derivation of the Laplacian from rectangular to spherical coordinates

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Μέγεθος: px
Εμφάνιση ξεκινά από τη σελίδα:

Download "derivation of the Laplacian from rectangular to spherical coordinates"

Transcript

1 derivation of the Laplacian from rectangular to spherical coordinates swapnizzle :5:43 We begin by recognizing the familiar conversion from rectangular to spherical coordinates (note that φ is used to denote the azimuthal angle, whereas θ is used to denote the polar angle) x = r cos(φ), y = r sin(φ), z = r cos(θ), () and conversely from spherical to rectangular coordinates r = ( z ) ( y x y z, θ = arccos, φ = arctan. () r x) Now, we know that the Laplacian in rectangular coordinates is defined in the following way f = f f f z. (3) We also know that the partial derivatives in rectangular coordinates can be expanded in the following way by using the chain rule =, (4) =, (5) = z z z z. (6) The next step is to convert the right-hand side of each of the above three equations so that it only has partial derivatives in terms of r, θ and φ. We can do DerivationOfTheLaplacianFromRectangularToSphericalCoordinates created: by: swapnizzle version: Privacy setting: Topic 53A45 This text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License 3.0. You can reuse this document or portions thereof only if you do so under terms that are compatible with the CC-BY-SA license. Readers should note that we do not have to define the Laplacian this way. A more rigorous approach would be to define the Laplacian in some coordinate free manner.

2 this by substituting the following values (which are easily derived from ()) in their respective places in the above three equations = cos(φ), = sin(φ), z = cos(θ), = cos(θ) cos(φ), r = cos(θ) sin(φ), r z z = r, After the substitution, equation (4) looks like the following = sin(φ) r, = cos(φ) r, = 0. (7) = cos(φ) cos(θ) cos(φ) r sin(φ) r. (8) Assuming that f is a sufficiently differentiable function, we can replace f by in the above equation and arrive at the following = cos(φ) r cos(θ) cos(φ) r sin(φ) (9). Now the trick is to substitute equation (8) into equation (9) in order to eliminate any partial derivatives with respect to x. The result is the following equation = cos(φ) cos(φ) r cos(θ) cos(φ) sin(φ) r cos(θ) cos(φ) r r cos(φ) cos(θ) cos(φ) r r cos(φ) cos(θ) cos(φ) r r sin(φ) sin(φ) sin(φ). In the hopes of simplifying the above equation, we operate the derivates on the operands and get = cos(φ) cos(φ) f cos(θ) cos(φ) r r cos(θ) cos(φ) f sin(φ) r sin(φ) r r cos(θ) cos(φ) cos(θ) cos(φ) cos(φ) f cos(φ) r r cos(θ) f cos(φ) sin(φ) cos(θ) r sin (θ) sin(φ) sin(φ) sin(φ) r r cos(φ) f cos(θ) sin(φ) r r cos(θ) cos(φ) f cos(φ) r sin(φ) r.

3 After further simplifying the above equation, we arrive at the following form = sin (θ)cos (φ) f r cos(θ) cos (φ) r cos(θ) cos (φ) f sin(φ) cos(φ) r r sin(φ) cos(φ) f r cos (θ)cos (φ) r cos(θ)cos (φ) f r cos(θ)cos (φ) r cos (θ)cos (φ) f sin(φ) cos(φ)cos (θ) r sin (θ) cos(θ) sin(φ) cos(φ) r r sin(φ) cos(φ) f cos(θ)sin (φ) r sin(φ) cos(φ) r sin (θ) sin (φ) r sin (θ). r sin (φ) cos(θ) cos(φ) sin(φ) r Notice that we have derived the first term of the right-hand side of equation (3) (i.e. f ) in terms of spherical coordinates. We now have to do a similar arduous derivation for the rest of the two terms (i.e. f and f z ). Lets do it! After we substitute the values of (7) into equation (5) we get = sin(φ) cos(θ) sin(φ) r cos(φ) r. (0) Again, assuming that f is a sufficiently differentiable function, we can replace f by in the above equation and arrive at the following = sin(φ) r cos(θ) sin(φ) r cos(φ) (). Now we substitute equation (0) into equation () in order to eliminate any partial derivatives with respect to y. The result is the following = sin(φ) r cos(θ) sin(φ) cos(φ) r sin(φ) cos(θ) sin(φ) r r sin(φ) cos(θ) sin(φ) r r sin(φ) cos(θ) sin(φ) r r cos(φ) cos(φ). cos(φ) 3

4 Now we operate the operators and get = sin(φ) sin(φ) f cos(θ) sin(φ) r r cos(θ) sin(φ) f cos(φ) r cos(φ) r r cos(θ) sin(φ) sin(φ) cos(θ) sin(φ) sin(φ) r r cos(θ) f sin(φ) r cos(φ) cos(φ) cos(φ) r r sin(φ) f cos(θ) cos(φ) r r cos(θ) sin(φ) f r and after some simplifications = sin(φ) r cos(φ)cos(θ) sin (θ) cos(φ), sin (θ)sin (φ) f r cos(θ)sin (φ) r cos(θ)sin (φ) f sin(φ) cos(φ) r r sin(φ) cos(φ) f r cos(θ) sin (φ) r cos (θ)sin (φ) r cos(θ)sin (φ) r cos (θ)sin (φ) f sin(φ) cos(φ)cos (θ) r sin (θ) cos(θ) sin(φ) cos(φ) r r cos (φ) r cos(φ) sin(φ) f cos(θ)cos (φ) r sin(φ) cos(φ) r sin (θ) cos (φ) r sin (θ). Now its time to derive f equation (6) we get z z. cos(θ)cos(φ) sin(φ) r After our substitution of value in (7) into = cos(θ) r. () Once more, assuming that f is a sufficiently differentiable function, we can replace f by z in the above equation which gives us the following z = cos(θ) z r. (3) z Now we substitute equation () into equation (3) in order to eliminate any partial derivatives with respect to z and we arrive at z = cos(θ) cos(θ) r r cos(θ) r. 4

