3 A Greeting by the Mayor of Latsia wise phrase says: To know the past is to understand the present and to build the future. Although relatively a young state, Cyprus has a long history, spanning to the depths of the past. A large part of its history, especially the modern one, presents an exceptional interest, since Cyprus has been the crossroads of three continents and dozens of civilisations, the Navel of the Earth, according to Hesychius of Alexandria. Today, Latsia is a rapidly growing Municipality. Yet, despite the huge leaps of progress, we do not forget that present-day Latsia began as a small chiftlik of Kioroglou aga in the 18 th century. Latsia Municipality is well aware of the importance of preserving the history and industrial archaeology, because it tries to do the same for Latsia. In an attempt to keep our cultural heritage unquenched in memory, we publish this project - a product of original research -, elucidating a very picturesque part of our modern history: the Cyprus Government Railway. As odd as the existence of a railway in Cyprus might seem to the younger generations, the CGR had been an inextricable part of the life of Cypriots for about 46 years ( ), with an important contribution in both World Wars and in local economy. This publication is not simply a romantic journey on the lines of the old train: it also aims at preserving the memory of our occupied areas - with particular reference to the divided capital, Nicosia, the beautiful city of Famagusta and the lovely town of Morphou -, but at the same time it is a neatly-written tool at the hands of the foreign or local scholar, which is why it is bilingual. Through these pages, we learn about the various aspects of the operation of the CGR, accompanied by photographic material and maps of the time. Today, the CGR may not exist, the rail marks may have faded away and are no longer visible on our much-troubled land, there are however the memories, the recollections and images of the past, the photographs, the artefacts and the maps, carrying our minds to another time, so different from today, perhaps more care-free and more poetic, indisputably a pleasant touch of the past for the older generations who personally experienced the Railway in operation. Unfortunately, the brutal Turkish invasion in 1974 did not leave the Railway unaffected: tragic irony has it that at many points, the west line of the Railway meets with one or the other side of the Green line, which essentially halves it. Latsia Municipality wishes that soon all Cypriots, refugees or not, will have the opportunity to walk together along the old railway line, without borders and boundaries, mine fields or other obstacles. Costis Efstathiou Mayor of Latsia
5 Foreword to the Publication Cyprus is a beautiful island in the southeast corner of the Mediterranean Sea. With a fascinating history and a rich cultural heritage of 11 millennia, Cyprus has been - for a good part of its past - under foreign rule. It only attained its independence in 1960, as the result of the London- Zurich agreements. During the British rule ( ), Cyprus was notably developed: the British strategically aimed at consolidating their rule over Cyprus and at modernising the system of administration. To achieve this, an efficient framework of communications would have to be constructed. Thus, the Cyprus Government Railway was built, linking Famagusta with Nicosia and thence with Morphou and, ultimately, Evrykhou. The railway had served both the people and the colonial authorities of Cyprus well, but it was proven uneconomical, necessitating its closing in Most of the railway paraphernalia, including the rails, were sold to foreign buyers, while some of the wagons were purchased by locals. The Stations were either abandoned, or turned into Police Stations and Public Works Department offices and stores, while the ground was left marked with rail imprints and the trees encompassing the line. The coup d état against Archbishop Makarios III, orchestrated by the Greek military junta, allowed Turkey - under the pretext of restoring the order - to invade Cyprus. As a result, 34.85% of the island was illegally occupied, forcibly displacing 142,000 Greek Cypriots from their homes and depriving the Republic of Cyprus of a significant part of its cultural heritage, its resources, as well as its industrial and tourist income. 1,493 persons are still missing, while over 115,000 settlers from Anatolia have colonised the north. The cease-fire line is also called the Green line, from the coloured pencil General Peter Young used to draw it. The CGR, or what was left of it, was also victimised by the unlawful Turkish invasion: the entire Section 1 (with the exception of a few miles) became occupied, while Section 2 is intermittently on either side of the Green line, or within the UN buffer zone (2.62% of Cyprus). Section 3 was also trichotomised. Some of the remaining railway installations in Mesaoria were either bombarded or ruined during the Turkish onward march. Until recently, one could not follow the entire route, confined into one of the two sides of the dividing line and the mine fields. Let us all hope that some day, hopefully not long from today, the people of Cyprus, Greek Cypriots, Turkish Cypriots, Maronites, Armenians and Latins, will preserve the history of the old Cyprus Government Railway together, contemplating a joint future, a common vision.
6 1878,,, - -. ( ),,,, Sir Garnet Wolseley.,.,,, Joseph Chamberlain,, Frederick Shelford., :,.,, :,, ,,, Frederick Shelford ,,.,,., 5 ( 17 ).
7 The first thoughts for a railway system in Cyprus In 1878, when Great Britain assumed the administration of Cyprus as part of the Treaty of San Stefano, there was only one carriage road on the island, linking Nicosia and Larnaca - in a pretty bad shape - primarily used for the transportation of goods on camels and mules. The financial stringency (a 92,800 lease per annum was to be paid to the Sublime Porte), along with the uncertainty about the duration of the British stay on the island, deterred any essential development, despite the numerous railway proposals, fostered by Governor Sir Garnet Wolseley. The uneasy situation in Egypt shifted the British priorities in the Levant to Alexandria, the selected harbour for the Royal Navy. Large amounts of money were spent on the locust campaigns, as well as on cartographical, irrigational, hydration and drainage projects. It was not until 1903 that Joseph Chamberlain, Colonial Secretary, accepted a railway proposal by Frederick Shelford. For the British administration, it was evident that the whole railway concept would have to be considered only in connection with the improvement of one of the harbours: a modernised harbour with inadequate means of transportation to carry the numerous agricultural products from the valleys and the timber and charcoal from the mountainous areas would be inefficient, in the same fashion that a railway without a harbour as an outlet would be of no use. Although Larnaca was the favoured harbour of many proposals, it would be pointless to build a railway to link Nicosia and Larnaca, since that route was already served by a public road: Famagusta was, subsequently, the next natural choice. Between 1899 and 1902, extensive discussions were held in the British Parliament, and many letters were exchanged between the UK Government and the Administration of Cyprus, until Frederick Shelford undertook a feasibility study for the construction of a railway line. The feasibility study was submitted on 15 July 1903 and, unlike previous proposals, it excluded Larnaca from the design. It also provided for a rack railway line that would reach Troödos, via Marathasa valley, since many Europeans found excursions to Troödos Mountains quite relaxing. This was never constructed, as it would take 5 hours to go there from Famagusta harbour (and 17 from Alexandria).
