1 ABSTRACT BOOK ASSOCIATION OF PSYCHOLOGY & PSYCHIATRY FOR ADULTS & CHILDREN 11 th International Conference Friendship & Unity, Psychology & Communication Laison of Psychiatry and Neurology May 2 nd 5 th, 2006 Athens, Hellas Hilton Hotel
2 CONTENTS KEY LECTURES KL1 Psychosocial Aspects of Ffriendship and Family Unity according to Aristotle STATE-OF-THE-ART LECTURE SOA Estime de Soi dans les Apprentissages de l Enfanat PLENARY LECTURES PL2 The Impact of Researh on Program Development:Two Succaessful Models PL3 «Women s Mental Health : Eliciting the Relaxation Response with Help of Flotation REST (Resticted Environmental Stimulation Technique» LECTURES L1 «Special Subjects of Mental Hygiene of Woman» L2 «The Quality of Life of individuals with Bipolar Disorders» L3 «Syndrome of Repressed Memory (Sexually Abused Chldren s -Withnesse in the Court)» L4 «Human Systems Therepy of Schizophrenia» CORE SYMPOSIA CS1 PRIMARY PREVENTION & INTERVENTION IN PSYCHOSES CS2 The Role of Cooperative Behaviors in Depression CS2 Trajectories of Depressive Symptoms: The Role of Race and Socioeconomic Status SYMPOSIA S1 Women s Mental Health after Giving Birth S1 Comparative Assessment of the Effect of Doing Exercise on Female S1 Inscribing Women s Health: Clandestine Voices within the Architecture of Language S2 (GR) The Use of Pictorial Creative Techinques of Psychodynamic S2 (GR) Music Therapy Programs in Alzheimer s Patients S2 (GR) Emersion of Familial Transactions though Chlidren s Drawings S3 (GR) Difficulties of Integration and Equivalent Confrontation of Cahlildren, Adolescents and Young Adults that are Entertained in Hospices S3 (GR) Children s Psychiatry in the General Hospital of Mitilini, : Course, Experience and aresults of its 16- month Operation S3 Play as Potential Space and Secondary Reality S4 Experiencaes Seeking Traditional and Orthodox Treatment for Psychiatric Issues in Nigeria S4 Sommatization and Somatised Mental Disorders S5 Challenges of Paarenthood in the XXI Century S5 Foster Care Family & Family of Origin: Understanding and Dealing with Loyalty Conflict S5 Perceived Parental Feedback and it s Correlation to Young-Adolescents Self-Concaept and Self-Esteem: Differences in Relation to Cendear and School Grade S6 Training of Cognitive Processes & Transfer in Alzheimer s Disease S6 The Center of Caognitive and Psychological Rehaabilitation of the Greek Alzheimer s Disease and Related Disorders Association in Thessaloniki S7 Creativity within Workgroups S7 Study of Relationship Between Self-Satisfaction and Power of Leadership S8 Imaginary Companions and Mental Abilities: An Evaluation of Theory of Mind and Emotion Comprehension S8 Life Skills for Young Adults with Learning Disabilities S9 An Investigation of the relationship between Educational Performance and Mental Health among High School Students in Kerman Province S9 Avoiding Trauma in Children with Learing Differences S10 Family and Art Therapy in Children and Adolescents S10 The Medical Power of Music S10 Perception of Family throught Artistic Expression in Adults S11 From the History of Epilepsy S11 Status Epilepticus S11 Epilepsy and Mental Retardation S11 Differential Diagnosis of Epilepsy S12 Effects of Implementation Intentions on Controlling the Social Anxiety Symptoms S12 Effect of Body Image of Self-Esteem S12 Patients after Major Orthopaedic Operations: Can we Incorporate them Fully in Today s Society S12 Comparative Study of Psychological, Medical & Compact Models for Iranian Students with Panic Symptoms S13 Adolescents Immigrants: The Vulnerable Foreigners S13 Greek Dance as a Means of Integration of Immigrants S13 Ideology, Health and Social Politics in the health System S13 Art as a non-conventional Communication Method
