Άλλες Ονομασίες. Γεωγραφική Θέση Northwestern Asia Minor, modern northwestern Turkey. Ιστορική Περιοχή Bithynia

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1 Περίληψη : A city of the province of Bithynia at a distance of 26 klm south of Propontis, on the slopes of Mount Olympus, known for its hot springs. Prousa was included in the theme of Opsikion during the middle Byzantine period, gained great strategic importance during the reign of Komnenoi ( ), against the Seljuks, and resisted the Latins with success in It was occupied by the Ottomans in 1326 and it constituted the capital city of the Ottoman state until Άλλες Ονομασίες Bursa Γεωγραφική Θέση Northwestern Asia Minor, modern northwestern Turkey Ιστορική Περιοχή Bithynia Διοικητική Υπαγωγή Province of Bithynia, theme of Opsikion 1. Geographical position - Foundation Prousa was a city of Bithynia, in northwestern Asia Minor, at a distance of 26 klm south of Propontis, built on the slopes of Mount Olympus, modern Ulu Dağ, Ulu Tag, within the wider region of Mysia. According to Strabo, the king of Bithynia Prousias I ( B.C.) founded the city. 1 Plinius the Elder, however, believed that it was the Carthaginian general Hannibal the one who founded the city, when the king Prousias I offered him hospitality. 2 The foundation of Prousa is located chronologically within the framework of B.C., a date that is indirectly attested from the philosopher Dio Chrysostom. From another view-point, the first settlement was built on the citadel, where remains of Roman and Byzantine walls are preserved, whereas later another settlement was founded by Prousias I, after Hannibal s advice, on the site where today modern Bursa lies Prousa during the Byzantine times 2.1. Until the 12th century The historical mentions about Byzantine Prousa are highly limited, as far as the early and middle era is concerned, deriving from hagiological texts and chronographies. 4 In the 6 th century, Prousa is attested as a city of the province of Bithynia in the Synekdemos of Hierokles, 5 but in the 9 th century, in the Life of Hosios Eustratios of the Agaura monastery, is reported as polichne, an information that indirectly shows the shrinkage of the population in the mean time. 6 In the 10 th century, Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos ( ) did not estimate Prousa as an important city, which resulted in not counting it among the towns of the theme of Opsikion, within the jurisdiction of which the wider region had been enlisted in the late 7 th century. 7 During the middle Byzantine era, the city/polichne of Prousa was known as the place of recreation for the Byzantine emperors because of its royal thermae. 8 It is about ferruginous hot healing springs, in a location of two kilometers northwest of the city, in the valley of modern Nilüfer Çay. The visit of empresses Eirene ( ) and her son Constantine VI ( ) to the hot springs during the fall of 796 is attested. 9 Information about the visit of Constantine VI to the baths of Prousa gives the Life of Theodore of Stoudios as well. 10 In the mean time, during the period of Iconoclasm, Prousa was a refuge place for the iconolater monks of the near-by monastic center of Olympus of Bithynia. During the reign of Michael II ( ) Theodore of Stoudios paid a visit to it. 11 Around 959 is Δημιουργήθηκε στις 27/7/2018 Σελίδα 1/9

