ENGLISH LECTURES 1 WORKSHOPS 5 SYMPOSIA 6 ANNOUNCEMENTS 11 GREEK ANNOUNCEMENTS 25 POSTERS 27

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1 16 TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE A.P.P.A.C. ASSOCIATION OF PSYCHOLOGY & PSYCHIATRY FOR ADULTS & CHILDREN Congress Series (6): Neuropsychiatric, Psychological and Social Updates and Challenges May 17 20, 2011 the Athens Hilton Hotel, GREECE CONFERENCE ABSTRACTS ENGLISH LECTURES 1 WORKSHOPS 5 SYMPOSIA 6 ANNOUNCEMENTS 11 GREEK ANNOUNCEMENTS 25 POSTERS 27 LECTURES ATTACHMENT S IMPACT ON EARLY ADOLESCENT ROMANTIC RELATIONSHIPS Prof. M.M. Abraham Ph.D. Assistant Professor, Psychology Dept., Miami University, Oxford, Ohio, USA This study explored differential effects of maternal and paternal attachments in adolescent romantic relationships (ARR). In a study of seventh and eighth graders, attachment relationship with mom predicted whether the adolescent had romantic relationships, but paternal attachment predicted quality and length of relationships. Research consistently demonstrates early parental attachment relationships influence creation and maintenance of successful relationships later (Frederick & Goddard, 2008; Creasy & Jarvis, 2008; Neumann & Tress, 2007; Sullivan, 1953). This study explored the impact of parental attachment on both the likelihood and quality of early adolescent romantic relationships. A total of 143 seventh and eighth graders completed questionnaires on paternal and maternal attachment and a Boyfriend/Girlfriend Questionnaire to measure romantic relationships. Data analysis suggests secure maternal attachment predicts earlier involvement with ARR and paternal attachment predicts length and positive qualities of ARR. This study breaks new ground understanding the importance of father. Previous research suggests fathers are important developmentally (Manion, 1977; Reuter & Biller, 1973; Sagi, 1982) and other research suggests fathers will be compensated for if absent or lacking (DeFrain, 1979; Eiduson & Alexander, 1978). This study suggests earlier secure paternal attachment may help individuals avoid becoming involved in less than optimal ARR s. A WINDOW OF OPPORTUNITIES: DETECTION AND TREATMENT OF INFANTS WITH VERY EARLY SIGNS OF AUTISM Dr. H.A. Alonim Ph.D. Founder & Director, Mifne Center for Early Intervention in Autism, ISRAEL Over the two last decades of clinical and research experience at the Mifne Center, it has been emerged that infants under 12 months old may display symptoms which might lead to a later diagnosis of ASD. Recent research studies have produced the Early Signs of Autism (ESPASI) to detect early signs of autism in the first year of life. A sensory attachment integration program for infants and their families has been developed at the Mifne Center. Infants found to be at high risk following the evaluation process at the Infants Diagnosis Unit at the Sourasky Medical Center of Tel-Aviv, are referred to the Mifne Center for treatment. Infants who have been treated up to the age of 18 months have developed typically according to their peers. The presentation will include: 1. Diagnostic procedure used at the Medical Center 2. Screening Scale 3. Video presenting intervention. HEMISPHERIC SYNCHRONY AND TRANSCENDENTAL CONSIOUSNESS: A PSYCHODEVELOPMENTAL ENERGY MEDICINE PERSPECTIVE ON VIBRATION, RHYTHM AND SOUND H. Argyrou Clinical Psychologist & Group Trainer, Druminspire International Cyprus, H.art Centre, Limassol, CYPRUS Drumming and vibrational sound have profound effects on the physical, cognitive and emotional realms of functioning. An energy medicine approach to well being and self-knowledge manages to reveal how these tools develop and project integration of the body/mind connection. Resulting effects of this sound induced relationship between mind and body are increased concentration, confidence through self mastery, sensory integration, anxiety alleviation, and alterations in brain hemisphere functioning. As a psychotherapeutic tool, the drum and the voice can mirror the inner psychology, reflect the distractive thought patterns and with practice, train the brain hemispheres to create 'rhythmically entrained' neurological pathways that are free from conflicting and anxiety based thinking. The impact: an alchemical process whereby sound and rhythm alter brain wave activity to evoke higher states of awareness, improve the relationship with the self, nurture social and emotional maturity while laying a foundation for peace and tranquillity through clear pure thought and integrated action. THE IMPACT OF WAR ON CHILDREN AND YOUTH OF MILITARY FAMILIES Prof. T. Barankin MD, FRCPC, DCP, Centre for Addiction & Mental Health and The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario Assistant Professor, Psychiatry Dept., Head of Continuing Medical Education, Child and Adolescent Division, University of Toronto, CANADA The goal of this presentation is to address the issue of trauma in children and families of military personal and to disseminate knowledge and skills in psychiatric management of the distress in a multi-disciplinary setting. When the parents go to war, there is a significant impact on children and families. The author was invited to provide ongoing program and staff based consultation to a child mental health agency, serving a Canadian military community. They had been overwhelmed with the numbers of children affected and the range of psychopathology that evolved. The author will review the literature on military lifestyle and stages of deployment and will illustrate via case vignettes the impact of deployment of the parent on children experiencing anxiety, anger, stress and post traumatic stress disorder. The family predicament will be addressed as well. Preventive and management strategies will be reviewed. The author provided staff education and built a cohesive multidisciplinary group with increased capacity to 1

2 handle children and families needs using an innovative telepsychiatry intervention/consultation model. Risk reduction model was implemented for prevention of trauma and to provide early identification treatment and rehabilitation to the affected families. ADDRESSING THE CHILDHOOD OBESITY EPIDEMIC: THE HEALTHY BODIES AND HEALTHY MINDS PROJECT Prof. H. Vrailas Bateman¹ and DCRG² Psychology Dept., the University of the South, Sewanee, Tennessee, USA ¹ PhD. Associate Professor and Chair ² Undergraduate Students, Members of the Development and Community Research Group (DCRG) The incidents of childhood obesity are increasing at an alarming rate in many industrialized and developing societies. Childhood obesity has been found to have a detrimental effect on many aspects of children s development. Such negative effects include the alarming increase of various physical ailments such as diabetes, heart disease, skeletal problems, and asthma. In terms of social, emotional, and cognitive development, children who are obese are less likely to be socially accepted, are more likely to be bullied, more likely to suffer from low self-esteem, and less likely to excel academically. The Healthy Bodies and Healthy Minds research project was created with the goal of battling childhood obesity by providing schoolage children with: a) information about proper nutrition, b) tools with which they can make healthier food choices, c) an increased awareness of the importance of exercise for sustaining good health, and d) the experience of exercise as an engaging activity that is accessible to all children (regardless of their weight). Data collected from the first year of the project suggest that children participating in the project increased: a) their level of understanding of nutritional information for all food groups, and b) their ability to make healthier food choices. INDICES AND ASPECTS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL HARDINESS AND RECEPTIVITY TO THE IMPLICATIONS OF PHILOSOPHICAL PSYCHOTHERAPY Prof. A.M. Paleologou¹, Em. Kougioumzoglou² and I. Bitchava³ Philosophy Pedagogy Psychology Dept., University of Ioannina, GREECE ¹ Assistant Professor, Clinical Psychology, Psychology Section ² Ph.D. Candidate, Philosophy Section ³ Ph.D. Candidate, Psychology Section Philosophical Psychotherapy strikes us as being an alternative form of Psychotherapy and we investigate it under the light of an innovative attempt of a clinical-oriented psychological scanning. Therefore, as a pioneering tendency -concerning the implications of Philosophy in the aid of individuals, groups or organizations- it a) comes across as being an everyday manner of living and its ultimate meaningfulness is realized in any instance b) is able to mobilize distances of proximity or remoteness between the two disciplines [Philosophy Psychology / Psychotherapy] and c) becomes potentially critical, mirroring the individual choices of the patients /clients /visitors /consumers involved, as far as their criteria of selecting their own therapist are concerned. Consequently, it fulfills scientific, epistemological and philosophical needs on the threshold of new developments in the field of human anguish management. Furthermore, it contributes methodologically to the current issue regarding the emergence of new forms of Psychotherapy. If it is considered to be a negotiation of the main philosophical principles potentially applicable to certain individuals, under specific circumstances, it arouses interest as it is connected with not only the Philosophy but also the Psychology and Psychotherapy. In the present study, we put forward and trace the hypothesis whether and how this receptivity to the implications of Psychotherapy - according to the subjective standpoint- could be intermediated by the psychological profile of young people and maybe by their constant cognitive action schemata which form critical aspects of their psychological profile. The evaluation of results is conducted by examining their hardiness vs alienation personality profile and tend to ascertain not only the intermediation of these supportive factors into the receptivity of the individuals to the implications of Philosophical Psychotherapy, but also the need for informative interventions concerning a constant percentage (about 30%) inclined to the alienation, on a pilot sample of 240 subjects. VOICE PROCESSING ABILITIES IN CHILDREN WITH AUTISTIC SPECTRUM DISORDERS (ASD) S. Ni Chuileann BA (Hons), M.Sc. Lecturer, Humanities and Social Studies Dept., Carlow College Ph.D. Candidate, School of Psychology, Trinity College, Dublin, IRELAND ASD is associated with an extremely diverse language phenotype ranging from relatively normal linguistic capacities to mutism. Many ASD individuals rely on speech output tools such as Augmentative Alternative Communication (AAC) devices to assist communication. Frequently the voice of such tools does not resemble the voice of the individual using the device. However technology is developing that allows speech output to mimic the voice of the user onto the AAC device so that the devices voice will more closely resemble that of the child. Such technological advances assume the AAC device with a more personalised output will psychologically motivate the user to feel a sense of ownership with the device so that the frequency and richness of AAC device, and its acceptance by family and peers will be enhanced. However, little attention has been given to the possibility that children with ASD may not connect with the personalised output. Indeed, research shows that children with ASD demonstrate impairments in prosodic comprehension and expression, as well as voice and face processing abilities. This paper will provide an additional summary of key aspects related to this cohort s difficulties in self-voice recognition preferential responding to voices presumed similar to their own. PARENTAL ALIENATION AND THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD Prof. K. Covell and Prof. R.B. Howe PhD. Professors, Psychology & Political Science Dept., Cape Breton Univ., Sydney, Nova Scotia, CANADA Parental alienation describes the intentional destruction of a parent-child relationship by one parent against the other during conflictful divorce or custody proceedings. It has recently been suggested that parental alienation be added to the forthcoming American Psychiatric Association s DSM 5. The impetus for this is the increasing evidence of its pervasiveness across the industrialized world, and of its profound and long-term impact on the child s development. We argue that not only should parental alienation be considered a disorder, but also that it should be considered a form of child abuse and appropriate action be taken against the offending parent. Evidence indicates parental alienation is a form of abuse, but it is not currently covered under most child protection laws. Our argument is based on the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. Ratified by all but 2 countries, this international agreement requires its signatories to ensure that the best interests of the child are a primary consideration (article 3), that children maintain appropriate relationships with both parents (article 9), that parents have the best interests of the child as their basic concern (article 18), and that children are protected from all forms of abuse, exploitation, and maltreatment (articles 19/36). CHILDREN WITH CO-MORBID ADHD/DISRUPTIVE BEHVAIOR DISORDERS Prof. J.S. Danforth Ph.D. Licensed Psychologist, Professor, Psychology Dept., Eastern Connecticut State University, Willimantic CT, USA Introduction and Aim: Fifty-five percent of children with ADHD also have a Disruptive Behavior Disorder (DBD) such as Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Conduct Disorder. This is true for boys and girls across age groups from Africa, Australia, Europe, Central and North America. Method: Research is reviewed illustrating how children with comorbid ADHD/DBD differ in substantive ways from children with the single disorders. Results: Compared with children who have ADHD alone or a DBD alone, children with comorbid ADHD/DBD have (1) more severe ADHD, especially impulsive behavior, (2) more severe aggressive behavior that is more stable across time (3) an earlier onset of Conduct Disorder, (4) higher rates of juvenile crime and adult anti-social behavior, (5) more peer relationship difficulties, (6) lower verbal IQs, (7) more reading delays, (8) parents with more anti-social behavior, depression, anxiety and drug abuse, (9) families with higher rates of divorce, and (10) more psychosocial 2

3 adversity. Discussion: The comorbid psychopathology contributes to the distress and impairment experienced by such children and complicates treatment. Qualitative differences are explored and implications for therapy are presented. A NOVEL STUDY ON Β AMYLOID IN SAUDI AUTISTICS Prof. L. Al-Ayahdi¹, Prof. A. El-Ansary² and A. Ghanoushy² Autism Research & Treatment Unit, Physiology Dept., Medicine Faculty, King Saud University, Riyadh, KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA ¹ Prof. Neurophysiology Dept. ² Professors, Biochemistry Dept. Objective: The neurotoxic beta-amyloid peptide (Ab), formed in anomalous amounts in Alzheimer s disease (AD), is released as monomer and then undergoes aggregation forming oligomers, fibrils and plaques in diseased brains. We examined whether children (3 16 years) diagnosed with autism showing different levels compared to control subjects of amyloid beta peptides[aβ (1 42), (1-40) and human (1-40 )] as protein derivatives playing central role in the cognitive disability. Methods: Twenty six autistics (22 males and 4 females) together with 26 age-matching controls (21 males and 5 females) were enrolled in the present study. Aβ (1 42), (1-40) and human Aβ (1-40 ) were measured in plasma of autistics and controls using ELISA technique. Results: Compared to controls, autistics show significantly lower levels of both Aβ(1 40) and Aβ(1 42) and higher level of human Aβ (1-40 ) peptides. Reciever operating characteristics curve analysis (ROC) shows that both Aβ (1 42), (1-40) recorded satisfactory specificity and sensitivity. Significance: Lower levels of Aβ (1 42), (1-40) was attributed to loss of Aβ equilibrium between the brain and blood which may lead to failure of drawing out Aβ from the brain. The obtained results were discussed in relation to oxidative stress and elevated lipopolysacharides (LPO) previously reported as two major causes of autism. CAUTIONS IN THE USE OF THE CHILD BEHAVIOR CHECKLIST IN NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT AFTER TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY J. Mills¹ and Prof. J. Leathem² School of Psychology, Massey University, Wellington, N.ZEALAND ¹ D.ClinPsych. Candidate ² Ph.D. Neuropsychologist, Professor Introduction & Aims: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with physical, cognitive, emotional and behavioural problems. Social and emotional function is typically measured through self report questionnaires although studies with adults have shown that results may be spuriously raised when TBI symptoms mask as psychopathology. The aim of the current study was to determine whether this was also true for the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) a common measure of psychopathology used with children. Method: A panel of child TBI experts reviewed CBCL items, identifying any doubling as symptoms of brain injury. The CBCL results of 84 children with TBI were compared to a normative group on brain injury/non-brain injury items. Results: Much of the sub-scale elevation indicating psychopathology, was attributed to endorsement of items identified as having a neurological rather than psychological basis. Scales most affected were thought problems, anxiety and depression, deliquency and to a lesser extent withdrawn and somatic complaints. Conclusions: Caution is recommended in the interpretion of CBCL when administered to neurological groups as results can be distorted as many of the items can be answered from physical and emotional perspectives. ASSOCIATION OF EARLY MALADAPTIVE SCHEMAS, SCHEMA MODES ON DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY DISORDERS D.G. Lyrakos and Prof. A. Arntz Clinical Psychologists, Medical, Clinical and Experimental Psychology Dept., Maastricht University, NETHERLANDS There have been a number of studies that have attempted to investigate possible associations between the Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMS) and Schema Modes (SM) and various Mental Disorders. The present study investigates possible associations between Depression and Anxiety Disorders (Generalized Anxiety Disorders and Phobias) and EMS and SM. The participants of the present study were 165 Depressive participants and 145 participants with an Anxiety Disorder (Generalized Anxiety Disorder or Phobia). The participants were of both sexes and between the ages of 18 and 67, both inpatients and outpatients. All participants filled in the Greek Personality Assessment Inventory for diagnostic purposes and the Early Maladaptive Schema Inventory and Schema Mode Inventory 2 nd version, for the determination of the EMS s and SM that are present on each participant. ΓΝΩΘΙ Σ ΑΥΤΟΝ: PRIMAL THERAPY, PSYCHODYNAMIC THERAPIES, AND EARLY DETERMINANTS OF MENTAL HEALTH Prof. P. Prontzos Professor and Instructor, Political Science Dept., Langara College, Vancouver, CANADA Introduction & Aim: Psychodynamic Therapies have re-emerged as one of the most successful methods for treating patients suffering from emotional traumas, including those experienced in the perinatal period, infancy, and childhood. Primal Therapy, developed by Arthur Janov, Ph.D. is an essential element of such therapies. Method: Primal Therapy is a client-centered method which allows patients to explore those unconscious affects (implicit memory, imprints) which are shaping their ideas, behavior, and feelings in the present. Primal Theory holds that encouraging patients to bring repressed feelings to consciousness is the key to resolving many forms of neurosis and dissociation. The connection between the primary processes (Panksepp) of the reptilian brain and the limbic system with cortical awareness is central to allowing healing because of neuroplasticity (Cozolino). A critical element is dismantling a patient s defenses, which may be physical, emotional, and ideational. Results: Janov claims that many other forms of therapy have limited benefit because they treat symptoms rather than causes. Primal Therapy emphasizes the healing potential of a careful, systematic re-experiencing of a patient s traumas. Discussion: Primal Therapy is a powerful method to heal old hurts, increase self-awareness, and help people to live more fully in the present. It also illuminates the type of parenting that maximizes a child s wellbeing. Finally, many of the threats that children face are either caused, or made worse, by social conditions such as poverty, stress, and inequality. Much can be done, however, to improve the quality of life for all children. THE ATTITUDE & USE OF FAITH HEALING BY PEOPLE WITH MENTAL DISORDERS IN UPPER EGYPT: A COMMUNITY SURVEY Prof. M.Y. Rakhawy¹ and Prof. E. Hamdi² ¹ Professor, Psychiatry Dept., Medicine Faculty, Cairo University, EGYPT ² Professor and Head of Mental Health Research Unit, Ministry of Health, EGYPT Introduction and aim: The impact of faith healers on help-seeking behavior cannot be ignored. Our aim is to provide reliable information about the frequency of use of faith healing in Upper Egypt and to identify the differences between users and non-users of faith healing, with respect to mental illness. Method: A cross-sectional study including a random household assessment of 5191 adults. The short Arabic version of the PSE 10 th revision was used to detect symptoms and diagnosis. A specially designed questionnaire to investigate the use of faith healing and the attribution of psychiatric symptoms/disorders was applied. Results: The prevalence of use of faith healers ranged between 2.6% to 13.2%. Help seeking tendency is generally directed towards primary health care services, relatives, no one and faith healers. A substantial proportion (67.3%) of traditional healers users suffers from mental symptoms or disorders (44.7% are cases, 22.6% subclinical conditions), while 32.7% of FH users are non-cases. Discussion: Mentally disordered people have a considerable tendency toward use of faith healing. Behavior seeking tendency is generally directed 3