3 SATELITE SYMPOSIA SAS1 ACTIONAID HELLAS (GR) SAS2 Normal and Abnormal Cognitive Deficits in Elderly ROUND TABLES RT1 Art as a Therapy and Communication Method RT1 Music as an Expressive & Communication Method in Adolescents RT2 Psychoherapeutic Interventions in Children and Adolescents RT3 Fashion and Art: Form of Class, Colour of Glass and Aesthetic Pleasure RT3 The Chorus as Means of Treatment RT3 Music therapy: from the Antiquity up Today RT4 Adaptation Expeiences of Turkish-Speaking Migrant Women in United Kingdom RT4 Older Refugees In Exile: Needs and Service Response RT5 Principles and Strategic Planning of Growth of Children and Adolescents Mental Health Services in the Frontier Region RT5 Innovatiave Actions in Mental Health via Concretisation of Community Parogrms. The Experience of Lesvos Disctrict RT5 Activities, Role and Route of the Psychological Service in General Hospital in the Frontier Region, : Results,, Prospects RT6 Not Pharmaceutical Interventions in the Senility: Observations and Extensions in Closed Frame of Hospitalisation RT7 Dementia and Depression RT7 Frontotenporal Dementia RT7 Parkison s Dementia RT8 GREEK WOMEN MASS MEDIA WORKSHOPS W1 Secondary Gain in Psychiatry and Fashion Disorders W2 Recent Advances in Trauma Therapy: Therapeutic Factors with Personality Disorders and Complex Trauma SPECIAL SESSIONS SS1 Exclusion from friendships:an example of social exclusion for people with the label of Learning Dificulties in England SS1 Flirt: Aspects of Communicational Expressions and Psychological Risks in Men s Personality SS1 Self-Concept in Children: a New Meathod to Improve it, which uses Subliminal Priming SS1 Communication in Deaf SS2 Art Therapy with a Group of Children whose Parents are Ill SS2 Chronic Trauma & Child Health: Immediate and Long-term Consequences SS2 Secondary Traumatic Stress & Burnout among the Humanitarian Waorkers who Work with Children & Women Victims of Abuse & Violence SS3 Literature, Television and Computer Games Impact on Non-Aggressive and Aggressive Behaviors in Adolescence SS3 The MTV Spirit & Algerian Teenagers Sexuality: Investigating Sexuality & Media Effects SS4 Psychic Disorders during Menopause SS4 The man Ingmar Bergman as Deject and his Women SS4 Psychosocial Dimension of Breast Cancer SS5 Sexual Harassment among Astudents of the Same Age in High School SS5 Psychological Consequencaes of Intra-Familia l Violence in Adolescents SS6 Epidemiology and Public Health SS6 Emotional Intelligence and Health SS7 Infant Observation: Methodological Comparison SS7 Competing Demands of Female Caregivers in Jakarta, Indonesia SS8 The Greek Unemployed Woman Attitudes Towards Herself and the Society SS8 Can the Participation in a Group Improve the Way of Confrontation o f Mental Pressing Situations? SS8 Psychological After-effects of Involuntary Interruption of Gestation in the Woman: Examination of Bibliography SS9 The Dynamics of Relationships SS9 Music as a Means of Communication within the Greek Family SS9 Elaboration of Experiences of Married Life SS10 The Social-emotional Growth of the Child in the Frame of its Relation with the Educator in the Environment of Precocious Education SS10 Software of Detection of Educational difficultie : Who are the most Raeliabel indicators of Localisation SS10 Synthetic Speech as an Aid for Students with Learning Difficulties: Its Dimensions and Use SS10 Study on Childrens Self-Esteem SS11 Art Therapy and Socially Excluded Children in Next Door Children Program. A case study SS11 Program of Health Education SS12 Quality of Care throught the Pedopsychiatric Reformation ( ):Utopia and Reality SS12 The procedure of Therapeutic Change and Relapse throught Narrative Stories of Prior Addicted people SS13 Treatment in Infra-Familial Child Abuse in a Probational Setting SS13 Risk Factors of Domestic Violence in Indonesia SS14 Communication-Dialogue and Time Aspects in Emphatic Understanding SS14 Antecendents, Experience, Expression & Control of Anger in Batak People & Javanese SS15 Visualizing the invisible : Children, Psychopharmaceuticals and their Body SS15 Expressed Emotion in Psychopathological Adolescents