2 dated the visit of Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos ( ) to Prousa, and to its baths, after the pilgrimage of the emperor to Olympus of Bithynia th century From the 12 th century thereafter, when Prousa gained strategical interest during the war against the Seljuks, the testimonies about the city were increased. Prousa acquired special importance because of the repulse of the Seljuks, due to her position. It was the target of repeated attacks and it was sacked, some time around In 1184 the inhabitants of the city were involved in the political life of the empire as well, when in common with the inhabitants of Nicaea and Lopadion refused to recognize the emperor Andronikos I Komnenos ( ), a reaction that put the inhabitants of Prousa in the center of the contemporary historiographers interest. Prousa was besieged by Andronikos and a little later was seized by the imperial army. Its occupation was sealed with outrages against the inhabitants and with the execution of the resistance s leaders and their relatives From the year 1204 thereafter After the capture of Constantinople by the Latins in 1204, many of the inhabitants of the Byzantine capital took refuge in the towns of Bithynia. Nikephoros Blemmydes gives a relevant testimony for Prousa, which was the place of his studies. The city during that period constituted an intellectual center. 15 In an epistle of Niketas Choniates it is mentioned the visit of megas sakellariosmichael Autoreianos to the city of Prousa, later Michael IV patriarch of Constantinople ( ). 16 Prousa never fell on the Latin dominion. The effort of the Latins to conquer the city in never brought any results. In 1204, Theodore I Laskaris ( ) fled to Prousa, after not being accepted in Nicaea where he had initially headed to, when he escaped from Constantinople. The rulers of the city of Nicaea were convinced to allow the sojourn only of his family. He exercised thereafter the imperial authority by himself, in the place of Alexios III ( ) s father-in-law, from Prousa and from the nearby area. 17 Afterwards, based on the treaty of 1214, the Latin emperor of Constantinople Henry of Hainault ( ) recognized Theodore I Laskaris ( ) as sovereign of the region from Lopadion up to Nicaea. 18 Thereafter Prousa became a territory of the Empire of Nicaea. Since the recapture of Constantinople in 1261, the city experienced, as all the other Bithynian towns, the consequences of the Arsenite schism Prousa facing the Ottomans In the 14 th century Bithynia suffered hardships from the Ottomans raids. In 1302, the Ottomans besieged the city, under the leadership of Osman, the founder of the Ottoman dynasty. He signed a treaty around According to the Turkish sources the city faced a siege in 1315 as well. 19 Prousa finally surrendered to the Ottomans because of the famine, outcome of a long-standing siege, 20 on the 6 th of April The city was obliged to pay gold pieces 21 under the condition that the inhabitants would leave safe, carrying with them a part of their property. From this time on and until 1402, the city was the capital city of the Ottoman state. 3. Byzantine architecture at Prousa According to all testimonies the city of Prousa was fortified, and according to the description of Niketas Choniates it was built on a hill and possessed strong walls. 