4 towards primary health care services, relatives, no one and faith healers. Such results can be the foundation for mental health reforms and for future research. THE PSYCHO-SOCIAL NEEDS OF SCHOOL CHILDREN WITH EPILEPSY Prof. J. Roberts¹ and Ch. Whiting² University of Victoria, British Columbia, CANADA ¹ Ph.D. Psychologist, Associate Professor, Educational Psychology Dept., Associate Dean, Faculty of Education ² M.A. Special Education Children with epilepsy comprise a large percentage of the chronic health population and many of these children struggle with learning and social relationships. School experiences have been shown to be an important influence on children s quality of life (QOL). This paper will present data from a study investigating the QOL of children with epilepsy and their families. The specific objectives are to: (a) Identify the perceptions and psycho-social experiences of the primary caregivers of children with epilepsy regarding their interaction with the schools which impact both the child and family s quality of life, and (b) clarify how families think schools can best support, accommodate, and prepare for these children and families. To meet these objectives, this study adopts a qualitative (phenomenological) methodology. Interviews were conducted with seven families of children diagnosed with epilepsy and who were between the ages of 5 and 12. Each interview was recorded, transcribed and carefully analyzed to identify patterns/themes that created a deep understanding of the family s school and QOL experiences. Five themative categories were elicited from the interviews: (1) Health-Related Issues (2) Family Coping, (3) Acadmic Experiences, (4) Social Belonging, and (5) Awareness. These findings offer schools important information about how to better prepare, support, and accommodate children with epilepsy. With the movement toward inclusive educational practices understanding how to best support and accommodate children with health-related challenges is essential. PARENTHOOD AND POSTNATAL DEPRESSION Dr. L. Rollè¹, Dr. C. Garbarini², E. Gerino³, E. Marino and Prof. P. Brustia Psychology Dept., University of Turin, ITALY ¹ Psychologist, Psychotherapist, Ph.D. Researcher of Dynamic Psychology ² Ph.D. Psychologist ³ Ph.D. Cand. Psychologist, Ph.D. Cand. Psychologist, Psychotherapist, Full Professor of Dynamic Psychology, Director of School of Health Psychology, Vice Dean The aim of our research is to explore the maternal and paternal perceptions during the pregnancy (T1) and then in the immediate post-partum (T2). In particular, we tried to detect the presence of risk and protective factors associated with pregnancy, investigating the perceptions of the couple relationship, the presence of depressive and anxious symptoms in a sample of women and men in Piedmont. The total sample collected for this work consists of 180subjects, 90 males (M = 33.24, Min = 25 years, Max = 44 years, SD = 4) and 90 females (M = 31.28, Min = 24 years, Max = 41 years, SD = 4). We used the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) (Cox, Holden, Sagovsky, 1987); the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI Y) (Spielberger, 1983); the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) (Radloff, 1977); the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS) (Spanier, 1976) and the Marlowe- Crowne Social Desiderability Scale (MC-SDS) (Crowne, Marlowe, 1960). The results of the study show that in relation to data is clear the importance of taking charge soon, in a moment so delicate as puerperium. These charges could have positive effects on different levels in Health Care like the primary prevention. REPRESENTATIONS OF ATTACHMENT PATTERNS IN THE FAMILY DRAWINGS OF MALTREATED AND NON-MALTREATED CHILDREN Prof. M. Shiakou Ph.D. Psychologist, Assistant Professor, Social & Behavioural Sciences Dept., School of Humanities & Social Sciences, European Univ., CYPRUS Introduction & Aim: The study was conducted to investigate and compare the attachment styles of maltreated and non-maltreated children through the use of the family drawing technique. Methods: The sample consisted of 10 maltreated and 10 non-maltreated children between the ages of 5 and 11. Attachment based classification of the children s family drawings were obtained through an adapted version of Kaplan and Main s (1986) coding system. Behaviour problems were assessed by the use of The Child Behavioral Checklist (CBCL) (Achenbach, 1991). Results: The findings revealed that the maltreated children depicted significantly more items in their drawings linked to the insecure attachment pattern than nonmaltreated children, while the non-maltreated children made use of significantly more drawing features linked to the secure attachment pattern. These results corresponded to scores on the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) (Achenbach, 1991). All maltreated children scored in the clinical range. Conclusion: The family drawings of maltreated children significantly evidenced a greater distress - represented by an insecure attachment pattern - than the drawings of non-maltreated children represented by a secure attachment style. WOMEN S MENTAL HEALTH IN PAKISTAN: A COMPARISON BETWEEN INFERTILE AND FERTILE WOMEN Prof. S. Sultan¹ and S. Khurram² Applied Psychology Dept., Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan, PAKISTAN ¹ Ph.D. Assistant Professor ² M.Sc. Lecturer Issue of mental health has always been of paramount significance for women in general but those women diagnosed with a problem of infertility, has been discussed and researched least in the present day literature. The present study was carried out to debate on mental health of infertile women in comparison of fertile women in Pakistan. To compare the differences in levels of depression, anxiety, aggression, self-esteem, marital and sexual satisfaction, a sample of 400 women; evenly divided into infertile and fertile women aged 20 to 65 years completed six scales indigenously developed including Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Aggression Questionnaire, Index of Self-Esteem, Marital Satisfaction, and Sexual Satisfaction along with a personal and demographic information sheet. The analysis completed on SPSS using mean, SD, independent sample t-test, paired t-test, ANOVA, and post-hoc test indicated that infertile women tend to demonstrate higher levels of depression, anxiety, aggression, and lower levels of self-esteem, marital and sexual satisfaction as compared to that of fertile women. The data provided evidence that income, language, and rural/urban area do not play any important role in deterioration of emotional disturbances of infertile women while education, age, and family system contribute in infertile women s mental health. IMPACT OF THE ONTARIO WORKS PROGRAM ON THE QUALITY OF LIFE OF ABORIGINAL PEOPLES LIVING ON RESERVE IN NORTHERN ONTARIO J. Yahn¹ and Dr. J. Jamieson² ¹ M.Ph. Program Supervisor, Municipal and First Nation Services, Ontario Ministry of Community and Social Services, CANADA ² Ph.D., Psychology Dept., Lakehead University, CANADA The impact of the Ontario Works program, a provincially funded income and employment assistance program, on the quality of life of Aboriginal people living on reserve in Northern Ontario was examined by interviewing 59 Ontario Works clients from Wikwemikong Unceded Indian Reserve. The study also looked at those who have experienced the shift from social assistance to employment in order to assess the extent to which participation in the program affected economic status and overall sense of health and well-being. As well, 11 employers in the community were interviewed and a focus group session was held in the community to validate the data and provide feedback on the results of the study. The study 4

5 revealed that: social assistance is used primarily by females and single parent families, income assistance is not enough to support a family with children, Ontario Works has increased the overall health and well-being of participants, participation in employment support programs has increased employability, higher education increased the opportunity to secure long term employment, and employment stabilizes families and increases quality of life. The focus group identified several positive aspects of the program that were presented as best practices. A number of limitations were also identified and suggestions for improvement are proposed. WORKSHOPS PHOTOTHERAPY TECHNIQUES: A PSYCHOTHERAPEUTIC INTERVENTION WITH MANY POSSIBILITIES K. Alexandraki MSc Art Therapy Student, Queen Margaret University, Edinburgh, SCOTLAND Therapists and counsellors from different theoretical approaches can use PhotoTherapy techniques. Using PhotoTherapy techniques is based on the idea that a professional psychotherapist works with their clients through their personal photographs and family albums within the framework of formal psychotherapy. The workshop will explore how the use of snapshots becomes a catalyst for further insight and communication in the psychotherapeutic work. Through the use of multimedia, conference attendants will be briefed on the theoretical background of PhotoTherapy, its use with groups, families and individuals and its outcomes. There will also be an opportunity for experiential learning of the main techniques, using personal photographs and images from magazines. Participants are encouraged to bring any photographs they want to share, either printed or in their cameras/ mobile cameras. A FUNCTIONAL MODEL OF SEXUALLY RISKY BEHAVIOUR AND REDUCING RISK THROUGH SELF-MANAGEMENT INTERVENTIONS Prof. Ch.C. Cleanthous¹ and Prof. R. Sain² Counseling, Educational & Developmental Psychology Dept., Eastern Washington University, USA ¹ Ph.D. Associate Professor and Chair ² Ph.D. Assistant Professor Sexually risky behaviour has many unintended consequences, including disease that can impact health in both the short-term and long-term. A functional model of sexually risky behaviour aims to identify the interaction of variables that increase the probability of engaging in risky behaviour. The purpose of the workshop is to (a) identify variables that contribute to (b) making behavioural predictions of risky behaviour, and (c) designing interventions for reducing risky behaviour. Participants are taught about the contribution of choice (defined as the distribution of behaviour among competing sources of reinforcement) in risky behaviour. Using self-management techniques, participants are taught how to manage, if not eliminate, the potential hazards of risky behaviour. The first task is to identify the strengths and limitations of one s knowledge including sexuality and its potential infections, drug use, communication, and correct prophylactic use. The participants will also be taught and provided the opportunity to identify problematic behaviours. How to identify the antecedents and consequences of the problematic behaviours is an integral component of the model. Additional skills include identifying faulty arguments and how to counter them through assertiveness and decision making. INTEGRATING EVIDENCED-BASED PRACTICES FOR SUBSTANCE USE DISORDERS INTO CLINICAL PRACTICE IN MENTAL HEALTH AND ADDICTION TREATMENT SETTINGS Prof. D.C. Daley Ph.D. Professor, Psychiatry Dept., Univ. of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute & Clinic, Addiction Med. Services, USA Chief, Addiction Medicine Serv.- Principal Investigator, Appalachian Tri-State Node of Clinical Trials Network of National Institute on Drug Abuse Epidemiologic and clinical studies show high rates of substance use disorders (SUDs) among patients in medical, psychiatric and addiction medicine treatment settings. This clinical workshop will review adverse effects of SUDs on the affected individual, the family system, and individual family members including children. It will also review the challenges facing treatment providers in engaging and keeping patients with SUDs in treatment as poor adherence is a common problem. This workshop will summarize Evidenced-Based Practices (EBPs) to help clinicians meet many of the challenges of working with SUDs in diverse treatment settings. EBPs reviewed will include medication assisted treatment for addiction and psychosocial treatments (motivational, counseling, etc). The role of mutual support programs (AA, NA and other non 12-step programs) will also be reviewed. Factors affecting treatment outcome and relapse will be reviewed as well as clinical strategies to reduce relapse risk and enhance patients engagement in recovery. The workshop leader will incorporate findings from many multi-site clinical trials conducted by the Clinical Trials Network of the National Institute on Drug Abuse. ADDRESSING THE SPECIAL ASSESSMENT, TREATMENT AND RISK MANAGEMENT NEEDS OF CHRONICALLY MENTALLY ILL SEXUAL ABUSERS: AN INNOVATIVE AND INFORMED APPROACH Dr. L.L. Guidry Psy.D. Clinical & Forensic Psychologist Owner and Manager, Psychological Consulting Training and Assessment Services, L.L.C., Montague, Massachusetts, USA Massachusetts Dept. of Mental Health, Former State-wide Director of the Mentally Ill/Problematic Sexual Behavior Program President MATSA (Massachusetts Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers) There is limited data available regarding the specialized assessment and treatment needs of the challenging clinical sub-population of those with severe and persistent mental illness, (such as Schizophrenia, etc.), who also present with co-morbid problem sexual behaviors (Guidry & Saleh, 2004). This workshop will present the principles of a comprehensive and effective approach to these types of patients, derived from an innovative and evolving forensic mental health service program operating under the Massachusetts Department of Mental Health since Key to an informed response to this special sub-population is a thorough assessment that is integrated with effective interventions from the mental healthcare system. Workshop topic areas will include: (1) Review of special psychosexual assessment considerations (2) Understanding the relationship between an individual s mental illness and their problematic sexual behavior (3) Identification of relevant and tailored treatment and risk management strategies (4) Evaluating and training the psychiatric care system (5) Review of program outcome data. To date, the application of this specialized approach in Massachusetts to guide clinical treatment and risk management planning for sexual abusers with co-morbid serious psychiatric conditions has contributed to improvements in their clinical care and has facilitated the safe placement of these individuals in community settings. THE TRAUMATIZED CHILD: CAN HOSPITALIZATION HEAL? Dr. A.G. Provet Ph.D. Licensed Psychologist, Program Director, Child In-Patient Unit, New York Medical College, USA Children face many individual and environmental trauma with implications for development, emotion and behavior. When trauma and its sequela are so great as to disrupt a youngster s capacity to function safely in society, the child is often hospitalized. Paradoxically, this intervention disrupts 5

6 the very arenas it is designed to ameliorate as youngsters face interruptions in key attachment relationships, academic settings and peer groups. Furthermore, the child is often placed in an institutional environment that may not be structured to provide the empathic support, individualized attention, comfort, non-punitive limit setting and safety that can help children heal. This workshop will use case material to focus on the benefits as well as the risks of in-patient treatment in an urban American hospital. Participants will be encouraged to share their experiences across national, cultural, class and philosophical boundaries. We will explore strategies to minimize the negative consequences of hospitalization as we strive to remediate the devastating effects of trauma in our youngest and most vulnerable members of society. SUBLIMINAL THERAPY: EFFECTIVE, EVIDENCE-BASED PSYCHOTHERAPY OF PSYCHOGENIC MEDICAL PROBLEMS Prof. E.K. Yager PhD. Clinical Professor, Psychiatry and Psychology Dept., School of Medicine, University of California at San Diego, USA Subliminal Therapy (ST) is a unique protocol that combines classic concepts of psychotherapy with the utilization of extra-conscious abilities. Extraconscious refers to sophisticated, intelligent mental functioning that takes place outside of conscious awareness and includes objective reasoning and logical analysis. These are abilities that have not been recognized as utilitarian, yet are innate in humans. In ST, this intelligence is engaged to uncover, and then to resolve, the underlying causes of disorders. A clinician guides the process of ST, which is based in psychodynamic theory. Subliminal Therapy is an evidence-based psychotherapy, easily learned for use in clinical settings. The theory and rationale of ST will be presented in this workshop. It will include compelling data on ST s efficacy as derived from patient-completed, pre- and post-treatment inventories. The workshop will also address applications of ST to both medical and psychological problems, and the technique will be demonstrated by treating reallife problems of volunteer subjects. Participants will be introduced to their own extra-conscious abilities in a pragmatic way, at the personal level, and will then be prepared to employ ST in their private practices. SYMPOSIA SYMPOSIUM: Speaking for Confrontations in a Society of Changes Chairperson: T. Sidiropoulou 1. THE PRACTICE OF READING. ATTITUDES AND DISOBEDIENCE M. Sidiropoulou Ph.D. Candidate in Social Anthropology, University of the Aegean Reading is a part of literacy and, as such, is culturally mediated and linked to a wide net of social practices. This, also, means that reading varies in different cultures and follows their development. These characteristics are making reading a not at all homogeneous experience, although it often considered as such and governed by rules, obligations and prohibitions. This research opens the debate on how reading is a constructed experience and how readers are resisting to this by finding their own reading practices. In particular, raises questions of (1) how the practice of reading has constructed by socio-cultural institutions (2) How individuals experience the use of books (3) How the reading behavior varies in relation to the space (4) What practices occur and what kind of relations produced to a non-institutional level between readers. This study explores unofficial ways in which individuals are giving different meaning on the experience of reading by creating alternative reading practices. 2. REFLECTING SOCIAL CHANGES AND CHALLENGES FOR EDUCATION: THE LANGUAGE COURSE CASE E. Polyvaka¹ and M. Sidiropoulou² ¹ MEd Education, Philosophy and Education, Aristoteleio University of Thessaloniki ² Ph.D. Candidate in Social Anthropology, University of the Aegean The current social reality in almost all modern western societies indicates an increasing internationalisation of cultural, economic and political activities. This study investigates how these social changes can be seen as influential and challenging for education and educators. Specifically, the educator has a special role, as he is often called to confront challenges that are created by the multicultural composition of the class. With the school handbooks being the main tools that support the Study Programs, teachers are called to implement an intercultural approach, which is considered the most effective response. In which way the social changes have influenced the education in Greece so far? This is the central issue of this research. 3. EARLY INTERVENTION: FRAMEWORK AND CONFRONTATION IN EARLY CHILDHOOD INSTITUTIONS E. Mousena¹, Prof. T. Sidiropoulou² and A. Poulakida³ ¹ Preschool Advisor, Scientific collaborator A-TEI of Athens ² Assistant Professor of Psychopedagogics, Early childhood Dept. Technological Educational Institution (TEI) of Athens ³ MEd Education, Research Fellow, Early Childhood Education (E.C.E.) Dept., TEI of Athens The present paper examines the framework, the capabilities and the confrontation restrictions of Early Intervention in early childhood institutions. It relates to early childhood children with obvious disabilities or in danger of having development disorders and is directed to the child, the parents, as well as the entire family and wider environment. The stages problem detection, diagnosis and implementation of educational programmes are discerned. The paper is specifically focused on the procedures of detecting a development disorder in infants as well as those of collaboration of preschool educators with the competent bodies and children s parents. The cases in which Early Intervention procedures were followed in kindergartens in the period are analyzed. The analysis of the data demonstrates the professional responsibility, the adequacy and the difficulties preschool educators face in this matter, as well as some contradictory evidence between the theoretical assumptions, the framework and ways of confronting it. 4. OUT OF SCHOOL INFLUENCES ON CHILDREN UNDER 5: THE TELEVISION ELEMENT S. Dimitriadi¹, A. Stamoulou² and O. Flouri³ ¹ MEd Education, EdD, Lecturer, Early Childhood Education (E.C.E.) Dept., T.E.I. of Athens ² BA Early Childhood Education, Early Years Teacher ³ BA Early Childhood Education, BA Primary Education, Pre-School Teacher Shaping and improving the quality of everyday experience, wrote John Dewey, is the purpose of education. Nowadays, a considerable number of children at pre school age attend early years programmes for five days a week -and some of them- for more than thirty six weeks a year. Whether getting quality education or not is one issue, young children s lives outside their school is another. This study investigates the element of television being one of the out of school influences for children under the age of five. The sample was constituted by parents of children in their early childhood who were asked of their views and practices regarding the role of the particular media to their children s lives, by means of a questionnaire. The findings of the research indicate that indeed young children spend a lot of their at home time watching shows and broadcasts 6