4 SS15 Breafast Interview in Psychopathological Adolescents INTERACTIVE CLINICAL SESSIONS ICS1 Valuing Attachment: Evaluation of a Therapeutic Service for Children with Attachment Difficulties ICS2 POSTER PRESENTATION P1 The Impact of Media on Juvenile Delinquency P2 Physical Appearance and Intimate Friendship in Adolescence in a Portuguese College Students Sample P3 Neoplasmatic Disease of the Parent and Behavioral Disorders of Adolescence: Clinical Observations and Therapeutic Interventions P4 Interpersonal Dominance in Family Relationships P5 The Homeless and how they Cope with Loneliness P6 Grand Parents in Greece: Attitudes and Role Performance P7 Therapeutic Relation of Psychologist with Hospitalised Children at the Children s General Hospital in Penteli P8 The Phenomelological Clinical Syndrome of Alexithimia: Theoretical and Inquiring Data - Therapeutic Regards P9 Panic Attacks P10 Gender Differences in Patients Written Narratives About Being Diagnosed with Cancer P11 Treatment Decision-Related Factors in Cancer Patients P12 Change in Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms (PTSD) Following Psychosocial Treatment for Breast Cancer P13 «Breaking Bad news to Cancer Patients: Transitioning from Taboo to Truth-Telling in Greece» P14 The After-effects of Intra-familial Violence on the Children P15 Surrogate Parenthood: The Interracial Adoption and its Results P16 The Impact of Transformational Leadership, Emotional Intelligence and Group Cohesiveness on Leadership Emergence: A Gender Comparison P17 Revealing of Aggression, Alarm, Fears at Children of Preschool Age which had Transferred Inta-Familial Deprivation P18 Unemployment and Mental Health to Women A Comparative Study P19 Relations between Attachment and Attributional Styles Towards Friends in Adolescence P20 Teaching Clinical Skills Experientially P21 Stressors, their Coping Strategies and Relation to Mental Health in Infertile Individuals P22 Study of the Greek Demographic Chart of Psychic Disorders P23 Regulatory Disorders in Toddlerhood Hyperactivity in Early Age P24 Loneliness of Abused Women P25 Depression, Anxiety and Quality of Life of Female Students with Premenstrual Related Problems P26 Essential Fatty Acids and the Prevalence of Depression P27 Sexual Deviations or Parafilies: Psychotherapeutic Techniques of Confrontation - Prevention of Relapse P28 Psychometrics Versus Culture P29 Physician-Patient Communication Among Greek Cancer Physicians: The Influence of Psychosocial Orientation and Burn Out P30 A Survey about Communication between Medical Staff and Cancer Patients in Greece P31 Breast Cancer Surgery in Greek Patients: Decision-Making and Satisfaction P32 The Approach to Dying Person in a General Hospital P33 Physical and Mental Health Among Thai Older Adults: Social Comparison as a Mediator P34 Influence of the Stressful Factors on Condition Vascular Channel P35 The Modern Approach to Treatment and Rehabilitation in Depressive Disorders P36 Congruence Person-Environment Effect on task Satisfaction P37 Immigration and Mental Health: A Comparative Study The necessity of Ethnopsychiatric Consultation P38 Internal Duty in the Biggest Psychiatric Hospital of Greece P39 Gender and Psychological Impact of Infertility. A Review of the Literature P40 The Personality Disorders Psychotherapeutic Treatment P41 Brain: Behaviour - Sentiments - Cognitive Operations and Mental Disturbances. A Neuro-Psychological Approach P42 Biological Aspects of Aggression P43 Sleep Disorders in Patients with Colorectal Cancer in Correlation with Quality of Life and Awareness of Disease P44 Personal Characteristics and Psychological Parameters in Patients Suffering from Hematological Malignancies P45 A Psychoeducational Intervention for Women with Breast Cancer and Gynaecological Tumours P46 Lining Alopecia: Study on the Impact of Chemotherapy Associated Alopecia in Quality of Life and Daily Activities in Cancer P47 Sex Differences in the Search of Counselling and Psychoterapeutic Support P48 «Colorectal Cancer Patients Informational needs About Sexuality Related Issues» P49 Working Memory Disturbances in Schizophrenic Patients and their First-Degree Healthy Relatives P50 Features of Mental Adaptation of the Persons in Extreme Conditions of Labour Activity P51 The Impact of Parental Bipolar Disorder on Familiar Communication Institute P52 The Application of a Multifactorial Program to Control Tabac Consumption P53 Emergency Psychiatric Departments: Are all the days the same?