8 T (2 ft. 6 in.),, , 30 lbs/yd. 1903:! 1904, - -.., -. Crown Agents ,, 4 ft. 8½ in. Ruth, Manning Wardle. -,.,. 1925, - ( Arsenal), -, ( 100 ), Sir Charles Anthony King-Harman, , 36 1 ( 1 ),
9 The proposal for a railway system is materialised The scheme was a narrow-gauge railway (2 ft. 6 in.) that would link Famagusta with Nicosia, Morphou and Karavostasi, the proposed terminus of the railway line. The project would cost 141,526 and it would use a relatively light-flat bottomed rail of 30 lbs/yd. The authorities consented in November 1903: Cyprus would finally have its own railway! The study began in February 1904, and the earthworks - along with the building of the various stations across the line - began in May. Construction was expedited by petty contracts. Meanwhile, Famagusta harbour was being improved. It appears that the Crown Agents possessed their own railway system - operating between 1895 and , which had been of a different gauge to the CGR, probably the British standard gauge of 4 ft. 8½ in. This was served by Ruth, a Manning Wardle locomotive. Contrary to unsubstantiated rumours that stones from Bellapais Abbey and the walled City were used, the stones were carried from the quarries in the north. A tunnel was dug under the Land Gate, to prevent the railway from interfering with the arterial road. Until 1925, a railway branch - entering the old City at the South East Bastion (Arsenal Tower), through the Galley Harbour entrance - served the old harbour warehouses near Desdemona s Gardens, by the Sea Gate. The inaugural ceremony took place on 21 October 1905 (the 100 th anniversary of the Trafalgar naval battle), by High Commissioner Sir Charles Anthony King- Harman, in the brand new Famagusta Station. Out of the original 107,000 allowance, the 36-mile-long Section 1 (excluding the 1-mile-long harbour extension), cost only 87,396. Section 2 was only justified because of the considerable retrenchment for Section 1. The study for Section 2 began in March 1905, and the earthworks began in July: it opened for
11 the public on 31 March The 24 miles of Section 2 cost 34,731. Overall, there was only one halt to every 3 miles on Sections 2 and 3, compared to one for every 2 miles on Section 1, which reflects the significant, yet necessary, cut-backs. Additionally, there was only one intermediate Station between Nicosia and Morphou, compared to three between Nicosia and Famagusta. Stations were designated by large trilingual white signs. The failure of the railway to operate with profit jeopardised its future prospects. In 1910, Bedford Glasier undertook a study for the future of the CGR, which was published in early 1913: following General Manager G. Bert Day s advice, he suggested that the terminus be placed in Evrykhou. The Legislative Council sanctioned the construction of Section 3 in June 1913, and the route was designed three months later. The earthworks began in November 1913, and Section 3 was put into circulation on 14 June It was originally estimated to cost 21,800, but the actual amount was 31,683. Section 3 was never considered successful and, in terms of profit, it only contributed during World War I ( ), carrying timber from Troödos. The last miles of the 15-mile-long Section 3 were also the roughest ones. The CGR was now complete, 76 miles long, and with a total cost of 199,367, a figure that remained almost constant: it was 210,316 between 1948 and In October 1931, culminating the October Enosis riots, 120 yards of railway tracks and 3 miles of telephone cable were torn up by the rioters, as the railway was regarded a symbol of the British colonial rule. On 31 December 1931, Evrykhou Station was closed down, as an act of retaliation for the throwing of tins at the Governor. In 1932, the last 5 miles of track were lifted and sold, never to be replaced. Letters from the local authorities requested the resumption of the railway operation, in vain.
12 : 3, Charles Eustace Rooke. 1932, , 3. 2 ( 3,, ),.,,. C. E. Rooke, W. M. Smithers. - ( ),, - -.,, :,., ,, (, ) 1948, ,
13 The struggle to keep the railway open The financial adversities the CGR went through to survive made it necessary to conduct improvement studies for its future: with a 3-year window, Charles Eustace Rooke was appointed to conduct a detailed study. In March 1932, he proposed that Sections 2 and 3 - apart from the six miles to the west of Nicosia - should be closed down for regular operation and be replaced by road services, while the last five miles of Section 3 should be dismantled. When Section 2 (since Section 3, as a separate line, had ceased to exist) re-opened until Kalokhorio Station, it was used mainly for freight and mineral traffic. His proposal to re-nationalise Famagusta harbour, as to promote export trade, did not get across. C. E. Rooke soon became the General Manager of the Railway, succeeding W. M. Smithers. The enduring struggle to keep the railway in operation was temporarily paused by its important contribution during World War II ( ), being the prime mover of troops, stores and ammunitions from Famagusta harbour to the Royal Air Force airfield in Nicosia and other camps. However, the moment the War was over, the problems re-emerged: the railway was unable to compete with the improved road network, the fast automobiles and the flexibility of their pricing and routes. On top of that, a new road connecting Nicosia and Famagusta was constructed between 1937 and In 1947, rumours circulated that the CGR would close down, causing the reaction of the Mayor of Famagusta and the Cyprus Chamber of Commerce. Section 2 (up to Nicosia International Airport, the new tactical boundary) ceased to operate in June 1948, resulting in an immediate 300,000 claim by the Cyprus Mines Corporation - which needed Section 2 to carry its ore to the harbour of Famagusta, and also paid to run its own railway line. The claim was finally settled on 10 August 1959.