7 tailored to their needs, however, these broadcasts are characterized as of a low quality and sometimes are considered the cause of the children s expression of violent and aggressive behavior. So, the paradox for these children still remains as their quality out of school experience is determined by the television programmes being broadcasted. 5. CHILD ABUSE & NEGLECT Prof. T. Sidiropoulou¹, Prof. K. Tsaoula² and M. Nanouri³ ¹ Assistant Professor of Psychopedagogics, Early Childhood Dept., TEI of Athens ² Professor of Scientific Applications Early Childhood Dept. TEI of Athens ³ Teacher of Early Childhood Education Child abuse is by definition the physical, sexual, emotional mistreatment, or neglect of children, in other words child maltreatment is any act or series of acts of commission or omission by a parent or other caregiver that results in harm, potential for harm, or threat of harm to a child, which unfortunately hinder or threaten the normal development of his mental, emotional and cognitive state, and consequently prevent his smooth integration in society (Gil, 1970). Research has shown that all major forms of abuse - neglect, such as physical abuse, psychological/emotional abuse, and child sexual abuse - more than often co-exist, interacting with each other, ending up disturbing both the emotional as well as the cognitive balance of the child. Furthermore, child maltreatment is recognized as a serious public health problem with extensive short - and long-term health consequences. In addition to the immediate physical and emotional effects of maltreatment, children who have experienced abuse and neglect are at increased risk of adverse health outcomes and risky health behaviors in adolescence and adulthood. Child maltreatment has been linked to higher rates of alcoholism, drug abuse, depression, smoking, multiple sexual partners, suicide, and chronic disease. Effective prevention of child abuse neglect and its association with the above mentioned long term consequences remain issues of great difficulty to achieve. Within the field of child maltreatment prevention, there is a great need to develop effective prevention programs, focusing more on the attainment of greater cooperation, on behalf of the parents, aiming at the development of strategies for prevention, and ensuring that effective prevention approaches, reach those in need, and finally establish a balance between the child s needs and the capacities of the parents, in contrast to older models of strategy where the emphasis was placed primarily on the parents mistakes. Exploring ways of a first reading regarding the needs of the child as well as the family s, constitute important goals of several psycho pedagogical programs in the sector of Nursery as well, focusing primarily on the two-way commitment between family and education. Evaluation studies have recently shown that what has contributed greatly to the aggravation of the phenomenon child abuse-neglect is nothing more than the constant socio-economical changes taking place at a frenzy pace. SYMPOSIUM: Parental Response to Child Behavior: Effect of the Child on the Parent, Revisited Chairperson : P. Vietze 1. A MODEL OF PARENTING STYLE: IMPLICATIONS FOR YOUNG CHILDREN S SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT Prof. P. Vietze¹, J. Eng² and Dr. L.E. Lax³ ¹ Ph.D., Professor and Chair of Psychology, Montclair State University, Montclair, NJ USA ² Graduate Student in Psychology, Montclair State University, Montclair, NJ USA ³ Ph.D. Educational Director CARES, New York, NY USA It has long been held that children s social development is shaped by their early interaction with their parents, especially their mothers. This paper presents a model of early parenting style based on mother-child interactions observed while mothers were playing with their children in an unstructured naturalistic setting. Two samples of children were observed: a group of 22 mother-infant dyads observed when the children were months of age and a second sample consisting of 30 2 year old children and their mothers from 3 ethnic groups (Caucasian, Hispanic Chinese). The play sessions were video-recorded and then coded using a behavioral observational system developed by the first author over a period of several years. The behavioral codes were then subjected to a data reduction method that formed interactional variables including: Activity, Synchrony, Responsiveness, Sensory Stimulation,. The interactional variables were clustered using a Swedish Clustering program called SLEIPNER. The results indicated that there are several characteristic clusters and that these clusters may be used to characterize the three ethnic groups observed. We consider the clusters to represent different Parenting Styles. Furthermore, the first sample also had Bayley Cognitive scores available and it was revealed that Parenting Styles reflected the cognitive levels of the children. The impact of the Parenting Styles for subsequent social development of the children is discussed in terms of prominent Developmental Theory. Finally, the implications of Parenting Style for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders is considered. 2. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN INSECURELY ATTACHED CHILDREN: A LONGITUDINAL STUDY COMPARING SOCIAL BEHAVIORS WITH PEERS AT 54-MONTHS, KINDERGARTEN, AND FIRST GRADE L.S. Bothe Ph.D. Candidate, Developmental Psychology, the Graduate Center of the City University of New York, NY, USA This study examines the relationship between gender, attachment at 15-months, and children s social behavior with peers at 54-months, kindergarten, and first grade. Participants were 391 children classified as having avoidant, resistant, and disorganized attachments in infancy from the NICHD longitudinal Study of Early Child Care. Attachment style was determined using the Strange Situation. Social behaviors were measured using maternal and teacher reports on the Social Skills Rating System at each time period. Insecure boys were expected to be rated higher in assertion than insecure girls, and insecure girls were expected to be rated higher in self-control and peer-competence than insecure boys. These differences were expected to be apparent at each time period. Differences were also expected to increase as the children grow older. Gender and attachment classification were expected to predict peer social outcomes better that either variable alone. T-tests compared the average differences between boys and girls. MANOVAs were used to compare boys and girls social behaviors at each time of measurement. Regression analyses were used to determine to what degree each gender and attachment classification predicts later social behaviors. Results and implications will be discussed. 3. HOW PARENTS OF CHILDREN WITH AUTISM ARE IMPACTED BY THEIR CHILD S DIAGNOSIS F. Victory Ph.D. Candidate, Developmental Psychology, the Graduate Center of The City University of New York, NY, USA This literature review focuses on the parental impact of a child being diagnosed with Autism and how mothers and fathers subsequently cope with the diagnosis. Evidence from two literature reviews and 22 empirical studies published within the last 15 years suggest that after their child is diagnosed with Autism, some parents experience high levels of stress. Factors which may affect their stress level include the amount of time for the child to be diagnosed, the financial cost of diagnosis, the child s communication skills, and whether or not the couple has other children. Other parents may experience mixed emotions or develop a change in their life priorities. There are some gender differences in the way parents cope with their child s diagnosis. Some families often use religion or social support to help with the coping process, while others may choose to change their families pattern of socializing with others. Given that most of these studies lacked a culturally diverse sample, there may be a limitation to the generalization of their results. Future research must focus on helping clinicians provide parents with culturally sensitive interventions when faced with their child s diagnosis of Autism. 7

8 SYMPOSIUM: Research and Innovations in Counseling Presented by Staff Members and Students of the University of the Aegean, Mytilene, Lesvos, GREECE Chairpersons: E. Papanis, P. Giavrimis, St. Spyrou 1. SYSTEMIC THERAPY: FAMILY THERAPY Κ. Ζoumpekli Teacher, Chania, Crete Η Συστηµική ψυχοθεραπεία, που επικεντρώθηκε στη Θεραπεία της Οικογένειας ήρθε να απαντήσει σε ένα βασικό ερώτηµα, δηλαδή κατά πόσο και ως ποιο βαθµό επηρεάζει η οικογένεια ως σύνολο τα άτοµα από τα οποία απαρτίζεται. Βασίστηκε στη Γενική Θεωρία Συστηµάτων των L.von Bertalanffy και στην Κυβερνητική του N.Weiner και των µεταγενέστερων θεωρητικών της επιστήµης της επικοινωνίας. Η Οικογενειακή Θεραπεία υποστηρίζει ότι ο θεραπευτικός στόχος δεν πρέπει να είναι το άτοµο αλλά η οικογένεια ως «όλον».η καινούργια θεραπευτική πρόταση εδώ είναι ότι το άτοµο που παρουσιάζει το πρόβληµα είναι απλώς εκφραστής του προβλήµατος του οικογενειακού συστήµατος στο οποίο ζει. Γι αυτό η θεραπευτική παρέµβαση πρέπει να γίνει σε ολόκληρη την οικογένεια και όχι στο ένα ή στα περισσότερα µέλη που παρουσιάζουν πρόβληµα. Στόχος της Οικογενειακής Θεραπείας είναι η διακοπή εκείνων των δοµών που προκαλούν το πρόβληµα και η δηµιουργία νέων. 2. THE BENEFITS OF MUSIC THERAPY IN EDUCATION OF STUDENTS WITH AUTISM Dr. S.G. Kosionis Ph.D. Physics Professor in Secondary Special Education, K.Ε.D.D.Υ. Pyrgou Autism constitutes a disorder of the nervous system, the characteristics of which extends in a certain range and may vary with respect to their intensity from person to person. Music therapy is one of the most innovative methods that have been used in the education of autistic persons, receiving tremendous acceptance, thanks to its effectiveness. This method constitutes a creative form of psychotherapy, in which the therapist's attention is focused on creating and evaluating the evolving therapeutic relationship with the autistic person, via music and sound. The aim of this paper is to sensitize and inform special educators who work with students with disorders on the autistic spectrum, as far as musico-therapeutic alternative methods are concerned. Through the analysis of a case study of an autistic student of 2nd Nursery School of Special Education of Patras (Greece) and a critical review of the literature, we come to important conclusions, as far as the benefits of the inclusion of music in the learning process of autistic people are concerned, through various techniques, both within the family, and the school reality, as well, depending on the stage of development of the trainees. 3. RESEARCH AND INNOVATION IN ADVISORY L. Papadopoulou and G. Tzanakou Advisory as a branch of the psychological and mental healthiness and well-being is very important not only for the prevention but also for the effective treatment of those disorders. Because of the sociopolitical and financial conditions that exist in the contemporary society, the development of the advisory branch is necessary, for the adults as well as for the children. In order for the necessity of multidisciplinary research teams to be emphasized, innovative ideas and methods should be developed. For those reasons, psychologists, psychiatrists, geneticists, educators, sociologists, statisticians, analysts and other scientists should be involved in those processes. The research s results should be communicated to the public and immediately applied by the specialists a procedure that requires continuous updating. In order for those results to be communicated to the public, the means that might be used will be the internet, seminars and electronic forms and informational leaflets that will be given to schools, universities and organizations. 4. SUMMARY OF COUNSELING CONSOLE St. Kimpouropoulos¹, S. Triantafyllidou², A. Stasinopoulou³ and Prof. K. Zacharopoulos⁴ ¹ Trainee Doctor in Asklipio Voulas ² Social Worker of Volontary Ministration of Hospital Patients ³ Sociology Student ⁴ Professor of Mathematics Family is the cornerstone of society. This nucleus is the main source of care for each new member that starts its life. The child is born and his parents begin to give him the necessary biotic and emotionally equipped to be capable of autonomous. But there are cases where new members are suffering from some weakness, disability. There, the young parents hurt, mourning for the lost non-disabled child. On the other hand, children are losing this protection because of the death of one or both parents.what happens in each case to the emotional world of people? How can the advisory / counseling to intervene in any event? How is the personality of the individual? This paper examines the advise of two different causes of mourning 5. INTERNET ADDICTION AND ITS IMPACT TO USERS PSYCHOPATHOLOGY I. Voulgarelli Sociology Dept. Το ιαδίκτυο αποτελεί µια νέα µορφή τεχνολογίας που έχει την ικανότητα να ακουµπά πολλούς ανθρώπους και µε ποικίλους τρόπους. Ο εθισµός από την παρατεταµένη χρήση στο ιαδίκτυο είναι ένα καινούργιο ακόµα φαινόµενο που φυλάσσει κινδύνους. Η παρούσα εργασία έχει σκοπό να εξετάσει το φαινόµενο αυτό µε µικρής κλίµακας ποσοτική έρευνα σε δείγµα 170 ενηλίκων από όλη την Ελλάδα. Ειδικότερα επιδιώκει τον συγκερασµό του φαινοµένου µε ψυχοπαθολογικά ζητήµατα µέσα από την εξέταση του εθισµού ως ξεχωριστής ψυχοπαθολογικής διαταραχής µε την βοήθεια κλιµάκων που µετρούν τόσο την εξάρτηση στο ιαδίκτυο (IAS),όσο και την κατάθλιψη(bdi),την ψυχοπαθολογία(scl-90-r)και την ελληνική παθολογική χρήση (GPIUS). Τα αποτελέσµατα προσδοκούν να αναδείξουν την σύνδεση του εθισµού στο ιαδίκτυο µε την σηµαντική κοινωνική και ψυχολογική έκπτωση που έχει µέχρι τώρα παρατηρηθεί σε χρήστες. Πιο συγκεκριµένα οι επιδώσεις του δείγµατος δεν έδωσαν έµφυλες διαστάσεις στον εθισµό. Επίσης οι συµµετέχοντες δεν έδειξαν να χρησιµοποιούν πολλές ώρες το ιαδίκτυο και ίσως για αυτό δεν φανερώθηκαν έντονα ψυχοπαθολογικά και άλλα συµπτώµατα. Τέλος η έρευνα κατέδειξε ότι ο Μ.Ο. ωρών χρήσης και η ηλικία αποτελούν ισχυροί προσδιοριστικοί παράγοντες εθισµού στο ιαδίκτυο. 6. FOCUS GROUPS AS A TOOL FOR THE ANALYSIS OF THE RELATION BETWEEN SOCIAL CAPITAL AND POVERTY D. Geomilas The existence of social capital in a community results in the amplification of the social support in many levels, such as the emotional, informational as well as the material one (Papanis, 2007). Social support has positive effects on psychical and mental health (Sarason et al,1997) and it is directly correlated with the improvement of individuals subjective well-being and their self-evaluation of quality of life (Heliwell & Putnam,2004). Despite the fact that the social capital investment leads to significant benefits for the poor (Grootaert, 1998), many empirical studies (Christoforou, 2005; Heliwell & Putnam, 1999; Halman & Luijkx; Kaasa & Parts, 2007; Fidmurc & Gerxanhi, 2005) have shown that income and education are the most important determinants of the participation in social groups and networks. Woolcock and Narayan (2000) have argued that the poor have a sufficient stock of bonding social capital, but they are deprived of the more effusive bridging social capital. On the contrary, Mosse (2007) has pinpointed that poverty does not mean lack of social capital, but the participation in social networks by unfavorable terms which decreases autonomy and causes the perpetuation of poverty. Finally, Portes (2000) has claimed that social capital is responsible for the phenomenon of poverty under certain circumstances, since the same social bonds that promote the cohesion of a social group, constitute causes of exclusion of individuals with different 8

