Ei after expressions of Wonder etc 186, 187 MIXED CONSTRUCTIONS. 98. Protasis and Apodosis differing in Form I. Optative in Protasis, udth Future or Present Indicative etc. in Apodosis. 99. Optative in Protasis with Future Indicative etc. in Apodosis (chiefly in Homer) Optative in Protasis with Present Indicative in Apodosis 188, Optative in Protasis depending on Present like Set or In 189, 190. Indicative or Subjunctive in Protasis, with Potential Optative or Indicative in Apodosis Present or Past Indicative with Potential Optative or Indicative 190, Subjunctive or Future Indicative with Potential Optative 191, 192 III. Potential Optative or Indicative {with αν) in Protasis Potential Optative or Indicative with &v in present or past Conditions with el 192 Irregular Combinations. Present or Past with Future Conditions in one Protasis Cases of Anacoluthon 192, Protases of different times combined in one V. Several Protases in one Sentence Several Protases (not co-ordinate) with one Apodosis. 193, Relation of leading and subordinate Conditions.. 194, 195 Αί, αλλά, AND αϋτάρ IN APODOSIS Apodosis introduced by word meaning but 'Αλλά νυν or άλλά (elliptical) 195 SECTION VII.

24 ION CONTENTS PAGE 517. Definite and Indefinite Antecedent Negative Particles in Relative Sentences A. RELATIVE WITH DEFINITE ANTECEDENT Indicative and other constructions after Relative with Definite Antecedent 196, 197 B. RELATIVE WITH INDEFINITE ANTECEDENT Conditional Relative explained 197, Conditional Relative Clauses and forms of Protasis compared 198, "Av or κί with Conditional Relatives and Subjunctive Classification (same as in Conditional Sentences) UR FORMS OF ORDINARY CONDITIONAL RELATIVE CLAUSES Two forms of Present and Past, and two of Future, Conditions 199 (a) PRESENT AND PAST CONDITIONS With Simple Indicative (like Protasis of 402).. 199, With Future Indicative to express Present Intention With Secondary Tenses of Indicative (like 410) (B) FUTURE CONDITIONS With Subjunctive (like 444) 202, With Optative (like 455) 203, 204 Π. GENERAL CONDITIONAL RELATIVE SENTENCES (PRESENT AND PAST) Subjunctive and Optative in general Conditions Indicative in general Conditions 206, 207 Homeric and other Poetic Peculiarities Subjunctive without κί or Λ» Relative with κέ or ίν and the Optative Homeric Similes with is etc Ό τι μή and όσον μή without a Verb (Homeric) Special Forms of Antecedent Clause Infinitive, Participle. Noun, etc. in Antecedent Clause Όπύτε after past Verbs of Expecting (Homeric) Mixed Conditional Constructions.

25 N CONTENTS xxi PAGE 6. Indicative or Subjunctive depending on Potential Optative Potential Optative or Indicative in Conditional Relative Clause 213, 214 Assimilation in Conditional Relative Clauses. 8. Assimilation by Subjunctive or Optative Assimilation by Secondary Tenses of Indicative Principles of Assimilation 214, Assimilation after General Conditions (variable) Δε in the Antecedent Clause. 4. Antecedent Clause introduced by δέ , 216 FINAL RELATIVE CLAUSES EXPRESSING PURPOSE. 6. Future Indicative in Attic Greek Past Purpose expressed by Imperfect of μέλλω Subjunctive and Optative in Homer , Subjunctive not used in Attic Greek Optative rare in Attic Greek , Future Optative occasionally used CONSECUTIVE RELATIVE CLAUSES EXPRESSING RESULT. 5. Indicative (with negative ού) Future Indicative (with μή) , "Oiras as Relative thus used Occasional use of the Optative CAUSAL RELATIVE CLAUSES. 0. Causal Relative with Indicative Causal and Conditional Forces united (with μή) CUTIVE CLAUSES WITH ώστε OR o>s AND Ιφ' oj OR ίφ' αϊτέ. 3. General Distinction of Infinitive and Indicative with ώστε 220, Meaning of ώστε and principles of its use , "Ωστε in Homer and the early Poets 'Bs for Sis re 223 "Ωο-τε WITH INFINITIVE Expressing a Result to which an act tends.. 223, Expressing a Condition or Limitation Expressing a Purpose (like Final Clause) After Verbs of Wishing, Commanding, etc , Two examples only in Homer 225, 226

