Kostas Apostolakis (University of Crete) : "Liturgies and the Rhetoric of Law in Fourth-Century Athens" I. Ἀποφαίνειν vs ἀποκρύπτεσθαι in antidosis

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1 Kostas Apostolakis (University of Crete) : "Liturgies and the Rhetoric of Law in Fourth-Century Athens" I. Ἀποφαίνειν vs ἀποκρύπτεσθαι in antidosis law i. Interweaving law and character 1.([D.] 42.4 διὰ τοῦτο γὰρ οἱ νόμοι καθ' ἕκαστον ἔτος ποιοῦσιν τὰς ἀντιδόσεις, ὅτι τὸ διευτυχεῖν συνεχῶς τῇ οὐσίᾳ οὐ πολλοῖς τῶν πολιτῶν διαμένειν εἴθισται. for it is on this account that the laws every year provide for the tendering of exchanges, because to enjoy unbroken prosperity is not wont to be the permanent fortune of any large number of our citizens. 2. ([D.] 42.11ὀμόσας γὰρ τῇ ἑνδεκάτῃ τοῦ βοηδρομιῶνος μηνὸς ἀποφανεῖν ὀρθῶς καὶ δικαίως τὴν οὐσίαν, καὶ τοῦ νόμου διαρρήδην λέγοντος τριῶν ἡμερῶν ἀφ' ἧς ἂν ὀμόσῃ διδόναι τὴν ἀπόφασιν For although he had sworn on the eleventh of the month Boedromion to give me a true and just inventory of his property, and the law expressly declares that the inventory shall be given within three days after one takes the oath 3. [D.] ἡγησάμενος δ' ἐγὼ καὶ μετρίου καὶ ἀπράγμονος εἶναι πολίτου μὴ εὐθὺς ἐπὶ κεφαλὴν εἰς τὸ δικαστήριον βαδίζειν, ἐπείσθην thinking it was becoming to a good citizen who wished to avoid quarrels not to rush headlong into court, was persuaded to consent. 4.[D.]42.23 ἀποκρύπτεσθαι γὰρ καὶ διαδύεσθαι καὶ πάντα ποιεῖν ἐξ ὧν μὴ λῃτουργήσεις τουτοισὶ μεμάθηκας for you have learned secrecy and evasion and how to do everything to escape rendering service to your fellow-citizens here... ii.revealing a false Phaenippus 5.[D.] πρῶτον δέ μοι τὸν νόμον ἐκεῖνον ἀνάγνωθι τὸν οὐκ ἐῶντα τῶν ἐν τοῖς ἔργοις οὐδὲν ἀποφαίνειν καὶ τὴν πρόκλησιν, ἔπειτα τὰς μαρτυρίας ὡς δύ' οἴκων λῃτουργούντων οὑτοσὶ Φαίνιππος κεκληρονόμηκεν. ΝΟΜΟΣ. ΠΡΟΚΛΗΣΙΣ. ΜΑΡΤΥΡΙΑΙ. Ἓν μόνον ἄν τις ἔχοι δεῖξαι τουτονὶ Φαίνιππον πεφιλοτιμημένον εἰς ὑμᾶς, ἄνδρες δικασταί ἱπποτρόφος ἀγαθός ἐστιν καὶ φιλότιμος, ἅτε νέος καὶ πλούσιος καὶ ἰσχυρὸς ὤν. τί τούτου μέγα σημεῖον; ἀποδόμενος τὸν πολεμιστήριον ἵππον καταβέβηκεν ἀπὸ τῶν ἵππων, καὶ ἀντ' ἐκείνου ὄχημ' αὑτῷ τηλικοῦτος ὢν ἐώνηται, ἵνα μὴ πεζῇ πορεύηται τοσαύτης οὗτος