5 After operating the operators we get z = cos(θ) cos(θ) f r r f r and then simplifying z =, f cos (θ) f r f, cos(θ) f r cos(θ) cos(θ) r r cos(θ) f r cos(θ) f cos(θ) r r sin (θ) f. r sin (θ) Now that we have all three terms of the right hand side of equation (3)(i.e. and f z ), we add them all together (because of equation (3)) to get 5

6 the laplacian in terms of r, θ and φ f = sin (θ)cos (φ) f r cos(θ) cos (φ) r cos(θ) cos (φ) f sin(φ) cos(φ) r r sin(φ) cos(φ) f r cos (θ)cos (φ) r cos(θ)cos (φ) f r cos(θ)cos (φ) r cos (θ)cos (φ) f sin(φ) cos(φ)cos (θ) r sin (θ) cos(θ) sin(φ) cos(φ) r r sin (φ) r sin(φ) cos(φ) f cos(θ)sin (φ) r cos(θ) cos(φ) sin(φ) r sin(φ) cos(φ) r sin (θ) sin (φ) r sin (θ) sin (θ)sin (φ) f r cos(θ)sin (φ) r cos(θ)sin (φ) f r sin(φ) cos(φ) f sin(φ) cos(φ) r r cos(θ) sin (φ) r cos (θ)sin (φ) r cos(θ)sin (φ) r cos (θ)sin (φ) f sin(φ) cos(φ)cos (θ) r cos(θ) sin(φ) cos(φ) r sin (θ) r cos (φ) r cos(φ) sin(φ) f cos(θ)cos (φ) r cos(θ)cos(φ) sin(φ) r sin(φ) cos(φ) r sin (θ) cos (φ) r sin (θ) cos (θ) f cos(θ) r r cos(θ) f r sin (θ) r cos(θ) f cos(θ) r r sin (θ) f. It may be hard to believe but the truth is that the above expression, after some miraculous simplifications of course, reduces to the following succinct form and we finally arrive at the Laplacian in spherical coordinates! f = f r r sin (θ) r cos(θ) r We can write the Laplacian in an even more compact form as f = r r r. (4) r sin (θ). (5) Readers might be surprised how I got from expression (4) to expression (5) so fast! Even though it is true that expression (4) is equivalent to expression (5), I wouldn t have been able to write the expression (5) if I hadn t known about it beforehand. 6

Section 7.6 Double and Half Angle Formulas

Section 7.6 Double and Half Angle Formulas 09 Section 7. Double and Half Angle Fmulas To derive the double-angles fmulas, we will use the sum of two angles fmulas that we developed in the last section. We will let α θ and β θ: cos(θ) cos(θ + θ)

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

3.4 SUM AND DIFFERENCE FORMULAS. NOTE: cos(α+β) cos α + cos β cos(α-β) cos α -cos β

3.4 SUM AND DIFFERENCE FORMULAS. NOTE: cos(α+β) cos α + cos β cos(α-β) cos α -cos β 3.4 SUM AND DIFFERENCE FORMULAS Page Theorem cos(αβ cos α cos β -sin α cos(α-β cos α cos β sin α NOTE: cos(αβ cos α cos β cos(α-β cos α -cos β Proof of cos(α-β cos α cos β sin α Let s use a unit circle

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Section 9.2 Polar Equations and Graphs

Section 9.2 Polar Equations and Graphs 180 Section 9. Polar Equations and Graphs In this section, we will be graphing polar equations on a polar grid. In the first few examples, we will write the polar equation in rectangular form to help identify

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Problem Set 9 Solutions. θ + 1. θ 2 + cotθ ( ) sinθ e iφ is an eigenfunction of the ˆ L 2 operator. / θ 2. φ 2. sin 2 θ φ 2. ( ) = e iφ. = e iφ cosθ.

Problem Set 9 Solutions. θ + 1. θ 2 + cotθ ( ) sinθ e iφ is an eigenfunction of the ˆ L 2 operator. / θ 2. φ 2. sin 2 θ φ 2. ( ) = e iφ. = e iφ cosθ. Chemistry 362 Dr Jean M Standard Problem Set 9 Solutions The ˆ L 2 operator is defined as Verify that the angular wavefunction Y θ,φ) Also verify that the eigenvalue is given by 2! 2 & L ˆ 2! 2 2 θ 2 +

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

2 Composition. Invertible Mappings

2 Composition. Invertible Mappings Arkansas Tech University MATH 4033: Elementary Modern Algebra Dr. Marcel B. Finan Composition. Invertible Mappings In this section we discuss two procedures for creating new mappings from old ones, namely,

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Areas and Lengths in Polar Coordinates

Areas and Lengths in Polar Coordinates Kiryl Tsishchanka Areas and Lengths in Polar Coordinates In this section we develop the formula for the area of a region whose boundary is given by a polar equation. We need to use the formula for the

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

CHAPTER 25 SOLVING EQUATIONS BY ITERATIVE METHODS

CHAPTER 25 SOLVING EQUATIONS BY ITERATIVE METHODS CHAPTER 5 SOLVING EQUATIONS BY ITERATIVE METHODS EXERCISE 104 Page 8 1. Find the positive root of the equation x + 3x 5 = 0, correct to 3 significant figures, using the method of bisection. Let f(x) =

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

CHAPTER 101 FOURIER SERIES FOR PERIODIC FUNCTIONS OF PERIOD

CHAPTER 101 FOURIER SERIES FOR PERIODIC FUNCTIONS OF PERIOD CHAPTER FOURIER SERIES FOR PERIODIC FUNCTIONS OF PERIOD EXERCISE 36 Page 66. Determine the Fourier series for the periodic function: f(x), when x +, when x which is periodic outside this rge of period.