26 N CONTENTS PAGE 91. Future Infinitive rare (except in Indirect Discourse). 226, Infinitive with fix Οΰτω ώστε in Herodotus Infinitive in Indirect Discourse and other constructions (Hare oi) Omission of ώστε 229 "Ωστε WITH FINITE MOODS. 03. "Ωστε with Indicative and other constructions.. 229, Optative by Assimilation 230, Optative of Indirect Discourse "Ώστε μή with Finite Moods (rare) 231 "Ωστε WITH PARTICIPLE. 07. Participle (by Assimilation) after ώστε , 232 ΏΪ USED LIKE ώστε. 08. Chiefly in Aeschylus, Sophocles, Herodotus, Xenophon. 232, Rarely in other Authors 233 Έφ' φ AND εφ' ψτε. 10. With Infinitive and Future Indicative Temporal Particles signifying Until and Before. A. "E<os, οφρα, εισόκε, Is δ, εστε, άχρι, μ*χρ<, UXTIL. 12. Meaning of a clause with TJnlU 234, Five constructions with Ιως (as Relative) Final use of ifws (especially in Odyssey) , "Οφρα in Epic poetry Eis 8 K in Homer ; ές δ and is οΰ in Herodotus "Εστε (after Homer) 238, "Αχρι and μέχρι (chiefly in Prose) "Αχρι οΰ and μέχρι οΰ Omission of ίν with fws etc. and Subjunctive.. 239, 240 B. Tip if, BEFORE, UNTIL Meaning and general use of 7rplv 240, Development of constructions with τ ρ ί ν TIpiv WITH INFINITIVE Π pip used regularly with Infinitive in Homer Later than Homer: chiefly after Affirmatives.. 243, 244

27 . Direct and Indirect Quotations distinguished Manner of introducing Indirect Quotations Relation of Indirect Discourse to other substantive Clauses 255. Indirect Questions 256. Extent of term Indirect Discourse CONTENTS xxiii TLplv WITH INDICATIVE. PAGE 2. Πρίχ with Indicative in early Poets In Attic Poets 245, In Prose : chiefly after Negatives In Prose : exceptional use after Affirmatives , Πρίχ y' Sr with Indicative in Homer Indicative with πριν in unreal Conditions ΤΪΡΊΝ WITH SUBJUNCTIVE AND OPTATIVE.. Πρίν with Subjunctive only after Negatives Without fix or κέ in Homer and Hesiod Π ΡΊΝ y' ST fix with Subjunctive in Odyssey Π ρίν fix with Subjunctive after Homer and Hesiod.. 248, 249. Πρίχ with Optative only after Negatives Optative with πρίν in Indirect Discourse , 250. Πρίν with Subjunctive in General Conditions Apparent Affirmatives followed by πριν and Subjunctive 250, 251. Πρίχ without fix followed by Subjunctive Doubtful cases of πριν fix 'with Optative Πρίν with Subjunctive depending on Optative with fix. 251 Tlplv ή, πρότίρον ή, AND πάρος.. Tlplv ij in sense of Πρίχ 251, 252. ΤΙρότερον -ή 252, 253. "Ύστερον ή with Infinitive, once in Thucydides Πάροι with Infinitive in Homer 253 Πριν, πάρος, ETC. IN LEADING CLAUSE.. Tlplv (as adverb) etc. in leading Clause in Homer ΤΙρύτερον, πρύσθεν, etc. after Homer , 254. Φθάνω as correlative to following πριν or ij,. 254 SECTION VIII. Indirect Discourse.