22 An intense archeological survey has never been conducted and any existing Byzantine monuments are yet not identified. Any religious monuments that were re-consecrated to Islam, remain unidentified as well. 23 In the late Byzantine sources there is a mention to two works of religious architecture at Prousa: George Pachymeres mentions the great monastery of Prousa (of Saint Eustratios of Agaura) and Nikephoros Gregoras is referred to the church of John Prodromos, built at Prousa by Eirene Doukaina, wife of John III Doukas Vatatzes ( ). 24 Δημιουργήθηκε στις 27/7/2018 Σελίδα 2/9

3 1. Στράβωνος Γεωγραφικά, H.L. Jones (ed.- trans.) The Geography of Strabo (The Loeb Classical Library, London 1928/ re-print. 1969) vol. 5, p. 456 (12, 4, 3). 2. Πλίνιος, Φυσική Ιστορία, E. H. Warmington (ed.) Pliny : Natural History, Ι-ΙΙ (London 1969) chap.v, line 148 (p. 330). Real Encyclopädie (Stuttgart 1957) s.v. Prusa ad Olympum (Dorner, F. K) line Θρησκευτική και Hθική Eγκυκλοπαίδεια, vol. 10, line 676 s.v. Προύσα (Φορόπουλος, N. K.). 4. «Bίος του μακαριωτάτου και οσίου πατρός ημών Iωαννικίου συγγραφείς παρά Πέτρου μοναχού», AASS, Novembris, vol. II, pars prior (Bruxellis 1894), pp , (BHG 936) «Bίος και πολιτεία και θαύματα του οσίου πατρός και θαυματουργού Iωαννικίου συγγραφείς παρά Σάβα μοναχού», AASS, Novembris, vol. II, pars prior (Bruxellis 1894), pp , , , , (BHG 935) «Bίος και θαύματα του οσίου πατρός ημών Eυστρατίου, ηγουμένου της μονής των Aυγάρου», A. Παπαδόπουλος-Kεραμεύς (ed.) Aνάλεκτα Iεροσολυμιτικής Σταχυολογίας (St. Petersburg 1897/ re-print Bruxelles 1963) vol. 4, no. 19, p. 397 (BHG 645) «Βίος Πέτρου Ατρόας», V. Laurent (επιμ.) La Vie merveilleuse de saint Pierre d Atroa, Subsidia Hagiographica 29 (Bruxelles 1956), pp , (BHG 2364). 5. Συνέκδημος Ιεροκλή, E. Honigmann (ed.) Le Synekdèmos d Hiéroklès et l opuscule géographique de Georges de Chypre(Bruxelles1939), p. 34 (692. 5). 6. «Bίος και θαύματα του οσίου πατρός ημών Eυστρατίου, ηγουμένου της μονής των Aυγάρου», Α. Παπαδόπουλος- Kεραμεύς (ed.) Aνάλεκτα Iεροσολυμιτικής Σταχυολογίας (St. Petersburg 1897/ανατ. Bruxelles 1963), vol. 4, no. 19, p. 370 (BHG 645). 7. Κωνσταντίνος Πορφυρογέννητος, Περὶ Θεμάτων, A. Pertusi (ed.) Constantino Porfirogenito, De Thematibus (Città del Vaticano 1952), θέμα no. V. 8. Κωνσταντίνος Πορφυρογέννητος, Πρὸς τὸν ίδιον υΐόν Ρωμανὸν, G. Moravcsik (ed.) Constantinus Porphyrogenitus, De Administrando Imperio (Washington D. C. 1967), pp , 51, line Bίος του μακαριωτάτου και οσίου πατρός ημών Iωαννικίου συγγραφείς παρά Πέτρου μοναχού, AASS, Novembris, vol. II, pars prior (Bruxellis 1894),pp (BHG 936 p Bίος και πολιτεία και θαύματα του οσίου πατρός και θαυματουργού Iωαννικίου συγγραφείς παρά Σάβα μοναχού, AASS, Novembris, vol. II, pars prior (Bruxellis 1894), pp (BHG 935, p ). 9. Θεοφάνους Χρονογραφία, C. De Boor (επιμ.) Theophanis Chronographia (Lipsiae 1883), p «Βίος Θεοδώρου Στουδίτη», B. Latyschev (ed.), Vita S. Theodori Studitae, Vizantijskij Vremennik 21 (1914), p «Βίος Θεοδώρου Στουδίτη», B. Latyschev (ed.), Vita S. Theodori Studitae, Vizantijskij Vremennik 21 (1914), p «Βίος Νικολάου Στουδίτου», Anonymi Vita S. Nicolai Studitae, in: J.P. Migne (ed.) Patrologiae cursus completus, Series Greca (Paris ) vol. 105, line 909 (BHG 1365). 12. Θεοφάνους Συνεχιστής, I. Bekker (ed.) Theophanes Continuatus, (CSHB, Bonnae 1838), p Άννα Κομνηνή, Αλεξιάς, D. R. Reinsch, A. Kambylis (ed.) Annae Comnenae Alexias, Ι-ΙΙΙ (CFHB40/1, Berlin 2001), p. 444 (XIV, 5, 3). 