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

F-TF Sum and Difference angle

F-TF Sum and Difference angle F-TF Sum and Difference angle formulas Alignments to Content Standards: F-TF.C.9 Task In this task, you will show how all of the sum and difference angle formulas can be derived from a single formula when

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

HOMEWORK 4 = G. In order to plot the stress versus the stretch we define a normalized stretch:

HOMEWORK 4 = G. In order to plot the stress versus the stretch we define a normalized stretch: HOMEWORK 4 Problem a For the fast loading case, we want to derive the relationship between P zz and λ z. We know that the nominal stress is expressed as: P zz = ψ λ z where λ z = λ λ z. Therefore, applying

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Section 8.3 Trigonometric Equations

Section 8.3 Trigonometric Equations 99 Section 8. Trigonometric Equations Objective 1: Solve Equations Involving One Trigonometric Function. In this section and the next, we will exple how to solving equations involving trigonometric functions.

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Απόκριση σε Μοναδιαία Ωστική Δύναμη (Unit Impulse) Απόκριση σε Δυνάμεις Αυθαίρετα Μεταβαλλόμενες με το Χρόνο. Απόστολος Σ.

Απόκριση σε Μοναδιαία Ωστική Δύναμη (Unit Impulse) Απόκριση σε Δυνάμεις Αυθαίρετα Μεταβαλλόμενες με το Χρόνο. Απόστολος Σ. Απόκριση σε Δυνάμεις Αυθαίρετα Μεταβαλλόμενες με το Χρόνο The time integral of a force is referred to as impulse, is determined by and is obtained from: Newton s 2 nd Law of motion states that the action

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Integrals in cylindrical, spherical coordinates (Sect. 15.7)

Integrals in cylindrical, spherical coordinates (Sect. 15.7) Integrals in clindrical, spherical coordinates (Sect. 5.7 Integration in spherical coordinates. Review: Clindrical coordinates. Spherical coordinates in space. Triple integral in spherical coordinates.

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Exercises 10. Find a fundamental matrix of the given system of equations. Also find the fundamental matrix Φ(t) satisfying Φ(0) = I. 1.

Exercises 10. Find a fundamental matrix of the given system of equations. Also find the fundamental matrix Φ(t) satisfying Φ(0) = I. 1. Exercises 0 More exercises are available in Elementary Differential Equations. If you have a problem to solve any of them, feel free to come to office hour. Problem Find a fundamental matrix of the given

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Homework 3 Solutions

Homework 3 Solutions Homework 3 Solutions Igor Yanovsky (Math 151A TA) Problem 1: Compute the absolute error and relative error in approximations of p by p. (Use calculator!) a) p π, p 22/7; b) p π, p 3.141. Solution: For

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Areas and Lengths in Polar Coordinates

Areas and Lengths in Polar Coordinates Kiryl Tsishchanka Areas and Lengths in Polar Coordinates In this section we develop the formula for the area of a region whose boundary is given by a polar equation. We need to use the formula for the

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Approximation of distance between locations on earth given by latitude and longitude

Approximation of distance between locations on earth given by latitude and longitude Approximation of distance between locations on earth given by latitude and longitude Jan Behrens 2012-12-31 In this paper we shall provide a method to approximate distances between two points on earth

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

CRASH COURSE IN PRECALCULUS

CRASH COURSE IN PRECALCULUS CRASH COURSE IN PRECALCULUS Shiah-Sen Wang The graphs are prepared by Chien-Lun Lai Based on : Precalculus: Mathematics for Calculus by J. Stuwart, L. Redin & S. Watson, 6th edition, 01, Brooks/Cole Chapter

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

b. Use the parametrization from (a) to compute the area of S a as S a ds. Be sure to substitute for ds!

b. Use the parametrization from (a) to compute the area of S a as S a ds. Be sure to substitute for ds! MTH U341 urface Integrals, tokes theorem, the divergence theorem To be turned in Wed., Dec. 1. 1. Let be the sphere of radius a, x 2 + y 2 + z 2 a 2. a. Use spherical coordinates (with ρ a) to parametrize.

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Problem Set 3: Solutions

Problem Set 3: Solutions CMPSCI 69GG Applied Information Theory Fall 006 Problem Set 3: Solutions. [Cover and Thomas 7.] a Define the following notation, C I p xx; Y max X; Y C I p xx; Ỹ max I X; Ỹ We would like to show that C

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Matrices and Determinants

Matrices and Determinants Matrices and Determinants SUBJECTIVE PROBLEMS: Q 1. For what value of k do the following system of equations possess a non-trivial (i.e., not all zero) solution over the set of rationals Q? x + ky + 3z

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Solutions to Exercise Sheet 5

Solutions to Exercise Sheet 5 Solutions to Eercise Sheet 5 jacques@ucsd.edu. Let X and Y be random variables with joint pdf f(, y) = 3y( + y) where and y. Determine each of the following probabilities. Solutions. a. P (X ). b. P (X