15 In November 1950, the Government issued an announcement regarding the future of the CGR, to the delight of the merchants of Larnaca and Limassol, and the dismay of the authorities and merchants of Nicosia and Famagusta - each for their own benefit. A few months earlier, the governmental employees salaries had been significantly increased, resulting to 70% of the overall railway expenses, which proved catastrophic: if the ramshackle equipment was to be repaired, over 400,000 would be required. There was a strike of the Railway Workers Union on 6 April 1951, while on 10 November 1951, the Colonial Government announced that the CGR would definitively close down on 31 December. The protest strikes that followed were supported by railway employees from Finland, France and the Netherlands. The last train departed from Nicosia Station at 14:57 on Monday, 31 December Locomotive 12, which had hauled the very first train in 1905, was used. It arrived at Famagusta Station at 16:38. An epitome of the CGR During the 46 years it operated, the CGR offered valuable services to the people of Cyprus. The railway Stations often functioned as a place of exchange of goods and services, allowing the passengers to rest for a few minutes from their journey and promoting local trade. In hope of increasing the traffic, about 40 assembled coaches operated on special occasions throughout the year, some of which were extremely popular. There were the bathing specials for the excursions of Nicosians to Famagusta, during the aestival Sundays (the Côte d Azur trains); the special route for the Orange Festival in Famagusta, decorated with an orange plate; the trains for various local fairs (Elia, Kataklysmos, Saint Barnabas, Ayios Loukas). The Nicosia- Famagusta Sunday line operated continually since March 1935, except during
17 World War II. An extra train served Nicosia and Morphou during the 1930s. Overall, the CGR carried a total of 3,199,934 tons of paying goods and 7,348,643 passengers, not including the long list of the dignitaries with a free pass! The CGR trains were quite punctual: Famagusta and Nicosia were 2 or 3 hours away, depending on the stops; Nicosia and Morphou were two hours apart. The CGR was often used to transport distinguished officials, such as Winston Churchill, the Undersecretary of the Ministry of Colonies, in October During Churchill s visit, Turkish Cypriot representatives requested that the Famagusta-Nicosia railway line be extended to Karavostasi and Lefka, to ensure the timely trade of fruit. In 1922, the new Governor was also transported by locomotive 11, which was varnished and flagged on the occasion with a large Union Jack. The extension to Lefka re-surfaced from time to time, until it was linked to the railway via a bus line in 1929; in 1930, the CGR opened an office in Lefka, so that the citizens could book tickets. The CGR, along with the Forest Stations, were among the first governmental departments to be served by a telephone system, while its installations were also used as postal and telegraph offices. As a postal agency, each manned stop had a considerable number of stamps and cancellation signs, also serving the surrounding communities. The mail service from Famagusta prospered between 1912 and 1939, especially in conjunction with the Khedivial Mail Line. Later, the steam vessel carrying the post changed its course and approached Larnaca and Limassol (as it had done during ).
19 To overcome the floods of the rivers during the winter, 51 bridges were built for Section 1 and 34 bridges to the west of Nicosia up to Kalokhorio. There is no record for the last ill-fated 5 miles, although at least one bridge was built in the junction with Karyotis River. The CGR also served tourists and Egyptian Greeks arriving at Famagusta from the port of Alexandria. In about 1908, French travellers were transported to Nicosia by railway, who - according to the gossips - saw a theatre without a company, a museum without antiquities and an archdiocesan throne without an Archbishop. In October 1917, railway installations were photographed by a German aircraft. During World War II, the railway transported British, Indian and New Zealander troops from Famagusta to Xeros, and vice versa, using the heavy Kitson tenders. In some cases, camels were used to collect wagons from various stops, drawing them to Nicosia, to form a proper train. The CGR was targeted by the Axis powers: in May 1941, Italian aeroplanes unsuccessfully attempted to bomb a railway Station. The lack of coal and cord wood, combined with the increased need for fuel during World War II, and a three-month ultimatum from the Conservator of Forests that timber supplies were to cease, necessitated the conversion of the locomotives to oil-firing. Previously, coal came to Famagusta docks either from England or from the Admiralty yards at Port Said, Egypt, 284 miles away. Cord wood came from Troödos forests, but the huge bulks were noticeably reduced after the abolishment of the Grain Tithe in Water had to be chemically softened, so as not to damage the engine boilers. The railway used 12 locomotives in all: Locomotive 1 was a Hunslet, locomotives 11, 12, 21-23, 31, 32 were Nasmyth- Wilsons, while locomotives were Kitsons. They operated on an average speed of miles/hour (15 m.p.h. near Evrykhou). Most of them were red, dark olive green and black, however Superintendent Joseph Waugh Bulman was particularly creative with the colouring, especially
21 during World War II. By 1933, the CGR railcars were in full operation, resulting in a faster and more comfortable travelling. There were also 17 coaches and about 100 multi-purpose wagons. The increased volume of supplies during World War I made the lending of 50 bogie wagons from the Egyptian Delta Light Railway and the Palestine Military Railway imperative: they were eventually purchased in Had the ore deposits on Troödos been discovered before the railway s capacity was originally considered, the CGR would have been tremendously benefited from carrying ore. The asbestos mine in Amiandos was served by an aerial railway, reaching Enaerios vicinity in Limassol, since the distant routes between 1915 and 1919 proved detrimental for the CGR. A proposal to carry ore from Mitsero mines to Kokkini Trimithia Station in the late 1920s was dismissed. Large quantities of stone were carried from Yerolakkos quarries ( ), while since 1937 the CGR carried asphalt and cement, thus indirectly aiding the construction of the road network. Since 1932, the CGR carried chromites from Troödos and, briefly, in 1922, copper pyrites from Skouriotissa mines, for the account of the Cyprus Mines Corporation. The CMC paid 10 shillings/ton to have its ore carried, which was both unprofitable for the CMC and laborious for the CGR. Charles Godfrey Gunther eventually built his own railway in 1921 (Skouriotissa-Karyotis-Xeros- Mavrovouni), served by 5 locomotives that carried ore from Evrykhou and, later, Kalokhorio to Famagusta docks using the CGR lines, for the cost of 20 paras/ton, which only managed to prolong its inevitable demise. The CMC lent their locomotive 1 and ten wagons to the CGR, to carry the Hebrew refugees to the concentration camp in Karaolos, Famagusta ( ). Between 1936 and 1938, the CGR also carried golden deposits coming from Mathiatis. A final detail: the CGR played an active role in Cyprus trade unionism. Other than the 1951 strikes, there was another strike in July 1941, resulting to the imprisonment of 8 workers. In March 1944, 1,500 government workers went on a 23-day pancyprian strike, demanding that their wages be escalated to the cost-of-living index: during the strike, the stores remained closed; no newspapers were published, while the mines and the government railway did not work. Another strike took place in In 1930, the railway employed 227 employees and workers; their number was reduced to 193 by 1937, but it was slightly increased towards the end of 1940s, reaching a total of 234. During the dismantlement, 352 people were being employed.