14. Νικήτα Ακομινάτου του Χωνιάτου Χρονική διήγησις, I. A.Van Dieten (ed.) Nicetae Choniatae Historia(CFHB11/1, Berolini et Nova Eboraci 1975), p. 280, line 42-44, pp passim Γεωργίου του Ακροπολίτου του μεγάλου λογοθέτου χρονική συγγραφή, A. Heisenberg, P. Wirth (ed.) Georgii Acropolitae Historia (Stuttgart 1978), p. 11, line 24, p. 12, line Νικηφόρου του Βλεμμύδου Διήγησις μερική, J. A. Munitiz (ed.) Nicephori Blemmydae Autobiographia sive curriculum vitae; necnon Epistula universalior (Corpus Christianorum 13, Turnhout 1984), p Νικήτα Ακομινάτου του Χωνιάτου Επιστολαί, I.A.Van Dieten (ed.) Nicetae Choniatae Orationes et Epistulae (CFHB3 Berolini et Novi Eboraci 1972), p Γεωργίου του Ακροπολίτου του μεγάλου λογοθέτου χρονική συγγραφή, A. Heisenberg, P. Wirth (ed.) Georgii Acropolitae Historia (Stuttgart 1978), pp Δημιουργήθηκε στις 27/7/2018 Σελίδα 3/9

4 18. Νικήτα Ακομινάτου του Χωνιάτου Χρονική διήγησις, I. A.Van Dieten (ed.) Nicetae Choniatae Historia(CFHB11/1, Berolini et Nova Eboraci 1975), p. 602, line 8, p. 603, line Νικήτα Ακομινάτου του Χωνιάτου Επιστολαί, I.A.Van Dieten (ed.) Nicetae Choniatae Orationes et Epistulae (CFHB3 Berolini et Novi Eboraci 1972), p ODB, vol. 3, p. 1750, s.v. Prousa( Foss, C.). 21. Ιωάννη Καντακουζηνού Ιστοριών βιβλία Δ, L. Schopen (επιμ.) Ioannis Cantacuzeni Eximperatoris Historiarum Libri IV(CSHB, Bonnae 1831), vol. 1, p. 220, line 3, 17 Νικηφόρος Γρηγοράς Ρωμαϊκή ιστορία, B. Niebuhr (ed.) Nicephori Gregorae Historia Romaica, Ι-ΙΙ (CSHB, Bonnae 1834), p. 384, line Νικήτα Ακομινάτου του Χωνιάτου Χρονική διήγησις, I. A.Van Dieten (ed.) Nicetae Choniatae Historia(CFHB11/1, Berolini et Nova Eboraci 1975), p. 280, line Balivet, M., Culture ouverte et échanges inter-religieux dans les villes ottomanes du XIVe siècle, The Ottoman Emirate ( ), Institute for Mediterranean Studies, Halcyon Days in Crete I, A symposium Held in Rethymnon January 1991 (Rethymnon 1993), p Γεωργίου Παχυμέρη, Συγγραφικαί ιστορίαι, A. Failler (ed.) Georges Pachymeres, Relations Historiques (CFHB24/1, Paris 1984) και (CFHB 24/4), p , Νικηφόρος Γρηγοράς Ρωμαϊκή ιστορία, B. Niebuhr (ed.) Nicephori Gregorae Historia Romaica, Ι-ΙΙ (CSHB, Bonnae 1834), p. 44, line Βιβλιογραφία : Janin R., Les églises et les monastères des Grands Centres Byzantins. Bithynie, Hellespont, Latros, Galésios, Trébizonde, Athènes, Thessalonique, Paris 1975 Βρυώνης Σ., Η παρακμή του μεσαιωνικού ελληνισμού στη Μικρά Ασία και η διαδικασία του εξισλαμισμού, ΜΙΕΤ, Αθήνα 1996, Γαλαταριώτου, Κ. (μτφρ.) Βλυσίδου Β., Λουγγής Τ., Λαμπάκης Σ., Σαββίδης Α., Κουντούρα-Γαλάκη Ε., Η Μικρά Ασία των θεμάτων. Έρευνες πάνω στη γεωγραφική φυσιογνωμία και προσωπογραφία των βυζαντινών θεμάτων της Mικράς Aσίας (7ος-11ος αι.), Αθήνα 1998, Eρευνητική Bιβλιοθήκη 1 Κουντούρα-Γαλάκη Ε., Ο βυζαντινός κλήρος και η κοινωνία των «σκοτεινών αιώνων», Αθήνα 1996 Robert L., Études Anatoliennes, Amsterdam 1970 Αρνάκης Γ., Oι πρώτοι Oθωμανοί, Αθήναι 1947 Berger Η., Das Bad in der byzantinischen Zeit, München 1982, Miscellanea Byzantina Monacensia, 27, Institut fur Byzantin. und Νeugrich. Philologie der Unive Brand C.M., Byzantium confronts the West, , Cambridge 1968 Κουταβά-Δεληβοριά Β., O γεωγραφικός κόσμος Kωνσταντίνου του Πορφυρογεννήτου, τόμ. 2, H εικόνα. Τα γεωγραφικά - Γενικά στοιχεία φυσικής γεωγραφίας, βιογεωγραφίας και ανθρωπογεωγραφίας, Αθήνα 1993 Lilie R.J., Handel und Politik zwischen dem byzantinischen Reich und den italienischen Kommunen Δημιουργήθηκε στις 27/7/2018 Σελίδα 4/9