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

9.09. # 1. Area inside the oval limaçon r = cos θ. To graph, start with θ = 0 so r = 6. Compute dr

9.09. # 1. Area inside the oval limaçon r = cos θ. To graph, start with θ = 0 so r = 6. Compute dr 9.9 #. Area inside the oval limaçon r = + cos. To graph, start with = so r =. Compute d = sin. Interesting points are where d vanishes, or at =,,, etc. For these values of we compute r:,,, and the values

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

The Simply Typed Lambda Calculus

The Simply Typed Lambda Calculus Type Inference Instead of writing type annotations, can we use an algorithm to infer what the type annotations should be? That depends on the type system. For simple type systems the answer is yes, and

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Partial Trace and Partial Transpose

Partial Trace and Partial Transpose Partial Trace and Partial Transpose by José Luis Gómez-Muñoz http://homepage.cem.itesm.mx/lgomez/quantum/ jose.luis.gomez@itesm.mx This document is based on suggestions by Anirban Das Introduction This

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

PARTIAL NOTES for 6.1 Trigonometric Identities

PARTIAL NOTES for 6.1 Trigonometric Identities PARTIAL NOTES for 6.1 Trigonometric Identities tanθ = sinθ cosθ cotθ = cosθ sinθ BASIC IDENTITIES cscθ = 1 sinθ secθ = 1 cosθ cotθ = 1 tanθ PYTHAGOREAN IDENTITIES sin θ + cos θ =1 tan θ +1= sec θ 1 + cot

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Math221: HW# 1 solutions

Math221: HW# 1 solutions Math: HW# solutions Andy Royston October, 5 7.5.7, 3 rd Ed. We have a n = b n = a = fxdx = xdx =, x cos nxdx = x sin nx n sin nxdx n = cos nx n = n n, x sin nxdx = x cos nx n + cos nxdx n cos n = + sin

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Other Test Constructions: Likelihood Ratio & Bayes Tests

Other Test Constructions: Likelihood Ratio & Bayes Tests Other Test Constructions: Likelihood Ratio & Bayes Tests Side-Note: So far we have seen a few approaches for creating tests such as Neyman-Pearson Lemma ( most powerful tests of H 0 : θ = θ 0 vs H 1 :

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Practice Exam 2. Conceptual Questions. 1. State a Basic identity and then verify it. (a) Identity: Solution: One identity is csc(θ) = 1

Practice Exam 2. Conceptual Questions. 1. State a Basic identity and then verify it. (a) Identity: Solution: One identity is csc(θ) = 1 Conceptual Questions. State a Basic identity and then verify it. a) Identity: Solution: One identity is cscθ) = sinθ) Practice Exam b) Verification: Solution: Given the point of intersection x, y) of the

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Example Sheet 3 Solutions

Example Sheet 3 Solutions Example Sheet 3 Solutions. i Regular Sturm-Liouville. ii Singular Sturm-Liouville mixed boundary conditions. iii Not Sturm-Liouville ODE is not in Sturm-Liouville form. iv Regular Sturm-Liouville note

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Second Order Partial Differential Equations

Second Order Partial Differential Equations Chapter 7 Second Order Partial Differential Equations 7.1 Introduction A second order linear PDE in two independent variables (x, y Ω can be written as A(x, y u x + B(x, y u xy + C(x, y u u u + D(x, y

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Section 8.2 Graphs of Polar Equations

Section 8.2 Graphs of Polar Equations Section 8. Graphs of Polar Equations Graphing Polar Equations The graph of a polar equation r = f(θ), or more generally F(r,θ) = 0, consists of all points P that have at least one polar representation

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

C.S. 430 Assignment 6, Sample Solutions

C.S. 430 Assignment 6, Sample Solutions C.S. 430 Assignment 6, Sample Solutions Paul Liu November 15, 2007 Note that these are sample solutions only; in many cases there were many acceptable answers. 1 Reynolds Problem 10.1 1.1 Normal-order

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Finite Field Problems: Solutions

Finite Field Problems: Solutions Finite Field Problems: Solutions 1. Let f = x 2 +1 Z 11 [x] and let F = Z 11 [x]/(f), a field. Let Solution: F =11 2 = 121, so F = 121 1 = 120. The possible orders are the divisors of 120. Solution: The

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Inverse trigonometric functions & General Solution of Trigonometric Equations. ------------------ ----------------------------- -----------------

Inverse trigonometric functions & General Solution of Trigonometric Equations. ------------------ ----------------------------- ----------------- Inverse trigonometric functions & General Solution of Trigonometric Equations. 1. Sin ( ) = a) b) c) d) Ans b. Solution : Method 1. Ans a: 17 > 1 a) is rejected. w.k.t Sin ( sin ) = d is rejected. If sin

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ANSWERSHEET (TOPIC = DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS) COLLECTION #2. h 0 h h 0 h h 0 ( ) g k = g 0 + g 1 + g g 2009 =?

