1 TECHNICAL BULLETIN 209 ISSN EFFECTS OF SOLVENT EXTRACTED OR FULL-FAT EXTRUDED SOYBEANS ON THE GROWTH OF EARLY WEANED FRIESIAN CALVES M. Hadjipanayiotou AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE, NATURAL RESOURCES AND THE ENVIRONMENT NICOSIA CYPRUS DECEMBER 2001
2 Editor - in Chief Dr A.P. Mavrogenis, Agricultural Research Institute, Nicosia, Cyprus. All responsibility for the information in this publication remains with the author(s). The use of trade names does not imply endorsement of or discrimination against any product by the Agricultural Research Institute. 2
3 EFFECTS OF SOLVENT EXTRACTED OR FULL-FAT EXTRUDED SOYBEANS ON THE GROWTH OF EARLY WEANED FRIESIAN CALVES M. Hadjipanayiotou ABSTRACT A total of 91 Friesian calves, 49 males and 42 females, were used in the present study. Calves were, within sex, assigned at birth alternately to two treatment-diets containing either solvent extracted soybean meal (SBM) or extruded whole soybeans (ESB). Colostrum was fed twice daily for the first two days (2-2.5 kg/meal). Thereafter, fresh cow milk (4 kg/calf/day) was fed once daily. Concentrates (SBM or ESB) and alfalfa hay were offered ad libitum from separate feed containers from 10 days of age. Calves were weaned at 25 days of age. The two concentrate diets (SBM and ESB) were iso-nitrogenous (birth to 56 days of age, 23.8% CP, and 57 to 119 days 18.2% CP, DM basis) and were offered ad libitum along with alfalfa hay (18.3% CP, DM basis). There were no differences (P>0.05) between treatments in liveweight gain from birth to weaning (SBM:Δ 305, Σ 295; ESB:Δ 312, Σ 284 g/day), from 26 to 35 days of age (SBM:Δ 458, Σ 500; ESB:Δ 572, Σ 585 g/day), 36 to 56 days of age (SBM:Δ 627, Σ 634; ESB:Δ 520, Σ 629 g/day), 57 to 91 days of age (SBM:Δ 1114, Σ 995; ESB:Δ 1040, Σ 1077 g/day) and from 92 to 119 days of age (SBM:Δ 1301, Σ 1151; ESB:Δ 1317, Σ 1277 g/day). Similarly, there was no difference (P>0.05) in concentrate and alfalfa hay intake between treatments in the pre- and postweaning period. Post-experimental growth rate was satisfactory, and heifers of both treatments, kept under a similar feeding regime from 120-day onwards, were mated at a similar age and live weight. The present findings showed that SBM can be substituted for ESB, but no beneficial effect was obtained. ΠΕΡΙΛΗΨΗ Νεαρά µηρυκαστικά που απογαλακτίζονται πρώιµα έχουν αυξηµένες ανάγκες σε πρωτεΐνη και ενέργεια. Σ αυτή την ηλικία έχουν ειδικές απαιτήσεις σε πρωτεΐνη που δε διασπάται εύκολα στη µεγάλη κοιλία αλλά µπορεί να χρησιµοποιηθεί/απορροφηθεί στο λεπτό έντερο. Επιπρόσθετα, η χαµηλή πρόσληψη στερεάς τροφής, µετά από πρώιµο απογαλακτισµό, καθιστά απαραίτητη τη χρήση συµπληρωµάτων ψηλής περιεκτικότητας σε ενέργεια µε σκοπό την απρόσκοπτη και οµαλή ανάπτυξη και την αποφυγή οποιασδήποτε δοκιµασίας από έντονο υποσιτισµό. Στην παρούσα µελέτη χρησιµοποιήθηκαν 91 (49 αρσενικά και 42 θηλυκά) πρώιµα απογαλακτισθέντα (25 µέρες) µοσχάρια της Φρισλανδικής φυλής, µε σκοπό τη µελέτη της µερικής αντικατάστασης της συνηθισµένης σόγιας (SBM, solvent extracted soybean meal) µε πλήρη σόγια (ESB, full fat extruded soya beans) που πέρασε από εξωθητή. Όλα τα µοσχάρια αποµακρύνοντο από τη µητέρα τους αµέσως µετά τον τοκετό και τους διδόταν, δύο φορές την ηµέρα, πρωτόγαλα κατά βούληση (2-2.5 χλγρ/µέρα) το συντοµότερο δυνατό µετά τη γέννα. Από την 3 ην µέρα µέχρι τον απογαλακτισµό (25 µέρες) η µέση κατανάλωση γάλακτος ήταν 4 χλγρ/µοσχάρι χορηγούµενα σε ένα ηµερήσιο γεύµα. Από την 10 η µέρα τα µοσχάρια είχαν στη διάθεσή τους νερό, τριφυλλοσανό (18.3% ακατέργαστη πρωτεΐνη (ΑΠ) στη ξηρή ουσία) και το αντίστοιχο συµπυκνωµένο µείγµα (SBM ή ESB) κατά βούληση. Τα δύο συµπυκνωµένα µείγµατα ήταν ισοπρωτεϊνικά (γέννα µέχρι 56 µέρες, 23.8% ΑΠ και 57 µέχρι 119 µέρες, 18.2% ΑΠ στη ξηρή ουσία). εν υπήρχαν διαφορές (P>0.05) µεταξύ δοκιµών στο κερδηθέν βάρος από τη γέννα µέχρι τον απογαλακτισµό (SBM:Δ 305, Σ 295; ESB:Δ 312, Σ 284 g/day), 26 ως 35 ηµέρες (SBM:Δ 458, Σ 500; ESB:Δ 572, Σ 585 g/day), 36 ως 56 µέρες (SBM:Δ 627, Σ 634; ESB:Δ 520, Σ 629 g/day), 57 ως 91 µέρες (SBM:Δ 1114, Σ 995; ESB:Δ 1040, Σ 1077 g/day) και από 92 ως 119 µέρες (SBM:Δ 1301, Σ 1151; ESB:Δ 1317, Σ 1277 g/day). Επιπρόσθετα, δεν υπήρξε διαφορά (P>0.05) µεταξύ δοκιµών στην πρόσληψη συµπυκνωµένου µείγµατος και τριφυλλοσανού στην περίοδο πριν ή µετά τον απογαλακτισµό. Η ανάπτυξη των µοσχίδων µετά την πειραµατική περίοδο ήταν ικανοποιητική και οι µοσχίδες ανεξάρτητα δοκιµής, µε ίδια διατροφή/διαχείριση µετά τις 120 µέρες, παραστήθηκαν στην ίδια ηλικία (SBM:521 ± 65.7, ESB:536 ± 77.8 µέρες) και βάρος (SBM:346 ± 37.2, ESB:349 ± 42.4 χλγρ), είχαν παρόµοιο βάρος τοκετού (SBM:488 ± 49.8, ESB:498 ± 60.6 χλγρ) και γαλακτοπαραγωγή 90 ηµερών (SBM:2321 ± 393.8, ESB:2344 ± χλγρ). Τα αποτελέσµατα της µελέτης έδειξαν ότι η SBM µπορεί να αντικατασταθεί από την ESB, αλλά χωρίς εµφανές πλεονέκτηµα στην αύξηση της παραγωγικότητας. 3
4 INTRODUCTION Young, fast-growing, early-weaned calves require large amounts of protein and energy relative to their body size (ARC, 1980). Chester-Jones et al. (1990) reported that optimising efficient growth characteristics of young growing Holstein steers used for beef production is critical for marketing such steers by 12 months of age. Plant protein, predominantly soybean meal, has been the preferred N-source in high-energy starter diets fed to Holstein steers up to 180 kg body weight (Chester-Jones, 1988). A better dietary supplement for such animals might be whole soybeans because of their high crude protein (CP) content, desirable amino acid profile, and high energy content provided by the high fat concentration of the seed. More efficient use of protein supplements can be achieved by reducing their degradability in the rumen without altering intestinal digestibility (ARC, 1984). Feeding extruded, compared to raw soybean, resulted in an increased amino acid flow in the small intestine (Stern et al., 1985). Furthermore, Albro et al. (1993) reported that extruded whole soybeans (ESB) tended to exhibit better feed efficiency than raw, whole soybeans. Heat treatment of soybean meal (SBM), roasting of whole soybeans or extrusion of whole soybeans at 149 o C decreased ruminal degradation of CP (Stern et al., 1985). Earlier studies with early weaned lambs and kids (Hadjipanayiotou, 1997) showed species differences as a result of feeding different protein sources (SBM vs ESB). Kids, but not lambs, on the ESB diet grew faster and had better feed to gain ratio than those on the SBM diet. The objective of the present work was to study the effect of feeding ESB on the performance of early-weaned Friesian calves. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 97 Friesian calves, 53 Δ and 44 Σ born between 02/97 and 03/99 at ARI farm were used. Immediately after birth the calves were placed in individual pens equipped with facilities for bucket-feeding of milk. Colostrum was fed twice daily ( kg/meal) for the first two days. Thereafter, fresh cow milk (4 kg/day) was offered once daily. The daily milk allowance (kg/day) was reduced to 2.5, 2.0 and 1.0 over the periods 19-20, and 23 to 25 days, respectively. Solid feed and water were available from the 1 0t h day of life. Artificially reared calves, within sex, were assigned at birth alternately to two treatments (solvent extracted soybean meal (SBM) and extruded whole soybeans (ESB). Calves were completely weaned on the 25th day of age. The two concentrate mixtures, with or without ESB, were