28 CONTENTS ON SIMPLE SENTENCES. PAGE 69. (1, 2.) Indicative and Optative with tn and its, and in Indirect Questions Indicative and Optative in same Sentence Indirect Questions and Quotations in Homer. 261, Imperfect and Pluperfect retained Present Optative as Imperfect Imperfect and Pluperfect for Present and Imperfect 263, Independent Optative, generally with yip Optative with Sri or lis after Present Tense implying Past Subjunctive or Optative representing Interrogative Subjunctive 265, Indicative or Optative with fix Secondary Tense of Indicative without fix (Potential) 266, Infinitive in Indirect Discourse 267, When Infinitive stands in Indirect Discourse Μή with Infinitive in Indirect Discourse 269, Participle in Indirect Discourse Negative μ-ή with Participle INDIRECT QUOTATION OF COMPLEX SENTENCES. 89. General Principles and Examples Mixture of Moods in Quotations 276, Imperfect and Pluperfect representing dependent Present and Perfect Indicative "Ax irregularly retained with Optative from the direct form Aorist Indicative in dependent Clause rarely changed to Optative 277, 278 SINGLE DEPENDENT CLAUSES IN INDIRECT DISCOURSE. 94. General Principles of these Clauses Six classes of these Clauses : I. After Infinitive following Verbs of Wishing, Commanding, etc , 279 II. Protases with Apodosis implied in leading Verb. 2Γ9, 280 III. Protases after past Verbs of Emotion , 2S1 IV. Temporal Sentences expressing Past Intention, Purpose, etc 2S1 V. Past Causal Sentences with assigned cause.. 2S1 VI. Relative Clauses containing another's thought. 2S1, 2S2 01. Imperfect and Pluperfect for Present and Imperfect "Ax irregularly retained with Optative.... 2S2

29 CONTENTS χχγ N "Ο-ττω?, δ, οΰνεκα, AND οθούνεκα. 06. "Ofi-ius like ώ; in Indirect Quotations Ούχ ΰπως, ούχ Άτι, etc 283, "Ο or δ τ' (for δ re) in Homer for in , Οΰνεκα, όθούνεκα, and διότι "Οτι before Direct Quotations 285, 286 Ρ Λ 0 Ε SECTION IX. Causal Sentences. 12. Causal Sentences and_flausal- Particles P : 5tniiBativ r e in CausalSentences. Γ" ?- 16. Optative, to express cause assigned by another, sifter Past Tenses Cause expressed by Potential Optative or Indicative Interrogative Causal Sentences etc Cause implied (not expressed) in leading Sentence 'Eirei, although, referring to something implied SECTION X. Expression of a Wish. 20. Two classes of Wishes 288 FUTURE WISHES 21. Two forms in Future Wishes I. Pure Optative II. Optative with ewe, el -yap, or el , Present Optative in Homer in Present Wishes.. 290, Optative in Commands and Exhortations with Optative in Wishes Oihus with Optative in Protestations Wish expressed by Potential Optative Infinitive in Wishes (see 785 and 786) Wish in Homer followed by Apodosis , 292 PRESENT OR PAST WISHES (NOT ATTAINED). 1. Two forms in Present or Past Wishes , I. Past Tenses of Indicative with ewe or el yap II. "Ωφέλον and (Horn.) (ίφελλον with Infinitive.. 293, Form with ύφέλον or the Optative in Present Wishes in Homer (739) EWe, el yip, and μή before ώψελοκ 'fis before ύφελον (poetic) 294, 295

30 N CONTENTS PAGE 0. Greek and Latin expressions of Wish compared. Optative and Indicative in Wishes distinguished by Time 295, 296 CHAPTER Y. THE INFINITIVE. 1. Infinitive as a Verbal Noun Origin of Infinitive and development of its use A. INFINITIVE WITHOUT THE ARTICLE. 5. Infinitive as Subject, Predicate, or Appositive 299, 300 Infinitive as Object. 6. Two classes of Object Infinitive 300 Object Infmitive not in Indirect Discourse. 7. Ordinary Object Infinitive after Verbs , Peculiar Object Infinitives in Homer Infinitive after Nouns with Verbs (as Object) 301, Infinitive in Laws, Treaties, etc 302 Infimitive in Indirect Discourse. 1. Infinitive after Verbs of Saying, Thinking, etc. 302, Infinitive after Verbs of Hoping, Promising, etc. (See 136) Constructions after φημί, etiro.v, and \iyu> Personal and Impersonal Constructions with λέγεται etc Infinitive with Relatives etc. (by Assimilation) 303, Infinitive in Narration (like I n d i c a t i v e ) , 305 Infinitive after Adjectives, Adverbs, and Nomis. 8. Infinitive with Adjectives denoting Ability, Fitness, etc Infinitive with τοιούτος otos etc., and (in Homer) with Toios etc , Infinitive with ivbvta, προσήκοντα, etc. used personally Infinitive with δίκαιος etc. used personally Adjectives with limiting Infinitive , Infinitive with Comparative and ή 307