5 Venedig, Pisa und Genua in der Epoche der Komnenen und Angeloi ( ), Amsterdam 1984 Ramsay W.Μ., The Historical Geography of Asia Minor, 2, London Amsterdam 1962 Ζαχαριάδου Ελισάβετ, Iστορία και Θρύλοι των παλαιών Σουλτάνων ( ), Αθήνα 1991 Balivet M., "Culture ouverte et échanges inter-religieux dans les villes ottomanes du XIVe siècle, The Ottoman Emirate ( )", Halcyon Days in Crete I, A symposium Held in Rethymnon January 1991, Institute for Mediterranean Studies, Rethymnon 1993, 1-6 Λαΐου Α., "Η βασιλεία του Ανδρονίκου Β ( )", Ιστορία του Ελληνικού Έθνους Θ: Υστεροβυζαντινοί Χρόνοι, Μέλισσα, Αθήνα 1979, Lefort J., "Tableau de la Bithynie au XIIIe siècle, The Ottoman Emirate ( )", Halcyon Days in Crete I, A symposium Held in Rethymnon January 1991, Institute for Mediterranean Studies, Rethymnon 1993, Σπυρόπουλος Ν., "Προύσα", Mεγάλη Eλληνική Eγκυκλοπαίδεια τ. 20, Αθήνα, Foss C., "Prousa", A. Kazhdan (ed.), The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium 3, Oxford, New York 1991, 1750 Restle M., "Bithynien", Wessel, K., Reallexikon zur byzantinischen Kunst, Vol. 1, Stuttgart 1966, στήλ Robert L., "Un Voyage d'antiphilos de Byzance", Journal des Savants, 1979, Φορόπουλος Ν., "Προύσα", Θρησκευτική και Hθική Eγκυκλοπαιδεία τ. 10, Αθήνα 1966, στήλες Δικτυογραφία : Επιφανειακή έρευνα στη Βιθυνία Κατάλοιπα της μονής του Αγίου Αβερκίου, στην ευρύτερη περιοχή της Προύσας, 9ος αι. Πού βρίσκεται η Προύσα Γλωσσάριo : megas sakellarios Ecclesiastic official. The sakellarios was responsible for supervising the monasteries of his bishopric. In late 11th c. the sakellarios of the Patriarchate of Constantinople was given the epithet «megas» (great). By that time the office had lost any economic responsibilities and was responsible for supervising the monasteries of Constantinople, as well as for composing and seeing to the application of patriarchal acts concerning the charistikai donations. thermae Building complexes dated in the Roman Period housing the public baths. Within the building there were three rooms, the frigitarium, the tepidarium and the caldarium and several other facilities rooms. The Roman bath houses were also used as meting places and they often included a palaestra and a gymnasium. Πηγές Δημιουργήθηκε στις 27/7/2018 Σελίδα 5/9

6 Άννα Κομνηνή, Αλεξιάς, D. R. Reinsch, A. Kambylis (ed.), Annae Comnenae Alexias Ι ΙΙΙ (CFHB40/1, Berlin 2001). «Βίος Νικολάου Στουδίτου», Anonymi Vita S. Nicolai Studitae, in J.P. Migne (ed.), Patrologiae cursus completus, Series Greca 105 (Paris ), line 889 (BHG 1365). L.Bosio (ed.), La Tabula Peutingeriana, una descrizione pittorica del mondo antico (Rimini 1983). J. Nesbitt, Oikonomidès, N. (ed.), Catalogue of Byzantine Seals at Dumbarton Oaks and in the Fogg Museum of Art 3 (Washington D.C. 1996). Βραχέα Χρονικά, P. Schreiner (ed.), Chronica Byzantina Breviora 1 (CFHB12, Wien 1975). Κωνσταντίνος Πορφυρογέννητος, Περὶ Θεμάτων, A. Pertusi (ed.), Constantino Porfirogenito, De Thematibus (Città del Vaticano 1952). Κωνσταντίνος Πορφυρογέννητος, Πρὸς τὸν ίδιον υΐόν Ρωμανὸν, G. Moravcsik (ed.), Constantinus Porphyrogenitus, De Administrando Imperio (Washington D.C. 1967). Γεωργίου Παχυμέρη, Συγγραφικαί ιστορίαι, A. Failler (ed.), Georges Pachymeres, Relations Historiques (CFHB24/1, Paris 1984, and CFHB 24/4). Γεωργίου του Ακροπολίτου του μεγάλου λογοθέτου χρονική συγγραφή, A. Heisenberg, P. Wirth (ed.), Georgii Acropolitae, Historia (Stuttgart 1978). Συνέκδημος Ιεροκλή, E. Honigmann (ed.), Le Synekdèmos d Hiéroklès et l Opuscule géographique de George de Chypre (Bruxelles 1939). Ιωάννη Καντακουζηνού Ιστοριών βιβλία Δ, L. Schopen (ed.), Ioannis Cantacuzeni Eximperatoris Historiarum Libri IV 1 ( Ι ΙΙΙ (CFHB40/1, Berlin 2001). «Βίος Νικολάου Στουδίτου», Anonymi Vita S. Nicolai Studitae, in J.P. Migne (ed.), Patrologiae cursus completus, Series Greca 105 (Paris ), line 889 (BHG 1365). L.Bosio (ed.), La Tabula Peutingeriana, una descrizione pittorica del mondo antico (Rimini 1983). J. Nesbitt, Oikonomidès, N. (ed.), Catalogue of Byzantine Seals at Dumbarton Oaks and in the Fogg Museum of Art 3 (Washington D.C. 1996). Βραχέα Χρονικά, P. Schreiner (ed.), Chronica Byzantina Breviora 1 (CFHB12, Wien 1975). Κωνσταντίνος Πορφυρογέννητος, Περὶ Θεμάτων, A. Pertusi (ed.), Constantino Porfirogenito, De Thematibus (Città del Vaticano 1952). Κωνσταντίνος Πορφυρογέννητος, Πρὸς τὸν ίδιον υΐόν Ρωμανὸν, G. Moravcsik (ed.), Constantinus Porphyrogenitus, De Administrando Imperio (Washington D.C. 1967). Γεωργίου Παχυμέρη, Συγγραφικαί ιστορίαι, A. Failler (ed.), Georges Pachymeres, Relations Historiques (CFHB24/1, Paris 1984, and CFHB 24/4). Γεωργίου του Ακροπολίτου του μεγάλου λογοθέτου χρονική συγγραφή, A. Heisenberg, P. Wirth (ed.), Georgii Acropolitae, Historia (Stuttgart 1978). Συνέκδημος Ιεροκλή, E. Honigmann (ed.), Le Synekdèmos d Hiéroklès et l Opuscule géographique de George de Chypre (Bruxelles 1939). Ιωάννη Καντακουζηνού Ιστοριών βιβλία Δ, L. Schopen (ed.), Ioannis Cantacuzeni Eximperatoris Historiarum Libri IV 1 (CSHB, Bonnae 1831). «Βίος Θεοδώρου Στουδίτη», B. Latyschev (ed.), Vita S. Theodori Studitae, Vizantijskij Vremennik 21 (1914), pp , Νικήτα Ακομινάτου του Χωνιάτου Χρονική διήγησις, I. A.Van Dieten (ed.), Nicetae Choniatae Historia (CFHB 11/1, Berolini et Nova Eboraci 1975). Δημιουργήθηκε στις 27/7/2018 Σελίδα 6/9

7 Νικήτα Ακομινάτου του Χωνιάτου Επιστολαί, I.A.Van Dieten (ed.), Nicetae Choniatae Orationes et Epistulae (CFHB 3, Berolini et Novi Eboraci 1972). (Σκουταριώτης) Ανωνύμου Σύνοψις Χρονική, Κ. Ν. Σάθας (ed.), Μεσαιωνική Βιβλιοθήκη 7 (Παρίσι 1894/ re print Athens 1972), pp Θεοφάνους Συνεχιστής, I. Bekker (ed.), Theophanes Continuatus (CSHB, Bonnae 1838). Νικηφόρου του Βλεμμύδου Διήγησις μερική, J. A. Munitiz (ed.), Nicephori Blemmydae Autobiographia sive curriculum vitae; necnon Epistula universalior (Corpus Christianorum 13, Turnhout 1984). Νικηφόρος Γρηγοράς Ρωμαϊκή ιστορία, B. Niebuhr (ed.), Nicephori Gregorae Historia Romaica Ι ΙΙ (CSHB, Bonnae 1834). A. Carile (ed.), Partitio Terrarum Imperii Romanie, Studi Veneziani 7 (1965), pp. 241, 248. Στράβωνος Γεωγραφικά, H.L. Jones (ed. trans.), The Geography of Strabo 5 (The Loeb Classical Library, London 1928/ re print. 