τρυφῆς ἐστι μεστός. There is one thing only, men of the jury, in which anyone could show that this man Phaenippus has been ambitious of honor from you: he is an able and ambitious breeder of horses, being young and rich and vigorous. What is a convincing proof of this? He has given up riding on horseback, has sold his war horse, and in his place has bought himself a chariot he, at his age! that he may not have to travel on foot; such is the luxury that fills him. II. Rhetorical uses of law. i. Adding to the text 6.[D.] 42.12ἕτερον δὲ τὸν κελεύοντα κυρίας εἶναι τὰς πρὸς ἀλλήλους ὁμολογίας, ἃς ἂν ἐναντίον ποιήσωνται μαρτύρων. 16 λέγε τῶν ἀρτίως εἰρημένων τὰς μαρτυρίας καὶ τοὺς νόμους. ΜΑΡΤΥΡΙΑΙ. ΝΟΜΟΙ. and, secondly, that which declares that mutual covenants, agreed upon in the presence of witnesses, shall be binding. 16 Read the depositions in support of what I have just said, and the laws. Depositions Laws Cf. [D.] τὸν νόμον ὃν κελεύει κύρια εἶναι ὅ τι ἄν ἕτερος ἑτέρῳ ὁμολογήσῃ 56.2 τοῖς νόμοις τοῖς ὑμετέροις οἵ κελεύουσι, ὅσα ἄν τις ἑκὼν ἕτερος ἑτέρῳ ὁμολογήσῃ κύρια εἶναι; Hyp. Athen. ὅσα ἂν ἕτερος ἑτέρῳ

2 ὁμολογήσῃ κύρια εἶναι; Din.3.4 καὶ ὁ μὲν κοινὸς τῆς πόλεως νόμος, ἐάν τις εἰς ἕνα τινὰ τῶν πολιτῶν ὁμολογήσας τι παραβῇ, τοῦτον ἔνοχον εἶναι κελεύει τῷ ἀδικεῖν; Pl.Symp. 196c 2-3 ἃ δ' ἂν ἑκὼν ἑκόντι ὁμολογήσῃ, φασὶν "οἱ πόλεως βασιλῆς νόμοι" δίκαια εἶναι; Arist.Rhet.1375b 9-10 οἷον ἐνίοτε ὁ μὲν κελεύει κύρια εἶναι ἅττ' ἂν συνθῶνται, ὁ δ' ἀπαγορεύει μὴ συντίθεσθαι παρὰ τὸν νόμον. 7. The voice of the laws: [D.] χρὴ δ', ὦ ἄνδρες δικασταί, μὴ τοῖς ἰσχυροτέραν νομίζουσι τῶν νόμων τὴν αὑτῶν βδελυρίαν εἶναι, πλέον τούτοις τοῦ δικαίου νέμειν (εἰ δὲ μή, πολλοὺς ποιήσετε τοὺς καταγελῶντας τῶν ἐν τοῖς νόμοις δικαίων γεγραμμένων), ἀλλ' ἐκείνοις βοηθεῖν, οἵτινες ἂν τὴν τῶν νόμων φωνὴν ὑμετέραν εἶναι νομίζωσι, καὶ τὴν ἡμέραν ταύτην, τὴν εἰς τὸ δικαστήριον, ὑπὲρ τῶν ἠδικημένων εἶναι [νομίζωσιν], μὴ τῶν ἠδικηκότων. But, men of the jury, you should not grant more than their due to those who hold their own shamelessness to be stronger than the laws; if you do, you will multiply the numbers of those who mock at the just provisions of the laws. No; you should succor those who regard the voice of the laws as your voice, and the day appointed for coming into court as established in the interest of those who have been wronged, not of those who have done wrong. Cf. D μάρτυρά μοι φημι τὸν νόμον εἶναι; 34.4 οἱ μὲν οὖν νόμοι, καθ οὓς ὑμεῖς δικασταὶ κάθησθε, οὐχ οὓτως λέγουσιν; ii. Interpreting grey zones 8.