ANSWERSHEET (TOPIC = DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS) COLLECTION #2. h 0 h h 0 h h 0 ( ) g k = g 0 + g 1 + g g 2009 =? Teko Classes IITJEE/AIEEE Maths by SUHAAG SIR, Bhopal, Ph (0755) 3 00 000 www.tekoclasses.com ANSWERSHEET (TOPIC DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS) COLLECTION # Question Type A.Single Correct Type Q. (A) Sol least

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ECE Spring Prof. David R. Jackson ECE Dept. Notes 2

ECE Spring Prof. David R. Jackson ECE Dept. Notes 2 ECE 634 Spring 6 Prof. David R. Jackson ECE Dept. Notes Fields in a Source-Free Region Example: Radiation from an aperture y PEC E t x Aperture Assume the following choice of vector potentials: A F = =

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

EE512: Error Control Coding

EE512: Error Control Coding EE512: Error Control Coding Solution for Assignment on Finite Fields February 16, 2007 1. (a) Addition and Multiplication tables for GF (5) and GF (7) are shown in Tables 1 and 2. + 0 1 2 3 4 0 0 1 2 3

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Review Test 3. MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Review Test 3. MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Review Test MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Find the exact value of the expression. 1) sin - 11π 1 1) + - + - - ) sin 11π 1 ) ( -

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

If we restrict the domain of y = sin x to [ π, π ], the restrict function. y = sin x, π 2 x π 2

If we restrict the domain of y = sin x to [ π, π ], the restrict function. y = sin x, π 2 x π 2 Chapter 3. Analytic Trigonometry 3.1 The inverse sine, cosine, and tangent functions 1. Review: Inverse function (1) f 1 (f(x)) = x for every x in the domain of f and f(f 1 (x)) = x for every x in the

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Variational Wavefunction for the Helium Atom

Variational Wavefunction for the Helium Atom Technische Universität Graz Institut für Festkörperphysik Student project Variational Wavefunction for the Helium Atom Molecular and Solid State Physics 53. submitted on: 3. November 9 by: Markus Krammer

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Jesse Maassen and Mark Lundstrom Purdue University November 25, 2013

Jesse Maassen and Mark Lundstrom Purdue University November 25, 2013 Notes on Average Scattering imes and Hall Factors Jesse Maassen and Mar Lundstrom Purdue University November 5, 13 I. Introduction 1 II. Solution of the BE 1 III. Exercises: Woring out average scattering

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

If we restrict the domain of y = sin x to [ π 2, π 2

If we restrict the domain of y = sin x to [ π 2, π 2 Chapter 3. Analytic Trigonometry 3.1 The inverse sine, cosine, and tangent functions 1. Review: Inverse function (1) f 1 (f(x)) = x for every x in the domain of f and f(f 1 (x)) = x for every x in the

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Lecture 2: Dirac notation and a review of linear algebra Read Sakurai chapter 1, Baym chatper 3

Lecture 2: Dirac notation and a review of linear algebra Read Sakurai chapter 1, Baym chatper 3 Lecture 2: Dirac notation and a review of linear algebra Read Sakurai chapter 1, Baym chatper 3 1 State vector space and the dual space Space of wavefunctions The space of wavefunctions is the set of all

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Strain gauge and rosettes

Strain gauge and rosettes Strain gauge and rosettes Introduction A strain gauge is a device which is used to measure strain (deformation) on an object subjected to forces. Strain can be measured using various types of devices classified

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

A Note on Intuitionistic Fuzzy. Equivalence Relation

A Note on Intuitionistic Fuzzy. Equivalence Relation International Mathematical Forum, 5, 2010, no. 67, 3301-3307 A Note on Intuitionistic Fuzzy Equivalence Relation D. K. Basnet Dept. of Mathematics, Assam University Silchar-788011, Assam, India dkbasnet@rediffmail.com

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Answer sheet: Third Midterm for Math 2339

Answer sheet: Third Midterm for Math 2339 Answer sheet: Third Midterm for Math 339 November 3, Problem. Calculate the iterated integrals (Simplify as much as possible) (a) e sin(x) dydx y e sin(x) dydx y sin(x) ln y ( cos(x)) ye y dx sin(x)(lne

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

MathCity.org Merging man and maths

MathCity.org Merging man and maths MathCity.org Merging man and maths Exercise 10. (s) Page Textbook of Algebra and Trigonometry for Class XI Available online @, Version:.0 Question # 1 Find the values of sin, and tan when: 1 π (i) (ii)

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Srednicki Chapter 55

Srednicki Chapter 55 Srednicki Chapter 55 QFT Problems & Solutions A. George August 3, 03 Srednicki 55.. Use equations 55.3-55.0 and A i, A j ] = Π i, Π j ] = 0 (at equal times) to verify equations 55.-55.3. This is our third

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Orbital angular momentum and the spherical harmonics

Orbital angular momentum and the spherical harmonics Orbital angular momentum and the spherical harmonics March 8, 03 Orbital angular momentum We compare our result on representations of rotations with our previous experience of angular momentum, defined

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Phys460.nb Solution for the t-dependent Schrodinger s equation How did we find the solution? (not required)

Phys460.nb Solution for the t-dependent Schrodinger s equation How did we find the solution? (not required) Phys460.nb 81 ψ n (t) is still the (same) eigenstate of H But for tdependent H. The answer is NO. 5.5.5. Solution for the tdependent Schrodinger s equation If we assume that at time t 0, the electron starts

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL h in h 4 0.

DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL h in h 4 0. DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL -7-1! PROBLEM -7 Statement: Design a double-dwell cam to move a follower from to 25 6, dwell for 12, fall 25 and dwell for the remader The total cycle must take 4 sec

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Appendix to On the stability of a compressible axisymmetric rotating flow in a pipe. By Z. Rusak & J. H. Lee

Appendix to On the stability of a compressible axisymmetric rotating flow in a pipe. By Z. Rusak & J. H. Lee Appendi to On the stability of a compressible aisymmetric rotating flow in a pipe By Z. Rusak & J. H. Lee Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol. 5 4, pp. 5 4 This material has not been copy-edited or typeset

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Lecture 26: Circular domains

Lecture 26: Circular domains Introductory lecture notes on Partial Differential Equations - c Anthony Peirce. Not to be copied, used, or revised without eplicit written permission from the copyright owner. 1 Lecture 6: Circular domains

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Every set of first-order formulas is equivalent to an independent set

Every set of first-order formulas is equivalent to an independent set Every set of first-order formulas is equivalent to an independent set May 6, 2008 Abstract A set of first-order formulas, whatever the cardinality of the set of symbols, is equivalent to an independent

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

CYLINDRICAL & SPHERICAL COORDINATES

CYLINDRICAL & SPHERICAL COORDINATES CYLINDRICAL & SPHERICAL COORDINATES Here we eamine two of the more popular alternative -dimensional coordinate sstems to the rectangular coordinate sstem. First recall the basis of the Rectangular Coordinate

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Math 6 SL Probability Distributions Practice Test Mark Scheme

Math 6 SL Probability Distributions Practice Test Mark Scheme Math 6 SL Probability Distributions Practice Test Mark Scheme. (a) Note: Award A for vertical line to right of mean, A for shading to right of their vertical line. AA N (b) evidence of recognizing symmetry

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Homework 8 Model Solution Section

Homework 8 Model Solution Section MATH 004 Homework Solution Homework 8 Model Solution Section 14.5 14.6. 14.5. Use the Chain Rule to find dz where z cosx + 4y), x 5t 4, y 1 t. dz dx + dy y sinx + 4y)0t + 4) sinx + 4y) 1t ) 0t + 4t ) sinx

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

1 String with massive end-points

1 String with massive end-points 1 String with massive end-points Πρόβλημα 5.11:Θεωρείστε μια χορδή μήκους, τάσης T, με δύο σημειακά σωματίδια στα άκρα της, το ένα μάζας m, και το άλλο μάζας m. α) Μελετώντας την κίνηση των άκρων βρείτε

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Reminders: linear functions

Reminders: linear functions Reminders: linear functions Let U and V be vector spaces over the same field F. Definition A function f : U V is linear if for every u 1, u 2 U, f (u 1 + u 2 ) = f (u 1 ) + f (u 2 ), and for every u U

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΚΥΠΡΙΑΚΗ ΕΤΑΙΡΕΙΑ ΠΛΗΡΟΦΟΡΙΚΗΣ CYPRUS COMPUTER SOCIETY ΠΑΓΚΥΠΡΙΟΣ ΜΑΘΗΤΙΚΟΣ ΔΙΑΓΩΝΙΣΜΟΣ ΠΛΗΡΟΦΟΡΙΚΗΣ 19/5/2007

ΚΥΠΡΙΑΚΗ ΕΤΑΙΡΕΙΑ ΠΛΗΡΟΦΟΡΙΚΗΣ CYPRUS COMPUTER SOCIETY ΠΑΓΚΥΠΡΙΟΣ ΜΑΘΗΤΙΚΟΣ ΔΙΑΓΩΝΙΣΜΟΣ ΠΛΗΡΟΦΟΡΙΚΗΣ 19/5/2007 Οδηγίες: Να απαντηθούν όλες οι ερωτήσεις. Αν κάπου κάνετε κάποιες υποθέσεις να αναφερθούν στη σχετική ερώτηση. Όλα τα αρχεία που αναφέρονται στα προβλήματα βρίσκονται στον ίδιο φάκελο με το εκτελέσιμο

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ST5224: Advanced Statistical Theory II

ST5224: Advanced Statistical Theory II ST5224: Advanced Statistical Theory II 2014/2015: Semester II Tutorial 7 1. Let X be a sample from a population P and consider testing hypotheses H 0 : P = P 0 versus H 1 : P = P 1, where P j is a known

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

6.1. Dirac Equation. Hamiltonian. Dirac Eq.

6.1. Dirac Equation. Hamiltonian. Dirac Eq. 6.1. Dirac Equation Ref: M.Kaku, Quantum Field Theory, Oxford Univ Press (1993) η μν = η μν = diag(1, -1, -1, -1) p 0 = p 0 p = p i = -p i p μ p μ = p 0 p 0 + p i p i = E c 2 - p 2 = (m c) 2 H = c p 2

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Notes on the Open Economy

Notes on the Open Economy Notes on the Open Econom Ben J. Heijdra Universit of Groningen April 24 Introduction In this note we stud the two-countr model of Table.4 in more detail. restated here for convenience. The model is Table.4.

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Derivation of Optical-Bloch Equations

Derivation of Optical-Bloch Equations Appendix C Derivation of Optical-Bloch Equations In this appendix the optical-bloch equations that give the populations and coherences for an idealized three-level Λ system, Fig. 3. on page 47, will be

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Right Rear Door. Let's now finish the door hinge saga with the right rear door

Right Rear Door. Let's now finish the door hinge saga with the right rear door Right Rear Door Let's now finish the door hinge saga with the right rear door You may have been already guessed my steps, so there is not much to describe in detail. Old upper one file:///c /Documents

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

SCHOOL OF MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES G11LMA Linear Mathematics Examination Solutions

SCHOOL OF MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES G11LMA Linear Mathematics Examination Solutions SCHOOL OF MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES GLMA Linear Mathematics 00- Examination Solutions. (a) i. ( + 5i)( i) = (6 + 5) + (5 )i = + i. Real part is, imaginary part is. (b) ii. + 5i i ( + 5i)( + i) = ( i)( + i)

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Fourier Series. MATH 211, Calculus II. J. Robert Buchanan. Spring Department of Mathematics