31 CONTENTS xxvii Infinitive of Purpose. PAGE Chiefly used with Verbs of Choosing, Giving, or Taking. 308, 309 Infinitive Active or Middle (rather than Passive) In poetry with Verbs of Motion, and with είμΐ ete ΕΧναι denoting Purpose (chiefly Ionic) , 310 Infinitive expressing Result (in Homer) Absolute Infinitive. Infinitive expressing Limitation (parenthetical) Ώ? 67TOS ειπείν, ώϊ ειπείν, or ειπείν, etc , 311 Ώϊ δοκεΐν, ώί είκάσαι, ώς Ιδειν, άκοΰααι, etc 'Ολίγου δεΐν, μικρού δεΐν, or όλίγου, μικρού , 312 Absolute είναι (as in εκών είναι) 312 Absolute Infinitive in Herodotus 312, 313 Absolute Infinitive as Accusative of Limitation tive in Commands, Prohibitions, Wishes, and Exclamations. Infinitive in sense of Imperative 313 Infinitive like Optative in Wishes 313, 314 Infinitive with at yip in Wishes (twice in Odyssey). 314 Infinitive Subject Accusative in Exclamations. 314 B. INFINITIVE WITH THE ARTICLE. General use of Articular Infinitive 314, 315 Articular Infinitive as Subject or Object. Article makes the Infinitive more distinctly a Noun. 316 Infinitive with τό as Subject 316 Infinitive with τ& as Object 316, 317 Infinitive with rod as Object 317 Infinitive with τύ in Indirect Discourse (rare) Infmitive with τό after Adjectives and Nouns. Infinitive as Accusative after Adjectives and Nouns Infmitive with τοΰ, τω, and τό in various Constructions. Constructions of Infinitive as Genitive with τοΰ Constructions of Infinitive as Dative with τω ,320 Infinitive with τοΰ, τφ, and τό with Prepositions.. 320, 321 Articular Infinitive as Appositive 321 Infinitive with τό in Exclamations 321

32 i CONTENTS le Infinitive and Infinitive with τον after Verbs of Hindrance etc. N P A G E 10. Four expressions after Verbs implying Hindrance, (a) TTOLCLV, (I) τοΰ ττοιΰν, (C) μή iroiely, (D) τοΰ ΜΉ ποιεΐν. Μή ού when leading Verb has Negative. 322, 323 Infvnitive with το μή or το μη ov. 13. After expressions implying Hindrance or Denial.. 324, Infinitive with τό μή ού (or τό μή) in negative sense 325, 326 Mi) ού WITH INFINITIVE, PARTICIPLES, AND NOUNS. 17. Μή and μή ού with Infinitive. 19. Μή ού with Participles and Nouns. 20. Μή oii forming one Syllable. 326, , CHAPTER VI. THE PARTICIPLE. 21. Participle as Verbal Adjective 23. Three uses of Participle distinguished A. ATTRIBUTIVE PARTICIPLE. 24. Participle as Adjective 25. Participle with Article used substantively 26. Future Participle in these uses 27. Participles (generally plural) used substantively without 329, Article 330, Participles (as Substantives) with adnominal Genitive (a) Neuter singular of Participle with Article in sense of Articular Infinitive 331 (h) Similar constructions without Article Participle as Predicate Adjective Participle with είμί or fχω as periphrastic Perfect, Pluperfect, or Future Perfect 332 B. CIRCUMSTANTIAL PARTICIPLE Participle defining circumstances of action, expressing various relations I. Time II. Means III. Manner, including manner of Employment.. 334

33 CONTENTS χχϊχ ON PAOE 841. VI. Condition (Participle in Protasis) , VII. Opposition, Limitation, or Concession VIII. Any attendant circumstance , IX. That in which an action consists No exact distinction of all circumstantial Participles possible. : ; : I Genitive Absolute. λ 847. Genitive Absolut^ independent ofjnain construction Participle alone used absolutely Passive Participle in Genitive Absolute with Clause Genitive Absolute rare with subject already belonging to the sentence 338 Accusative Absolute Impersonal Participles in Accusative Absolute.. 338, Rarely with Infinitive and τί Personal Participles sometimes in Accusative Absolute (generally with is or liowep) 339, 340 Adverbs with Circumstantial Participle Τ6re, ήδη, έντανθα, είτα, έπειτα, οϋτωι, etc "Αμα, μεταξύ, εύθύς, αύτίκα, etc 340, Kaurep (καΐ... περ), ούδέ, μηδέ, βμοχ, etc , "Are, οία or οίον "Ωστε in Herodotus, like &τε Ώί, when thought of leading subject is expressed.. 342, "Ώσπερ and ύσπερ εί 343, Remarks on ίόσπερ and (is with Participle Omission of ων Cases of omission of S>v : 1. After άτε, οία, ws, or καίπερ Rarely without these Particles (poetic) With έκών and ίκων When another Participle precedes , 347 Cmribinations of Circumstantial Participles Participles belonging to main construction combined with those in Genitive or Accusative Absolute in one sentence 347 C. SUPPLEMENTARY PARTICIPLE Nature of Supplementary Participle , Two uses, corresponding to those of the Object Infinitive