9 characteristics. The objective of the present research is the study of the relation between social capital and subjective poverty, which is interpreted by economic, psychological and social factors (Lever, 2005). The methodology of conducting focus groups was considered the most suitable for the investigation of the participants experiences, emotions and attitudes, as well as the causes that are concealed behind them (Kitzinger, 1995), concerning the research question. The results and the conclusions of this research are presented in detail in the last unit of the proposal. 7. THE IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATION BETWEEN THE COUPLE S RELATIONSHIP St. Xristoforaki B.Sc. Psychology, M.Sc. School Psychology Σκοπός της παρούσας εργασίας είναι να αναδείξει τη σπουδαιότητα της αποτελεσµατικής επικοινωνίας στις καθηµερινές αλληλεπιδράσεις των ζευγαριών. Θα παρουσιαστούν κάποια βασικά χαρακτηριστικά της, αλλά και κάποιες µορφές µη εποικοδοµητικής επικοινωνίας, οι οποίες µπορεί να δηµιουργήσουν σοβαρά προβλήµατα στη σχέση. Ένα αναπόσπαστο τµήµα της αλληλεπίδρασης των ζευγαριών είναι οι συγκρούσεις. Ο ρόλος της επικοινωνίας δε στοχεύει τόσο στη µείωση των συγκρούσεων, όσο στη βελτίωση του τρόπου µε τον οποίο τα ζευγάρια τις διαχειρίζονται. Εάν ένα ζευγάρι δεν µπορέσει να βελτιώσει την επικοινωνία του, πρέπει ν αναζητήσει τη βοήθεια συµβούλου, βασικός στόχος του οποίου είναι να τους βοηθήσει να δουν την επικοινωνία σαν µια διαδικασία από την οποία θα υπάρχει αµοιβαίο όφελος παρά σαν ένα αγώνα δύναµης ή λεκτικών αναµετρήσεων. Θα συζητηθούν τα διαφορετικά είδη θεραπείας που ακολουθούνται, καθώς και ορισµένοι από τους σηµαντικότερους και αποτελεσµατικότερους τρόπους βελτίωσης της επικοινωνίας και επίλυσης συγκρούσεων. 8. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND COUNSELING THROUGH THE INTERNET K. Balassa and Prof. E. Papanis Οι ηθικές αξίες και ο κώδικας δεοντολογίας απασχολούν όλο και περισσότερους θεωρητικούς και επιστήµονες από όλους τους κλάδους. Τα όρια επιτρεπτού και µη επιτρεπτού διχάζουν εξίσου τον κλάδο της συµβουλευτικής και της ψυχολογίας. Πρωτίστως, δηµιουργούνται ερωτηµατικά για το κατά πόσον ο σύµβουλος πρέπει να διατηρεί ή όχι ουδέτερη στάση απέναντι στον πελάτη του. Σύµφωνα µε κάποιους θεωρητικούς, οφείλει να έχει ουδέτερη στάση απέναντι στις αντιλήψεις-αξίες του πελάτη του και να µην προσπαθεί να του µεταβιβάσει το δικό του σύστηµα αξιών (GinsbergandHerma, 1953). Αυτή η άποψη δεν είναι αποδεκτή από όλους τους επιστήµονες, αφού πολλοί αντιλαµβάνονται τη συµβουλευτική ή την ψυχοθεραπεία, ως µία µέθοδο πειθούς (Beutler, 1979), κατά την οποία ο σύµβουλος-θεραπευτής προσπαθεί συστηµατικά να αναπτύξει στον πελάτη του εναλλακτικές αντιλήψεις, που συγκλίνουν µε τις δικές του. O Kelly (1995), σε µία έρευνα του που υλοποιήθηκε στις ΗΠΑ κατέληξε στο γεγονός ότι οι σύµβουλοι είναι ανοιχτοί και δεκτικοί σε στάσεις και συµπεριφορές, ενθαρρύνουν την ελεύθερη έκφραση και την αυτονοµία, ενώ διακρίνουν το δικό τους αξιακό σύστηµα από των πελατών τους. Εκτός από την θεµελιώδη αρχή της ελευθερίας και της έκφρασης, η συµβουλευτική υπηρεσία οφείλει να προσφέρεται σε όλους τους ανθρώπους ανεξαιρέτως ηλικίας, θρησκευτικών, πολιτικών, πολιτισµικών και κοινωνικών διαφορών και ηθικών αξιών. Η παρούσα εργασία έχει ως σκοπό να παρουσιάσει τις κυριότερες ερευνητικές προσεγγίσεις σε θέµατα δεοντολογίας έρευνας στο χώρο του e-counselling. 9. COUNSELING AND SOCIAL COHERENCE E. Reppa Πόσο ισχυροί είναι οι κοινωνικοί θεσµοί στις µέρες µας; Σήµερα όλο και περισσότερο εντοπίζεται ο κίνδυνος από την πρόταξη των ατοµικών δικαιωµάτων έναντι του γενικού συµφέροντος. Επειδή όµως σε µια κοινότητα στην οποία υπάρχει έλλειψη κοινωνικής συνοχής παρουσιάζονται χαµηλά επίπεδα αλληλεγγύης µεταξύ των κατοίκων, κοινωνικές διαταραχές και συγκρούσεις, είναι σκόπιµη η προώθησή της, µέσα από διάφορες δράσεις µεταξύ των οποίων κύρια είναι η χρήση της συµβουλευτικής. Η συµβουλευτική εντάσσεται στους «θεσµούς επικούρησης του ανθρώπου» οι οποίοι είναι απαραίτητοι για τη στήριξη και την καθοδήγηση των ατόµων, τα οποία στις µέρες µας, αντιµετωπίζουν τους ραγδαίους ρυθµούς της τεχνολογικής ανάπτυξης, ένα ρευστό περιβάλλον στο χώρο της εργασίας, αλλαγές στα κοινωνικά δεδοµένα και στους κοινωνικούς ρόλους που καλούνται να υπηρετήσουν. Η συµβουλευτική βρίσκει πεδίο εφαρµογής σε διάφορους τοµείς, βοηθώντας σηµαντικά στην άρση των αποκλεισµών και στην ανάπτυξη της κοινωνικής συνοχής. Στην παρούσα εργασία παρουσιάζεται η συµβολή της συµβουλευτικής στην ενίσχυση της κοινωνικής συνοχής στα πεδία: α) της απασχόλησης, καθώς βασικός παράγοντας για την κοινωνική συνοχή είναι η εξάλειψη της φτώχειας και του κοινωνικού αποκλεισµού, β) της οικογένειας, όπου επιδιώκεται η ενδυνάµωση του οικογενειακού ιστού, µε στόχο την οµαλότερη κοινωνική ενσωµάτωση και πρόοδο των µελών της, γ) της στήριξης και ένταξης στο κοινωνικό σύνολο µελών ευπαθών κοινωνικών οµάδων, που υφίστανται περιθωριοποίηση και κοινωνικό αποκλεισµό, δ) της εκπαίδευσης, όπου ο συµβουλευτικός ρόλος των εκπαιδευτικών προβάλλει ως θεµελιώδης προς την κατεύθυνση της ανάπτυξης όλων των δυνατοτήτων και των πτυχών της προσωπικότητας των µαθητών και ε)της επαγγελµατικής συµβουλευτικής και του σχολικού επαγγελµατικού προσανατολισµού ώστε να βοηθηθούν τα άτοµα να αξιοποιήσουν το πραγµατικό τους δυναµικό και να είναι σε θέση να κάνουν σωστές επιλογές. 10. THE INSTITUTION OF MENTORS IN EDUCATION I.M. Papani Med, Ph.D. Candidate, University of Macedonia, Thessaloniki Ενώ σε πολλές χώρες του εξωτερικού ο νέος εκπαιδευτικός υποστηρίζεται εδώ και χρόνια από το θεσµό του Μέντορα, στην Ελλάδα µόλις πρόσφατα έκανε την εµφάνισή του στο εκπαιδευτικό σύστηµα, προκαλώντας στους κύκλους των εκπαιδευτικών περισσότερο αναστάτωση, λόγω του µη ξεκάθαρου ακόµη τρόπου εφαρµογής του και της ελλιπούς ενηµέρωσης, παρά ανακούφιση και επιδοκιµασία. Mentoring ονοµάζεται η σχέση που αναπτύσσεται ανάµεσα σε έναν έµπειρο εκπαιδευτικό, το Μέντορα, και σε έναν λιγότερο έµπειρο και συνήθως νεοεισερχόµενο στην εκπαίδευση, τον εκπαιδευόµενο, µε στόχο την παροχή υποστήριξης, καθοδήγησης και ανατροφοδότησης. Ο Μέντορας αποσκοπώντας στο να συµβάλει στην προαγωγή των επαγγελµατικών δεξιοτήτων του εκπαιδευόµενου, γίνεται ο ίδιος πρότυπο προς µίµηση, διδάσκει, πληροφορεί, εξηγεί, εµπνέει, συµβουλεύει, προκαλεί, ενθαρρύνει το νέο συνάδελφό του. Με αυτόν τον τρόπο, όχι µόνο διευκολύνεται το δειλό ξεκίνηµα του αρχάριου εκπαιδευτικού, αλλά και αναβαθµίζεται η ποιότητα της διδασκαλίας του. Οι σκοποί του mentoring, ανάλογα µε τις υφιστάµενες ανάγκες, µπορεί να είναι καθαρά εκπαιδευτικοί, να προσανατολίζονται στην κοινωνική ενσωµάτωση των νεοδιόριστων εκπαιδευτικών στους κόλπους της εκπαίδευσης και στο περιβάλλον του σχολείου ή να αποβλέπουν στην ψυχολογική ενδυνάµωσή τους. Έρευνες στο εξωτερικό, στις οποίες συµµετείχαν εκπαιδευτικοί που είχαν εµπλακεί στη διαδικασία του mentoring και εκπαιδευτικοί που δεν έτυχαν συµβουλευτικής υποστήριξης, έδειξαν ότι οι πρώτοι ήταν περισσότερο ενηµερωµένοι για το αναλυτικό πρόγραµµα, είχαν καλύτερες σχέσεις µε τους συναδέλφους τους και τους γονείς των µαθητών, χρησιµοποιούσαν ποικιλία διδακτικών µέσων και µεθόδων, έδιναν περισσότερα κίνητρα στους µαθητές για µάθηση και συνεργασία, αντλούσαν εργασιακή ικανοποίηση, ενώ την ίδια στιγµή οι δεύτεροι καταγίνονταν ακόµη µε προβλήµατα πειθαρχίας και οργάνωσης της τάξης. Η επιτυχία, ωστόσο, του mentoring δεν είναι πάντα εξασφαλισµένη, πόσο µάλλον όταν αντιµετωπίζεται επιφανειακά και µε προχειρότητα. α) Η καλή κατάρτιση του Μέντορα - δε θα πρέπει να αναπαράγει παραδοσιακές µεθόδους διδασκαλίας, αλλά να είναι γνώστης των πιο σύγχρονων θεωριών µάθησης, να µπορεί να τις εφαρµόζει στην πράξη και να τις µεταλαµπαδεύει στο νέο εκπαιδευτικό. Είναι απαραίτητο να γνωρίζει τις βασικές αρχές της εκπαίδευσης ενηλίκων, να θέτει ξεκάθαρους στόχους, να είναι περισσότερο πρακτικός παρά θεωρητικός, να δίνει συχνή εποικοδοµητική ανατροφοδότηση, να έχει υψηλή συναισθηµατική νοηµοσύνη και ανεπτυγµένες επικοινωνιακές δεξιότητες. β) Η σωστή επιλογή του Μέντορα δεν αφορά µόνο στα εκπαιδευτικά-παιδαγωγικά-επικοινωνιακά του προσόντα. Έρευνες έχουν δείξει ότι η επικοινωνία του µε τον εκπαιδευόµενο διευκολύνεται εάν ανήκουν και οι δύο στην ίδια σχολική µονάδα, ώστε η ανταλλαγή απόψεων και η αµοιβαία παρατήρηση να είναι εφικτές ανά πάσα στιγµή. Καλό είναι ο Μέντορας και ο εκπαιδευόµενος να διδάσκουν το ίδιο γνωστικό αντικείµενο, για να µπορεί η καθοδήγηση να είναι πιο 9

10 συγκεκριµένη και στοχευµένη. γ) Και οι δύο πλευρές πρέπει να έχουν άπλετο χρόνο στη διάθεσή τους, ώστε να είναι δυνατή η αµοιβαία παρατήρηση κατά τη διάρκεια της διδασκαλίας και η ακόλουθη εκτενής ανατροφοδότηση. Στο σηµείο αυτό, ο ιευθυντής έχει ρόλο διευκολυντή: Φροντίζει για την αποφυγή προβληµάτων στο ωρολόγιο πρόγραµµα των µαθηµάτων και για τη διατήρηση κλίµατος κατανόησης µεταξύ συναδέλφων. δ) Η σχέση εµπιστοσύνης ανάµεσα στο Μέντορα και στο µαθητευόµενο είναι καθοριστικής σηµασίας. Η συµβουλευτική δεν µπορεί να είναι επιτυχής εάν µεσολαβεί ανταγωνιστικότητα, έλλειψη κατανόησης ή εάν ο Μέντορας προβάλλεται ως αυστηρός κριτής και αξιολογητής. 11. STUDENTS SOCIAL NETWORKS WITH SPECIFIC EDUCATIONAL NEEDS AND THEIR IMPACT TO SCHOOL ACHIEVEMENT, SELF-ESTEEM AND SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT ACCORDING TO TEACHERS OPINION Prof. E. Papanis¹, P. Giavramis², Dr. A. Vicky³ and A. Papanis⁴ ¹ Assistant Professor, Sociology Dept. ² Lecturer, Sociology Dept. ³ Ph.D. General Experimental Psychology ⁴ Special and Laboratory Teaching Staff, University of Thrace Τα υποστηρικτικά δίκτυα αποτελούν πόρο του κοινωνικού κεφαλαίου και έχουν ιδιάζουσα σηµασία για τη βιολογική και ψυχολογική υγεία του ατόµου. Η παρούσα έρευνα πραγµατοποιήθηκε στα νησιά της Λέσβου και της Λήµνου και είχε σκοπό να καταγράψει την κοινωνική δικτύωση και υποστήριξη των ατόµων µε Ειδικές Εκπαιδευτικές Ανάγκες (ΕΕΑ), σύµφωνα µε τις απόψεις των εκπαιδευτικών τους. Από τα αποτελέσµατα διαφάνηκε ότι υπήρχαν διαφοροποιήσεις στα υποστηρικτικά δίκτυα των µαθητών ανάλογα µε την κατηγορία της ΕΕΑ, καθώς και στην σχολική επίδοση και αυτοεκτίµηση των µαθητών µε ΕΕΑ. Τέλος, οι αντιλήψεις και στάσεις των εκπαιδευτικών απέναντι στους µαθητές µε ΕΕΑ φαίνεται να επηρεάζονται από την δυσκολία αντιµετώπισης της ΕΕΑ. SYMPOSIUM: The Pre-School Age as an Interaction Field Chairperson: N. Tsaoula 1. WORKING ON MOTOR SKILLS IN THE EARLY YEARS CLASSROOM S. Dimitriadi¹, A. Dimitriadi² and E. Louloudaki³ ¹ MEd Education, EdD, Lecturer, Early Childhood Education (E.C.E.) Dept., T.E.I. of Athens ² MSc Leisure, Lecturer, P.E. Teacher ³ BA Early Childhood Education, Early Years Teacher The physical development of infants, toddlers and young children must be encouraged through the provision of opportunities for them to be active and interactive and to improve their skills of coordination, control, manipulation and movement. Working in early years classes and collaborating with other early years teachers created concern on whether children s physical development is empowered and therefore, valued. The aim of our research was to identify the emphasis that early years teachers put on working children s motor skills and their planning for encouraging children to show awareness of space, of themselves and of others by implementing relevant activities into their programme. For this reason, questionnaires were administered the results of which indicated that early years teachers, independently their academic background do value and support young children s need for movement and they work towards this direction by organizing activities that stimulate motor skills and help them become aware of space through their bodies. 2.THE ROLE OF COOPERATIVE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FAMILY &SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT IN EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION M. Shiza¹, D. Mpasta², S. Mitrovgeni² and I. Kioussi² ¹ ΜSc Education,Research Fellow Early childhood Dpt. Technological Educational Institution (TEI) of Athens ² Teachers of Early childhood Education Various studies researching the importance of teacher-parent relationship point out the positive effects of co-operation between them in young children s growth. Nowadays, if a school program is successful then it will be family centered, too. Teachers, parents, children and community are interactive and work together. Therefore, this research has been done to study teacher-parent relationship but in the field of kindergarten. Specifically, seventy five parents whose children s ages ranged from birth to six years old were asked to complete a questionnaire of fourteen close and open-ended questions. Furthermore, four teachers and thirty children with their parents were being observed for five mornings while getting into the classroom. Results indicated that the sample of parents is satisfied with their relationship with the teachers but they would like to have more personal contact with them. Parents-teachers conferences are an important component of ongoing home-school communication and parental involvement in children s education contributes to build a relationship of trust and respect between them. 3. CRISES SITUATION AND PRESCHOOL INSTITUTIONS M. Zerva¹, Dr. E. Moussena², V. Salonides³ and D. Bourcha³ ¹ Teacher of Early Childhood Education M.Sc., Research Fellow & ETP Early Childhood Dept. TEI of Athens ² Ph.D. Education Policy, Scientific Collaborator Early Childhood Dept. TEI of Athens ³ Teacher of Early Childhood Education Aim of our work was the localisation of difficult hours in the daily program of dairy nursery, the likely reasons and the choices of educators. The research was carried out in 5 municipalities of Attica at school year The questionnaire that was used was manufactured for the needs of concrete research and includes questions of closed type. As difficult periods appear: reception of new children, preparation of events (annual feasts, concentrations of parents), illnesses (allergies etc) or moments of wounds -accidents. As for the individuals the workers answered that the collaboration with colleagues but also the communication with the parents of children can constitute causes of intensity but also the sentimental lassitude of workers themselves. A big percentage of sample appears to believe that the confrontation of difficult hours can be achieved in collaboration with the remainder colleagues, with briefing and training of educators with (via congresses and seminars that are realized, with help from psychologists) as well as with right organization of daily psychosocial program and finally could not be neglected the right organization of space. Finally we should report that most of the time educators seek for the suitable supporting ways of small children, when they experience difficult situations, but also the educators themselves and even in a wider frame the statute of educational institutions needs support, so that it copes with difficult moments which can lead to even lead the educational institution to crisis situations. 4. FAMILY AND OUTDOOR PLAYGROUND: NEW SOCIAL CHALLENGE M. Zerva¹, Ch.M. Fragkaki², E.M. Makrogika² and Z. Varouchas² ¹ Teacher of Early Childhood Education, MSc., Research Fellow & Special Technical Stuff (ETP) Early Childhood Dept. TEI of Athens ² Teacher of Early Childhood Education The aim of our study was to investigate the parents views about their children s play, in outdoor spaces in Greece. It is a Pan-Hellenic research involving 541 parents of young children, who we met in playgrounds and accepted to answer the questionnaire that was written for the purposes of 10