23 The epilogue to the CGR Let us see, in a nutshell, what happened to the people, the equipment and the installations of the CGR. With the formalities over, the big Kitson tank locomotives were used to dismantle the tracks: from Kalokhorio to Nicosia and from Nicosia to Famagusta, a process which lasted up to March All locomotives, except 1 and 31, along with the rolling stock, were cut up with oxy-acetylene torches. An auction was announced in Cyprus Gazette, and the remains were sold to Meyer Newman & Co., for the price of 65,626, and were carried to Italy on the steamships Mar Corrusco and Verax between 14 March and 2 April The most tempting offer came from P.I.O Nahum: after meticulous examination, given the increased demand for metal scrap in Eastern block countries, the bid was disqualified because there was reasonable suspicion it was intended for a communist country. Locomotive 31 was cut up 10 years after, been kept at Eddies scrap yard in Nicosia. Many of the CGR wagons and railcars were sold to locals, to be used as garden sheds, animal pens, caravans, even cloak-rooms, while the equipment was distributed among seven governmental departments. Two boilers were used for the large washing machine of the Nicosia General (Jubilee) Hospital, while the firebox of locomotive 41 was used as an incinerator for the District Office in Famagusta. Wagon 152, famous for carrying ammunition, was placed near Nicosia Hilton and was later donated to Nicosia Municipality, in It was repaired by the Public Works Department and was placed in the linear park created on the paved CGR line in Kaimakli (Synergasias street), in March A colonial-style building was built, accompanied by tracks, but the wagon was vandalised in August 1995 and was later re-moved to the Municipality stores. Evrykhou Station, because of the locality, operated as a rural sanitary centre during the typhoid epidemic ( ). In 1937 it was turned into a dormitory of Forest Services, until it was blasted by EOKA in 1958, as was Trakhoni Station. In September 2003, the Antiquities Department granted 24,000 for its restoration as a museum. Angastina and Kokkini Trimithia Stations were turned into Police Stations. Kalokhorio Station became Police property, while Styllos and Engomi installations were demolished in Morphou Station was turned into a regional Veterinary Office, while the depot
24 ...,,,.,, 1960,., 1 - -,. -, Tom H. Baggaley, ,. 1968,,,. 1972, 48, Barry S. Turner.,,,. 1953, - - (36,4 ):,., 1960: 500, , 1953., ft.,,,,,.,,.,,.,.
25 was occasionally used by the local Co-Op for storing grain. Famagusta buildings, ideally located between the old City of Famagusta and the new area of Varosha, came under the jurisdiction of the Public Works Department, the Police Station and the Fire Station. Nicosia Station, near the Public Works Department workshops, was demolished in the 1960s, while the other buildings became warehouses. During the demolition, Number 1 was lying out of use in the sidings, but no one seemed to have the heart to cut it up. The Colonial Secretary finally agreed upon Superintendent Tom H. Baggaley s suggestion to preserve it as a memento of the railway. It was purchased in May 1953 for the princely sum of 125 and was placed on a plinth, with its boiler re-installed. In 1968, the United Nations Transport Squadron in Nicosia, in an effort to develop good relations with Cypriots, partially restored it. In January 1972, the Old Lady was taken to 48 Command Workshop of the Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers, Dhekelia, and was carefully dismantled and repaired by Major Barry S. Turner. Five months after, it was restored to its original location, painted dark olive green, with red buffer beams and a black smoke box. In November 1953, thoughts were made to build a new Kaimakli-Angastina- Engomi road (36.4 miles): with the exception of some part between Angastina and Gaidhouras, it was to pass over the old railway line. The road was merely paved, until Independence negotiations were brought to a standstill in June 1960: the British refused to go 500 metres to the south, so as to leave the old Nicosia-Famagusta road in the sovereignty of the Republic of Cyprus. The golden section was found when the British government paid 700,000 to build a new Nicosia-Famagusta motorway, based on the 1953 design. The road was built between the old railway plantation, since the CGR owned the land ft. to the left and right of the line, partly fenced and partly planted with acacias, acorns, casuarinas, cypresses, eucalypti and pines. Unfortunately, most of the remaining installations were knocked down during the brutal Turkish invasion, such as the abandoned installations at Yenagra and Gaidhouras. In Ayios Dhometios, part of the railway line was recently turned into a multi-purpose centre and a linear park, something which is also planned for Kokkini Trimithia. Most of the CGR employees were employed by the Public Works Department, the Customs and the Forest Departments.