Fourier Series. MATH 211, Calculus II. J. Robert Buchanan. Spring Department of Mathematics Fourier Series MATH 211, Calculus II J. Robert Buchanan Department of Mathematics Spring 2018 Introduction Not all functions can be represented by Taylor series. f (k) (c) A Taylor series f (x) = (x c)

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Chapter 6: Systems of Linear Differential. be continuous functions on the interval

Chapter 6: Systems of Linear Differential. be continuous functions on the interval Chapter 6: Systems of Linear Differential Equations Let a (t), a 2 (t),..., a nn (t), b (t), b 2 (t),..., b n (t) be continuous functions on the interval I. The system of n first-order differential equations

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Statistical Inference I Locally most powerful tests

Statistical Inference I Locally most powerful tests Statistical Inference I Locally most powerful tests Shirsendu Mukherjee Department of Statistics, Asutosh College, Kolkata, India. shirsendu st@yahoo.co.in So far we have treated the testing of one-sided

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Uniform Convergence of Fourier Series Michael Taylor

Uniform Convergence of Fourier Series Michael Taylor Uniform Convergence of Fourier Series Michael Taylor Given f L 1 T 1 ), we consider the partial sums of the Fourier series of f: N 1) S N fθ) = ˆfk)e ikθ. k= N A calculation gives the Dirichlet formula

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

4.6 Autoregressive Moving Average Model ARMA(1,1)

4.6 Autoregressive Moving Average Model ARMA(1,1) 84 CHAPTER 4. STATIONARY TS MODELS 4.6 Autoregressive Moving Average Model ARMA(,) This section is an introduction to a wide class of models ARMA(p,q) which we will consider in more detail later in this

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

forms This gives Remark 1. How to remember the above formulas: Substituting these into the equation we obtain with

forms This gives Remark 1. How to remember the above formulas: Substituting these into the equation we obtain with Week 03: C lassification of S econd- Order L inear Equations In last week s lectures we have illustrated how to obtain the general solutions of first order PDEs using the method of characteristics. We

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Exercises to Statistics of Material Fatigue No. 5

Exercises to Statistics of Material Fatigue No. 5 Prof. Dr. Christine Müller Dipl.-Math. Christoph Kustosz Eercises to Statistics of Material Fatigue No. 5 E. 9 (5 a Show, that a Fisher information matri for a two dimensional parameter θ (θ,θ 2 R 2, can

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Pg The perimeter is P = 3x The area of a triangle is. where b is the base, h is the height. In our case b = x, then the area is

Pg The perimeter is P = 3x The area of a triangle is. where b is the base, h is the height. In our case b = x, then the area is Pg. 9. The perimeter is P = The area of a triangle is A = bh where b is the base, h is the height 0 h= btan 60 = b = b In our case b =, then the area is A = = 0. By Pythagorean theorem a + a = d a a =

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Parametrized Surfaces

Parametrized Surfaces Parametrized Surfaces Recall from our unit on vector-valued functions at the beginning of the semester that an R 3 -valued function c(t) in one parameter is a mapping of the form c : I R 3 where I is some

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Partial Differential Equations in Biology The boundary element method. March 26, 2013

Partial Differential Equations in Biology The boundary element method. March 26, 2013 The boundary element method March 26, 203 Introduction and notation The problem: u = f in D R d u = ϕ in Γ D u n = g on Γ N, where D = Γ D Γ N, Γ D Γ N = (possibly, Γ D = [Neumann problem] or Γ N = [Dirichlet

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

D Alembert s Solution to the Wave Equation

D Alembert s Solution to the Wave Equation D Alembert s Solution to the Wave Equation MATH 467 Partial Differential Equations J. Robert Buchanan Department of Mathematics Fall 2018 Objectives In this lesson we will learn: a change of variable technique

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

10/3/ revolution = 360 = 2 π radians = = x. 2π = x = 360 = : Measures of Angles and Rotations

10/3/ revolution = 360 = 2 π radians = = x. 2π = x = 360 = : Measures of Angles and Rotations //.: Measures of Angles and Rotations I. Vocabulary A A. Angle the union of two rays with a common endpoint B. BA and BC C. B is the vertex. B C D. You can think of BA as the rotation of (clockwise) with

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

( ) 2 and compare to M.

( ) 2 and compare to M. Problems and Solutions for Section 4.2 4.9 through 4.33) 4.9 Calculate the square root of the matrix 3!0 M!0 8 Hint: Let M / 2 a!b ; calculate M / 2!b c ) 2 and compare to M. Solution: Given: 3!0 M!0 8

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

2. Μηχανικό Μαύρο Κουτί: κύλινδρος με μια μπάλα μέσα σε αυτόν.

2. Μηχανικό Μαύρο Κουτί: κύλινδρος με μια μπάλα μέσα σε αυτόν. Experiental Copetition: 14 July 011 Proble Page 1 of. Μηχανικό Μαύρο Κουτί: κύλινδρος με μια μπάλα μέσα σε αυτόν. Ένα μικρό σωματίδιο μάζας (μπάλα) βρίσκεται σε σταθερή απόσταση z από το πάνω μέρος ενός

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

6.3 Forecasting ARMA processes

6.3 Forecasting ARMA processes 122 CHAPTER 6. ARMA MODELS 6.3 Forecasting ARMA processes The purpose of forecasting is to predict future values of a TS based on the data collected to the present. In this section we will discuss a linear

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

CORDIC Background (2A)

CORDIC Background (2A) CORDIC Background 2A Copyright c 20-202 Young W. Lim. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version.2 or any later

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Trigonometry 1.TRIGONOMETRIC RATIOS

Trigonometry 1.TRIGONOMETRIC RATIOS Trigonometry.TRIGONOMETRIC RATIOS. If a ray OP makes an angle with the positive direction of X-axis then y x i) Sin ii) cos r r iii) tan x y (x 0) iv) cot y x (y 0) y P v) sec x r (x 0) vi) cosec y r (y

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Problem 3.1 Vector A starts at point (1, 1, 3) and ends at point (2, 1,0). Find a unit vector in the direction of A. Solution: A = 1+9 = 3.