11 the specific survey, anonymously. As criteria we defined: the profile of modern Greek family and its choice of outdoor playgrounds, the specificity of the game in those playgrounds, the space and the risks that may exist there for the child. From our results, we realize that families usually visit playgrounds that are close to their home, that have an easy access and preferably on foot and they go a few times a month prompted by their child. They seem to prefer the playground because it contributes to the all-round development of the child, it also reinforces their abilities and gets the children in touch with the environment. Children play either alone or with their parents, but mostly with their peers. Parents referred that playing outdoors not only offers highly emotional relief to their children, but also they have the chance to interact with other children, to exercise and to familiarize with socialization behaviors. Finally, parents evaluated the playgrounds they visit as mediocre as far as the condition they are in, the equipment and environment s safety are concerned and the originality of the space s organization was been characterized as poor. In conclusion, playgrounds, as recreation areas, are still contribute significantly to the child s development but the concern of those who are in charge of constructions and organizations so as to upgrade these spaces seems to be absent. SYMPOSIUM: Human Memory Chairperson: M.S. Venetikou 1. MEMORY HISTORY REVIEW FROM ARISTOTELES TO NOWDAYS Prof. M.S. Venetikou¹, V. Notara² and A. Kourouni² ¹ M.D., DipEndo, Ph.D. Professor, Essential Medical Lessons Dept., Technological Educational Institution (TEI), Athens, GREECE ² RGN., Technological Educational Institution (TEI), Athens, GREECE In the initial part of our presentation, we intend to present a brief history of the scientific research in human memory function and dysfunction, from the ancient times till nowadays and highlight the most important points. The neurophysiology and the clinical picture of Alzheimer s disease will be presented. Also the psychosocial dimensions of this clinical entity will be discussed. 2. INVESTIGATING COGNITIVE FUNCTION AND MEMORY DYSFUNCTION IN A GREEK ELDERLY COMMUNITY Prof. M.S. Venetikou¹, V. Notara² and A. Kourouni² ¹ M.D., DipEndo, Ph.D. Professor, Essential Medical Lessons Dept., Technological Educational Institution (TEI), Athens, GREECE ² RGN., Technological Educational Institution (TEI), Athens, GREECE Our research involved the investigation of the cognitive function of people older than 60 years in association with their general lifestyle, personality profile, medical and psychological health history. Our research took place in various KAPI centers of Attica and involved socially active males and females. We also planned to detect any early signs of dementia of the Alzheimer s type in this sample population and eventually risk factors associated with the disease. For this we used various questionnaires such as the Mini Mental State, the Mini-Cog test, the Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI) and questionnaires on the medical, psychological health and life style. We present here data of this research and discuss risk factors we found they correlate with impairment of memory function, such as sex, education level, physical activity, nutrition, social contact, social isolation, lack of aim and depression. We also discuss here methods of detection of mild cognitive impairment in the community and plans needed for early intervention. ENGLISH ANNOUNCEMENTS CONCUSSION IN EARLY ADOLESCENT RUGBY PLAYERS: IMPACT ON COGNITIVE AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE Dr. D. Alexander¹, Dr. K.J. Cloete¹, Prof. M. Kidd² and Prof. Ch.M. Malcolm³ ¹ Ph.D. Clinical Psychologist, Tygerberg Hospital / Senior Lecturer, Psychiatry Dept., University of Stellenbosch, SOUTH AFRICA ² Professor, Statistics and Actuarial Science Dept., University of Stellenbosch, SOUTH AFRICA ³ Professor, Psychology Dept., University of the Western Cape, S. AFRICA This controlled, longitudinal, prospective study investigated differences in cognitive and academic performances of early adolescent rugby players exposed to mild traumatic brain injuries relative to non-contact sports controls (N= 150). Participants were matched in terms of age, sex, grade, school, language, participation in sport, socio-economic status and estimated IQ and were assessed at baseline and post three winter sport seasons. Chi-square analysis revealed significantly more concussions reported by the rugby group than controls (p< 0.01). Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children WISC III Vocabulary Subtest (VOC) scores were significantly higher for controls versus rugby players (p< 0.01) (d = 4.5) at baseline. Correlational analysis revealed a strong positive relationship between VOC and Academic Aggregate (AGG) (r = 0.52) and Similarities (SIM) (r=0.55) a measure of abstract thinking. Group mean comparisons, using repeated measures ANOVA across the battery of tests showed a significant group effect for SIM p = 0.03 (d =3)(rugby), with controls performing better than the rugby group. When VOC was factored into the analysis there was a significant difference between the scores of the control group with no concussions and the rugby group with multiple concussions, over time for AGG p=0.02 (d= 2.1)(combined). These findings suggest that: 1. early adolescent rugby players experience more concussions than controls; 2. development of abstract thinking is compromised and that; 3. over time following repeated concussion academic performance is affected. FAMILY PSYCHOPATHOLOGY AMONG PARENTS OF CHILDREN WITH GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER (GAD) Dr. S.A. Aleyasin¹ and Ch. Fracasso² ¹ Ph.D. Clinical Psychology Dept., Islamic Azad Univ., Ashtiyan branch, IRAN ² M.Sc. Clinical Psychology Dept., Saybrook University, USA The present study aimed to investigate the role of family psychopathology in parents of children with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) in Iran. A cross-sectional two-group comparison design was employed to administer two questionnaires: (1) Socio Demographic Questionnaire (SDQ) to identify the socio-demographic variables: (2) Family Assessment Device (FAD) with 60 items and seven subscales to assess the family psychopathology. The total sample consisted of 401 parents: 209 parents with normal children and 192 parents with GAD children. The primary objective of the present study was to identify family psychopathology in parents of children with GAD. The research hypotheses discussed the significant differences between the two groups regarding their family psychopathology and associated variables. Later, the data collected were subjected to statistical techniques such as General Linear Model-Multivariate Analysis of Variance. The results revealed significant differences in family psychopathology and some associated variables between the groups. In addition, the differences between the groups were shown to be influenced by some socio-demographic characteristics of respondents. These findings, while being consistent with results obtained by other research, further support the hypothesis that GAD could be viewed as a familial disorder. 11

12 DEVELOPING A MEASURE OF RELIGIOSITY S.H. Alias¹, Dr. P.M. Rosenkranz² and Prof. M.H. Freeston³ Newcastle University, UK ¹ Ph.D. Candidate, Institute of Neuroscience ² Ph.D. Lecturer, Psychology Dept. ³ Ph.D. Professor, Clinical Psychology Dept., Institute of Neuroscience In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the relationship between religion and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. While some studies found religion was related to OCD symptoms, however, some studies did not show these links and the evidence to date is generally inconsistent. It is suggested that the absence of adequate measurement of religion may be a threat to the validity of the studies and may account for the mixed results. Previous studies have focused on religious attitudes and some aspects of religious practice but have excluded other potentially important constructs such as spirituality and fundamentalism. Thus, the present study seeks to develop an adequate but brief multidimensional measure. Further, some of the previous measures have been specific to one or other of the major world religions. The new measure must be appropriate for a range of religions to enable the link between OCD and religion to be studied in both the United Kingdom and Malaysia. In particular, Malaysia is a multi-ethnic country with Muslim, Christian, Buddhist and Hindu faith communities. In order to develop the measure, construct definitions were developed based on the literature that covered intrinsic religiosity (the pursuit of religion for its own sake), extrinsic religiosity (engagement in religious practice to meet certain individual, family and social needs), fundamentalism and spirituality. The presentation then addresses content and face validity and reliability analysis. If successful, this comprehensive measure may ultimately help to capture all relevant dimensions of religion and its potential and differential influences on obsessive phenomena. PARENTS COGNITIVE REPRESENTATIONS, COPING STRATEGIES AND INVOLVEMENT IN EARLY INTERVENTION OF CHILDREN WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS C. Almeida¹ and Prof. M. Santos² ¹ Special Education Therapist, Coordinator, Autism Spectrum Disorders Dept., Child Development Support Centre, Cascais, PORTUGAL ² Ph.D. Professor, ISSL, Lisbon, PORTUGAL Introduction & Aim: The role of Early Intervention (EI) in Development Disorders is well recognized. Family Involvement represents a major contribution for EI success, specially in Autism programmes. The present study has three main aims (1) to assess mothers and fathers' cognitive representations, coping strategies and involvement in EI. Method: Two groups were constituted: (1) A group of 30 couples having children with ASD, aged between 2 and 6 and integrated in EI services; and (2) a group of EI professionals accompanying those children. To assess the ASD representations we have used the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R). Coping strategies were assessed through Brief COPE and Parents involvement was assessed through the Family Involvement Scale. Results: We have found significant differences between fathers and mothers in cognitive representations and coping strategies as well as in the EI involvement, with mothers more involved than fathers. Discussion: The results suggest the cognitive approach applicability of disease representation in ASD. These results also enhance the importance of parents beliefs as being decisive for their involvement in EI programmes and raise new perspectives for an EI not only family centred but even more adjusted to each family and each one of its members. DOES THE QUALITY OF LIFE OF SAUDI ARABIAN MEN AND WOMEN WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA DIFFER? A. Alshowkan¹, Prof. J. Curtis² and Y. White³ School of Nursing, Midwifery & Indigenous Health, University of Wollongong, AUSTRALIA ¹ Ph.D. Candidate ² Assistant Professor, HBS International Advisor, Mental Health Nursing Director ³ Honorary Fellow Introduction & aim: Social customs and conventional religious beliefs influence women s lives and health in Saudi Arabian culture. The primary aim of this study is to investigate the effect of gender on the perceived quality of life among people with schizophrenia in Saudi Arabia. Method: 159 clinically stable individuals with schizophrenia were recruited from the mental health outpatient department at King Fahad University Hospital in Saudi Arabia. The statistics were collected through a questionnaire administered by a researcher in accordance with the European version of the Lancashire Quality of Life Profile. The results were analyzed by applying descriptive and inferential statistical methods through the use of SPSS 17 software. Results: Most of the participants were male, unemployed, and married. The female participants were found to be less satisfied with their total perceived quality of life than their male counterparts. Specifically, women were less satisfied with work and familial and social relation domains. Discussion: The poor perception of the quality of life of women with schizophrenia in Saudi Arabia could be related to cultural factors. Female-focused mental health services and programs must be developed in order to cater to the needs of women with schizophrenia in this unique culture. TESTING AN AETIOLOGICAL MODEL OF SOCIAL PHOBIA: A STUDY IN THE KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA Prof. A. Al-Zahrani PhD. Assistant Professor of Psychology, Riyadh College of Health Sc., King Saud University, KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA The aim of this study was to test an aetiological model of social phobia (SP) and related phobias in a Saudi Arabia population. Based on the existing literature several variables - behavioural inhibition, neuroticism, parental rejection, fear of negative evaluation and victimization - were selected for inclusion in a model which was tested with 240 diagnosed anxious and depressed medical patients (both men and women) in Saudi Arabia. The current study found that three antecedents, behavioural inhibition, neuroticism, and parental rejection, did not have a direct path to social phobia (except for behavioral inhibition which had a direct link to the physical sub-scale of social phobia), but they were mediated by two causal variables. The first mediator was fear of negative evaluation, which was directly associated with social phobia, physical phobia, and psychological phobia in the present study, and was influenced by one of the antecedent variables (neuroticism). The second mediator, victimization, had a link with social phobia only, via behavioural inhibition, and parental rejection. The current study found that fear of negative evaluation and victimization appear to play a significant role in the development of social phobia, commencing in early life, during childhood, and developing in later life. The current study suggests that parents and clinical therapists should work to find solutions earlier, starting first with the family environment and continuing with schooling, where interventions to enhance self-image and promote optimism among school children are made part of the normal curriculum. FAMILIAL TRANSMISSION OF ANXIETY SYMPTOMATOLOGY Prof. X. Anastassiou-Hadjicharalambous¹, M. Victoros², S. Poliviou² and Prof. C. Essau² ¹ Ph.D. Assistant Professor, Psychology Dept., Univ. of Nicosia, CYPRUS ² Centre for Applied Research & Assessment in Child and Adolescent Wellbeing, School of Human & Life Sciences, Roehampton University, Whitelands College, London, UK Evidence suggests that anxiety disorders (AD) aggregate in families with the offspring of AD parents having an increased risk for developing an AD. However most studies utilized clinic samples that limit the generalisability of findings and focused on mothers rather than on both parents. Also most studies were conducted in western countries and therefore the universality of the link is to be established. The present investigation utilised a Cypriot community sample of 430 adolescents aged (M= 14.9, SD = 1.85, 56.3 % females) and their parents to examine the predictiveness of parental 12

