Localization of Collaboration Ripples in Wireless Sensor Network

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1 JOURNAL OF APPLIED SCIENCES Electronics and Information Engineering Vol. 30 No. 2 Mar DOI: /j.issn , % 20.00%. TN ( Localization of Collaboration Ripples in Wireless Sensor Network ZHANG Jin-yi 1,3, DUAN Su-yang 1, WU Yu-jian 1, WANG Chun-hua 1, DING Meng-ling 2 1. Key Laboratory of Special Fiber Optics and Optical Access Networks, Ministry of Education, Shanghai University, Shanghai , China 2. Microelectronic Research and Development Center, Shanghai University, Shanghai , China 3. Key Laboratory of Advanced Displays and System Application, Ministry of Education, Shanghai University, Shanghai , China Abstract: This paper proposes a collaboration ripple algorithm for high accuracy, large range and low cost localization of large scale nodes in a wireless sensor network (WSN. A splicing network topology is designed based on a rational network topology research. Location error is reduced with collaboration among the nodes. The ripple algorithm is applied to locate unknown nodes in a unit cell to realize accurate localization of neighboring notes. Verification of the algorithm shows that the collaboration ripple location algorithm can reduce anchor nodes by 3.20%, and improve precision by 20.00%, indicating effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. Keywords: wireless sensor network (WSN, localization, high accuracy, network topology divide, collaboration ripple localization algorithm (wireless sensor networks, WSN. [1]. WSN WSN [2]. (range-based (range-free. AOA(angle of arrival [3] TOA(time of arrival [4] TDOA(time difference of arrival [5] (No.J50104 (No , No SoC

2 2 121 [6]. [7] [8] DV-Hop(distance vector-hop [9] APIT(approximate PIT test [10] ROCRSSI(ring overlapping based on comparison of received signal strength indicator [11].. DV-Hop (.. APIT. [11] APIT ROCRSSI APIT. ROCRSSI. WSN % 20.00% [12].. 1(a (b Figure 1 Division of a location area RSSI [13]. (received signal strength indication, RSSI.. RSSI RSSI.

3 Table 1 Communication area and function of each node RSSI RSSI ( d P (d = P ( + 10ηlg + X δ (1 P (d d d P ( RSSI η X δ δ. η X δ.. 3, X δ, η, RSSI. R = P t P (d (2 P t dbm. R D = P t P ( (3 (2 ( d P (d = P t R D + 10ηlg + X δ (4 X δ 0 RSSI ( d R = R D 10ηlg (5 2(a. 3, 4, Figure 2 Process of collaboration and localization in ripple algorithm 2(a 2 ( d2 3 R 2 3 = R D 10ηlg ( d2 4 R 2 4 = R D 10ηlg ( d2 5 R 2 5 = R D 10ηlg (6, R D, η, RSSI.

4 (... RSSI 2(b. (6 RSSI.. 2(b 3. 5 RSSI.. 2(b (5, [14] (degree of irregularity, DOI, 3... [15] 0, r + r e d(s, p P (s, p= e λ(d(s,p (r reβ, r r e d(s, p<r+r e 1, r r e > d(s, p (7 r r e 3. λ β 0.5. d(s, p s p R d R(d0 R(d = ( d η η. (7. 3 DOI Figure 3 Module of DOI 4. N anc P i = 1 [1 p k ] k=1 i = 1, 2,, N unk ; k = 1, 2,, N anc (8 P k P k P i N anc N unk.. 2. switch-case RSSI. I P. 2.3.

5 Table 2 Pseudo-code of the sensing process of the ripple algorithm 1 for U i from 1 to N unk N unk 2 for A i from 1 to N anc N anc 3 switch (R(A i, U i P i i 4 case T 1 R(A i, U i T 2 U i i 5 U i P 1 A i i 6 S(A i, U i = S(A i, P 1 R(A i, U i i A i RSSI. T i i RSSI 7 case T N R(A i, U i T N+1 S(A i, P i A i P i 8 U i P N S(A i, U i U i A i 9 S(A i, U i = S(A i, P N S(U i U i 10 endcase I 11 endfor P 12 S(U i = I( S(A i, U i// L 13 L = P (S(U i// 14 endfor (b /4 1/ Celeron(R, 4 Figure 4 Communication of unknown nodes and neighbor nodes in unit cell

6 2 125 ROCRSSI. MATL- AB 5 m 5 m Figure 5 Flow chart of neighbor nodes location CPU 2.8 GHz, 1 G MATLAB m 5 m m m m m. 7 Figure 7 Comparative between two algorithms on location error and communication cost 6 Figure 6 Distribution of nodes using collaboration ripple localization algorithm ROCRSSI. 7(a 10. RSSI. ROCRSSI. 7(a 10

7 m. 7(b. [14] (b /2+4=29. ROCRSSI 5+4 5=25. ROCRSSI ROCRSSI Table 3 Comparative between the classical gorithms and collaboration ripple localization algorithms /% [7] R A 10 APIT [10] 40%R A + N 10 DV-Hop [9] 33%R 2A(A + N 10 ROCRSSI [11] 30%R A + AC A %R A R. A E A = E /R. 3 ROCRSSI 20%. A N C A ROCRSSI N N. 3. DV-Hop. ROCRSSI APIT ROCRSSI m 100 m m %.. RSSI RSSI APIT ROCRSSI MATLAB 3.20% 20.00%..

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