# Section 8.3 Trigonometric Equations

Μέγεθος: px
Εμφάνιση ξεκινά από τη σελίδα:

Download "Section 8.3 Trigonometric Equations"

## Transcript

1 99 Section 8. Trigonometric Equations Objective 1: Solve Equations Involving One Trigonometric Function. In this section and the next, we will exple how to solving equations involving trigonometric functions. Many times, an equation with a trigonometric function will have an infinite number of solutions. Thus, we will need to write the general fm of the solution. Find the a) general solution as well as b) eight particular solutions: Ex. 1 cos(x) = If we examine the graph of y = cos(x) and y = are an infinite number of points the two curves intersect:, we see that there In the interval [0, π), the cosine function is positive in the first and fourth quadrants. In the first quadrant, x = cos 1 ( ) = π. Since π is also our reference angle, then π π = π is the angle in the fourth quadrant. The cosine function is periodic with period π, so these solutions will repeat every π. Thus, our general solution is a) {x x = π π + kπ x = + kπ, k is an integer} b) To find eight solutions, we can pick k = 1, 0, 1, k = 1 k = 0 π π π + ( 1)π = π ( 1)π = π π π π -0.5 π π π (0)π = π π + (0)π = π y = y = cos(x)

2 100 k = 1 k = π 1π π + (1)π = + ()π = π Ex. sin(θ) = + (1)π = π So, { π, π, π, π solutions to the equation. π + ()π =, 1π, π,, } are eight In the interval [0, π), the sine function is negative in the third and fourth quadrants. In the first quadrant, θ = sin 1 ( ) = π. Thus, π is our reference angle. The angle we need in the third quadrant is π + π = and the angle we need in the fourth quadrant is π π =. The sine function is periodic with period π, so these solutions will repeat every π. Thus, our general solution is a) {x x = + kπ x = + kπ, k is an integer} b) To find eight solutions, we can pick k = 1, 0, 1, k = 1 k = 0 π + ( 1)π = + (0)π = + ( 1)π = π k = 1 k = 10π + (1)π = π + (1)π = So, { π, π, solutions to the equation. Ex. 5cot (x) = First, we need to solve f cot(x): 5cot (x) = 5cot (x) = 5 cot (x) = 1 cot(x) = ± 1 + (0)π = + ()π = 1π + ()π = 17π,, 10π, π, 1π, 17π } are eight

3 101 The cotangent function is positive in quadrant I and negative in quadrant II. Since cot(x) = 1 when tan(x) = 1, then x = π 4 is the reference angle. In quadrant II, the angle we need is π π 4 = π 4. Since the cotangent function is periodic with period of π, then the solutions will repeat every multiple of π. a) {x x = π π + nπ x = nπ, n is an integer}. Since the consecutive angles differ by π, we can write the general solution as: {x x = π 4 + kπ, k is an integer}. b) Eight solutions are { π 4, π 4, π 4, π 4, 4, 7π 4, 9π 4, π 4 }. When solving a trigonometric equation where the argument is a multiple of the variable, we will need to use the general solution f argument and then solve f variable. We will then need to run through values of k until we find all the angles within a specified interval. Solve the following f angles in [0, π). Ex. 4 cos(4θ) 1 = 0 First, solve f cos(4θ): cos(4θ) 1 = 0 cos(4θ) = 1 cos(4θ) = 1 (let x = 4θ) Thus, cos(x) = 1 when x = π x = π π =. Since the period of cosine is π, then the general solution will have the fm of: x = 4 + kπ + kπ Now, solve f θ by dividing by four: 1 + kπ 1 + kπ We need to find all the angles in [0, π). k = π = π = π No 1 k = 0 k = π = π π = 7π π = π = π 1