5 KEY LECTURES KL1 Psychosocial Aspects of Friendship and Family Unity according to Aristotle Emeritus Professor IERODIAKONOU, CH. (Greece) Aristotelio University of Thessaloniki Aristotle, the ancient Greek philosopher of the 4 th century B.C., was a keen observer of human nature and had a psychological perspective in his studies of people s interrelations. He stressed the psychosocial necessity of friendship and analyzed its determining factors, i.e. mutuality, reciprocity, trust, common experiences and common interests etc. Similarity of characters was also considered by him important. Aristotle described in detail the intrafamilial relations, e.g. paternal / maternal love, respect of children for the parents, brotherly similarities and differences, obligations to cousins etc. He underlined that family unity is based on a good leader ( a father like a good king ), as well as on individual value, justice and right behaviour between family members. Nature also plays its part, especially in marriage, not only for having children, but furthermore for pleasure and useful social actions. The philosopher though writing his observations in books of Ethics, does not avoid to express his opinions on various aspects of erotic love as well. STATE-OF-THE-ART LECTURE SOA Estime de Soi dans les Apprentissages de l Enfanat MAZET, PH. (France) University of Paris, Child Psychiatric Service, Salpetrière Hospital, Paris La pratique clinique nous confronte à des situations où les difficultés d apprentissage de l enfant apparaissent liées à des causes et à des mécanismes souvent étroitement intriqués et dont il est parfois bien difficile de préciser la part respective dans l origine du trouble et dans son maintien. Parmi ces facteurs, l estime de soi occupe une place originale et importante dans la réalisation, la réussite ou l échec des apprentissages de l enfance. L accent est d abord mis sur la nécessité d une suffisante estime de soi dans la réussite des apprentissages, scolaires notamment, de l enfant. «Il n a pas confiance en lui», c est ainsi que parents et enseignants, de manière pertinente, tentent souvent d expliquer les difficultés ou l échec scolaire d un enfant. En effet, certains enfants sont en difficulté au tout début de leur démarche d apprentissage, au moment où bien souvent le recours à la personne qui sait ou sait faire, ou qui peut guider ou accompagner l apprentissage est inévitable et où ils se trouvent démunis, confrontés à une incompétence transitoire, volontiers ressentie alors comme coupable ou dévalorisante. Cette première étape peut passer inaperçue et se révéler très transitoire si l élan de la curiosité et le désir intense de progresser l emporte sur le sentiment initial d incomplétude et d incapacité de l enfant et si l adulte sait l encourager et l accompagner de manière bienveillante et suffisamment patiente. Mais il suffit que l enfant soit peu sûr de lui-même ou anxieux pour que ce sentiment d impuissance initiale le déborde, l entraîne éventuellement à démissionner rapidement, voire le déprime. Quelques-uns des facteurs contribuant au développement et au maintien de l estime de soi sont ensuite abordés. Ces derniers sont schématiquement liés, d une part à ce que l enfant, dès les premières interactions, perçoit de l investissement de lui-même par ses parents et, de manière plus générale, par son entourage, et d autre part aux expériences positives et aux réussites qu il peut avoir dans ses diverses activités et apprentissages. Chemin faisant, cette notion d estime de soi est articulée avec celles de confiance en soi, d amour de soi et de narcissisme de bonne qualité et d attachement sécure. De manière générale, on peut dire que des conditions de vie familiales et/ou sociales défaillantes ne répondant pas aux besoins psychologiques fondamentaux de l enfant : besoin de se sentir aimé, respecté, besoin de se sentir actif, acteur, vont entraver ou altérer la constitution de cette estime de soi. Quelques implications pratiques de la prise en compte de l estime de soi sur un plan éducatif ou pédagogique chez l enfant mais aussi sur un plan plus spécifiquement thérapeutique, rééducatif ou psychothérapique sont enfin précisées. Il semble bien que l un des axes de travail que l on doit avoir, quelle que soit notre fonction dans l équipe thérapeutique, soit bien un certain degré de restauration de l image de soi chez le sujet. Or, certains abords diagnostiques et thérapeutiques sont parfois loin d engendrer cette restauration, notamment lorsqu ils contribuent trop par le centrage sur le manque, l incapacité, le handicap ou l échec, à maintenir, voire à renforcer chez le sujet l image d un enfant abîmé, à réparer à tout prix. Une relation vécue comme authentiquement bienveillante tant par l enfant que par ses parents, où il se sent accepté tel qu il est mais aussi pris en considération dans