Surface Deformation Patterns Associated with the,**1 Noto Hanto Earthquake Detected by Satellite SAR Differential

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1 Bull. Earthq. Res. Inst. Univ. Tokyo Vol. 2,,**1 pp SAR * Surface Deformation Patterns Associated with the,**1 Noto Hanto Earthquake Detected by Satellite SAR Differential Interferometry Takumi Onuma* JGI, Inc. Abstract Aiming to understand surface deformation patterns associated with the,**1 Noto Hanto earthquake, di# erential interferometry was performed using ALOS PALSAR data acquired on,- February (before the earthquake) and +* April,,**1 (after the earthquake). Displacement in the line of sight (LOS) of the radar was mapped through processing steps such as generation of single look complex (SLC) image data, registration of two SLCs, refinement of baseline, and phase unwrapping of di# erential interferogram. LOS distance after the earthquake was found to decrease in the WNW direction from the AnamizuNotokashima area, and the maximum reduction of /. cm around AkakamiKitawakisaki area was analyzed, as well as the increase of the LOS distance up to / cm in the area of Minazuki through Nishideyama area. Contours of LOS displacement show a pattern like a concentric circle centered several kilometers away to the NW of the Akakami-Kitawakisaki area, which is concordant with the location of the epicenter reported by Japan Meteorological Agency. Key words: ALOS, PALSAR, Noto Hanto earthquake, Di# erential Interferometry, Surface displacement + SAR SAR * SAR SAR Ozawa, et al., +331; Tobita, et al., +332 ; Nishimura, et al.,,**+; Tobita, et, SAR al.,,**+; Yarai, et al.,,**.; Ozawa, et al.,,**0 :SLC,**1 -,/ +3 PALSAR + PAL- L SAR SAR +*. * ALOS PALSAR PALSAR SAR * ++, **+, + /,+ 361

2 GAMMA GAMMA,,/** * /,*** SAR * * * * * SAR PALSAR PALSAR GUI * PRF ; + GAMMA +- SAR Fig. +,**1,,- PALSAR Fig. + /,*** +*,*** Table +. List of PALSAR data used in the study. Fig. +. Doppler frequency change of PALSAR data acquired on,- February,,**1. 362

3 SAR,,**, Hz PALSAR Natural Doppler SN SN +* PALSAR ENVISAT ERS+, L,-. 0 cmsar Radio Frequency Interference; RFI L +/. +0. GHz *+. UHF RFI Fig., RFI PALSAR,**1,,- PAL- SAR RFI.-* m PALSAR Fig.,. Range spectrum of PALSAR data acquired on,- February,,**1 and of typical ENVISAT ASAR data. 363

4 Fig.. +, p + +, ++2. cm PALSAR Fig.. **-. **/. SLC JAXA pp Fig SAR Fig. - * /* m DEM Goldstein and Werner, +332 Fig. / Fig. - DEM *.. *1. *2. DEM MCF Constan- tini, +332 ; Constantini and Rosen, +333 GCP Ground Control Point: DEM DEM Fig. 0 Fig. -. Initial interferogram calculated from PALSAR data acquired on,- February,,**1 and +* April,,**1 (in slant range). - JR * Fig http : // *1++,2 th PRESS-RELEASE/ /.htm, cited on February,,**2 364

5 SAR Fig... Di# erential interferogram calculated from PALSAR data acquired on,- February,,**1 and +* April,,**1. Fig. 0 /. cm / cm + - km PALSAR, PALSAR. PALSAR PAL- SAR SAR 365

6 Fig. /. Coherence map derived from di# erential interferogram calculated from PALSAR data acquired on,- February,,**1 and +* April,,**1. +*. PALSAR JAXA ERSDAC +* /. +*. SAR SAR ++. ; SLC +/. PRF SAR Pulse Repetition Interval : PRI Pulse Repetition Frequency : PRF PRF SAR SAR +, SAR PRF PRF, PRF, PRF SAR +*. +*,2,*** --,*** SAR + 366

7 SAR Fig. 0. Surface deformation in LOS direction derived from di# erential interferometry using PALSAR data pair..* m +, L,-. 0 cm Constantini, M., +332, A novel phase unwrapping method based on network programming. IEEE Transaction on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, -0, -, 2+-2,+. Constantini, M. and P.A. Rosen, +333, A generalized phase unwrapping approach for sparse data. Proceedings of IGARSS 33, Hamburg,,2 June, July, pp.,01,03. Goldstein, R.M. and C.L. Werner, +332, Radar Interferogram Filtering for Geophysical Applications, Geophys. Res. Lett.,,/,.*-/.*-2. Nishimura, T., S. Fujiwara, M. Murakami, M. Tobita, H. Naka- pp gawa, T. Sagiya and T. Tada,,**+, The M 0. + Earthquake p p p p. p pp wrap un- triggered by volcanic inflation of Iwate volcano, northern Japan, observed by satellite radar interferometry, Geophys. Res. Lett.,,2, 0-/ 0-2. Ozawa, S., M. Murakami, S. Fujiwara and M. Tobita, +331, wrap Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferogram of the +33/ Kobe Earthquake and its Geodetic Inversion, Geophys. Res. Lett.,,.,,-,1,--*. 367

8 Ozawa, T., S. Nishimura and H. Ohkura,,**0, Crustal Defor- wara and P.A. Rosen,,**+, --D surface deformation of mation Associated with the,**/ West O# Fukuoka Prefecture the,*** Usu eruption measured by matching of SAR Earthquake Derived from ENVISAT/InSAR and images, Geophys. Res. Lett.,,2,.,3+.,3.. Fault-slip Modeling, Report of the National Research Institute Yarai, H., T. Ozawa, T. Nishimura, T. Tobita and T. Imakiire, for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention, 03, + 0.,**., Crustal deformation associated with the northern Tobita, M., S. Fujiwara, S. Ozawa, P.A. Rosen, E. J. Fielding, Miyagi earthquake detected by RADARSAT-+ and EN- C.L. Werner, M. Murakami, H. Nakagawa, K. Nitta and VISAT SAR interferometry, Earth Planets Space, /0, +*- M. Murakami, +332, Deformation of the +33/ North Sak- +*1. halin earthquake detected by JERS- + /SAR interferometry, Earth, Planets and Space, /*, -+--,/. Received February.,,**2 Accepted March +1,,**2 Tobita, M., M. Murakami, H. Nakagawa, H. Yarai, S. Fuji- 368