4 10 k = k = k = π = 1π π = 19π = π = 17π π = π = 9π 1 The solution is { π 1, 1, 7π 1, π 1, 1π 1, 17π 1, 19π 1, π 1 } No Ex. 5 4sin(θ) + = We first need to solve f sin(θ): 4sin(θ) + = 4sin(θ) = 0 sin(θ) = 0 (let x = θ) Thus, sin(x) = 0 when x = 0 π. Since the period of sine is π, then the general solution will have the fm of: x = θ = 0 + kπ π + kπ Since consecutive angles differ by π, then we can state the general solution as: x = kπ Now, solve f θ by dividing by : θ = kπ We need to find all the angles in [0, π). k = 1 θ = 1π = π 0π No k = 0 θ = = 0 k = 1 θ = 1π = π π k = θ = k = k = 5 θ = The solution is {0, π, π Ex. tan(θ + π ) = = π k = 4 θ = k =, π,, }. = π No Let x = θ + π. Since tan(x) = when x = π, then π is our reference angle. The tangent function is negative in quadrant II, so the angle is π π = π. Since the period of tangent is π, then the general solution will have the fm of:

5 x = θ + π = π + kπ Now, solve f θ: θ + π = π + kπ π + kπ + kπ kπ We need to find all the angles in [0, π). k = π = 1 No k = π = π 1 k = π = 7π 1 k = 1 + π = 1π 1 k = 1 + π = 19π 1 k = = 1 No The solution is { π 1, 7π 1, 1π 1, 19π 1 }. Objective : Solving a Trigonometric Equation with a Calculat. Solve the following f angles in [0, π). Ex. 7 cos(x) = 0. Here, we will need to use our calculat to find the value f x: cos(x) = 0. x = cos 1 (0.) = This angle is in the first quadrant. However, the cosine is also positive in the fourth quadrant. Since θ R 0.97, then the angle in the fourth quadrant is π Thus, the solution is { 0.97, 5.559} Ex. 8 tan(x) = Here, we will need to use our calculat to find the value f x: tan(x) = which means x = tan 1 ( ) = This angle is not in [0, π). In that interval, the tangent function is negative in quadrant II, and IV. Since the inverse tangent function gave us the opposite of the reference angle, then θ R = Thus, in the second quadrant, the angle is π

6 104 Ex. 9 = Similarly, in quadrant IV, the angle is π = Hence, the solution is {.044, 5.170}. Due to bad weather, a plane in a holding pattern around the Dallas airpt. The distance d in miles the plane is from the airpt at time t minutes is given by d(t) = 80sin(0.55t) a) When the plane enters the holding pattern, t = 0, how far is it from the airpt? b) During the first 0 minutes after the plane enters the holding pattern, what time(s) t will the plane be exactly 80 miles from the airpt? a) d(0) = 80sin(0.55(0)) + 10 = 80sin(0) + 10 = = 10 The plane was 10 miles from the airpt. b) Set d(t) = 80 and solve: 80sin(0.55t) + 10 = 80 80sin(0.55t) = 50 sin(0.55t) = t = sin 1 ( 0.5) = Thus, the reference angle is The sine is negative in quadrant III and IV, so the angles are π = and π = Thus, 0.55t = kπ kπ, k is an integer. Solving f t yields: t = kπ If k = 0, then t = (0)π kπ (0)π t.995 minutes minutes If k = 1, then t = (1)π (1)π t = t = t 18.5 minutes 1.04 minutes The three times that are within the first twenty minutes are {.995 minutes, minutes, 18.5 minutes}