27 APPENDIXI List of Stations, halts and sidings of the CGR # Descriptionofstop Distance # Descriptionofstop Distance HarbourBranch( ) Section2( ) 1. FamagustaHarbour AyiosDhometioshalt Section1( ) 22. Aerodromeloop FamagustaCityStation Yerolakkoshalt FamagustaMunicipal Storesiding KokkiniTrimithiaStation Dheniasiding Englishhalt Avlonasiding Engomihalt Peristeronasiding Styllossiding KatoKopiasiding Gaidhourashalt Argakisiding PrastioStation MorphouTownStation Pyrgasiding Section3( ) 10. Yenagrasiding Nikitashalt Vitsadhahalt Barajihalt(forPrastio) Marathovouno/ Mousoulitasiding Ghaziveranhalt Pendayiasiding AngastinaStation Karyotisjunctionsiding KourouMonastirhalt KalokhorioStation Exometokhihalt Section3( ) 16. Epikhosiding Skouriotissahalt TrakhoniStation Phlasouhalt MiaMileahalt EvrykhouStation Kaimaklisiding NicosiaCityStation All distances are in English miles and their reference pointisfamagustastation. 2. AllStations,aswellastheinstallationsatDhenia,Kato Kopia,Lefkoniko,Peristerona,StyllosandYenagra,and perhapsavlona,kaimakli,marathovounoandpyrga, operatedaspostalagencies. 3. MostStationswereequippedwithaturntabletorotate thetrains,asthecgrwassingletrack. 4. There was a bus service to Lefkoniko through PeristeronopiyifromPrastioStation,sinceApril Yenagrahadaregularclass3Stationbuilding. 6. Vitsadhahaltopenedon1October Kourou Monastir halt and Epikho siding opened later, probablyaround Kaimakli siding opened on 1 April There was neveractuallyabuilding,onlyabusdepot,builtin1940 behindayiavarvarachurch. 9. Nicosia Station was originally planned to be built on KyreniaGate.Riperthoughtsprevailed. 10. AyiosDhometioshalt,knownasRaceCoursehalt(after 1932),intersectedthe camelroad (AyiosPavlosstreet). 11. In1940,anauxiliaryrailwayline(0.317miles)wasbuilt to the northeast of the new Nicosia International Airport, serving up to 15 wagons at any given time. It laterbecameaunbase. 12. Yerolakkoshaltopenedlater,around1930,toservethe prolificlocalstonequarry. 13. Karyotis Junction siding and Skouriotissa halt opened circa1920,toservetheminersandthecmc. 14. There was a bus service to Lefka from Kalokhorio Stationsince1929.
Τμήμα Πολιτικών και Δομικών Έργων Πτυχιακή Εργασία: Τοπογραφικό διάγραμμα σε ηλεκτρονική μορφή κεντρικού λιμένα Κέρκυρας και κτιρίου νέου επιβατικού σταθμού σε τρισδιάστατη μορφή και σχεδίαση με AutoCAD
ΤΕΙ ΚΑΒΑΛΑΣ ΠΑΡΑΡΤΗΜΑ ΔΡΑΜΑΣ ΤΜΗΜΑ ΑΡΧΙΤΕΚΤΟΝΙΚΗΤΟΠΙΟΥ Αστικές παρεμβάσεις ανάπλασης αδιαμόρφωτων χώρων. Δημιουργία βιώσιμου αστικού περιβάλλοντος και σύνδεση τριών κομβικών σημείων στην πόλη της Δράμας
Οι αδελφοί Montgolfier: Ψηφιακή αφήγηση The Montgolfier Βrothers Digital Story (προτείνεται να διδαχθεί στο Unit 4, Lesson 3, Αγγλικά Στ Δημοτικού) Προσδοκώμενα αποτελέσματα Περιεχόμενο Ενδεικτικές δραστηριότητες
ΠΑΝΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΙΟ ΠΕΙΡΑΙΑ ΤΜΗΜΑ ΝΑΥΤΙΛΙΑΚΩΝ ΣΠΟΥΔΩΝ ΠΡΟΓΡΑΜΜΑ ΜΕΤΑΠΤΥΧΙΑΚΩΝ ΣΠΟΥΔΩΝ ΣΤΗΝ ΝΑΥΤΙΛΙΑ ΝΟΜΙΚΟ ΚΑΙ ΘΕΣΜΙΚΟ ΦΟΡΟΛΟΓΙΚΟ ΠΛΑΙΣΙΟ ΚΤΗΣΗΣ ΚΑΙ ΕΚΜΕΤΑΛΛΕΥΣΗΣ ΠΛΟΙΟΥ ΔΙΠΛΩΜΑΤΙΚΗ ΕΡΓΑΣΙΑ που υποβλήθηκε στο
ΟΜΗΡΟΥ ΙΛΙΑΔΑ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΣ ΠΑΛΛΗΣ SCHOOLTIME E-BOOKS www.scooltime.gr [- 2 -] The Project Gutenberg EBook of Iliad, by Homer This ebook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions
GREEK Newborn Upfront Payment & Newborn Supplement Female 1: Το μωρό μου θα ρθει σύντομα, θα πρέπει να κανονίσω τα οικονομικά μου. Άκουσα ότι η κυβέρνηση δεν δίνει πλέον το Baby Bonus. Ξέρεις τίποτα γι
ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΕΙΟ ΤΕΧΝΟΛΟΓΙΚΟ ΕΚΠΑΙΔΕΥΤΙΚΟ ΙΔΡΥΜΑ ΣΧΟΛΗ ΤΕΧΝΟΛΟΓΙΑΣ ΤΡΟΦΙΜΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΔΙΑΤΡΟΦΗΣ ΤΜΗΜΑ ΔΙΑΤΡΟΦΗΣ ΚΑΙ ΔΙΑΙΤΟΛΟΓΙΑΣ Πτυχιακή Εργασία Παραδοσιακά Προϊόντα Διατροφική Αξία και η Πιστοποίηση τους Εκπόνηση:
STUDENT NUMBER CENTRE NUMBER HIGHER SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION 1999 MODERN GREEK 2 UNIT Z (55 Marks) Time allowed Two hours (Plus 5 minutes reading time) DIRECTIONS TO CANDIDATES Write your Student
Write your name here Surname Other names Edexcel GE entre Number andidate Number Greek dvanced Subsidiary Unit 1: Understanding and Written Response Thursday 16 May 2013 Morning Time: 2 hours 45 minutes
ΑΡΙΣΤΟΤΕΛΕΙΟ ΠΑΝΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΙΟ ΘΕΣΣΑΛΟΝΙΚΗΣ Μελέτη των υλικών των προετοιμασιών σε υφασμάτινο υπόστρωμα, φορητών έργων τέχνης (17ος-20ος αιώνας). Διερεύνηση της χρήσης της τεχνικής της Ηλεκτρονικής Μικροσκοπίας
GREECE BULGARIA 6 th JOINT MONITORING COMMITTEE BANSKO 26-5-2015 «GREECE BULGARIA» Timeline 02 Future actions of the new GR-BG 20 Programme June 2015: Re - submission of the modified d Programme according
ΕΘΝΙΚΟ ΜΕΤΣΟΒΙΟ ΠΟΛΥΤΕΧΝΕΙΟ ΣΧΟΛΗ ΑΓΡΟΝΟΜΩΝ & ΤΟΠΟΓΡΑΦΩΝ ΜΗΧΑΝΙΚΩΝ ΤΟΜΕΑΣ ΓΕΩΓΡΑΦΙΑΣ ΚΑΙ ΠΕΡΙΦΕΡΕΙΑΚΟΥ ΣΧΕΔΙΑΣΜΟΥ ΔΙΠΛΩΜΑΤΙΚΗ ΕΡΓΑΣΙΑ «Η ΕΞΕΛΙΞΗ ΤΗΣ ΠΟΛΗΣ ΤΗΣ ΚΑΛΑΜΑΤΑΣ ΜΕ ΕΠΙΚΕΝΤΡΟ ΤΟ ΙΣΤΟΡΙΚΟ ΤΗΣ ΚΕΝΤΡΟ»
Terabyte Technology Ltd is a Web and Graphic design company in Limassol with dedicated staff who will endeavour to deliver the highest quality of work in our field. We offer a range of services such as
LESSON 6 (ΜΑΘΗΜΑ ΕΞΙ) REF : 201/045/26-ADV 10 December 2013 I get up/i stand up I wash myself I shave myself I comb myself I dress myself Once (one time) Twice (two times) Three times Salary/wage/pay Alone/only
Τ.Ε.Ι. ΔΥΤΙΚΗΣ ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΙΑΣ ΠΑΡΑΡΤΗΜΑ ΚΑΣΤΟΡΙΑΣ ΤΜΗΜΑ ΔΗΜΟΣΙΩΝ ΣΧΕΣΕΩΝ & ΕΠΙΚΟΙΝΩΝΙΑΣ ΠΤΥΧΙΑΚΗ ΕΡΓΑΣΙΑ Η προβολή επιστημονικών θεμάτων από τα ελληνικά ΜΜΕ : Η κάλυψή τους στον ελληνικό ημερήσιο τύπο Σαραλιώτου
ΓΕΩΠΟΝΙΚΟ ΠΑΝΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΙΟ ΑΘΗΝΩΝ Τμήμα Αγροτικής Οικονομίας &Ανάπτυξης Πρόγραμμα Μεταπτυχιακών Σπουδών «Ολοκληρωμένη Ανάπτυξη και Διαχείριση του Αγροτικού Χώρου» Μεταπτυχιακή Εργασία: «Διερεύνηση των παραγόντων
LESSON 26 (ΜΑΘΗΜΑ ΕΙΚΟΣΙ ΕΞΙ) REF : 102/030/26 18 November 2014 But Weekend I love The song I sing I smile I laugh Greek (thing) Greek(people) Greek (man) αλλά (το) Σαββατοκύριακο αγαπώ (το) τραγούδι τραγουδώ
UΓενικές Επισημάνσεις 1. Παρακάτω θα βρείτε απαντήσεις του Υπουργείου, σχετικά με τη συμπλήρωση της ηλεκτρονικής φόρμας. Διευκρινίζεται ότι στα περισσότερα θέματα οι απαντήσεις ήταν προφορικές (τηλεφωνικά),
長 岡 工 業 高 等 専 門 学 校 研 究 紀 要 第 49 巻 (2013) 論 文 Web Department of Electronic Control Engineering, Nagaoka National College of Technology Performance Evaluation and Renewal of Department s Official Web Site
ΤΕΧΝΟΛΟΓΙΚΟ ΠΑΝΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΙΟ ΚΥΠΡΟΥ ΣΧΟΛΗ ΓΕΩΠΟΝΙΚΩΝ ΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΗΣ ΚΑΙ ΤΕΧΝΟΛΟΓΙΑΣ ΠΕΡΙΒΑΛΛΟΝΤΟΣ Πτυχιακή εργασία Η ΕΦΑΡΜΟΓΗ ΤΟΥ ΣΥΣΤΗΜΑΤΟΣ HACCP ΣΕ ΜΙΚΡΕΣ ΒΙΟΤΕΧΝΙΕΣ ΓΑΛΑΚΤΟΣ ΣΤΗΝ ΕΠΑΡΧΙΑ ΛΕΜΕΣΟΥ
