1 JOURNAL OF APPLIED SCIENCES Electronics and Information Engineering Vol. 30 No. 2 Mar DOI: /j.issn , % 20.00%. TN ( Localization of Collaboration Ripples in Wireless Sensor Network ZHANG Jin-yi 1,3, DUAN Su-yang 1, WU Yu-jian 1, WANG Chun-hua 1, DING Meng-ling 2 1. Key Laboratory of Special Fiber Optics and Optical Access Networks, Ministry of Education, Shanghai University, Shanghai , China 2. Microelectronic Research and Development Center, Shanghai University, Shanghai , China 3. Key Laboratory of Advanced Displays and System Application, Ministry of Education, Shanghai University, Shanghai , China Abstract: This paper proposes a collaboration ripple algorithm for high accuracy, large range and low cost localization of large scale nodes in a wireless sensor network (WSN. A splicing network topology is designed based on a rational network topology research. Location error is reduced with collaboration among the nodes. The ripple algorithm is applied to locate unknown nodes in a unit cell to realize accurate localization of neighboring notes. Verification of the algorithm shows that the collaboration ripple location algorithm can reduce anchor nodes by 3.20%, and improve precision by 20.00%, indicating effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. Keywords: wireless sensor network (WSN, localization, high accuracy, network topology divide, collaboration ripple localization algorithm (wireless sensor networks, WSN. . WSN WSN . (range-based (range-free. AOA(angle of arrival  TOA(time of arrival  TDOA(time difference of arrival  (No.J50104 (No , No SoC
2 2 121 .   DV-Hop(distance vector-hop  APIT(approximate PIT test  ROCRSSI(ring overlapping based on comparison of received signal strength indicator .. DV-Hop (.. APIT.  APIT ROCRSSI APIT. ROCRSSI. WSN % 20.00% .. 1(a (b Figure 1 Division of a location area RSSI . (received signal strength indication, RSSI.. RSSI RSSI.
3 Table 1 Communication area and function of each node RSSI RSSI ( d P (d = P ( + 10ηlg + X δ (1 P (d d d P ( RSSI η X δ δ. η X δ.. 3, X δ, η, RSSI. R = P t P (d (2 P t dbm. R D = P t P ( (3 (2 ( d P (d = P t R D + 10ηlg + X δ (4 X δ 0 RSSI ( d R = R D 10ηlg (5 2(a. 3, 4, Figure 2 Process of collaboration and localization in ripple algorithm 2(a 2 ( d2 3 R 2 3 = R D 10ηlg ( d2 4 R 2 4 = R D 10ηlg ( d2 5 R 2 5 = R D 10ηlg (6, R D, η, RSSI.
4 (... RSSI 2(b. (6 RSSI.. 2(b 3. 5 RSSI.. 2(b (5,  (degree of irregularity, DOI, 3...  0, r + r e d(s, p P (s, p= e λ(d(s,p (r reβ, r r e d(s, p<r+r e 1, r r e > d(s, p (7 r r e 3. λ β 0.5. d(s, p s p R d R(d0 R(d = ( d η η. (7. 3 DOI Figure 3 Module of DOI 4. N anc P i = 1 [1 p k ] k=1 i = 1, 2,, N unk ; k = 1, 2,, N anc (8 P k P k P i N anc N unk.. 2. switch-case RSSI. I P. 2.3.
5 Table 2 Pseudo-code of the sensing process of the ripple algorithm 1 for U i from 1 to N unk N unk 2 for A i from 1 to N anc N anc 3 switch (R(A i, U i P i i 4 case T 1 R(A i, U i T 2 U i i 5 U i P 1 A i i 6 S(A i, U i = S(A i, P 1 R(A i, U i i A i RSSI. T i i RSSI 7 case T N R(A i, U i T N+1 S(A i, P i A i P i 8 U i P N S(A i, U i U i A i 9 S(A i, U i = S(A i, P N S(U i U i 10 endcase I 11 endfor P 12 S(U i = I( S(A i, U i// L 13 L = P (S(U i// 14 endfor (b /4 1/ Celeron(R, 4 Figure 4 Communication of unknown nodes and neighbor nodes in unit cell
6 2 125 ROCRSSI. MATL- AB 5 m 5 m Figure 5 Flow chart of neighbor nodes location CPU 2.8 GHz, 1 G MATLAB m 5 m m m m m. 7 Figure 7 Comparative between two algorithms on location error and communication cost 6 Figure 6 Distribution of nodes using collaboration ripple localization algorithm ROCRSSI. 7(a 10. RSSI. ROCRSSI. 7(a 10
7 m. 7(b.  (b /2+4=29. ROCRSSI 5+4 5=25. ROCRSSI ROCRSSI Table 3 Comparative between the classical gorithms and collaboration ripple localization algorithms /%  R A 10 APIT  40%R A + N 10 DV-Hop  33%R 2A(A + N 10 ROCRSSI  30%R A + AC A %R A R. A E A = E /R. 3 ROCRSSI 20%. A N C A ROCRSSI N N. 3. DV-Hop. ROCRSSI APIT ROCRSSI m 100 m m %.. RSSI RSSI APIT ROCRSSI MATLAB 3.20% 20.00%..
8 :  Savvides A, Srivastava M B, Han C C. Dynamic fine-grained location in ad-hoc networks of sensors [C]//Proceedings Mobile Computing and Networking, Rome, Italy, 2008:  Boukerche A, Oliveira H A B, Nakamura E F. Localization systems for wireless sensor networks [J]. IEEE Wireless Communications, 2007, 14(6:  Koshima H, Hoshen J. Personal locator services emerge. [J]. IEEE Spectrum, 2000, 37(2:  Patwari N, Hero A O, Perkins M, Correal N S. Relative location estimation in wireless sensor networks [J]. IEEE Transaction Signal Processing Society, 2003, 51(8:  Girod L, Estrion D. Robust range estimations using acoustic and multimodal sensing [C]//IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems. Los Angeles, CA: IEEE Press, 2001(3:  Rachuri K, Murthy C. Energy efficient and scalable search in dense wireless sensor networks [J]. IEEE Transactions on Computers, 2009, 58(6:  Bulusu N, Heidemann J, Estrin D. GPS-less lowcost outdoor localization for very small devices [J]. IEEE Personal Communication Society, 2000, 7(5:  Doherty L, Ghaoui L, El Ghaoui L. Convex position estimation in wireless sensor networks [C]// IEEE Computer and Communications Societies. Berkeley, CA: IEEE Press, 2001, 3(3:  Niculescu D, Nath B. DV based positioning in ad hoc networks [J]. Journal of Telecommunication Systems, 2003, 22(1:  He T, Huang C. Range-free localization schemes for large scale sensor networks [C]//Proceedings the 9th Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking, San Diego, CA. 2003:  Liu Chong, Wu Kui, He Tian. Sensor localization with ring overlapping based on comparison of received signal strength indicator [C]//2004 IEEE International Conference on Mobile Ad-hoc and Sensor System. Canada: IEEE press, 2004:  Zhang Chi, Zhang Yanchao, Fang Yuguang. A coverage inference protocol for wireless sensor networks [J]. IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, 2010, 9(6:  Rahman M Z, Kleeman L. Paired measurement localization: a robust approach for wireless localization [J]. IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, 2009, 8(8:  Zou Y, Chakrabarty K. Sensor deployment and target localization in distributed sensor networks [J]. ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems, 2004, 3(1:  Zhou G, He T, Krishnamurthy S, Stankovic J A. Models and solutions for radio irregularity in wireless sensor networks [J]. ACM Transactions on Sensor Networks, 2006, 2(2: ( :