7 105 Objective : Solving a Trigonometric Equation in Quadratic Fm In solving trigonometric equation in quadratic fm, we will have to use an identity and/ fact befe we can get a series of linear equations involving one trigonometric function to solve. It will also be imptant to make a note of any values that make the iginal equation undefined. Solve f all values in [0, π): Ex. 10 cos (θ) + cos(θ) = 1 cos (θ) + cos(θ) = 1 (get zero on one side) cos (θ) + cos(θ) 1 = 0 Think of x + x 1 = (x 1)(x + 1), so cos (θ) + cos(θ) 1 = (cos(θ) 1)(cos(θ) + 1) Hence, (cos(θ) 1)(cos(θ) + 1) = 0 (solve) cos(θ) 1 = 0 cos(θ) + 1 = 0 cos(θ) = 1 cos(θ) = 1 π π = The solution is { π, π, }. Ex. sin (θ) 8sin(θ) = 0 sin (θ) 8sin(θ) = 0 Think of x 8x = (x )(x + 1), so sin (θ) 8sin(θ) = (sin(θ) )(sin(θ) + 1) Hence, (sin(θ) )(sin(θ) + 1) = 0 (solve) (sin(θ) ) = 0 (sin(θ) + 1) = 0 sin(θ) = No solution The solution is { π }. sin(θ) = 1 Objective 4: Solving Trigonometric Equations Using Identities. Ex. 1 csc (θ) = cot(θ) + 1

8 10 The cosecant and cotangent function is undefined when the sin(θ) = 0 θ = 0 π. Thus, our restrictions are θ 0 π. csc (θ) = cot(θ) + 1 (csc (θ) = cot (θ) + 1) cot (θ) + 1 = cot(θ) + 1 (subtract cot(θ) + 1 from both sides) cot (θ) cot(θ) = 0 (fact cot(θ)) cot(θ)[cot(θ) 1] = 0 (solve) cot(θ) = 0 cot(θ) 1 = 0 cot(θ) = 0 cot(θ) = 1 cot(θ) = 0 when cos(θ) = 0. cot(θ) = 1 when tan(θ) = 1 4 π + π 4 =. None of these values match our 4 π restrictions, so the solution is { π 4, π, 4, π }. Ex. 1 sec(θ) = tan(θ) + cot(θ) The secant and tangent function is undefined when the cos(θ) = 0. The cotangent function is undefined when the sin(θ) = 0 θ = 0 π. Thus, our restrictions are θ 0, π π, π,. sec(θ) = tan(θ) + cot(θ) (write in terms of sine and cosine) 1 cos(θ) = sin(θ) cos(θ) + cos(θ) (multiply by cos(θ)sin(θ)) sin(θ) π 1 sin(θ) cos(θ) cos(θ)sin(θ) = cos(θ)sin(θ) + cos(θ) cos(θ) sin(θ) cos(θ)sin(θ) sin(θ) = sin (θ) + cos (θ) (sin (θ) + cos (θ) = 1) sin(θ) = 1 But, our restrictions say that θ π, so we have to reject our answer. Thus, this equation has no solution.

### Section 7.6 Double and Half Angle Formulas

09 Section 7. Double and Half Angle Fmulas To derive the double-angles fmulas, we will use the sum of two angles fmulas that we developed in the last section. We will let α θ and β θ: cos(θ) cos(θ + θ)

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### PARTIAL NOTES for 6.1 Trigonometric Identities

PARTIAL NOTES for 6.1 Trigonometric Identities tanθ = sinθ cosθ cotθ = cosθ sinθ BASIC IDENTITIES cscθ = 1 sinθ secθ = 1 cosθ cotθ = 1 tanθ PYTHAGOREAN IDENTITIES sin θ + cos θ =1 tan θ +1= sec θ 1 + cot

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### Practice Exam 2. Conceptual Questions. 1. State a Basic identity and then verify it. (a) Identity: Solution: One identity is csc(θ) = 1

Conceptual Questions. State a Basic identity and then verify it. a) Identity: Solution: One identity is cscθ) = sinθ) Practice Exam b) Verification: Solution: Given the point of intersection x, y) of the

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### Inverse trigonometric functions & General Solution of Trigonometric Equations. ------------------ ----------------------------- -----------------

Inverse trigonometric functions & General Solution of Trigonometric Equations. 1. Sin ( ) = a) b) c) d) Ans b. Solution : Method 1. Ans a: 17 > 1 a) is rejected. w.k.t Sin ( sin ) = d is rejected. If sin

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### 3.4 SUM AND DIFFERENCE FORMULAS. NOTE: cos(α+β) cos α + cos β cos(α-β) cos α -cos β