formulated to be iso-nitrogenous. The CP content of the concentrate fed from 10 to 56 days of age was higher than that used over the period 57 to 119 days. The composition and chemical analysis of the concentrate mixtures are in Table 1. Following weaning, the calves were grouphoused and fed for different periods (26-35, 36-56, and days of age) with sexes kept apart. The daily allowance (kg/calf) of alfalfa hay was 0.2 and 0.3 for the periods and days of age, respectively. Group feed intakes of hay and of concentrates were recorded at least once a week. Concentrates were fed to appetite. Concentrate and alfalfa hay was offered from separate feed containers. Representative samples of feed offered and refused were collected routinely, bulked and analysed as outlined by Harris (1970). Calves were weighed at birth, 25, 35, 56, 91 and 119 days of age. From 120 days of age all female calves were placed on a similar feeding and management system as outlined by Economides (1997) in order to achieve mating weight ( kg) at the age of months. Data collected until 119 days of age were analysed using a model that accounted for treatment, sex and their interaction. The degradability in the rumen of soybean meal and of extruded soybeans was determined using four rumen fistulated dry, mature Damascus goats (65 kg body weight). Fistulated animals were offered daily 0.5 kg concentrate (160 g CP per kg DM), 0.25 kg alfalfa hay and 0.25 kg barley hay. Nylon material with 36 μm pore size (HSO 13, Henry Simon Ltd., P.O.Box 31, Stockport, England) was used for bags. The dimensions of the bags were 140x90 mm, and about 5 g of sample was placed in each bag. Bags were anchored from the top of the cannula using 25 cm nylon tubing. Bags with content were incubated in the rumen for 2, 5, 8, 24 and 48 h. The procedures used for bags and sample processing, 4
5 chemical analysis and calculation of effective DM and CP degradability values were those outlined by Orskov (1982) and Hadjipanayiotou et al. (1988). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Data on one male and two female calves on the ESB diet, and three male calves on the SBM diet were excluded from the analysis because of health problems, not associated with any diet effect. The chemical composition of the concentrate mixtures and of alfalfa hay used are in Table 1. The CP and ether extract content (g/kg DM) of extruded soybeans were 392 and 204, respectively; the corresponding values for solvent extracted soybean meal were 467 and 22. There were no differences (P>0.05) between treatments for weight gain from birth to weaning, 26 to 35, 36 to 56, 57 to 91 or 92 to 119 days (Table 2). The lack of beneficial response to feeding ESB in high-energy starter diets in the present study was similar to results by Chester-Jones et al. (1990), who found no benefit to feeding certain protein sources presumed to have high ruminal escape protein. Furthermore, the present findings are in line with previous studies with Chios lambs, but at variance with those with Damascus kids, where growth rate and feed efficiency were better when ESB was used (Hadjipanayiotou, 1997). The effective CP degradability (at 0.05 outflow rate per h) of ESB was lower than that of SBM (52.5 vs 56.7±1.39%). This was also the case in the study of Chester-Jones et al. (1990). The a (rapidly soluble fraction), b (the fraction which will be degraded in time) and c (the rate at which the b fraction is degraded) values were 9.74 and ± 5.23%, and 81.62±3.81% and 4.77 and 5.62±0.10% for SBM and ESB, respectively. Decreased DM intake, when whole or extruded soybeans were compared to soybean meal, has been reported by Palmquist and Conrad (1971) and Erickson and Barton (1987). In the present