13 AD over adolescents AD. Adolescents and parents reported on their anxiety symptomatology (i.e. generalised anxiety disorder-gad, social phobia- SoP, obsessive compulsive disorder-ocd, panic/agoraphobia-pa, specific phobia-sp, separation anxiety-sa adolescents only) with the use of the Spence Children s Anxiety Scale (SCAS, Spence, 1998) and the Spence Essau Anxiety Scale (SEAS) respectively. Regression analyses revealed that for offspring GAD significant predictors were paternal GAD (β=.182**) and maternal SoP (β =.116*); for PA, paternal PA (β =.296**); for SAD, paternal PA(β =.256*) and maternal PA (β =.118*) and SoP (β =.129*); for OCD, paternal OCD (β =.165*) and maternal SoP (β =.165*); for SoP maternal SoP (β =.111*), SF(β=.127*); for SF, maternal SoP (β=.155*), OCD (β =.115*) and PA(β =.138*). These results support the literature documenting links between parental and offspring AD. But patterns across AD as well as paternal and maternal effects differ. Future longitudinal studies need to cast light into the mechanism of this link and to the perhaps differentiated pathway for each AD. Further cultural effects need to be anticipated. *p<.05, **p<.005 EATING DISORDER SYMPTOMATOLOGY IN ADOLESCENTS AND ASSOCIATED PARENTAL FEATURES Prof. X. Anastassiou-Hadjicharalambous¹, R.D. Hadjicosta², S. Louca², M. Viktoros², P. Poyiatzis² and Prof. C. Essau³ ¹ Ph.D. Assistant Professor, Psychology Dept., Univ. of Nicosia, CYPRUS ² Psychology Dept., University of Nicosia, CYPRUS ³ Ph.D. Professor, School of Human & Life Sciences, Roehampton University, Whitelands College, London, UK Centre for Applied Research & Assessment in Child & Adolescent Wellbeing (CARACAW) The present investigation generated a familial approach to investigate eating related difficulties in adolescents and their parents. 355 adolescent (aged 12-17, mean age = 14.31, SD=1.93, 58.2% females) parent dyads responded on an anonymous, self-report questionnaire consisting of the following measures: Cross-cultural Questionnaire, Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Scale 3, Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale, Physical Development Scale, Eating Disorder Inventory 3, and 10 additional questions related to weight problems. Also, adolescents completed the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaires, while parents completed the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale The results showed that 4.5% of adolescents and 5.4% of parents reported having been diagnosed with an eating disorder at some point in their life. Multiple regression analyses indicated that adolescents BMI, Ineffectiveness, Impulse Regulation, Fear of Negative Evaluation and Emotional Symptoms significantly predicted levels on Drive for Thinness, Bulimia, and Body Dissatisfaction. Parental BMI, Social Insecurity, Fear of Negative Evaluation, and Anxiety predicted levels of adolescent Drive for Thinness and Bulimia. The present findings add to the limited literature documenting predictiveness of eating-related problems and associated parental symptomatology over adolescents eating disorders symptomatology. Present findings also have substantial clinical implications on empirically-based intervention, but most significantly preventative programs for Eating Disorders. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RELIGIOSITY AND SUBJECTIVE WELL- BEING: A CASE OF KUWAITI CAR ACCIDENT VICTIMS Prof. H.R. Ashkanani PhD. Associate Professor, Sociology and Social Work Dept., Kuwait University, Kaifan, KUWAIT Researchers have long recognized the influence of religion on a person's health and well- being. This study explores the influence of religion on the well-being of traumatized people. The study population included people who had experienced significant trauma in their lives from a severe car accident. The study sample included individuals who had been traumatized through severe injury in car accidents, families of those who have been badly injured, and families of those who were killed in car accidents. Demographic and socioecnomics variables served as independent factors in measuring well-being. Descriptive, bivariate, and multiple regression analysis were used to measure the relationship between religiosity and subjective well-being of a traumatized person. Results showed that there was a positive relationship between religiosity and well-being, that income of the traumatized affected well-being positively, and that age of the traumatized affected well-being negatively. There was no effect of group difference (severely injured,family of severely injured, and family of a killed one) on well-being THE PUBLIC MENTAL HEALTH IN BRAZIL A.C. Barros Silva Student and Researcher, Psychology Dept., Federal University of Mato Grosso, Cuiabá, BRAZIL This paper intends to communicate a little about the functional structure of public mental health in Brazil, more specifically about the units for the care of drug addicts, with the aim of disseminating innovative and positive experiences that can contribute to the whole society. The Brazilian psychiatric reform was a movement that began a few decades ago and in result the health sector is still in full transformation. In the process, raised the so-called "Psychosocial Attention Center for Alcohol and Other Drugs", which would be a service unit that works with a team multiprofissional. The patient who comes passes through a "hosting", an interview, evaluations with different professionals and then the team, with the patient, traces the "therapeutic project, that decides the duration of treatment and what that person will do in the institution during the time that remains in attendance. This type of treatment has been changed the lives of many patients and has been touted as a successful alternative to hospitalization in many situations. COOPERATION ABOUT CHILDREN WITH COMPLEX DISORDERS C. Blomqvist MSc. Systemic Management & Leadership, PhD. Student in Social Work Manager of Social Services, Disabilities Dept., Institute of Social Work, University of Gothenburg, SWEDEN Aim: (1) Investigate how and when child psychiatry decides to cooperate with social services and school (2) Which specific disorders (like hyperactivity disorders, family disorders, obsessive compulsive behaviours etc) involve cooperation? (3) Investigate the patterns of the cooperation process (4) Which factors influence the cooperation? (5) What does the cooperation mean for children, parents, professionals and organisations? Methods: Observation of treatment conferences in child psychiatry - Observations of cooperation meeting and treatment with professionals, parents and children - Interviews with professionals, parents and children. Results: (1) No specific disorders involve cooperation (2) The discretion of the professionals decides cooperation or not (3) The three phases of the cooperation process have distinguishing features (4) Internal organisation, competence of cooperation are examples of influencing factors (5) It is hard for children and parents to get help (6) It takes long time to get what you think you need (7) The professionals experienced that it is hard to help (8) Cooperation gives professional support. Discussion: In the discussion part I will focus on the questions below: When is cooperation useful for human service organisations and for the children? How to handle the professional and the organisational discretion? How to involve children and parents in cooperation? QUALITY OF LIFE AND PSYCHOPATHOLOGICAL COMORBIDITY: A PILOT STUDY Prof. L. Boncori¹, A. Buzzanca² Dipartimento di Psicologia Via Dei Marsi, «Sapienza» Università di Roma, ITALY ¹ Professor ² Ph.D. Candidate This research aims at studying multiple disorders related to Axis I and Axis II of the DSM-IV in patients suffering from multiple, acute, and recurring psychotic episodes, and to explore correlations between multiplicity of disorders and quality of life. The experimental sample includes 53 patients having principal diagnoses of major psychoses (Axis I), and the control sample includes 48 volunteers, without any present or previous psychotic disorder. Two measures have been used: the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form Health Survey, by Stein et al. and TALEIA-400A (Test for AxiaL Evaluation and Interview for clinical, personnel, and guidance Applications, by L. Boncori et al.). A multiple analysis of variance has been 13

14 calculated to verify differences in number of disorders between experimental and control groups, and bivariate correlations to verify negative relationship between co-diagnoses and quality of life.the patients group showed significantly more disorders than the control group (p=0.0007); subgroups of patients different in number and quality of co-diagnosis also significantly differed as to overall profile elevation and as to cognitive efficiency; the correlation between co-diagnoses and quality of life is significant and negative (r=-0,62, p<0.01). Our data show, as other studies do, that comorbidities can be an index of disorder severity. ATTITUDES OF SERBIAN LAY POPULATION TOWARD PROFESSIONAL PSYCHOLOGICAL HELP AND THE ROLE OF (PSYCHO)EDUCATION, SOCIETAL STIGMA AND SELF-STIGMA T. Borovski¹ and Dr. S. Savvidou² City College, The International Faculty of the University of Sheffield ¹ M.Sc. Candidate ² Professor Research suggests that, among various personal and environmental factors, cultural differences, education, psycho-education, stigma, gender and age differences are significant predictors of lay populations attitudes toward professional psychological help (ATPPH). Thus, keeping in mind all political, economic and social difficulties Serbia faced during the last 20 years, together with complete lack of research evidence regarding ATPPH in Serbia, the purpose of this MSc thesis is to explore the adult Serbian lay population s ATPPH. Both, quantitative and qualitative types of research are employed. The focus of the quantitative part is ATPPH in Serbian society, explored through gender, age and educational level differences in relation to societal and self-stigma. Qualitative part of the study aims to explore interrelation among societal stigma, self-stigma and psychoeducation, in particular, and further how these factors interact within Serbian socio-cultural frame. The quantitative research is performed on snowball sample comprised of 150 up to 200 participants, whereas quantitative study includes 8 to 10 participants. Data is being collected during the February, and will be analyzed during the March and April. Quantitative data will be analyzed in SPSS through correlation, t-test and regression analyses, whereas qualitative data will be processed through Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. THE IMPACT OF ALCOHOL METABOLISM GENOTYPES AND COMORBIDITY RATE IN BIPOLAR DISORDERS AMONG HAN CHINESE IN TAIWAN Y-H. Chang¹, T-I. Wu², S-Y. Chuang², Prof. H-Ch. Ko³ and Prof. R-B Lu ¹ Ph.D. Student, Psychologist & Researcher, Division of Clinical Psychology, Institute of Allied Health Sciences, Psychiatry Dept., College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, TAIWAN ² Researcher, Psychiatry Dept., College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, TAIWAN ³ Professor, Division of Clinical Psychology, Institute of Behavioral Medicine, National Cheng Kung University Psychology Dept., Asia University, Taichung, TAIWAN Division of Clinical Psychology, Institute of Allied Health Sc., Psychiatry Dept., College of Med., National Cheng Kung Univ. Hospital, TAIWAN Introduction & Aim: The comorbidity of alcohol dependence (ALD) with bipolar disorders (BP) is high in Western patients but low in Han Chinese patients in Taiwan. Whether the discrepancy could be explained by ethnic differences is unclear. To help answer this question, we explored the impact of different alcohol metabolized genotypes and of the comorbidity of ALD and BP in the subtypes of BP in Han Chinese in Taiwan. Method: Two hundred and thirty-nine BPI and 397 BPII patients recruited were evaluated and confirmed using the Chinese version of the Modified Schedule of Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia-Lifetime. The exclusion criteria were: any DSM-IV-TR Axis I diagnosis, other than bipolar disorders, being outside the year-old age range, any other major and minor mental illnesses neurological disorders or organic mental disorders. Polymerase chain reaction and restriction-fragment-length were used to measure the genotypes of ADH1B and ALDH2. Results: ALD comorbidity rates were 11.7% with BPI and 13.1 % with BPII. The patients with ALD in both BP subtypes had a significantly lower frequency of ADH1B*2 and ALDH2*2 alleles than did healthy controls. Discussion: Different alcohol metabolism genotypes are one of the most important factors in the low comorbidity rate of alcoholism in BP. PROFESSIONAL TRAINING CULTURE INFLUENCE ON REHABILITATION PROCESS Prof. M. Grasso¹, Dr. B. Cordella² and F. Greco³ ¹ Psychotherapist, Professor in Clinical Psychology, Dynamic & Clinical Psychology Dept., Psychology Faculty, Univ. of Roma Sapienza, ITALY ² M.Sc. Clinical Psychologist, Researcher Member in Staff, Dynamic & Clinical Psychology Dept., University of Roma Sapienza, ITALY ³ M.Sc. Psychologist, ITALY Introduction & Aims: Rehabilitation context could be the place where to build or improve useful abilities aimed to facilitate visual impaired people reinstatement. The culture of those organizations could facilitate or hinder this process. The aim of this study is to explore professionals culture (physicians, therapists, psychologists) in a well-known italian rehabilitation organization in order to understand in which way each profession represents its relationship with visually impaired clients. Methods: The sample was composed by all professionals of the organization (34). They underwent an in-depth interview, that was taped and integrally transcribed. Texts were analysed with a text analysis software (T-Lab), to perform local culture clusters. Two illustrative variables were considered: profession and time of recruitment. Results: The analysis identifies 4 clusters that show different ways to represent rehabilitation related to specific professions. The process was meant as management, diagnosis, training or advocacy. Anyway all professionals organised the relationship in an asymmetrical way that located the visually impaired client in a powerless position. Conclusion: The asymmetrical relationship between professional and impaired client does not facilitate the possibility to empower the latter. The way each professional organizes the relationship is characteristic and it is tied to a specific training contexts. DOES EDUCATION MEDIATE COGNITIVE LOSSES IN THE VERY OLD? Prof. K. Dahlman¹, J. Akrivos², Prof. J. Schmeidler¹, Prof. M. Schnaider Beeri³, Prof. J.M. Silverman, Prof. H.T. Grossman, Prof. M. Sano and Prof. V. Haroutunian Psychiatry Dept., Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, USA ¹ Ph.D. Assist. Clinical Professor ² M.A. Clinical Research Coordinator ³ Ph.D. Assoc. Professor Ph.D. Professor M.D. Assist. Professor Education has been found to confer significant cognitive advantages across the lifespan. In healthy older populations, cross-sectional epidemiological studies have established a positive relationship between education and cognitive performance. Longitudinal studies have shown that education may be protective, delaying the onset and reducing incident risk of impairment such as that found in Alzheimer s disease. The Cognitive Reserve hypothesis was advanced to explain the mechanism by which variables including education may mediate cognitive loss. Our study was designed to investigate the impact of education on cognitive losses across age groups, stratified by different levels of cognitive impairment individuals were recruited from the community and a nursing home to participate in a longitudinal study of aging. Mean age was 86 and mean years of education were 13.73; 53% had education beyond high school. Results show that while more education is associated with stronger verbal performance at 14

15 younger ages, oldest-old individuals with more education do not show this advantage. Rather, better educated oldest-old perform worse than those with less education. Education did not mediate decline in memory or executive domains; in healthy groups, younger individuals perform better. Once mild cognitive impairment appears, education does not offset its impact regardless of age. EXAMINE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY INTERVENTION ON OPTIMISM LEVELS OF FEMALE SOCCER PLAYERS T.C. Donachie MSc Residential Care Officer, Edinburgh Secure Services, SCOTLAND Optimism has been significantly linked to improved performance in the athletic performance. Explored through explanatory style, the way in which an athlete explains success and failure, it can be determined if they are optimistic or not. An intervention was created based on the principles of positive psychology which focuses on contributing to optimal functioning. A total of 15 female soccer players, aged were involved in the 4- week, 8-seesion intervention and optimism levels were explored using a mixed-methods design. Participants reported their explanatory style through Sports Attributional Style Scale (SASS; Hanrahan & Grove, 1990); kept a training and game reflection journal throughout the course of the intervention; and they also completed a post-intervention evaluation. Results indicated that through examining explanatory style, optimism levels increased from pre-test to post-test based on optimism scores, suggesting that positive psychology has a positive effect on optimism levels. A CROSS CULTURAL STUDY OF STRESS AND MENTAL HEALTH AMONG ADOLESCENTS Dr. P. Farokhzad PhD. Lecturer, Psychology Dept., Islamic Azad University - Roudehen Branch, IRAN Adolescence is a time of transition and change. All of these changes can be stressful, but most teenagers report that they do not feel overwhelmed or unable to deal with them. In the present days, adolescence period which is the period of great strains and storms, gives rise to negative thought process, frustrations, and poor physical, mental, social, emotional and character development. The present research was aimed to study stress among adolescents in relation to their mental health. Another aim was to study cultural and gender differences on stress and mental health. The sample comprised of 400 male and female adolescents (16-19 years) who were selected randomly from Iran and India. Stress Symptoms Rating Scale (Heilbrun and Pepe, 1985), Daily Hassles and Uplifts Scale (Delongis et al., 1982), and WHO Measure of Mental Health (Wig, 1999) were performed and raw scores were subjected for statistical analyses viz. descriptive statistics, t-ratios and correlations. Results clearly showed significant correlations between stress measures viz. stress symptoms, daily hassles and uplifts, and dimensions of mental health among both the cultures. It was also shown that there are cultural and gender differences among the adolescents on stress measures and dimensions of mental health. Details are discussed. VIRTUAL INTERACTIONS USE BY INDIVIDUALS WITH & WITHOUT SOCIAL PHOBIA & WITH / WITHOUT SOCIAL SKILLS DEFICIT P.P. Ferreira¹ and Prof. A.T. Bolsoni-Silva² Psychology Dept., Universidade Estadual Paulista UNESP, Bauru, BRAZIL ¹ MSc. Student, Post-graduation Section ² Professor Social phobics tend to exhibit avoidance behaviors in social situations as well as social skills deficit. Internet use among phobics can increase contact with other people, due to: less exposure in the virtual environment, possibility of anonymity and limited use of nonverbal behaviors. The skills used in virtual interactions are different from those used in face to face communication. This study aims at comparing the use of virtual interactions by people with and without indication of social phobia as well as by participants with and without social skills deficit. In order to do that, a sample of 64 college students, 26 with indication of social phobia and 38 without indication answered the instruments: Social Skills Inventory (IHS), Assessment of Behaviors and Contexts in University Life, Mini-SPIN (Social Phobia Inventory) and Instrument about Virtual and Personal Interaction. Preliminary results indicate that individuals with and without indication of phobia and participants with and without social skills deficit differ in some aspects of Internet use such as number of hours spent on online chat rooms and blogs. These results indicate that people with indication of social phobia expose themselves less than people without indication, which is also shown in previous researches. PORTRAIT OF GRACIE: AFFECTIVE DISORDERS OF CHILDHOOD Prof. L.D. Flowers Ed.D., R.N. Assistant Professor, College of Nursing, Valdosta State University, Georgia, USA This qualitative paper using phenomenological analysis portrays the lived experiences of a child with multiple affective disorders and that of her family. Diagnoses include Social Anxiety, Attention Deficit Disorder, Selective Mutism, and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Data for this study included observations, journals and interviews, along with the researcher s journals and research notes. Participants personal challenges were the common themes emerging from this study. The findings of this study can provide insight into the experiences of this child and family and suggest further research of children with affective disorders. THE INTEGRATION OF MOTIVATIONAL INTERVIEWING WITH PSYCHOTHERAPIES TARGETING SHAME-RELATED PSYCHOPATHOLOGY Prof. D.F. Greenwald¹ and Prof. D.W. Harder² ¹ Ph.D. Professor of Clinical Psychology, Psychology Dept., Tufts University, USA ² Ph.D. Clinical Psychologist, Associate Professor, Counselling & School Psychology Dept., Northeastern University, USA In earlier papers a theoretical model of shame domains was outlined from an evolutionary perspective for the conceptualization and planning of psychotherapy or counselling treatments of shame-related psychopathology. Four domains of shame that contribute to pathology were highlighted: conformity, prosocial reciprocity, status/competition, and sexual behaviour. The first two of these are particularly advantageous for the maintenance of support in a social group and the second two for the attraction of desirable mates and the successful raising of offspring both conditions of inclusive fitness. Clinical usage of the therapy tactics recommended earlier (e.g., pointing out the costs of current shame-affected maladaptive patterns, challenging beliefs underlying those patterns, and urging experimentation with new behaviours) proved all too often to engender further shame in the patient by making him/her feel criticised. This paper integrates principles of Motivational Interviewing (MI) with earlier treatment recommendations to reduce the danger of inadvertently shaming the client, which increases resistance, and, thus, to facilitate beneficial changes more quickly. Key MI principles are the use of frequent empathic/reflective listening responses and elicitation of the client s own change motivation. Clinical examples will be used to illustrate the proposed treatment modifications based on MI principles. THE ROLE OF RESILIENCE IN RECOVERY FROM THE EFFECTS OF A SEVERE PERSISTENT MENTAL ILLNESS Prof. A.R. Henderson Ph.D. Research Assistant Professor, School of Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, Community, Culture & Mental Health Unit, University of Western Australia, AUSTRALIA Introduction/Aim: The research expands on Henderson s substantive theory of recovery from the effects of a severe persistent mental illness. The aim was to identify the role of resilience in explaining the recovery process. Method: Data were collected through face to face interviews with participants The constant comparative method associated with the grounded theory method was used to analyse the data. This method involved comparing the narratives of participants with each other and then the wider research literature on resilience. Results: Resilience emerged as a 15