3.4 SUM AND DIFFERENCE FORMULAS Page Theorem cos(αβ cos α cos β -sin α cos(α-β cos α cos β sin α NOTE: cos(αβ cos α cos β cos(α-β cos α -cos β Proof of cos(α-β cos α cos β sin α Let s use a unit circle

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### If we restrict the domain of y = sin x to [ π, π ], the restrict function. y = sin x, π 2 x π 2

Chapter 3. Analytic Trigonometry 3.1 The inverse sine, cosine, and tangent functions 1. Review: Inverse function (1) f 1 (f(x)) = x for every x in the domain of f and f(f 1 (x)) = x for every x in the

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### If we restrict the domain of y = sin x to [ π 2, π 2

Chapter 3. Analytic Trigonometry 3.1 The inverse sine, cosine, and tangent functions 1. Review: Inverse function (1) f 1 (f(x)) = x for every x in the domain of f and f(f 1 (x)) = x for every x in the

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### CRASH COURSE IN PRECALCULUS

CRASH COURSE IN PRECALCULUS Shiah-Sen Wang The graphs are prepared by Chien-Lun Lai Based on : Precalculus: Mathematics for Calculus by J. Stuwart, L. Redin & S. Watson, 6th edition, 01, Brooks/Cole Chapter

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### Section 9.2 Polar Equations and Graphs

180 Section 9. Polar Equations and Graphs In this section, we will be graphing polar equations on a polar grid. In the first few examples, we will write the polar equation in rectangular form to help identify

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### CHAPTER 25 SOLVING EQUATIONS BY ITERATIVE METHODS

CHAPTER 5 SOLVING EQUATIONS BY ITERATIVE METHODS EXERCISE 104 Page 8 1. Find the positive root of the equation x + 3x 5 = 0, correct to 3 significant figures, using the method of bisection. Let f(x) =

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### Trigonometric Formula Sheet

Trigonometric Formula Sheet Definition of the Trig Functions Right Triangle Definition Assume that: 0 < θ < or 0 < θ < 90 Unit Circle Definition Assume θ can be any angle. y x, y hypotenuse opposite θ

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### Section 7.7 Product-to-Sum and Sum-to-Product Formulas

Section 7.7 Product-to-Sum and Sum-to-Product Fmulas Objective 1: Express Products as Sums To derive the Product-to-Sum Fmulas will begin by writing down the difference and sum fmulas of the cosine function:

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### Areas and Lengths in Polar Coordinates

Kiryl Tsishchanka Areas and Lengths in Polar Coordinates In this section we develop the formula for the area of a region whose boundary is given by a polar equation. We need to use the formula for the

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### Matrices and Determinants

Matrices and Determinants SUBJECTIVE PROBLEMS: Q 1. For what value of k do the following system of equations possess a non-trivial (i.e., not all zero) solution over the set of rationals Q? x + ky + 3z

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### Fourier Series. MATH 211, Calculus II. J. Robert Buchanan. Spring Department of Mathematics

Fourier Series MATH 211, Calculus II J. Robert Buchanan Department of Mathematics Spring 2018 Introduction Not all functions can be represented by Taylor series. f (k) (c) A Taylor series f (x) = (x c)

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### Review Test 3. MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Review Test MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Find the exact value of the expression. 1) sin - 11π 1 1) + - + - - ) sin 11π 1 ) ( -

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### Areas and Lengths in Polar Coordinates

Kiryl Tsishchanka Areas and Lengths in Polar Coordinates In this section we develop the formula for the area of a region whose boundary is given by a polar equation. We need to use the formula for the

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### 2 Composition. Invertible Mappings

Arkansas Tech University MATH 4033: Elementary Modern Algebra Dr. Marcel B. Finan Composition. Invertible Mappings In this section we discuss two procedures for creating new mappings from old ones, namely,

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### Example Sheet 3 Solutions