34 CONTENTS ON I. NOT IN INDIRECT DISCOURSE. PAGE 880. I. With Verbs signifying to begin, endure, cease, stop, permit, etc 348, II. With Verbs denoting states of feeling (to repent etc.) III. With Verbs denoting to find, detect, represent IV. With Verbs of Perception (hearing, seeing, etc.) V. With λανθάνω, τυγχάνω, φθάνω, etc VI. With οΐχομαι, ήκω, έρχομαι, etc VII. With τειρωμαι, πολλός είμι, etc. in Herodotus With πεψωμαι etc. in Attic Greek , VIII. With άποδείκνυμι, καθίζω, and παρασκευάζομαι IX. With άρκέω, Ικανόs elpu., etc X. Dative of βουλόμενοί, ήδόμενοs, etc. with Dative after είμΐ etc 355, XI. Dative of Participle with Impersonal Expressions (it is fitting, pleasant, etc.) Omission of &v "Ων occasionally omitted in constructions of Infinitive with Verbs of Infinitive sometimes used with Verbs which take Supplementary Participle: 1. With αίσχύνομαι and αιδούμαι With άνέχομαι, υπομένω, τλάω, τολμώ With άποκίμνω With άρχομαι 357, With παύω With περιορω, overlook, permit, etc With the Impersonal Expressions of Probably never with λανθάνω, τυγχάνω, and φθάνω. 358, 359 II. PARTICIPLE IN INDIRECT DISCOURSE Participle with Verbs of seeing, hearing, knowing, showing, etc., and with άγγέλλω, like Infinitive of Indirect Discourse 359, Participle agreeing with Accusative of Reflexive Participle of Impersonals in Accusative Participle with δήλοs and φανερός είμι With σύνοιδα and συγγιγνώσκω and Dative of Reflexive With Infinitive depending on Verb with Dative.. 361

35 N CONTENTS xxxi PAGE 12. Clause with Sri or ώι for Participle Μέμνημαι δτε for Participial Construction Infinitive with the Verbs o/ Infinitive of Indirect Discourse with some of the Yerbs of 904 : 1. With ακούω, πυνθάι>ομαι, and αισθάνομαι With όρω With άγγέλλω With ό/ίολσγέω With φαίνομαι 362, Infinitive in various uses and senses with other Yerbs of 904 : 1. With μανθάνω, μέμνημαι, and έπικανθάνομαι With οΐδα and Μσταμαι (two uses with Infinitive) "With yi-γνώσκω (three uses with Infinitive) With δείκνυμι With δηλω With ευρίσκω (three uses with Infinitive) , 365 'fis with Participle in Indirect Discourse. 16. 'Bs showing that Participle expresses thought of leading subject Ώϊ with Circumstantial Participle, equivalent to Indirect Discourse 365, Participle with lis (peculiarly used) after certain Verbs of saying and thinking 366,367 C H A P T E E VII, VERBAL ADJECTIVES IN -Teo<?. 20. Two Constructions of the Verbal in -Wos Personal Construction Agent expressed by Dative in Personal Construction. Omission of ειμί Impersonal Construction with ίστί 368, Comparison with Latin Participle in -dus Verbal in -τέον and Infinitive (sc. δει) in same Construction Agent expressed by Dative or Accusative in Impersonal Construction 369 APPENDIX.