16 disjunctive concept. It could be either passive, which involved participants in tenaciously hanging on and moving forward slowly with determination, or active where participants described springing back quickly and getting on with their lives. Both trajectories served to explain how participants were able to move forward and recover from the effects of their illness. Discussion: The literature discusses resilience as a protective factor against developing a mental illness. Resilient people however, do become mentally ill. This qualitative study provided evidence that resilience also plays a role in facilitating recovery from an actual illness. This is a little researched area and has implications for mental health service delivery particularly in relation to interventions associated with early episode psychosis. THREE-YEARS STABILITY AND DEVELOPMENTAL PATHWAYS OF ADOLESCENTS LONELINESS Dr. N. Junttila¹ and L.E. Laakkonen² ¹ PhD. Senior Researcher, Centre for Learning Research, Psychology & Teacher Education Depts., University of Turku, FINLAND ² Statistician, Teacher Education Dept., University of Turku, FINLAND Adolescents loneliness signals specific problems in their social adjustment, predicting e.g. anxiety disorders and depression and deserve therefore a great deal of attention. Still, the research focusing on adolescents chronic loneliness is scarce. Therefore, our aims were 1) to study the three-years stability of loneliness within samples of 13- to 15-year-old girls and boys, and 2) to explore different developmental pathways of adolescents loneliness. The sample consists of 386 adolescents who completed the loneliness scale bi-annually through the 3-years lower secondary school. The stability of social and emotional loneliness through six measurement points was evaluated using longitudinal confirmatory factor analysis and stability testing with differently restricted consecutive models. Moreover, in order to explore the multiple developmental pathways of girls and boys social and emotional loneliness, we used a latent growth curve - and mixture modelling methods. Based on the results 1) girls and boys social and emotional loneliness were at least relatively stable during the lower secondary school years, and 2) different developmental pathways of loneliness were found. The importance of identify the risk factors and developmental pathways in order to intervene adolescents loneliness before the onset of more serious psychosocial problems will be discussed. OVERCOMING PROBLEMS WITH DIAGNOSIS OF VERY YOUNG AUTISTIC CHILDREN Prof. K. Markiewicz¹, Prof. B.L.J. Kaczmarek² and Prof. G.E. Kwiatkowska³ Ph.D. Psychologists, Institute of Psychology, University of Maria Curie Sklodowska, Lublin, POLAND ¹ Assistant Professor ³ Associate Professor ² Professor, Institute of Psychology, Szczecin University Introduction & Aim: Autism has created many diagnostic problems. At the same time, a need of an early diagnosis for ensuring better efficacy of therapy is emphasized. Yet, autism proves to be difficult to distinguish from intellectual disability, and specific language impairment (SL). Hence, our aim was to delineate factors that could enable overcoming diagnostic problems, and help a clinician to perform an appropriate assessment. Methods: The diagnostic procedure included nearly 1000 children with age range from 12 months to 7 years, and it reflected 10 years of clinical work. The assessment was performed on the basis of the Munich Functional Developmental Diagnosis, ICD-10, structured interview, and observation. Results: A specific profile in respect to measures of cognitive function, social skills, and verbal communication was delineated for each of the examined groups. A model was constructed to assist in analyzing the complex interactions of symptoms, which frequently overlap. Discussion: Since cognitive and communicative limitations often lead to inappropriate adaptive behavior in children with developmental disorders it is important to relay not only upon quantitative data but also upon clinical syndromological analysis of observed symptoms. CLOZAPINE VS OLANZAPINE: SUICIDAL RISK NOTICED IN COMPARATIVE STUDY Dr. S. Kaludjerovic Neurologist, Psychiatrist, PhD in Neuropsychology, Laza Lazarevic Hospital, Belgrade, SERBIA Introduction: 12 weeks comparative study between clozapine and olanzapin with schizophrenic patients with negative symptoms. Despite of availability of atypical antipsychotic the treatment of negative symptoms (according to PANSS scale) in schizophrenia still remains a challenge. This study was designed to compare effects of clozapine and olanzapin among 59 patients during 12 weeks. Diagnosed as schizophrenia as defined by ICD 10 who scored t 35 points on the negative subscales of PANSS. After 8 days washout of prior medicaments, then received clozapine in daily dose 250 mg and olanzapine in daily dose 10 mg. Background: Atypical antipsychotics such as olanzapine, quetipin, risperidon, amisulpirid, sertindol, are now used more in treatment with schizophrenic patients. In this project patients had dominantly negative symptoms (apathy, alogia and problems of abstract thinking, affective blunted, emotional withdrawal, defect of emotional resoanance, lack of spontaneity, lack of fluent talk, stereotypic thinking). Method: 30 patients age years with schizophrenia negative type received clozapine in daily dose 250 to 300mg and 29 patients same age got olanzapine in 10 mg daily dose. Males were 30, females 29. Although study lasted 12 weeks, after just 1 week sleeping problems noticed in olanzapine group, all of that patients had to get midazolam.after 8 weeks of study olanzapine patients, precisely 5 persons became suicidal and they wanted to stop or to get another drug. They had been got clozapine. Results: During this study, olanzapine group discontinued due to sleeping disturbance and suicidal risk. They needed midazolam tablets 15 mg for sleeping in evening dose. Despite this addition after 12 weeks all of them gave up and continue treatment with clozapine. Improvements of negative symptoms of schizophrenia was noticeable in both groups after 4 weeks, but after that period clozapine repeatedly been shown to be more effective than olanzapine in decreasing pathology, and marked reduction in the incidence of suicidality. Laboratory tests of blood, all the time were traced and showed normal results. EEG,EKG also ware normal. Conclusion: in this follow up study, clozapine recommended as much more effective than olazapine in treatment schizophrenia patients with negative symptoms. On PANSS scale after 12 weeks we got statistically important improvement, so patients got 20 points at last (in the beginning 35). Olanzapine treatment can get better results in schizophrenia with positive symptoms. DYSLECTIC CHILDREN & PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT E.N. Karachanidi¹, Dr. M. Theodoratou², E. Michael³, Th. Syriopoulou, I. Maggana, E. Fourlani, K. Straka, S. Sereti 6 & P. Gouveris ¹ Student, Speech- Pathology Dept., Technological Educational Institution (TEI) of Patras / Associate, Kalamata s Gen. Hospital, GREECE ² Ph.D., DESS, Clinical Psychologist, Sc. Assistant, School of Health Sc. & Welfare, TEI of Patras / Associate, Kalamata s G. Hospital, GREECE ³ Scientific Associate, Kalamata s General Hospital, GREECE Student, Pharmacology Dept., University of Athens, Associate Kalamata s General Hospital, GREECE Pediatrician, Pediatric Dept., Children`s Hospital Mitera, Athens, GREECE 6 Psychologist, Children s Psychiatric Center, ISI. Thessaloniki / Associate, Kalamata s General Hospital, Kalamata, GREECE Special Educator, M. Health Center, Kalamata s General Hospital, GREECE Introduction and aim: Dyslexia is the commonest childhood s learning disability. Specific Language Impairment s connection with the appearance of emotional disorders- behavioral problems at dyslectic children and parental attitude s influence at their psychosocial development are investigated. Methods: 13 dyslectic children (6-9 years old: 9boys, 4girls) were studied. Underwent in (personal and with their parents) interviews and psychometric tests evaluation. Emotional disorders, behavioral problems, parents views for educational difficulty and their attitude towards their children s psychosocial problems, were recorded. Results: Stress inherent in school s failure and rejection appeared 53.8 % children of the 16

17 study, aggression 30.8%. Low self-esteem was found at 5 children (38.5%), emotional- interpersonal difficulties at 4 (30.8%), hyperactivity at 46.2%. Difficulty of understanding the learning disability / emotional- behavioral problems of their children appeared ~50% parents, while tolerant to educational difficulty view (as boys are concerned) : boys should be educated, girls should be rehabilitated, parents majority. Discussion: Psychosocial sector is affected by learning disability. Dyslexia often coexists with behavioral problems, mainly stress, aggression and hyperactivity. Parents attitude towards dyslexia affects children s psychosocial development, while social- emotional problems that they present, have more harmful effects at their behavior and psyche than the disorder itself. DETERIORATION OF FUNCTIONING WITH AGE IN AUTISTIC DISORDER? AN EXPLORATORY INVESTIGATION Dr. G. Rampton and Prof. M.M. Konstantareas² Kerry s Place Autism Services, Aurora, ON, CANADA ¹ Ph.D., C.Psych. Clinical Director and CEO ² Ph.D., C.Psych. Consulting Psychologist, Professor, Clinical Services Dept., University of Guelph Although Childhood Disintegrative Disorder is addressing the issue of reduction of competence in young children, there is no evidence on disintegration of functioning in adults. In evaluating the cognitive and linguistic abilities of adults with Autistic Disorder (AD), we discovered a reduction in abilities across time for some adults. The sample to be discussed ranges from 26 to 48 years. The reduction was evident in cognitive ability, receptive and expressive language, and adaptive functioning. We are examining the following variables as relevant to deterioration: onset of seizures, use of medication, and lack of communication. Data on these variables will be presented in support of this hypothesis. If confirmed, this phenomenon will have implications for applied and theoretical understanding of the long term outcomes in individuals with this disorder. Findings will also suggest a parallel to comparable outcomes to those with Down syndrome who present with Alzheimer s Dementia by the 30 th year of life. It is possible that only a subgroup of individuals with AD show this deterioration in functioning which is important to clarify. The relevance of clarifying the neurological underpinnings of the possible deterioration will need to be addressed in future research. Regardless of the direction of effects, the proposed study and findings to be reported will provide much needed elucidation of long term outcomes in AD. THE LINKS BETWEEN PEOPLE S PSYCHOPATHOLOGY AND THE ROLES THEY ADOPT, DURING THEIR LIFE-SPAN J. Koptsi¹ and Dr. S. Savvidou² City College, International faculty of the University of Sheffield ¹ M.Sc. Cand., Psychology & Counseling Dept. ² Ph.D. Professor The links between people s psychopathology and the roles they adopt, during their life-span. People develop dysfunctional behavioural patterns, throughout their life-span. The aim of this study is to explore the roles they adopt, towards the associated psychopathology. The Transactional Analysis and the Psychosocial Developmental theories allow to investigate dysfunctional behavioural patterns through the exploration of roles. Transactional Analysis theory gives information about Life-Beliefs, Ego-States and Drivers. Psychosocial Development theory describes the impact of social experience across the whole life-span. It specifies on personality s juxtapositions, while it grows in sequence of stages in relation to the external world. By using qualitative inquiry, twelve Greek participants (six males and six females) have been interviewed. Half of them were 25 to 35 years old, while the rest were 45 to 55 years old. Qualitative analysis has been used to analyze the data, since it provides descriptive accounts of the phenomena under investigation. The Grounded Theory Method has been used, in order to construct an inductive and comparative integration in accordance to behavioural analysis. The exploration tools were Brief Script, Drivers, and Developmental Script Questionnaires. The analyses explores the connection between negative past experiences with current personal issues, that the individual is facing both in life and in therapeutic relationship. PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS OF DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY AMONG CORONARY HEART DISEASE PATIENTS A. Krishna, J. Mathew & P. Nair MBBS Med.Grad. Students, Community Medicine Dept., Government Med. College, Thiruvananthapuram,INDIA Introduction and Aim: According to WHO, Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) accounts for 12.2% of all deaths worldwide. Depression is 3 times more common in patients after an acute myocardial infarction than in the general community. Both depression and anxiety are associated with poor cardiac outcomes and higher mortality. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of depression and anxiety among CHD patients in Medical College Hospital, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala State. Methods: A cross sectional study with case control analysis was done among 147 patients (100 males,47 females) above the age of 40 years who have been diagnosed with CHD at least 1 month back at the time of interview, attending the Out-patient Dept. & Wards of Cardiology & Internal Med. departments from to Patients diagnosed with depression/anxiety before the diagnosis of CHD or those who had any major stressful events in their life in the past 6 months were not included in the study. Depression and Anxiety were scaled using Patient Health Questionnare-9 and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 respectively. A prestructured questionnaire was used to find out the factors contributing to depression & anxiety. Results: (1) Prevalence of depression among CHD patients was found to be 38.1% and that of anxiety was 23.1%. (2) 18.36% patients had both depression and anxiety (3) By multivariate logistic regression analysis, risk factors for depression are (a) Family history of CHD{Adjusted Odds Ratio(AOR)-2.266; 95% Confidence Interval (CI):: } (b) Females {AOR ; 95% CI:: } (4) By multivariate logistic regression analysis, risk factors for anxiety disorders are (a) Family history of CHD(AOR-3.275; 95%CI:: ) (b) Lack of support of their life partner(aor-3.026; 95%CI:: ) (c) Difficulties in continuing their jobs after CHD(AOR-3.884; 95%CI:: ) (d) Patients who had gathered information about CHD from sources other than doctors(aor-2.874; 95%CI:: ). Discussion: Study showed 38.1% prevalence of depression and 23.1% prevalence of anxiety among CHD patients. Risk factor for depression was family history of CHD, while that for anxiety disorders were family history of CHD, lack of support from life partner, job pursuing difficulties and information obtained from sources other than doctors. FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION IN THE 21 ST CENTURY: A HUMAN RIGHTS ISSUE M. Lianou M.A. European and International Studies, University of Athens, Ph.D. Candidate, Social Policy Dept., Panteion University of Social and Political Sciences, Athens, GREECE FGM is all procedures involving partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or injury to the female genital organs for non medical reasons. It estimates that ,000,000 girls and women worldwide have already been cut and 3,000,000 girls undergo FGM every year. FGM is an act of violence. It has no medical justification, is irreversible and has lasting impact on girls and women s physical, mental and sexual health. Reasons: FGM is practiced for many different socio-cultural reasons. Often those who practice it point out that it is rooted in local culture. Subject their daughters to cutting because they feel it is the right thing to do. Girls who are not cut are unclean and unmarriageable. FGM is not prescribed by any religion. It is practiced in 28 African countries, Malaysia, Yemen, India, Sudan, Egypt and there are some reports that the practice occurs in Korea. Consequences: (1) Health (2) Physical Health (3) Sexual Health (4) Mental and Emotional Health. FGM-A Human Rights Issue: Many international organizations and the European Parliament have called attention to the practice and its long-term destructive consequences. Eradication in Host Countries Where FGM Is Illegal: Legislation alone will not abolish the practice. The response to FGM must be multi-faceted and should include: (1) Training of all health care providers (2) Training of social workers, public health nurses, healthcare providers and police (3) Community education of immigrant populations regarding female health (4) Ensuring that women who have been genitally cut receive medical and psychological assistance. 17