Example Sheet 3 Solutions. i Regular Sturm-Liouville. ii Singular Sturm-Liouville mixed boundary conditions. iii Not Sturm-Liouville ODE is not in Sturm-Liouville form. iv Regular Sturm-Liouville note

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

Chapter TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS. Overview.. The word trigonometry is derived from the Greek words trigon and metron which means measuring the sides of a triangle. An angle is the amount of rotation of

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### Trigonometry 1.TRIGONOMETRIC RATIOS

Trigonometry.TRIGONOMETRIC RATIOS. If a ray OP makes an angle with the positive direction of X-axis then y x i) Sin ii) cos r r iii) tan x y (x 0) iv) cot y x (y 0) y P v) sec x r (x 0) vi) cosec y r (y

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### MathCity.org Merging man and maths

MathCity.org Merging man and maths Exercise 10. (s) Page Textbook of Algebra and Trigonometry for Class XI Available online @, Version:.0 Question # 1 Find the values of sin, and tan when: 1 π (i) (ii)

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### 10/3/ revolution = 360 = 2 π radians = = x. 2π = x = 360 = : Measures of Angles and Rotations

//.: Measures of Angles and Rotations I. Vocabulary A A. Angle the union of two rays with a common endpoint B. BA and BC C. B is the vertex. B C D. You can think of BA as the rotation of (clockwise) with

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### Chapter 7 Analytic Trigonometry

Chapter 7 Analytic Trigonometry Section 7.. Domain: { is any real number} ; Range: { y y }. { } or { }. [, ). True. ;. ; 7. sin y 8. 0 9. 0. False. The domain of. True. True.. y sin is. sin 0 We are finding

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### ANSWERSHEET (TOPIC = DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS) COLLECTION #2. h 0 h h 0 h h 0 ( ) g k = g 0 + g 1 + g g 2009 =?

Teko Classes IITJEE/AIEEE Maths by SUHAAG SIR, Bhopal, Ph (0755) 3 00 000 www.tekoclasses.com ANSWERSHEET (TOPIC DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS) COLLECTION # Question Type A.Single Correct Type Q. (A) Sol least

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### Solutions to Exercise Sheet 5

Solutions to Eercise Sheet 5 jacques@ucsd.edu. Let X and Y be random variables with joint pdf f(, y) = 3y( + y) where and y. Determine each of the following probabilities. Solutions. a. P (X ). b. P (X

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### Finite Field Problems: Solutions

Finite Field Problems: Solutions 1. Let f = x 2 +1 Z 11 [x] and let F = Z 11 [x]/(f), a field. Let Solution: F =11 2 = 121, so F = 121 1 = 120. The possible orders are the divisors of 120. Solution: The

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### Srednicki Chapter 55

Srednicki Chapter 55 QFT Problems & Solutions A. George August 3, 03 Srednicki 55.. Use equations 55.3-55.0 and A i, A j ] = Π i, Π j ] = 0 (at equal times) to verify equations 55.-55.3. This is our third

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### Chapter 6 BLM Answers

Chapter 6 BLM Answers BLM 6 Chapter 6 Prerequisite Skills. a) i) II ii) IV iii) III i) 5 ii) 7 iii) 7. a) 0, c) 88.,.6, 59.6 d). a) 5 + 60 n; 7 + n, c). rad + n rad; 7 9,. a) 5 6 c) 69. d) 0.88 5. a) negative

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### Section 8.2 Graphs of Polar Equations

Section 8. Graphs of Polar Equations Graphing Polar Equations The graph of a polar equation r = f(θ), or more generally F(r,θ) = 0, consists of all points P that have at least one polar representation

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### CHAPTER 101 FOURIER SERIES FOR PERIODIC FUNCTIONS OF PERIOD

CHAPTER FOURIER SERIES FOR PERIODIC FUNCTIONS OF PERIOD EXERCISE 36 Page 66. Determine the Fourier series for the periodic function: f(x), when x +, when x which is periodic outside this rge of period.