ιερεύνηση της Επίδρασης των ΟΑ «Αθήνα 2004» στην Εικόνα της Αθήνας & της Ελλάδας ως Τουριστικών Προορισµών ρ. Ευάγγελος Χρήστου Εισαγωγή Ρόλος της εικόνας και της φήµης των τουριστικών προορισµών, σχετικά
69 Φεβρουάριος 2011 Περιεχόμενα Η συμβολή του Ιωάννη Καποδίστρια στην εδραίωση της ανεξαρτησίας και της ουδετερότητας της Ελβετίας σ. 1 Οι νέες ισορροπίες στην Ασία και Μ. Ανατολή Η ινδοϊστραηλινή συνεργασία
www.xtremepapers.com UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS International General Certificate of Secondary Education *6301456813* GREEK 0543/03 Paper 3 Speaking Role Play Card One 1 March 30
1 Verklarte Nacht, Op.4 (Εξαϋλωμένη Νύχτα, Έργο 4) Arnold Schoenberg (1874-1951) Αναγνώσματα από το βιβλίο Η Απόλαυση της Μουσικής (Machlis, Forney), για τους μαθητές που θα μελετήσουν το έργο: «Ο Σαίνμπεργκ
Math 6 SL Probability Distributions Practice Test Mark Scheme. (a) Note: Award A for vertical line to right of mean, A for shading to right of their vertical line. AA N (b) evidence of recognizing symmetry
Κάθε γνήσιο αντίγραφο φέρει υπογραφή του συγγραφέα. / Each genuine copy is signed by the author. 2012, Γεράσιμος Χρ. Σιάσος / Gerasimos Siasos, All rights reserved. Στοιχεία επικοινωνίας συγγραφέα / Author
UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS International General Certificate of Secondary Education *2354431106* GREEK 0543/02 Paper 2 Reading and Directed Writing May/June 2009 1 hour 30 minutes
ΤΕΙ ΚΑΒΑΛΑΣ ΣΧΟΛΗ ΤΕΧΝΟΛΟΓΙΚΩΝ ΕΦΑΡΜΟΓΩΝ ΤΜΗΜΑ ΗΛΕΚΤΡΟΛΟΓΙΑΣ ΠΤΥΧΙΑΚΗ ΕΡΓΑΣΙΑ ΜΕΛΕΤΗ ΦΩΤΟΒΟΛΤΑΙΚΟΥ ΠΑΡΚΟΥ ΜΕ ΟΙΚΙΣΚΟΥΣ ΓΙΑ ΠΑΡΑΓΩΓΗ ΗΛΕΚΤΡΙΚΗΣ ΕΝΕΡΓΕΙΑΣ ΜΕΣΗΣ ΤΑΣΗΣ STUDY PHOTOVOLTAIC PARK WITH SUBSTATIONS
ΔΗΜΟΣΙΕΥΣΗ Νο 95 ΜΑΡΙΟΛΑΚΟΣ Η., ΦΟΥΝΤΟΥΛΗΣ Ι., ΣΠΥΡΙΔΩΝΟΣ Ε., ΑΝΔΡΕΑΔΑΚΗΣ Ε., ΚΑΠΟΥΡΑΝΗ, Ε. (2003). Το πρόβλημα του νερού στη Θεσσαλία και προτάσεις για την αντιμετώπισή του στα πλαίσια της αειφόρου ανάπτυξης.
4 Πρόλογος Η παρούσα διπλωµατική εργασία µε τίτλο «ιερεύνηση χωρικής κατανοµής µετεωρολογικών µεταβλητών. Εφαρµογή στον ελληνικό χώρο», ανατέθηκε από το ιεπιστηµονικό ιατµηµατικό Πρόγραµµα Μεταπτυχιακών
ΠΑΝΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΙΟ ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΙΑΣ ΤΜΗΜΑ ΒΑΛΚΑΝΙΚΩΝ, ΣΛΑΒΙΚΩΝ & ΑΝΑΤΟΛΙΚΩΝ ΣΠΟΥΔΩΝ ΜΕΤΑΠΤΥΧΙΑΚΟ ΠΡΟΓΡΑΜΜΑ ΣΤΗΝ ΟΙΚΟΝΟΜΙΚΗ ΚΑΙ ΠΟΛΙΤΙΚΗ ΔΙΑΚΥΒΕΡΝΗΣΗ ΤΗΣ ΝΟΤΙΟΑΝΑΤΟΛΙΚΗΣ ΕΥΡΩΠΗΣ ΔΙΠΛΩΜΑΤΙΚΗ ΕΡΓΑΣΙΑ "Η ΕΛΛΑΔΑ ΚΑΙ ΤΑ
ΑΤΕΙ ΙΟΝΙΩΝ ΝΗΣΩΝ ΤΜΗΜΑ ΔΗΜΟΣΙΩΝ ΣΧΕΣΕΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΕΠΙΚΟΙΝΩΝΙΑΣ ΑΡΓΟΣΤΟΛΙ ΚΕΦΑΛΗΝΙΑΣ 2014 Η ΜΕΤΑΒΑΣΗ ΑΠΟ ΤΗ ΣΤΑΘΕΡΗ ΣΤΗ ΚΙΝΗΤΗ ΤΗΛΕΦΩΝΙΑ ΚΑΙ ΟΙ ΕΠΙΔΡΑΣΕΙΣ ΤΗΣ ΣΤΗΝ ΕΠΙΚΟΙΝΩΝΙΑΚΗ ΣΥΜΠΕΡΙΦΟΡΑ ΕΠΙΒΛΕΠΩΝ ΚΑΘΗΓΗΤΗΣ:
Διαστημικό εστιατόριο του (Μ)ΑστροΈκτορα Στο εστιατόριο «ToDokimasesPrinToBgaleisStonKosmo?» έξω από τους δακτυλίους του Κρόνου, οι παραγγελίες γίνονται ηλεκτρονικά. Μόλις μια παρέα πελατών κάτσει σε ένα
- S P E C I A L R E P O R T - UN EMPLOYMENT -January 2012- Source: Cyprus Statistical Service This Special Report is brought to you by the Student Career Advisory department of Executive Connections. www.executiveconnections.eu
Οδηγίες: Να απαντηθούν όλες οι ερωτήσεις. Ολοι οι αριθμοί που αναφέρονται σε όλα τα ερωτήματα είναι μικρότεροι το 1000 εκτός αν ορίζεται διαφορετικά στη διατύπωση του προβλήματος. Διάρκεια: 3,5 ώρες Καλή
Ε ΕΘΝΙΚΗ ΣΧΟΛΗ ΤΟΠΙΚΗΣ ΑΥΤΟ ΙΟΙΚΗΣΗΣ Β ΕΚΠΑΙ ΕΥΤΙΚΗ ΣΕΙΡΑ ΤΜΗΜΑ: ΟΡΓΑΝΩΣΗΣ ΚΑΙ ΙΟΙΚΗΣΗΣ ΤΕΛΙΚΗ ΕΡΓΑΣΙΑ Θέµα: Πολιτιστική Επικοινωνία και Τοπική ηµοσιότητα: Η αξιοποίηση των Μέσων Ενηµέρωσης, ο ρόλος των