Problem 3.1 Vector A starts at point (1, 1, 3) and ends at point (2, 1,0). Find a unit vector in the direction of A. Solution: A = 1+9 = 3. Problem 3.1 Vector A starts at point (1, 1, 3) and ends at point (, 1,0). Find a unit vector in the direction of A. Solution: A = ˆx( 1)+ŷ( 1 ( 1))+ẑ(0 ( 3)) = ˆx+ẑ3, A = 1+9 = 3.16, â = A A = ˆx+ẑ3 3.16

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Ordinal Arithmetic: Addition, Multiplication, Exponentiation and Limit

Ordinal Arithmetic: Addition, Multiplication, Exponentiation and Limit Ordinal Arithmetic: Addition, Multiplication, Exponentiation and Limit Ting Zhang Stanford May 11, 2001 Stanford, 5/11/2001 1 Outline Ordinal Classification Ordinal Addition Ordinal Multiplication Ordinal

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

DERIVATION OF MILES EQUATION FOR AN APPLIED FORCE Revision C

DERIVATION OF MILES EQUATION FOR AN APPLIED FORCE Revision C DERIVATION OF MILES EQUATION FOR AN APPLIED FORCE Revision C By Tom Irvine Email: tomirvine@aol.com August 6, 8 Introduction The obective is to derive a Miles equation which gives the overall response

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

w o = R 1 p. (1) R = p =. = 1

w o = R 1 p. (1) R = p =. = 1 Πανεπιστήµιο Κρήτης - Τµήµα Επιστήµης Υπολογιστών ΗΥ-570: Στατιστική Επεξεργασία Σήµατος 205 ιδάσκων : Α. Μουχτάρης Τριτη Σειρά Ασκήσεων Λύσεις Ασκηση 3. 5.2 (a) From the Wiener-Hopf equation we have:

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Second Order RLC Filters

Second Order RLC Filters ECEN 60 Circuits/Electronics Spring 007-0-07 P. Mathys Second Order RLC Filters RLC Lowpass Filter A passive RLC lowpass filter (LPF) circuit is shown in the following schematic. R L C v O (t) Using phasor

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Similarly, we may define hyperbolic functions cosh α and sinh α from the unit hyperbola

Similarly, we may define hyperbolic functions cosh α and sinh α from the unit hyperbola Universit of Hperbolic Functions The trigonometric functions cos α an cos α are efine using the unit circle + b measuring the istance α in the counter-clockwise irection along the circumference of the

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Trigonometric Formula Sheet

Trigonometric Formula Sheet Trigonometric Formula Sheet Definition of the Trig Functions Right Triangle Definition Assume that: 0 < θ < or 0 < θ < 90 Unit Circle Definition Assume θ can be any angle. y x, y hypotenuse opposite θ

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

CORDIC Background (4A)

CORDIC Background (4A) CORDIC Background (4A Copyright (c 20-202 Young W. Lim. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version.2 or any later

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

10.7 Performance of Second-Order System (Unit Step Response)

10.7 Performance of Second-Order System (Unit Step Response) Lecture Notes on Control Systems/D. Ghose/0 57 0.7 Performance of Second-Order System (Unit Step Response) Consider the second order system a ÿ + a ẏ + a 0 y = b 0 r So, Y (s) R(s) = b 0 a s + a s + a

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Differential equations

Differential equations Differential equations Differential equations: An equation inoling one dependent ariable and its deriaties w. r. t one or more independent ariables is called a differential equation. Order of differential

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Logsine integrals. Notes by G.J.O. Jameson. log sin θ dθ = π log 2,

Logsine integrals. Notes by G.J.O. Jameson. log sin θ dθ = π log 2, Logsine integrals Notes by G.J.O. Jameson The basic logsine integrals are: log sin θ dθ = log( sin θ) dθ = log cos θ dθ = π log, () log( cos θ) dθ =. () The equivalence of () and () is obvious. To prove

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Spherical Coordinates

Spherical Coordinates Spherical Coordinates MATH 311, Calculus III J. Robert Buchanan Department of Mathematics Fall 2011 Spherical Coordinates Another means of locating points in three-dimensional space is known as the spherical

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Jackson 2.25 Homework Problem Solution Dr. Christopher S. Baird University of Massachusetts Lowell

Jackson 2.25 Homework Problem Solution Dr. Christopher S. Baird University of Massachusetts Lowell Jackson 2.25 Hoework Proble Solution Dr. Christopher S. Baird University of Massachusetts Lowell PROBLEM: Two conducting planes at zero potential eet along the z axis, aking an angle β between the, as

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Μηχανική Μάθηση Hypothesis Testing

Μηχανική Μάθηση Hypothesis Testing ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΗ ΔΗΜΟΚΡΑΤΙΑ ΠΑΝΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΙΟ ΚΡΗΤΗΣ Μηχανική Μάθηση Hypothesis Testing Γιώργος Μπορμπουδάκης Τμήμα Επιστήμης Υπολογιστών Procedure 1. Form the null (H 0 ) and alternative (H 1 ) hypothesis 2. Consider

Διαβάστε περισσότερα