Unlocking New York City s High School Progress Report

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1 Unlocking New York City s High School Progress Report Sean P. Corcoran Grace Pai A report commissioned by

2 Foreword Among the reform strategies adopted by the New York City Department of Education during the administration of Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg, the push towards school accountability has been the most wide-ranging, influential and, at times, controversial. In a pioneering effort to improve school accountability and move it beyond a simple recitation of high-stakes test scores, New York City developed the Progress Report (PR, a set of metrics that includes the overall A through F letter grade that the DOE began issuing annually to most public schools beginning in In 2011, in an effort to gain a better understanding of New York City s accountability system, New Visions for Public Schools commissioned New York University economist Sean Corcoran and his colleague, Grace Pai, to assess various components of the high school PR. The result, Unlocking New York City s High School Progress Report, represents the most comprehensive analysis of the PR to date. The study attempts to explore how the PR s methodology can more accurately assess the impact that each of New York City s more than 400 high schools has on the diverse student population it serves. Our goal is to contribute to the rich and ongoing conversations that the DOE has welcomed since the PR s first iteration and which have been critical to its significant improvements over time. By their very nature, accountability systems have many goals and, as a result, are challenging to understand and to interpret. Such systems, the authors write, focus attention on and delineate expectations for desired student outcomes. They provide metrics that the district and its stakeholders can use to monitor school performance. They serve as a learning tool for educators, highlighting success areas or areas in need of improvement. They draw attention to schools that are performing well relative to their peers, providing models of good practice, and provide a basis for intervention or closure when a school is performing poorly. One of the central challenges of the PR grade is to fairly account for the differences that schools confront as they serve the city s famously diverse student population. The DOE s Educator s Guide to the Progress Report reflects this concern: The overall Progress Report Grade is designed to reflect each school s contribution to student achievement, no matter where each child begins his or her journey to career and college readiness. The methods are designed to control for demographic characteristics of students so that the final score for each school has as little correlation as possible with incoming student characteristics such as poverty, ethnicity, disabilities, and English learner status. ii

3 The New York City high school PR evaluates schools on a range of metrics including attendance, credit accumulation, graduation rates, and scores on standardized assessments. Schools are compared to every other school in the city as well as to a group of forty peer schools whose incoming students share certain characteristics. In order to account for variation in incoming student populations, the comparison to peer schools is weighted three times as heavily as the citywide comparison. Using data from the school year, Corcoran and Pai elaborate on the key features of the PR methodology. Among their findings: A school s performance in each subcategory depends on how it performed relative to the range of outcomes of its peers. Peer groupings are formed using an index that is based on average proficiency of a school s incoming students, with adjustments for the percent of students who receive special education or are over-age. Importantly, peers only affect a school s score to the extent they affect the range of outcomes to which its performance is benchmarked. While the use of peers moderates the correlation between incoming student characteristics and scores, schools overall PR scores remain associated with many preexisting risk factors, suggesting that a school s score can be influenced by factors outside of its control. Since schools in peer groups vary by size, location, admission method, poverty rate, and percent of students with disabilities, a wide range of outcomes is likely to be observed with a more diverse peer group. The wider the range, the less a peer group represents a sharp comparison of similar schools. The Peer Index has only a modest effect on the overall grade assigned to high schools in large part because of the diversity of peer groups. When the authors calculated PR scores using a formula that ignored peers entirely in favor of a citywide comparison, about two-thirds of high schools received the same grade. The weighted Regents passing rate a subcategory that accounts for a sizable portion of a school s overall score is treated differently from other categories, such as high school graduation rate. It is benchmarked, first, against expectations (based on 8th grade test scores and second, against the peer group and citywide average. The implication of this double benchmarking is that schools with high-achieving students may be penalized for failing to achieve mathematically impossible growth targets. Despite its limitations, the PR takes important steps toward an accountability system which recognizes schools that substantially improve the performance of highly challenged student populations. This system allows such schools to be judged successful regardless of whether they match the absolute performance of schools where students arrive better prepared. The PR s current methods take into account the starting point of incoming students, not just through the use of peer groups, but also through quasi-growth metrics such as the weighted Regents passing rate and the ability to earn extra credit for gains with struggling student populations. We believe that, its limitations aside, the PR has been made progressively stronger with each iteration and can further be improved upon. As Corcoran and Pai point out, even an imperfect accountability tool can incentivize changes in behavior and improve school performance. iii