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### 2 2 2 The correct formula for the cosine of the sum of two angles is given by the following theorem.

5 TRIGONOMETRIC FORMULAS FOR SUMS AND DIFFERENCES The fundamental trignmetric identities cnsidered earlier express relatinships amng trignmetric functins f a single variable In this sectin we develp trignmetric

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### Homework 3 Solutions

Homework 3 Solutions Igor Yanovsky (Math 151A TA) Problem 1: Compute the absolute error and relative error in approximations of p by p. (Use calculator!) a) p π, p 22/7; b) p π, p 3.141. Solution: For

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### HOMEWORK 4 = G. In order to plot the stress versus the stretch we define a normalized stretch:

HOMEWORK 4 Problem a For the fast loading case, we want to derive the relationship between P zz and λ z. We know that the nominal stress is expressed as: P zz = ψ λ z where λ z = λ λ z. Therefore, applying

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### is like multiplying by the conversion factor of. Dividing by 2π gives you the

Chapter Graphs of Trigonometric Functions Answer Ke. Radian Measure Answers. π. π. π. π. 7π. π 7. 70 8. 9. 0 0. 0. 00. 80. Multipling b π π is like multipling b the conversion factor of. Dividing b 0 gives

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### Math221: HW# 1 solutions

Math: HW# solutions Andy Royston October, 5 7.5.7, 3 rd Ed. We have a n = b n = a = fxdx = xdx =, x cos nxdx = x sin nx n sin nxdx n = cos nx n = n n, x sin nxdx = x cos nx n + cos nxdx n cos n = + sin

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### Exercises 10. Find a fundamental matrix of the given system of equations. Also find the fundamental matrix Φ(t) satisfying Φ(0) = I. 1.

Exercises 0 More exercises are available in Elementary Differential Equations. If you have a problem to solve any of them, feel free to come to office hour. Problem Find a fundamental matrix of the given

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### Solution to Review Problems for Midterm III

Solution to Review Problems for Mierm III Mierm III: Friday, November 19 in class Topics:.8-.11, 4.1,4. 1. Find the derivative of the following functions and simplify your answers. (a) x(ln(4x)) +ln(5

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### Second Order RLC Filters

ECEN 60 Circuits/Electronics Spring 007-0-07 P. Mathys Second Order RLC Filters RLC Lowpass Filter A passive RLC lowpass filter (LPF) circuit is shown in the following schematic. R L C v O (t) Using phasor

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### Pg The perimeter is P = 3x The area of a triangle is. where b is the base, h is the height. In our case b = x, then the area is

Pg. 9. The perimeter is P = The area of a triangle is A = bh where b is the base, h is the height 0 h= btan 60 = b = b In our case b =, then the area is A = = 0. By Pythagorean theorem a + a = d a a =

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### Problem Set 9 Solutions. θ + 1. θ 2 + cotθ ( ) sinθ e iφ is an eigenfunction of the ˆ L 2 operator. / θ 2. φ 2. sin 2 θ φ 2. ( ) = e iφ. = e iφ cosθ.

Chemistry 362 Dr Jean M Standard Problem Set 9 Solutions The ˆ L 2 operator is defined as Verify that the angular wavefunction Y θ,φ) Also verify that the eigenvalue is given by 2! 2 & L ˆ 2! 2 2 θ 2 +

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL h in h 4 0.

DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL -7-1! PROBLEM -7 Statement: Design a double-dwell cam to move a follower from to 25 6, dwell for 12, fall 25 and dwell for the remader The total cycle must take 4 sec

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### Homework 8 Model Solution Section

MATH 004 Homework Solution Homework 8 Model Solution Section 14.5 14.6. 14.5. Use the Chain Rule to find dz where z cosx + 4y), x 5t 4, y 1 t. dz dx + dy y sinx + 4y)0t + 4) sinx + 4y) 1t ) 0t + 4t ) sinx

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### EE512: Error Control Coding

EE512: Error Control Coding Solution for Assignment on Finite Fields February 16, 2007 1. (a) Addition and Multiplication tables for GF (5) and GF (7) are shown in Tables 1 and 2. + 0 1 2 3 4 0 0 1 2 3

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### 9.09. # 1. Area inside the oval limaçon r = cos θ. To graph, start with θ = 0 so r = 6. Compute dr

9.9 #. Area inside the oval limaçon r = + cos. To graph, start with = so r =. Compute d = sin. Interesting points are where d vanishes, or at =,,, etc. For these values of we compute r:,,, and the values

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### 2 2 2 The correct formula for the cosine of the sum of two angles is given by the following theorem.