ses aspirations, est le préalable indispensable à tout travail éventuel rééducatif ou psychothérapique. Il s agit de redonner confiance à l enfant quant à ses possibilités, mais aussi de redonner confiance aux parents dans les capacités de leur enfant et dans leurs propres fonctions parentales. Pour terminer, une recherche actuelle à La Salpêtrière sur l évaluation de l estime de soi dans une population d enfants ayant des troubles de l attention avec hyperactivité est évoquée. PLENARY LECTURES PL2 The Impact of Research on Program Development: Two Successful Models ARMBRUSTER, P. Associate Clinical Professor Yale University Child Study Center In the United States, Approximately two-thirds of children in need of psychiatric care fail to receive it. A number of barriers prevent emotionally disturbed children and families from receiving necessary mental health services. These range from practical ones -- such as inadequate knowledge about where to go -- to complex psychological ones involving parent, child, or family dynamics. If we use clinical and epidemiological studies to identify specific risk groups or risk factors we may find strategies for delivering more effective mental health services. Several reasons for the gap between service need and service utilization have been noted in the adult literature. These identified service barriers are known as the 4 A s : availability, accessibility, acceptability and affordability. Stated another way, service utilization is related to need factors, predisposing factors, and enabling factors. Lack of awareness of available sources and lack of cultural congruency, including language problems and poor ethnic match, contribute to this gap. Researchers found that affordability of services represented the most formidable service barrier. Stigma or acceptability, previously considered the major deterrent, was not found to be as important
6 a barrier. Studies have noted that those in most need are those who perceive the greatest services barriers, and that underutilization of services is generally associated with lower socioeconomic status. As with adults, access has been identified as a major barrier for children. The situation is complicated by the reality that children needing mental health services rarely seek it for themselves and are dependent on adults -- such as parents, teachers or other referral agents -- to recognize the need and institute contact. Further obstacles are created when human service agencies are not well coordinated with educational, child welfare or other community institutions interacting with the child. Although investigators claim financial circumstances to be a barrier, they note that many children and families cannot afford services or are unaware that the services are available at adjusted rates or even no cost. Socioeconomic disadvantage is a risk factor for lack of utilization with both children and adults. In addition to the above-mentioned comments regarding the gap between children who need service and those who receive it, research has found that, in some populations, such as inner city children exposed to high levels of psychosocial adversity, the rate of underutilization is estimated to be as high as 22 percent. In our study of inner city school children in New Haven, we found that almost 40 percent of these children were likely candidates for psychiatric disorders, and only 11 percent of these (at risk) children had utilized mental health services. Before I proceed further, I would like to describe our Clinic population and the environment in which the at-risk children live. The Yale Child Study Outpatient Clinic and the children and families it serves are located in New Haven, CT -- one of the most economically and socially polarized cities in the United States. Close to 30 percent of the city s population lives in public housing, yet six institutions of higher learning reside within its borders, including Yale University. The Yale Child Study Center Outpatient Clinic is a university-based, inner-city children s mental health clinic. It serves the city s disadvantaged population: 65 to 75 percent are on Medicaid, 83 percent are single-parent families, and 61 percent are minority (41 percent African American and 20 percent Hispanic). The Clinic is a clinic for the poor. The combined attrition rate of the Clinic is 45 percent, measured by different clinic phases (e.g. dropout after completing telephone intake prior to in-person contact, dropout after one session, dropout during evaluation, dropout after completion of evaluation, dropout during treatment). The Clinic is representative of the children attending the city s public schools in that the majority of the students are poor and minority, and, unfortunately (with few exceptions), parent involvement is one of the main challenges faced by the schools. The Clinic accepts