1969), p. 456 (12, 4, 3). Θεοφάνους Χρονογραφία, C. De Boor (ed.), Theophanis Chronographia (Lipsiae 1883). Πλίνιος, Φυσική Ιστορία, E. H. Warmington (ed.), Pliny : Natural History Ι ΙΙ (London 1969), chap.v, p. 330, line 148. «Bίος του μακαριωτάτου και οσίου πατρός ημών Iωαννικίου συγγραφείς παρά Πέτρου μοναχού», Acta Sanctorum ΙΙ (AASS), Novembris, pars prior (Bruxellis 1894), pp , , (BHG 936). «Bίος και πολιτεία και θαύματα του οσίου πατρός και θαυματουργού Iωαννικίου συγγραφείς παρά Σάβα μοναχού», Acta Sanctorum ΙΙ (AASS), Novembris, pars prior (Bruxellis 1894), pp , , p , , (BHG 935). «Bίος και θαύματα του οσίου πατρός ημών Eυστρατίου, ηγουμένου της μονής των Aυγάρου», in A. Παπαδόπουλος Kεραμεύς (ed.) Aνάλεκτα Iεροσολυμιτικής Σταχυολογίας 4 (St. Petersburg 1897, re print. Bruxelles 1963), no. 19, p (BHG6 45). «Βίος Πέτρου Ατρώας», V. Laurent (ed.), La Vie merveilleuse de saint Pierre d Atroa, Subsidia Hagiographica 29 (Bruxelles 1956), pp , (BHG 2364). Παραθέματα 1. Sojourn of the emperors Eirene ( ) and Constantine VI ( ) at Prousa Τούτῳ τῷ ἔτει, μηνὶ σεπτεμβρίῳ, ἐξῆλθεν ὁ βασιλεύς σὺν τῇ μητρὶ αὐτοῦ ἐν τῇ Προύσῃ θερμῖσαι. Θεοφάνους Χρονογραφία, C. De Boor (ed.), Theophanis Chronographia (Lipsiae 1883), p Constantine VII Porphyrogennetus visit to the hot springs of Prousa [...] ἐκ δέ τούτων ἐπὶ τὰς παραλογὰς καὶ δυσκολίας καὶ ἑλικοειδεῖς καὶ κρημνώδεις ἀναβάσεις μόλις διελθὼν ὁ ἄναξ, ταῖς κέλλαις τῶν ἱερῶν πατέρων καταλαβὼν, οὕς ἰδὼν κατασπασάμενος καὶ τὰς τούτων ψυχοφελεῖς εὐχὰς ἐφόδιον λαβὼν πρὸς τὴν Προῦσαν μετανίσταται, πόλις ἀνδρός τὸ πάλαι Βιθυνῶν βασιλεύσαντος, ὅς ἀνδραγαθίας καὶ πολέμων τῶν τηνικάδε βασιλέων ὑπεραρθέντων σύμβολον μνήμης τὴν τοιάνδε πόλιν ἐξειργάσατο. Θεοφάνους Συνεχιστής, I. Bekker (ed.), Theophanes Continuatus, (CSHB, Bonnae 1838), p Skoutariotes narrates the siege of Prousa by Andronikos I Komnenos ( ) Δημιουργήθηκε στις 27/7/2018 Σελίδα 7/9

8 Κεῖνος δὲ μετὰ τοῦ στρατοῦ παντὸς μεταβαίνει πρὸς τὴν πόλιν τῶν Προυσαέων, καὶ κατὰ τὸ πρὸς μεσημβρίαν μέρος, ὅθεν καὶ ἡ πόλις ἡ ἐπίμαχος διὰ τὸ τοῦ τόπου ἰσόπεδον, βαλὼν χάρακα, τῇ ἑξῆς ἔχεται τοῦ πολιορκεῖν καὶ αἱ μηχαναὶ καὶ οἱ ἄνδρες ἕδρων τὸ πρόσφορον. Αὐτὸς δὲ Ἀνδρόνικος διὰ βελῶν γράμματα ἠφίει τοῖς ἐν τῇ πόλει [...] οὐδὲ γὰρ ὁ κατὰ Προῦσαν συγκροτούμενος πόλεμος τοῦ κατὰ Νίκαιαν εἶχε τὸ ἔλαττον καὶ αὐτὸ δὲ ἡ πόλις, ὀχυρὸν περιβεβλημένη τεῖχος καὶ ἐπὶ τούτῳ περίτειχον. Ἐπεὶ δὲ ἔδει καὶ τὴν πόλιν ταύτην ὑποκῦψαι τῷ Ἀνδρονίκῳ καὶ τῶν ἐν αὐτῇ τοὺς πλείστους παθεῖν τὰ ἀνήκεστα χειρωθέντας, θραύεται τὶ μέρος τὸ τῇ ἐλεπόλει τυπτόμενον φαντασίαν δὲ τοῖς ἔνδον παρέσχε τοῦ τὸ τεῖχος ἅπαν ὅσον ἐτύπτετο ἐπὶ γόνυ κλιθῆναι θροὺς οὖν ἐπὶ τῷ γενομένῳ ἄσημος αἴρεται, καὶ δέος τὰ πάντων ἐκταράττει ψυχὰς ὅθεν μὴ περιεργασάμενοι τὸ γεγονὸς ἀλλὰ τῷ δέει μικροῦ ἀποψύξαντες, ἔρημα τὰ τείχη φυλάκων εἴασαν, καὶ τὸ ἐντεῦθεν ἄνετος τοῖς πολεμίοις ἡ διά πυλῶν καὶ κλιμάκων εἰς τὴν πόλιν εἴσοδος. Ἔπασχον οὖν οἱ Προυσαεῖς ἀνῃροῦντο καὶ διῃρπάζοντο τὰ προσόντα καὶ τὰ βοσκήματα κατεκόπτετο, ἅ πολλὰ εἰσήγαγον ὡς ἀν ἔχοιεν ὦ τραφήσονται οἱ ἐντός, ἐπιτεινομένης τῆς πολιορκίας. Ἐπεὶ δὲ καὶ Ἀνδρόνικος εἰσῆλθε τὸ πόλισμα, οὔθ ὡς ὑπηκόοις πράως τοῖς Προυσαεῦσιν ἐχρήσατο, οὔθ ὡς θὴρ ἐμπεσῶν θρέμμασι, πλείστους ὅτι μάλιστα διέφθειρε καὶ ἀφάνισε τὸν μὲν γὰρ Θεόδωρον τὸν Ἄγγελον ἐκτυφλοῖ καὶ ὄνῳ καθεσθέντα κελεύει τῶν Ρωμαϊκῶν ἐξελαθῆναι ὁρίων, καὶ τάχ ἀν θηρίοις ἐγεγόνει κατάβρωμα, (ὁ καὶ Ἀνδρόνικος ἐτεχνάσατο), εἰ μὴ Τοῦρκοι ἐντυχόντες ὤκτειραν τε καὶ κατὰ σκηνὴν αὐτῶν ἀγαγόντων θεραπείας ἠξίωσαν. Τὸν δὲ Συνέσιον Λέοντα καὶ τὸν Λαχανᾶν Μανουὴλ καὶ συχνοὺς ἄλλους, τεσσαράκοντα τοὺς πάντας, δένδρων ξύλοις ἐκρέμασε. Πολλῶν δὲ ἄλλων χείρας ἀπέτεμε, τινῶν πόδας ἀφῄρηκε καὶ ἄλλων δακτύλους, πολλοὶ χειρῶν καὶ ὀφθαλμῶν ὑπέστησαν στέρησιν, εἰσὶ δ οἵ καὶ ὀφθαλμὸν