36 1 CONTENTS PAGE The Origin of the Construction of ού μ-ή with the Subjunctive and the Future Indicative 389 tatistics of the use of the Final Particles 398 Xenophon's peculiar use of is, is iv, and tfrrws &v in Final and Object Clauses 400 On some disputed points in the Construction of ISei etc. with the Infinitive (Supplement to ) 403 TO THE EXAMPLES 413 K INDEX 441 ISH INDEX 452

37 ΕΕΒΑΤΑ. 76, line 2 of II., for prohibitions subjunetive read prohibitions. Subjunctive. 94, line 1 of 274, for Οττωs read "Οπως. 27, line 6 of 352, change ; to, 48, line 1, for αποστερεΐν read αποστερεΐν. 54, line 5, broken η in ήκούσατε. 59, line 3 of footnote, for ahanisyat read ahanisyat. 60, line 12 of 433, for αύτιρ read αύτφ.,, line 1 of examples under 435, for ξιφέεσσ read ξιφέεσσ'. 86, line 5 of 492, for μενοισήσωσι read μενοινήσωσt. 90, line 15 of examples under 503,/or αρχοιτε read Άρχοιτε. 33, in title of 610, for Ε φ' read *E φ'. 34, line 15 of 612 (end), for 4φ read ίφ\ 53, line 3, for iv. 4, 4 read iv. 2, 4. 04, line 14, for tp read 05, line 1 of 759, omit two commas. 25, line 5 of examples under 812, insert OiS' before ϋρνησιι., line 8 of do., put periods after xix and xx. 26, line 3 of 815, 2, omit comma at the end of the line. 38, after example in 850, add THTJC. i , line 8 of 890, for ivovra read ivivra. 76, line 6 of 2, for ταχ' read τίχ'. 99, last line of 2, far Οπως read"οπως.

38

39 CHAPTER I. GENERAL VIEW OF THE MOODS.. THE Mood of a verb shows the manner in which the rtion of the verb is made. he Greek verb has four moods, properly so called, the ative, the subjunctive, the optative, and the imperative. infinitive, which is a verbal noun, and the participle the verbal in -reo?, which are verbal adjectives, are so ly connected with the moods in many constructions, they are discussed with them in Syntax. he four proper moods, as opposed to the infinitive, are sometimes the finite moods. The subjunctive, optative, imperative, and itive, as opposed to the indicative, are sometimes called the dent moods. I. INDICATIVE.. The indicative, in its most primitive use, makes a le, absolute assertion, or asks a question which includes oncerns such an assertion. E.g. ράφει, he is writing ; 'έγραφεν, he was writing J εγραψεν, he wrote; ι, he will write. Γράφει; is he writing? εγράψατε; did you write? τε; will you write? τl εγραψεν ; what did he write 1. The indicative may also express a) A dependent statement (or quotation) of such an lute assertion or question. E.g. εγει δ τι γράφει, he says that he is writing (he says γράφω); οτι γράψει, he says that he will write (he says γράψω) ; ερωτρ τί αμεν, he aslcs what we wrote; ερωτρ el έγραψα, he ash whether I

40 GENEKAL VIEW OF THE MOODS [12 ) A distinct statement of an object aimed at or feared. E.g. ιμελείται OTTOS τοϋτο γενήσεται, he takes care that this shall be done ; φοβούμεθα μη αμφοτέρων ημαρτήκαμεν, we fear that we have both (369, 2). ) A distinct supposition of an absolute statement, that supposition that such a statement is, was, or will be E.g. γράφει, if he is writing; el ϊγραψεν, if he wrote; ε'ι γεγραφε, as written ; el γράψει, if he shall ivrite or if he is to write. What posed in each case could be expressed by γράφει, εγραψεν, ε, or γράψει. The past tenses of the indicative may, further, express position that some statement either had been or were true, while it is implied that really it was not or is not E.g. έγραψα, if I had written; el εγραφον, if I were now writing or d been writing ; the context indicating that really I did not write not writing (410). These expressions originally always referred past, as they do in Homer. Out of the form of unreal supposition (4) were oped after Homer the use of the past tenses of the ative with ewe or el jap in wishes (732) ; and also ttic construction of the past tenses of the indicative press an unaccomplished purpose (333), where there is similation of the final clause to a preceding indicative. γαρ τοντο εποίησα, Ο if I had only done this! Έΐθε τούτο ei\ S, ou only had this! ίθε τότ άπεθανον, ίνα μη τοντο επαθον, would that I had then d, that I might not have suffered this. r the indicative with άν or κ!, the potential indicative, see 243. II. SUBJUNCTIVE. (a) The subjunctive, in its simplest and apparently primitive use, seen in Homer (284), expresses futurity, he future indicative, and has ού for its negative. E.g. γάρ πω τοίονς ISov άνίρας ovsi ιίωμαι, for never did I set such or shall I ever see them, EL i. 262; καί ποτί TCS EIJNJAIV, and