study, however, as well as in the study with lambs and kids (Hadjipanayiotou, 1997) and in that of Chester- Jones (1990) with steers, DM intake was similar for both diets. Heifers on both treatments, kept under a similar feeding and management system (Economides, 1997), from 120 days of age onwards, were successfully mated at a similar Table 1. Percentage composition (kg/t) and chemical analyses (g/kg DM basis) of concentrate mixtures and of alfalfa used 10 to 56 days 57 to 119 days Alfalfa Period High crude protein Low crude protein hay Treatment SBM ESB SBM ESB Barley grain Solvent extracted soybean meal Extruded soybeans Wheat bran Dicalcium phosphate Salt Vitamin trace element mixture a Chemical composition Crude protein Ash Ether extract Crude fibre NDF ADF In vitro digestibility (%) a The vitamin-trace element mixture supplied 6000 IU vitamin A, 1000 IU vitamin D 3, 8.5 IU vitamin E, 23 mg Mn, 1.75 mg I, 45 mg Zn, 30 mg Fe, 2 mg Co, 8 mg Cu and 60 mg Mg/kg concentrate mixture (as fed basis). 5
6 Table 2. Performance of early-weaned Friesian calves on two sources of Soya Source of Soya SBM ESB SD Sex No. of animals Birth weight (WT) (kg) WT gain birth to 25 days (g/day) WT gain 26 to 35 days (g/day) WT gain 36 to 56 days (g/day) WT gain 57 to 91 days (g/day) WT gain 92 to 119 days (g/day) Feed intake (g/day) Birth to 25 days Concentrate Lucerne hay days Concentrate Lucerne hay days Concentrate Lucerne hay days Concentrate Lucerne hay age (SBM 521±65.7, ESB 536±77.8 days) and live weight (SBM 346±37.2, ESB 349±42.4 kg), had similar calving weight (SBM 488± 49.8, ESB 498±60.6 kg) and 90- day milk yield (SBM 2321±393.8, ESB 2344 ±356.2 kg). Although the in situ measurements confirmed that extruded soybeans were a higher ruminally protected protein source compared to soybean meal, the in vivo study did not substantiate any benefit for extruded soybeans in early weaned Friesian calves. The choice between ESB and SBM as nitrogen source should be based on economics. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author is grateful to G. Kyprianou, A. Photiou, Maria Karavia, Maria Theodoridou and the staff of the Central Chemistry Laboratory for skilled technical assistance. REFERENCES 6 Albro, J.D., D.W. Weber, and T. DelCurto Comparison of whole, raw soybeans, or soybean meal and barley on digestive characteristics and performance of weaned beef steers consuming mature grass hay. Journal of Animal Science 71: ARC The Nutrient Requirements of Ruminant Livestock. CAB 1980 Farnham, Royal, Slough. 351p. ARC The Nutrient Requirements of Ruminant Livestock, Supplement No. 1. Technical Review by an Agricultural Research Council Working Party on the Nutrient Requirements of Ruminants. A supplementary report to chapter 4 of The Nutrient Requirements of Ruminant Livestock. CAB 1980 Farnham, Royal, Slough. 46p. Chester-Jones, H Feeding high corn diets to dairy-beef steers. Proceedings of the 4 9t h Minnesota Nutrition Conference. pp University of Minnesota, St. Paul. Chester-Jones, H., M.D. Stern, A. Su, J.D. Donker, D.M. Ziengler, and K.P. Miller Evaluation of various nitrogen supplements in starter diets for growing Holstein steers and their effects on ruminal bacterial fermentation in continuous culture. Journal of Animal Science 68: Economides, S Dairy cattle in Cyprus. Miscellaneous publications 5. Agricultural Research Institute, Nicosia. 82p. (in Greek). Erickson, P.S., and B.A. Barton Whole soybeans for market lambs. Journal of Animal Science 64: Hadjipanayiotou, M Effect of feeding extruded soybeans on the performance of young Chios lambs and Damascus kids. Technical Bulletin 180, Agricultural Research Institute, Nicosia. 8p.
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