δεξιὸν καὶ πόδα εὐώνυμον ἐζημίωντο. (Σκουταριώτης) Ανωνύμου Σύνοψις Χρονική, Κ. Ν. Σάθας (ed.), Μεσαιωνική Βιβλιοθήκη 7 (Παρίσι 1894/ re print Athens 1972), pp During the period Prousa was a center of studies Ἡ πατρὶς τὸ βυζάντιον ἑαλώκει τοῖς Ἰταλοῖς, καὶ ἡμεῖς μετανᾶσται πρὸς Βιθυνίαν κἂν τῇ Προύσῃ μὲν γραμματικήν, ἐν Νικαίᾳ δὲ ποιητικὴν καὶ ρητορικὴν καὶ τὰ τῆς λογικῆς ὅσα πρὸ τῶν Ἀναλυτικῶν, παιδεθόμεθα, συλλογιστικὴν δὲ φυσικὴν ἀριθμητικὴν γραμμικὴν, ἐκδεδημηκότες εἰς Σκάμανδρον ἀποφοιτῶμεν ἐκεῖθεν. Νικηφόρου του Βλεμμύδου Διήγησις μερική, J. A. Munitiz (ed.), Nicephori Blemmydae Autobiographia sive curriculum vitae ; necnon Epistula universalior (Corpus Christianorum 13, Turnhout 1984), p a., 5.b., Siege and surrender of Prousa to the Ottomans because of the famine of α. Οἶσθα γὰρ, ὅπως, Προυσηνῶν ὑπὸ Περσῶν πολιορκουμένων καὶ ὅσον οὓπω ἁλώσεσθαι προσδοκωμένων διὰ τὸ σῖτον παντάπασιν ἐπιλελοιπέναι, πυθόμενος αὐτὸς αὐτόκλητος εἰς Βυζάντιον ἦκον, δεόμενος τε ἅμα καὶ συμβουλεύων, τοῖς πολιορκουμένοις τὴν δυνατὸν πρόνοιαν εἰσενεγκεῖν αὔτῃ δ ἦν τὸ ἐμὲ ἅμα τῇ στρατιὰ ναυσὶ πρὸς τὴν Τρίγλειαν περαιωθέντα, ἐπεὶ οὐ πολὺ Προύσης διέχει, τοῖς τε βαρβάροις, ἥν δύνωμαι, ἐπιθέσθαι καὶ Προυσηνοῖς τὰ ἐπιτήδεια ἐσκομῖσαι τούτου δὲ γενομένου, ἐλπὶς αὐτοὺς χρόνον πολὺν πρὸς τὴν πολιορκίαν ἀντισχήσειν τἂλλα γὰρ ἡ πόλις ἅπαντα κατεσκεύασται καρτερῶς ἐγὼ μὲν οὖν οὕτω προθυμίας εἶχον πρὸς τὸ Προυσηνοῖς βοηθεῖν αὐτὸς διακινδυνεύων, σοῦ δὲ μὴ ἐφιέντος, ἄκων κατεσχέθην ὁ καὶ μάλιστα αἴτιον ἔδοξε γεγενῆσθαι τοῦ Προῦσαν ὑπὸ τοῖς πολιορκοῦσι βαρβάροις γεγενῆσθαι. Ιωάννη Καντακουζηνού Ιστοριών βιβλία Δ, L. Schopen (ed.), Ioannis Cantacuzeni Eximperatoris Historiarum Libri IV 1 (CSHB, Bonnae 1831). p. 220, line β. [...] ἡλώκει δὲ καὶ ἡ Προυσαέων τῷ λιμῷ πολιορκηθεῖσα πόλις. Νικηφόρος Γρηγοράς Ρωμαϊκή ιστορία, B. Niebuhr (ed.), Nicephori Gregorae Historia Romaica Ι ΙΙ (CSHB, Bonnae 1834), p. 384, line Χρονολόγιο 6th century: Reference to Prousa in Sykendemos of Hierokles 796: Visit of the empresses Eirene ( ) and of her son Constantine VI ( ) to the hot springs of Prousa (sojourn in the city) Δημιουργήθηκε στις 27/7/2018 Σελίδα 8/9

9 After 796: Visit of Constantine VI ( ) to the hot springs of Prousa (sojourn in the city) 959: Pilgrimage of Constantine VII Porphyrogennetus ( ) to Olympus of Bithynia During Michael II ( ): Visit of Theodore of Stoudios to Prousa 1112: Sack of Prousa by the Seljuks 1184: Prousa, along with the Bithynian cities of Nicaea and Lopadion, did not recognize Andronikos I Komnenos ( ) / The capture of Prousa by the imperial troops and the execution of the relatives of the uprising s leaders followed Between 1204 and 1208: Visit of Michael Autoreianos, later patriarch of Constantinople ( ) to Prousa 1204: Escape of Theodore I Laskaris ( ) from Constantinople to Nicaea and afterwards to Prousa, from where he exercised imperial authority in the place of Alexios III ( ) s father in law : Operations of the Latins to capture Prousa without results 1214: Henry of Hainault recognized Theodore I Laskaris ( ) as sovereign of the region between Lopadion and Nicaea by a treaty 1302: Siege of Prousa by the Ottomans under the leadership of Osman 1304: Capitulation of Prousa with the Ottomans 1315: Siege of Prousa by the Ottomans 1326: Surrender of Prousa to the Ottomans after a long standing siege Δημιουργήθηκε στις 27/7/2018 Σελίδα 9/9