[D.] ὑμεῖς δ' ἴστε, ὦ ἄνδρες δικασταί (ὑμεῖς γὰρ ἔθεσθε) τὸν νόμον, ὃς διαρρήδην οὕτω λέγει, τοὺς δ' ἀντιδιδόντας ἀλλήλοις, ὅταν ὀμόσαντες ἀποφαίνωσι τὴν οὐσίαν, προσομνύειν τόνδε τὸν ὅρκον "ἀποφαίνω τὴν οὐσίαν τὴν ἐμαυτοῦ ὀρθῶς καὶ δικαίως, πλὴν τῶν ἐν τοῖς ἔργοις τοῖς ἀργυρείοις, ὅσα οἱ νόμοι ἀτελῆ πεποιήκασι". the law that which expressly makes this provision, that those tendering exchanges to one another, when they under oath report their inventories, shall swear also the following oath: I will give a true and honest inventory of my property except that in the silver mines, all of which the laws have made exempt from taxes. 9.Isae.3.22 Ξενοκλῆς τοίνυν Βήσαζε μὲν ἰὼν εἰς τὸ ἐργαστήριον τὸ ἡμέτερον εἰς τὰ ἔργα; Aeschin Φοβηθεὶς γὰρ τὰς λῃτουργίας ἀπέδοτο ἃ ἦν αὐτῷ κτήματα χωρίον Κηφισιᾶσιν, ἕτερον ἀγρὸν Ἀμφιτροπῆσιν, ἐργαστήρια δύο ἐν τοῖς ἀργυρείοις, ἓν μὲν ἐν Αὐλῶνι, ἕτερον δ ἐπὶ Θρασύλλῳ; D.37.4 πρατὴρ μὲν δὴ τοῦ ἐργαστηρίου καὶ τῶν ἀνδραπόδων ὁ Μνησικλῆς ἡμῖν γίγνεται 10.[D.]42.27 Ἐπίσχες. αὕτη ἐστίν, ὦ ἄνδρες δικασταί, ἡ Ἀριστονόη τοῦ Fιλοστράτου θυγάτηρ, μήτηρ δὲ τουτουί. ταύτῃ χρέως φησὶν ὀφείλεσθαι Φαίνιππος τὴν προῖκα, ἧς οἱ νόμοι κύριον τοῦτον ποιοῦσιν, ψευδόμενος καὶ οὐ δικαίως χρώμενος τῇ ἀποφάσει. διὰ τί γὰρ ἐγώ, Φαίνιππε, μενούσης μοι τῆς μητρὸς ἐν τῷ οἴκῳ καὶ ζώσης καὶ προῖκα ἐπενεγκαμένης, οὐκ ἀπογράφω τὴν προῖκα χρέως αὐτῇ, οὐδὲ παρακρούομαι τοὺς δικαστάς, ἀλλ' ἐῶ μετέχειν τῶν ἐμαυτοῦ τὴν μητέρα, ἄν τε τὴν Φαινίππου ἄν τε τὴν ἐμαυτοῦ ἔχω οὐσίαν; ὅτι οἱ νόμοι ταῦτα κελεύουσιν, ὦ βέλτιστε σὺ δὲ πάντα ποιεῖς παρὰ τοὺς νόμους. 11[D.] ἀλλὰ μὴν γνησίων γ' ὅταν λέγῃ καὶ κυρίως κατὰ τὸν θεσμόν, παρακρούεται παρὰ τοὺς νόμους. 12.IG II/III ὅρος χωρίου πεπραμένου ἐπὶ λύσει Εὐθυδίκῃ προικός.

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{ΣΩ.} Εἰπὲ δή μοι ἃ λέγει Νέστωρ Ἀντιλόχῳ τῷ ὑεῖ, παραινῶν εὐλαβηθῆναι περὶ τὴν καμπὴν ἐν τῇ ἱπποδρομίᾳ τῇ ἐπὶ Πατρόκλῳ.

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