patients on a sliding-fee scale according to the family s financial status. Contact with the Clinic begins with a phone call from the parent or other referring source to our intake coordinators. They record: age, gender, residence, family composition, school information, presenting complaint, referral source, medication and whether or not the case is an emergency or not. At the time of the phone call, an appointment is set for the first Clinic visit, and parents are sent an application packet which contains an introductory report form and four standardized measures. Unless they are Spanish-speaking, or receiving child protection services, or the case is an emergency, clients are given the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC), and at that time, are asked to bring with them the completed standardized measures. If clients do not quality for the DISC, they are given an appointment with the intake coordinators, at which time they sign all release forms, patient responsibilities, etc., and the coordinators assure that the standardized measures are complete. When all this information is gathered, it is assigned to a clinician, who then does an evaluation and, if indicated, provide treatment. PL3 «Women s Mental Health : Eliciting the Relaxation Response with Help of Flotation REST (Resticted Environmental Stimulation Technique» NORLANDER, T., BOOD, S.A. (Sweden) Psychology Dpt, Karlstad University Two studies were conducted. The first aimed to investigate long-term effects of flotation-rest four months after treatment. Seventy patients participated, diagnosed as having stress-related pain. Participants were randomly assigned in equal numbers to either a control group or a flotation-rest group and participated in a total of twelve flotation REST or control sessions. Results indicated that pain areas, stress, anxiety and depression decreased, while sleep quality, optimism, and prolactin increased. Positive effects generally maintained four months after treatment. The second study examined the potential effects of attention-placebo on flotation tank therapy. Thirty-two patients who were diagnosed as having stress-related muscular pain were treated with flotation- REST for a period of six weeks. Half of the patients were also given special attention for a period of 12 weeks, while the remainder received such attention for 6 weeks. Participants in both groups exhibited lowered blood pressure, reduced pain, anxiety, depression, stress, and negative affectivity, as well as increased optimism, energy, and positive affectivity. It was therefore concluded that flotation tank therapy is an effective method for the treatment of stress-related pain. References Bood, S. Å., Sundequist, U., Norlander, T., Nordström, L., Nordenström, K., Kjellgren, A., & Nordström, G. (2006). Eliciting the relaxation response with help of flotation-rest (Restricted Environmental Stimulation Technique) in patients with stress related ailments. International Journal of Stress Management, 13, [Will appear May 2006] Bood, S. Å., Sundequist, U., Kjellgren, A., Nordström, G., & Norlander, T. (in press). Effects of Flotation-REST (Restricted Environmental Stimulation Technique) on Stress Related Muscle Pain: What Makes the Difference in Therapy, Attention- Placebo or the Relaxation Response? Pain Research and Management. LECTURES L1 «Special Subjects of Mental Hygiene of Woman» L2 «The Quality of Life of individuals with Bipolar Disorders» SOURPI, Z.A. (Greece) Clinical Psychologist, Professor Life Sciences Dpt, University of Surrey, London Bipolar disorder is a recurring, often chronic illness, characterised by periods of mania and depression with variable interepisode recovery. For the majority of patients it is the depressive component of this illness that contributes to most of the
7 associated morbidity, social disability and mortality. Research and clinical experience suggest that acute treatment and prevention of depressive episodes is by far the most challenging aspect of the care of patients with the disorder. Manic depression distorts moods, causes violent behaviours, destroys the basis of rational thought and, so often, takes away from the individual the desire to live. Although manic depressive illness has long been assumed to be genetic in origin and its strong tendency to run in families but not in others has been observed for well over a thousand years, only the recent radical advances in molecular biology have made it possible to identify these susceptibility genes. It is almost certain that over the next few years the identification genes will have a major impact on out understanding of disease pathophysiology. This is likely to lead to major improvements and treatment in patient care, but will also raise important ethical questions. L4 «Human Systems Therepy of Schizophrenia» PARITSIS, N. (Greece) Psychiatry & Behavioural Sciences Dpt., School of Medicine University of Crete Aim : Besides the psychoanalytic and cognitive psychotherapy of schizophrenia it is developed recently in Crete and it is under evaluation a systemic psychotherapy of schizophrenia. Method : This type is of psychotherapy is based on assumptions such as the definition of a system, the integration of cognition and affect, the increase of order and variety of the system under therapy. Besides, a conceptualization of schizophrenia integrating biological, psychological and family research findings is used. Furthermore, some specific to this method techniques are developed, such as the following of the logical consequences of the beliefs of the patient and the over positive presentation of characteristics of the patient. Results: There are four trials so far with satisfactory results on different types of schizophrenia including the chronic ones. Conclusion: After the first encouraging results the method is under further evaluation, refinement and presentation to the trained in systems therapy students. CORE SYMPOSIA CS1 PRIMARY PREVENTION & INTERVENTION IN PSYCHOSES KONTAXAKIS, V. Chair, Section of Preventive Psychiatry World Psychiatric Association Ο πρώτος και κύριος στόχος της Προληπτικής Ψυχιατρικής είναι η αναζήτηση των παραγόντων που προφυλάσσουν τα υγιή άτοµα από την εµφάνιση ψυχικών διαταραχών ή των παραγόντων που συµβάλλουν στην εµφάνιση ψυχικών διαταραχών, αποσκοπώντας στη µείωση της επίπτωσης των διαταραχών αυτών (πρωτοβάθµια πρόληψη). Οι στρατηγικές πρωτοβάθµιας πρόληψης διακρίνονται σε τρείς κατηγορίες : α. σε αυτές που απευθύνονται στο γενικό πληθυσµό (ενηµέρωση) όταν η φύση της διαταραχής είναι γνωστή, β,. στις επιδηµιολογικέ µελέτες και παρεµβάσεις που αποσκοπούν στην κατανόηση της φύσης της διαταραχής και του τρόπου µετάβασης από την υγιή κατάσταση στη νόσο γ. στις αναπτυξιακές στρατηγικές που βασίζονται στη διερεύνηση των παραγόντων που συµβάλλουν στην εµφάνιση της διαταραχής κατά τη διάρκεια της περιόδου από την γέννηση µέχρι την ενηλικίωση. Οι τεχνικές πρωτοβάθµιας πρόληψης, αδρά χωρίζονται σε βιοτεχνολογικές και ψυχοκοινωνικές. Οι βιοτεχνολογικές τεχνικές, που έχουν µεγαλύτερη εγκυρότητα, έχουν µέχρι σήµερα ελάχιστες εφαρµογές στον ψυχιατρικό χώρο. Οι ψυχολογικές και ψυχοκοινωνικές συστηµατικές παρεµβάσεις σε ασυµπτωµατικά άτοµα είναι ιδιαίτερα χρήσιµες στην πρόληψη σηµαντικού αριθµού ψυχικών διαταραχών. Εν τούτοις, πρέπει να επισηµανθούν οι δυσκολίες υλοποίησης τέτοιων προγραµµάτων που οφείλονται στο µεγάλο οικονοµικό κόστος αλλά και την αρνητική στάση µεγάλου µέρους της κοινωνίας λόγω του «ψυχιατρικού στιγµατισµού». CS2 The Role of Cooperative Behaviors in Depression TSE, W.S. (China) Applied Social Studies Dpt, City University of Hong Kong With the growing interest to understand social functioning in depressed patients, non-verbal behaviors, such as smile; gaze, were of focus. However, cooperative behavior, which also bears a significant functioning in the development of friendship, social supports, has been ignored in depression study. Depressive symptoms, such as inattentiveness and excessive self-focused attention fit in to explain poor cooperative behavior. Cooperative behavior is different from simply giving in and ingratiation. It involves a balance cognitive appraisal of self-focused interest and other-focused interest. It also requires meta-cognition to calculate social relationship cost and self-gains. Multiple lines of evidences indicated that cooperative behavior has a unique role in depression. Behaviorally, depressed group reported less cooperative communication than schizophrenic counterpart (1). In dyadic interaction study, confederate portraits depressive behaviors, e.g. non-cooperative eye gaze pattern, were found to trigger more social rejection and punitive responses from interactants(2). Personality study showed that cooperative personality predicted risk of depression in healthy volunteers (3). Antidepressant treatment enhanced cooperative behaviors in both human and animal and which might relate to it s therapeutic mechanism (4,5). These evidences supported the involvement of poor cooperative behavior in the psychopathology of depression, thus, further understandings of it s role in depression is warranted. References: (1) Tse, W.S. & Tam, D. Abnormal cooperative behaviours in schizophrenic patients. (manuscript in preparation). (2) Tse, W. S. & Bond, A. J. (2003) Consequences of displaying abnormal social behaviour: avoidance and reduction of social reinforcement. Journal of Affective Disorders, 75, (3) Tse, W.S. & Bond, A. J. Cooperative Personalities: Their role in depression- an explorative study. (manuscript submitted to Journal of Personality). (4) Tse, W. S. & Bond, A. J. (2003) Reboxetine promotes social bonding in healthy volunteers. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 17,