4 This study clarifies not only the impact of the current version of the PR, but also points to several key revisions that can improve the PR (specifically, the Peer Index s methodology to increase its accuracy. Most significantly, the authors suggest that the peer group approach should be either significantly modified or abandoned altogether. Among the options they propose is comparing actual student performance to predicted performance based on a broad range of student and school characteristics. If the peer group approach is maintained, they suggest that the calculation of peer index should be based on a wider range of incoming student characteristics. Improving the PR s effectiveness is important because an accurate assessment helps educators target school improvement efforts. Moreover, New Visions recognizes from years of experience working with a diverse set of high schools that those schools that use the tool most effectively disregard the overall letter grade. Educators instead look closely at performance in each component of the PR to understand where there is need for improvement and how to prioritize and manage change. For this reason, New Visions recommends the department consider emphasizing grades of component parts of the report, such as the environmental survey, student academic growth, and student graduation rates, and attendance. The department should de-emphasize use of a single grade as an indicator of the school s overall success or failure. We believe that Corcoran and Pai s report contributes important insights into the broader conversation about how to improve New York City s accountability system. In the end, the fundamental premise of New York City s accountability system that we must continue to hold ourselves accountable to rigorous, measurable outcomes is critical to serving this city s diverse student population effectively. With thoughtful modification, the Progress Report can do a better job of measuring school impact. New Visions for Public Schools March 28, 2013 iv

5 About the Authors Sean P. Corcoran, Ph.D. is an associate professor of educational economics at New York University s Steinhardt School of Culture, Education and Human Development, and an affiliated faculty of NYU s Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public Service. He has been a research associate of the Economic Policy Institute in Washington, D.C. since 2004, and was a visiting scholar in residence at the Russell Sage Foundation in His research includes longrun trends in the quality of teachers, the impact of income inequality and court-ordered school finance reform on the level and equity of education funding in the United States, the properties of value-added measures of teacher effectiveness, and the political economy of school choice reforms. In 2009, he led the first evaluation of the Aspiring Principals alternative certification program in New York. He is currently a visiting scholar at the Center for Education Policy Analysis at Stanford University, where he is completing several studies on the high school choice behavior of middle school students in New York City. Grace Pai, B.S., M.Ed., is a former Peace Corps volunteer and high school math teacher with New York City s Teaching Fellows program. A current Ph.D. student in international education at NYU s Steinhardt School of Culture, Education and Human Development, she researches teacher development, education and the labor market, marginalized youth populations, and education policy, both domestically and in developing countries. v

6 About New Visions for Public Schools Since 1989, New Visions for Public Schools has been a leader in fostering innovation and reform to improve the quality of education children receive in New York City s public schools. Our work has reached tens of thousands of students, parents, educators, and community members across the city. Working with the public and private sectors, New Visions develops programs, solutions and strategies to energize teaching and learning and to raise the level of student achievement. Partnering with the New York City Department of Education, New Visions is accountable for improving student achievement in 73 New York City public schools serving more than 40,000 students. As a charter network, New Visions is opening up to 18 charter high schools with the first four now running in the Bronx, and two to open in Brooklyn in fall As a laboratory, New Visions is researching and developing novel solutions for the needs of schools, teachers, and students. Our goal is to graduate all students ready and successful for college, career, and life. 320 West 13th Street, 6th Floor New York, NY Phone:

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