41 SUBJUNCTIVE 3 bjunctive still remains closely related in sense to the indicative, and in most of its constructions can be interd with it. The subjunctive in questions of appeal as to the (287) has, even in Homer, developed the idea of ety or expediency. E.g. μεν ω ήε θεω; shall I remain here or run? 11. x. 62. So π-rj ither shall I go 1 Od. xv But the future indicative can in the same sense ; as τί δήτα δρωμεν; μητερ ή φόνευα οhat are we to do? shall we slay our mother? ΕΠΕ. EL ) (a) In exhortations and in prohibitions with μή (250- he subjunctive has an imperative force, and is always ; as in 'ίωμεν, let lis go ; μη θαυμάσητε, do not wonder. future indicative occasionally occurs in prohibitions with μή The subjunctive with μή, especially in Homer, may s a future object of fear with a desire to avert it; ή νήας ε'χωσι, may they not seize the ships (as I fear ill). (See 261.) From such expressions combined erbs of fearing arose the dependent use of μή with bjunctive expressing a future object of fear; as φοβούάπόληται, I fear that he may perish. In the constructions with οΰ μή (294) the subjunctive e future indicative are used, without apparent distinca future sense; as οΰ μή γένηται and ού μή ηενήit will not happen. The subjunctive may express a future purpose or a object of care or exertion. E.g. εται. o7rojs τοίτο i'sy, he comes that he may see this (317) ; αι. oiras τοντο γενηται (or γενήσεται), he takes care that this done (339). In clauses of purpose the future indicative is es used (324), and in the construction of 339 it became the Attic form. In conditional clauses the subjunctive expresses a future supposition (444), or a general supposition is indefinite (never strictly present) in its time (462). n the former it supposes such a future case as the Homeric sub- (6) states ; as εάν rts εϊ-try, if one shall say (the thing supposed

42 GENEKAL VIEW OF THE MOODS [12 sentially the same sense (447). In the general condition it ses an event to occur at any time, as we 8ay if any one ever goes hoever goes, with an apodosis expressing repetition or a general ; as εάν ris κλέφτ) (or os άν κλεφ-q), κολάζεται, if any one steals hoever steals), he is always punished. ) The subjunctive in general suppositions is the only subjunctive does not refer to future time, and here the future indicative can be used. In most other languages (as in English and generally atin), and sometimes in Greek, such a condition is expressed by resent indicative, like an ordinary present supposition; but the k, in its desire to avoid a form denoting present time, generally nto one which it uses elsewhere only for future time. The contion, however, appears in Homer imperfectly established, except lative clauses (468): this indicates that it does not belong to rimitive uses of the subjunctive. (See 17.) or the Homeric subjunctive with κε or άν in independent nces, which does not differ perceptibly in meaning from the future κε or αν, see 201, 1. III. OPTATIVE. 2. The optative is commonly a less distinct and direct of expression than the subjunctive, imperative, or ative, in constructions of the same general character as e in which these moods are used. 3. This is seen especially in independent sentences, re the optative either expresses a wish or exhortation, used (regularly with av or κί) in a potential sense. hus ΐοιμεν, may we go, corresponds as a weaker form to ΐωμ^ν, let. Corresponding to εξελθων τις Ιδετω, let some one go out and see, ave εξελθών ris ΐδοι, may some one go out and see, Od. xxiv το άν, he would take or he might talce, corresponds to the Homeric ι or εληταί κε, he will take or he may take (201, 1). e find in Homer a few optatives expressing concession or peron, which have a neutral sense and can hardly be classed as r potential or wishing. See 11. iv. 17, ε'ι δ' αΰ πως τάδε -άσι και ήδυ πέλοιτο, ι) τοι μεν οικεοιτο πόλις ΤΙριάμοιο άνακτος, δ' Άργείην 'EAev>;v MeveAaos άγοιτο, where Ave may translate podosis either let the city still be a habitation and let M. carry aicay, or the city may still be a habitation and M. may carry aicay. In iii. 72 we have γυναικά τε οίκαδ' άγέσθω, and in iii. 255 ε κε νικήσαντι γυνή και κτημαθ' εποιτο, where άγέσθω and ό κε refer to essentially the same thing with άγοιτο in iv. 19.

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