LESSON 28 (ΜΑΘΗΜΑ ΕΙΚΟΣΙ ΟΚΤΩ) REF : 201/033/28 2 December 2014 Place/Seat Right (noun) I am right I am not right It matters It does not matter The same (singular) The same (Plural) Η θέση Το δίκιο Έχω
UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS International General Certificate of Secondary Education *2517291414* GREEK 0543/02 Paper 2 Reading and Directed Writing May/June 2013 1 hour 30 minutes
ΔΙΑΜΟΡΦΩΣΗ ΣΧΟΛΙΚΩΝ ΧΩΡΩΝ: ΒΑΖΟΥΜΕ ΤΟ ΠΡΑΣΙΝΟ ΣΤΗ ΖΩΗ ΜΑΣ! ΘΥΜΑΡΑ Μ. Μ. 11 Ο Γυμνάσιο Πειραιά, Δ/νση Β/Θμιας Εκπ/σης Πειραιά e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org ΠΕΡΙΛΗΨΗ Το πρόγραμμα της διαμόρφωσης των σχολικών
Α.Τ.Ε.Ι. ΙΟΝΙΩΝ ΝΗΣΩΝ ΠΑΡΑΡΤΗΜΑ ΑΡΓΟΣΤΟΛΙΟΥ ΤΜΗΜΑ ΔΗΜΟΣΙΩΝ ΣΧΕΣΕΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΕΠΙΚΟΙΝΩΝΙΑΣ ΠΤΥΧΙΑΚΗ ΕΡΓΑΣΙΑ «Η διαμόρφωση επικοινωνιακής στρατηγικής (και των τακτικών ενεργειών) για την ενδυνάμωση της εταιρικής
-Helping your Child become a fantastic language learner «Βοηθώντας το παιδί σας να γίνει εξαιρετικό στην εκμάθηση γλωσσών» Dr Caroline Linse Queens University, Belfast, Northern Ireland Objectives-Στόχοι:
Dear Friends, Please note attached information on a fundraising event for SOS Children s Villages, organised by the Hellenic Society of Imperial College in London. Thank you and Best Regards, Patty Apostolopoulou
1 Εκεί που η ποιότητα συναντά την επιτυχία Λεωφ. Αρχ. Μακαρίου 7, Αρεδιού Τηλ. 22874368/9 2 ENGLISH INSTITUTE A Place where quality meets success 7, Makarios Avenue, Arediou, Tel. 22874368/9 99606442 Anglia
ΠΑΝΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΙΟ ΠΑΤΡΩΝ ΠΟΛΥΤΕΧΝΙΚΗ ΣΧΟΛΗ ΤΜΗΜΑ ΜΗΧΑΝΙΚΩΝ Η/Υ & ΠΛΗΡΟΦΟΡΙΚΗΣ ΔΙΠΛΩΜΑΤΙΚΗ ΕΡΓΑΣΙΑ ΣΤΑ ΠΛΑΙΣΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΜΕΤΑΠΤΥΧΙΑΚΟΥ ΔΙΠΛΩΜΑΤΟΣ ΕΙΔΙΚΕΥΣΗΣ ΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΗ ΚΑΙ ΤΕΧΝΟΛΟΓΙΑ ΤΩΝ ΥΠΟΛΟΓΙΣΤΩΝ του Γεράσιμου Τουλιάτου
TAMIL NADU PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION REVISED SCHEMES *********** COMBINED CIVIL SERVICES - I GROUP - I SERVICES PRELIMINARY EXAMINATION SinglePaper GeneralStudies(DegreeStd.)200items/300marks(Objectivetype)
Problems, Concepts, and the Swisscom Test Data Organizer Do you have issues with your legal and compliance department because test environments contain sensitive data outsourcing partners must not see?
Name: Date: Nuclear Physics 5. A sample of radioactive carbon-4 decays into a stable isotope of nitrogen. As the carbon-4 decays, the rate at which the amount of nitrogen is produced A. decreases linearly
Professional Tourism Education EΠΑΓΓΕΛΜΑΤΙΚΗ ΤΟΥΡΙΣΤΙΚΗ ΕΚΠΑΙΔΕΥΣΗ Ministry of Tourism-Υπουργείο Τουρισμού Need for Professional Tourism Education Η Ανάγκη για Επαγγελματική Τουριστική Εκπαίδευση Tourism:
Προφίλ Γραφείου 2015 Office Profile 2015 Περιεχόμενα Contents 01 02 03 04 05 06 Ποιοί Είμαστε - Who we are Τι κάνουμε - What we do Τι κάνουμε διαφορετικά - What we do differently Τι έχουμε πετύχει - What
JEREMIE Joint European Resources for Micro to medium Enterprises ΑΝΑΚΟΙΝΩΣΗ Αθήνα, 1 η Ιουνίου 2010 Σχετικά με την Πρόσκληση Υποβολής Προτάσεων στο «Σχέδιο Επιμερισμού Ρίσκου και Συγχρηματοδότησης» της
Neapolis University HEPHAESTUS Repository School of Health Sciences http://hephaestus.nup.ac.cy Master Degree Thesis 2015 þÿ»±íº Â»¹ ÁÃ Â : É º±¹ Ä þÿ Á³ Ä Å : ¼¹± ºÁ¹Ä¹º ±À Ä ¼ þÿ Ä Æ Á Â, Á ÃÄ Â þÿ ÁÌ³Á±¼¼±