18 METHYLPHENIDATE IMPROVES RESPONSE INHIBITION BUT NOT ERROR MONITORING IN CHILDREN WITH ATTENTION- DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER J.S. Lipszyc¹ and Dr. R.J. Schachar² Psychiatry Research Dept., the Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, CANADA ¹ Ph.D. Candidate ² Ph.D. Psychiatrist and Senior Scientist Introduction/Aim: Deficits in error monitoring and response inhibition have been commonly implicated in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We aimed to investigate the effect of methylphenidate (MPH) on both of these cognitive processes in children with ADHD using the Stop Signal Task. A goal of this study was to determine whether a relationship exists between the impact of MPH on error monitoring and inhibition. Method: We examined eleven children with ADHD ranging in age from 7-12 years. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design was used. ADHD children greater than 25 kg received 20 mg of MPH, whereas those less than 25 kg received 15 mg. Results: Children with ADHD had significantly shorter SSRTs on MPH than on placebo (p = 0.009). However, there was no significant difference in error monitoring between ADHD children on MPH and on placebo. Discussion: There was no significant effect of MPH on error monitoring in children with ADHD. It may be that a higher dose of MPH is required to improve this cognitive function. We confirmed that MPH improves response inhibition, suggesting a dissociation of inhibition and error monitoring. This support previous research indicating that error monitoring and response inhibition are independent of one another. ADOLESCENT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS: WHICH WAY? J. Lubenko Ph.D. Candidate, Clinical Psychology Dept., Univ. of Latvia, Riga, LATVIA The goal of the present study was to examine the longitudinal associations between perceived family relationships and adolescents externalizing/ internalizing problems and self-efficacy. The study sample included 366 pupils from secondary schools in Latvia, years of age, who completed self-report questionnaires (The Youth Self Report, YSR; Family Cohesion and Family Conflict subscales of The Family Environment Scale, FES; The Children Perceived Self-efficacy Scale, CPSE). Data were collected in two assessments 1 year apart. The results indicate that elevations in adolescent male and female internalizing problems prospectively predicted subsequent decreases in perceived family cohesion and increases in family conflict. The effect of perceived family cohesion and conflict as assessed at Time1 was not statistically significant in prediction of Time2 adolescent behaviour problems and self-efficacy. The decrements in adolescent self-efficacy prospectively predicted increases in externalizing behaviour in adolescent male group and increases in internalizing behaviour in adolescent females. The importance of adolescent social self-efficacy is discussed. This study provided more evidence for child effect on family relationship quality rather than for the effect of perceived family relationships on adolescent outcomes in the 1 year period. IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT FROM INDIVIDUAL PERSONALITY PROFILE TO ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE A.E. Macarie Ph.D. Candidate, Psychology Dept., Al.I.Cuza University Iasi, ROMANIA The present study is a preliminary research in order to identify and analyze the mechanisms on which the impression management strategies are based. The predominant qualitative study will present the theoretical background focusing mainly on the construct of impression management as part of social desirability. Impression management is the behaviour of presenting oneself in a manner with the objective of creating a social image that will bring certain benefits. The present study will mark the theoretical borders of the impression management concept, in comparison with similar dimensions. The next step will be to introduce the main impression management strategies and behaviours. The first empirical study aims at the personality profile of social desirable individuals, with the focus on impression management. The next study investigates the differences in selfevaluation compared to hetero-evaluation based on impression management. The final study is the testing of organizational performance based on impression management. Following the theoretical synthesis, the results of these three preliminary studies will support future research for establishing particular impression management strategies responsible for the success of the employee in different organizational contexts. PARENTING CHILDREN REQUIRING COMPLEX CARE AT HOME: REVISITING NORMALISATION AND STIGMA Prof. H. MacDonald¹ and Prof. Ch. Gibson² ¹ RN, PhD. Professor and BN Director, Faculty of Nursing, University of New Brunswick, CANADA ² RN, PhD. Professor, Faculty of Nursing, Univ. of New Brunswick, CANADA Normalisation is a concept that is frequently noted in the literature relating to parenting children with chronic illnesses and disabilities. In nursing, normalisation is conceptualized as both a process and a management strategy used by families, whereby, children with chronic illnesses and disabilities are perceived to be treated the same way as children who are not chronically ill or disabled. Related to normalisation is the concept, stigma. In many ways, normalisation is an approach to counteract stigmatisation (MacDonald & Gibson, 2010). In this paper the aim is to increase our understanding about the impact of stigma and normalisation on parents of children who require complex care. Two phenomenon, normalisation and stigma, were extracted from the findings of an ethnographic study that explored parents, nurses, and social workers beliefs and experiences with respite services. In depth interviews and participant observation were conducted with 47 participants that included 19 mothers, 4 fathers, and 7 grandparents of children who required complex care and, 13 nurses and 4 social workers. Issues of normalization and stigma emerged from the data. Unlike parents of children with various chronic illnesses, these parents were not able to use normalization as described in the literature. Parents of children requiring complex care described normalization as keeping up appearances and as escaping. Normalization, to them, was about counteracting stigma. The findings of this study have important implications for practice. Rather than encouraging parents to use normalization as defined in the literature, clinicians should seek ways in which the parents see themselves as normal. In this study one of the ways for parents to achieve feelings of normalcy was to escape from their care giving role for a period of respite. PSYCHIATRIC WARDS CROWDING AND INCIDENTS OF AGGRESSION AND VIOLENCE A. Mahmoudi Lecturer and Vice President of Research, Nursing Faculty, Islamic Azad University Dehaghan Branch, IRAN Objective: Violence in psychiatric wards is common, and it is on the rise. This study examined the relationship between ward occupancy level and staff-to-patient ratio and incidents of aggressive behavior, both physical and verbal, on an acute inpatient unit in Iran. Methods: Logistic regression was used to analyze data collected from the ward's log of adverse incidents and the ward census over a 12-month period. A physical incident was defined as an unwelcome physical contact or willful damage to property. Incidents of self-harm were excluded. Verbal aggression was any threat of physical or sexual harm. Results: Among 381 admissions during the study period, 58 incidents were recorded--25 incidents of verbal aggression and 33 incidents of physical violence. Logistic regression demonstrated that the occupancy level was positively associated with the occurrence of any type of violent incident. The average occupancy level when an incident occurred was 77 percent, compared with 69 percent when no incidents occurred. The average occupancy level was significantly higher when verbal incidents occurred (80 percent) than when physical incidents occurred (70 percent). No association was found between violence and staff-to-patient ratio. Incidents were significantly more likely to occur during the afternoon shifts (3 p.m. to 11 p.m.). Conclusions: Crowding was found to be significantly associated with aggressive incidents, and in particular with verbal aggression. 18

19 SEARCHING BY HEARING: NEUTRALISING VISUOCENTRIC BARRIERS TO BLIND PEOPLE'S ACCESS TO SPATIAL INFORMATION REPRESENTATION M.L. Mele¹, Dr. S. Borsci² and Prof. S. Federici³ ¹ PhD Student, ECoNA Interuniversity Centre for Research on Cognitive Processing in Natural & Artificial Systems, Sapienza Univ., Rome, ITALY ² PhD. Human and Education Sciences Dept., University of Perugia, ITALY ³ Psychologist, Professor, Human and Education Sciences Dept., University of Perugia, ITALY Many studies show that spatial representation of information can be conveyed by sonification methods in a functionally equivalent way, supporting the hypothesis that spatial representation is processed by an amodal system. The aim of this study is to analyse from the User experience (UX) perspective the interaction of users whilst surfing WhatsOnWeb, a sonificated Web search clustering engine which displays information by means of visuospatial data output by using sophisticated graph visualisation algorithms on semantically clustered data. WhatsOnWeb provides a complete information representation within a single browseable page, overcoming the efficiency limitations of the top-down flat linear representation used by the most common search engines to represent the indexed dataset. A heuristic evaluation and a usability evaluation with end-users carried out with the Partial Concurrent Thinking Aloud protocol have been conducted. The results show no significant differences between the interactions of blind and sighted subjects: the users' ability in performing spatial exploration tasks guided by visual or acoustic cues seems to be both qualitatively and quantitatively equivalent. These results confirm that sonification methods are an effective solution to counteract the visuocentric barriers which currently exclude blind people from accessing information technologies. THE MINORITY OF MINORITIES: HOMOPHOBIA AND DISABILITY IN SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE F. Meloni¹, M.L. Mele² and Prof. S. Federici³ ¹ Ph.D. Student, Psychologist. ECoNA Interuniversity Centre for Research on Cognitive Processing in Natural & Artificial Systems, Sapienza University of Rome, ITALY ² Ph.D. Student, ECoNA, Sapienza University of Rome, ITALY ³ Professor, Psychologist. Human & Education Sciences Dept., University of Perugia, ITALY This work aims to illustrate an overview of homophobia and disability in scientific literature. All of these studies seem to follow a prevailing theoretical perspective based on the social model of disability, which is often associated with the Queer and Feminist theories. We found that both LGBTQI (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer and intersex) people and people with disabilities live in a condition based on two socially shared values which are the basis of prejudice, i.e. the compulsory able-bodiedness and the compulsory heterosexuality. If on the one hand the selfaffirmation of the LGBTQI community is often grounded on the tyranny of the perfect body (body fascism), on the other hand, the disabled community s assertion is often supported by the compulsory heterosexuality. The spread of inter-community prejudices ends up thus mutually reinforcing the stereotypes they battle, specifically to the detriment of homosexual people with disabilities living in health-care centres. The experimental studies confirm this phenomenon: despite the existing international intervention policies aimed at supporting the sexual, emotional and relational needs of people with disabilities, health-care operators and communities do not provide proactive support for their LGTBQI clients due to inadequate training programmes and a strengthened attitude of moral condemnation towards homosexuality. THE THEORY OF NEO-ORGANO-DYNAMISM: A NEW PRACTICAL CLASSIFICATION OF MENTAL ILLNESS Dr. T. Mizuno MD. Psychiatrist, Psychiatry Dept., Sakamoto Mental Health Centre, Osaka, JAPAN Introduction: Traditional classifications confuse etiologic factors with symptomatic ones, making it difficult to treat psychosis. Method: Traditional and Henri Ey s classifications of mental illness are discussed. A neo-organo-dynamism is proposed as a minimally necessary theoretical classification of mental illness. Results: The acute phase of disease may only be a temporary modification of the basic mental illness and the nature of the latter can be expressed in terms of the depth of the organic degeneration. The psychotic state consists of the basic disorder and its acute aggregative phase that is in proportion to the degree of abnormal neuronal firings. In my classification, mental illness is classified from a normal stage N or N+ to a stage X and the degree of acute aggravation is staged from 0 to 7. By applying this classification to diagnosis, we can accurately represent the conditions of psychiatric patients that change organo-dynamically over time. Discussion: Neo-organo-dynamism is proposed as a minimum clinical classification of mental illness for psychiatrists. By using this theory, those who are not psychiatrists also be able to understand abnormal mental conditions and to determine treatment plans for patients like other somatic disorders. Neo-organo-dynamism will eliminate the prejudice against mental illness. THE FREQUENCY AND TYPES OF AGGRESSIVE AND VIOLENT BEHAVIORS IN ACUTE PSYCHIATRIC INPATIENT SETTINGS Prof. B. Motamedi RN, MNSc, DNSc. Dean and Associate Professor, Faculty of Nursing, Islamic Azad University - Dehaghan Branch, IRAN Objective: To determine the frequency and types of aggressive and violent behaviors in acute psychiatric inpatient settings and potential interactions between staffing and patient mix and rates of the behaviors were explored. Methods: Data on violent incidents have gathered prospectively in two acute psychiatric units in two general hospitals and two units in a psychiatric hospital in Isfahan, Iran. For this study, aggression has defined as any threatening verbal or physical behavior directed toward self or others. Violence has defined as any physical behavior that resulted in harm to self or others. Staff recorded violent and aggressive incidents by using Morrison's hierarchy of aggressive and violent behavior. The classification ranged from level 1, inflicted serious harm to self or others requiring medical care, to level 8, exhibited low-grade hostility. They also completed weekly reports of staffing levels and patient mix. Regression analysis has used to calculate relative rates, 95 percent confidence intervals, and p values. Results: 400 violent incidents were recorded over a three-month period. Based on the scale, more than 50 percent of the incidents were serious. Seventy-eight percent directed toward nursing staff. Complex relationships between staffing, patient mix, and violence have founded. Relative risk increased with more nursing staff (of either sex), more non nursing staff on planned leave, more patients known to instigate violence, a greater number of disoriented patients, more patients detained compulsorily, and more use of seclusion. The relative risk decreased with more young staff (under 30 years old), more nursing staff with unplanned absenteeism, more admissions, and more patients with substance abuse or physical illness. Conclusions: Violent incidents within psychiatric facilities were frequent and serious, with great significance for occupational health. Some clues have found in the prediction of violence. Data collected by the hospital administration is seriously under estimate the extent, both in frequency and in seriousness, of violence and aggression in psychiatric services. THE ORGANIZATION S COMMUNICATION STYLE AS AN EXPRESSION OF THE DAILY ACTIVITY S STRESS A.G. Muscalu Psychologist, Ph.D. Candidate, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Bucharest, ROMANIA Organizational culture is considered to be a system of beliefs and values that develop in the organization and guides the behaviour of its members, thus encouraging them most times, strive to achieve organizational objectives. Culture is thus more than the sum of components. It is the result of interaction with the elements themselves, with minds, souls, personality of organizations, and the external environment. Culture can be defined as being organization's personality, thus influencing the dynamics of organizations (McNamara, 1997). The communication style is defined as a whole the distinctive of characteristics to a person in the communication process. Communication style is referring to all particularities of manifestations owned by a person in communication process, bearing the stamp of their personality, temperament, culture and social environment. Communication 19

20 style sustains environmental influences and is manifested as a pattern for assessment of an organization. At the organizational level, the pressure exercised by the work's task is a major factor of installation and specific behavioural reactions of professional stress; it's also affecting how interpersonal relationships and consequently the communication style. Therefore, we made a research about the influence of generic stress and stress perceive to communication style in financial and banking organizations. The research was done 33 subjects - employees of Romanian s financial banking institutions. In this research we have used a range of research methods: documentation method, investigations method using Questionnaire SC (Analysis of Communication Style) - built by S. Marcus, a Romanian psychologist with important contributions, especially studying the empathic phenomenon; using Cope Questionnaire and Scale PSS (Perceived Stress Scale) - these samples being calibrated on the Romanian population. Also, we used systemic observation and statistical analyses methods. The conclusions that we have reached allow us to highlight a succession of the features of objectification in banking - financial field, of the variables considered in our research. Our research revealed a specific typology between style of communication - professional stress and perceive stress. MEMORIES OF PARENTAL LOSS: THE ROLE OF AGE, EXPECTANCY AND IMPACT ON LIFE P. Öztop¹ and Prof. S. Gülgöz² Psychology Dept., Koç University, Sarıyer, Instanbul, TURKEY ¹ M.A. Student and Teaching & Research ² Professor The effect of trauma on memory has been investigated with various theoretical perspectives. However, findings about the effect of trauma on memory are mixed. Several factors have been identified as the sources of variability in the findings. First of all, memories of only one type of traumatic event was investigated; parental loss. Moreover, age of the individual at the time of loss, was accepted as an important determiner of the characteristics of the memory. Whether the loss was expected or not was also accepted as an important factor in the retrieval of parental death memory. Finally, impact of the loss on the individual life is considered as the other factor and it was investigated in terms of both short-term and long-term consequences. 100 people who experienced parental loss accepted to participate in the study. Structured interviews were administered. Results confirmed the role of proposed factors in the retrieval of traumatic parental death memories. Findings are discussed in terms of the present perspectives about trauma memory in the literature and different perspectives that are proposed on the basis of the relation between impact of parental loss on individuals life and their memory related to loss. ATTITUDES AND PERCEPTIONS OF GENERAL POPULATION TOWARDS MENTAL ILLNESS; DRAWING FUTURE MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES Dr. Ch. Panayiotopoulos Ph.D. Associate Professor in Mental Health Social Work, Social Sciences Dept., University of Nicosia, CYPRUS Introduction: Epidemiological studies (WHO,2003) and studies of attitudes and perceptions (Health Promotion Agency,2006;) on mental health are considered as a vital tool on the design and implementation of mental health services and measurement of the efficacy of a community mental health programme in a society that is widely accepted as prejudiced or ignorant towards mental health. Aim: Therefore this study, the first of its kind in Cyprus, aimed to explore public attitudes and opinions towards mental health. Methodology: A structured questionnaire divided in 5 sections (attitudes, experiences, knowledge, services, demographic data) was administered in almost thousand (n=935) participants, randomly chosen, representing all ages and social classes in a pan-cyprian research sample produced quite ambiguous results. For the analysis of the results was used the SPSS 18 and one way ANOVA test was delivered as to produce the following results. Results showed a general positive attitude towards mental health. However questions that revealed knowledge and previous experience indicated contradictory results to the previous one. Participants answers to the source of knowledge as far as mental health showed that they had no immediate contact with a mentally ill. In addition people with schizophrenia and depression were identified with the concept of mental illness. Measurement of stereotypes, social openness and truthfulness indicated a split in the sample. As far as guiltiness concern participants consider individuals with mental illness as people who blame themselves for all bad things that happen in their lives. Finally educational level had a significant relationship (p<.004) with the attitude that mentally ill people are serious threat for our local context. Discussion: It is therefore important to use these contradictory results in order to raise awareness of public attitudes towards mental health and develop appropriate perceptions regarding mental illness in the general population. Results can also lead to more focused community programmes that can tackle the phenomenon of social exclusion of this specific group. ACHIEVEMENT ON THE WIAT-III OF CHILDREN WITH DIFFERENT CLINICAL DIAGNOSES Prof. G. Panayiotou¹, A. Vrachimi-Souroulla² and Prof. C. Kokkinos³ ¹ Ph.D. Associate Professor, Clinical Psychology Dept. the University of Cyprus, Nicosia, CYPRUS ² Ph.D. Candidate in Clinical Psychology, Psychology Dept., the University of Cyprus, Nicosia, CYPRUS ³ Ph.D. Associate Professor, Educational Psychology Dept., Democritus University of Thrace, GREECE The purpose of the study is to present the results on the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Third Edition (WIAT-III) of children with different clinical diagnoses. The WIAT-III evaluates achievement in the areas of listening, speaking, reading, writing and mathematics skills. The test was translated and adapted to the Greek language and local academic curriculum. It was individually administered to 47 children with 4 different clinical diagnoses (Learning disabilities: N=18, ADHD: N=9, Mental Retardation: N=12 and Developmental Disorders: N=8), along with the Greek WISC- III. Also, the parents completed the Gilliam Autism Rating Scale, the Gilliam Asperger s Disorder Scale and a Disruptive Behavior Disorders Rating Scale. Results were compared to those of 477 typical children and indicated that the children with the clinical diagnoses scored significantly lower than the typical sample on the WIAT-III. Also, the typical sample scored better on the rating scales. Scores on the rating scales were significantly correlated with the scores on the WIAT-III. Among the most difficult subscales of the WIAT-III were the subscales of Spelling and Expressive Vocabulary and among the easiest were the Reading Subscales. The advantages of using multiple valid and reliable tools for the differential diagnosis of children with school related problems are discussed. SECOND-ORDER CHANGE IN PSYCHOTHERAPY: A NECESSARY REQUIREMENT? A.V. Parmenidou BA (Hons) Psychology, MMedSci Psychiatry, Sheffield, UK The British Psychological Society-European Family Therapy Association After more than 40 years of research, a substantial body of evidence has shown psychotherapy to be helpful in ameliorating psychological suffering. This is seldom questioned in professional circles, yet intense debate persists over how, when, and why therapy works. Those claiming to know the answers fall into two main camps, one arguing that some empirically supported treatments are therapeutic for specific problems, while others are less effective. The other camp posits that all approaches work equally well, as long as a strong therapist client relationship and other common curative factors are present. To better elucidate this, first-order change refers to solutions that do not change the problem but that create stability, while second-order change transforms the first-order solutions, resulting in a resolution of the problem. The distinction between 1st- and 2nd-order change may hold important implications for the rationalist-constructivist contrast as portrayed by M. J. Mahoney (1976). An outline of the theoretical bases of the distinction between 1st- and 2nd-order change from P. Watzlawick et al (1974) is presented followed by parallel portrayals of this distinction in developmental and contemporary systems perspectives. A relationship is proposed between the 2 types of change, and implications of this relationship for counselling practice are discussed. 20

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