5 TRIGONOMETRIC FORMULAS FOR SUMS AND DIFFERENCES The fundamental trignmetric identities cnsidered earlier express relatinships amng trignmetric functins f a single variable In this sectin we develp trignmetric

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### (a,b) Let s review the general definitions of trig functions first. (See back cover of your book) sin θ = b/r cos θ = a/r tan θ = b/a, a 0

TRIGONOMETRIC IDENTITIES (a,b) Let s eview the geneal definitions of tig functions fist. (See back cove of you book) θ b/ θ a/ tan θ b/a, a 0 θ csc θ /b, b 0 sec θ /a, a 0 cot θ a/b, b 0 By doing some

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### The Simply Typed Lambda Calculus

Type Inference Instead of writing type annotations, can we use an algorithm to infer what the type annotations should be? That depends on the type system. For simple type systems the answer is yes, and

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### Second Order Partial Differential Equations

Chapter 7 Second Order Partial Differential Equations 7.1 Introduction A second order linear PDE in two independent variables (x, y Ω can be written as A(x, y u x + B(x, y u xy + C(x, y u u u + D(x, y

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### Principles of Mathematics 12 Answer Key, Contents 185

Principles of Mathematics Answer Ke, Contents 85 Module : Section Trigonometr Trigonometric Functions Lesson The Trigonometric Values for θ, 0 θ 60 86 Lesson Solving Trigonometric Equations for 0 θ 60

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### SCHOOL OF MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES G11LMA Linear Mathematics Examination Solutions

SCHOOL OF MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES GLMA Linear Mathematics 00- Examination Solutions. (a) i. ( + 5i)( i) = (6 + 5) + (5 )i = + i. Real part is, imaginary part is. (b) ii. + 5i i ( + 5i)( + i) = ( i)( + i)

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### Chapter 6: Systems of Linear Differential. be continuous functions on the interval

Chapter 6: Systems of Linear Differential Equations Let a (t), a 2 (t),..., a nn (t), b (t), b 2 (t),..., b n (t) be continuous functions on the interval I. The system of n first-order differential equations

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### 1. If log x 2 y 2 = a, then dy / dx = x 2 + y 2 1] xy 2] y / x. 3] x / y 4] none of these

1. If log x 2 y 2 = a, then dy / dx = x 2 + y 2 1] xy 2] y / x 3] x / y 4] none of these 1. If log x 2 y 2 = a, then x 2 + y 2 Solution : Take y /x = k y = k x dy/dx = k dy/dx = y / x Answer : 2] y / x

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### Concrete Mathematics Exercises from 30 September 2016

Concrete Mathematics Exercises from 30 September 2016 Silvio Capobianco Exercise 1.7 Let H(n) = J(n + 1) J(n). Equation (1.8) tells us that H(2n) = 2, and H(2n+1) = J(2n+2) J(2n+1) = (2J(n+1) 1) (2J(n)+1)

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### AREAS AND LENGTHS IN POLAR COORDINATES. 25. Find the area inside the larger loop and outside the smaller loop

SECTIN 9. AREAS AND LENGTHS IN PLAR CRDINATES 9. AREAS AND LENGTHS IN PLAR CRDINATES A Click here for answers. S Click here for solutions. 8 Find the area of the region that is bounded by the given curve

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### derivation of the Laplacian from rectangular to spherical coordinates

derivation of the Laplacian from rectangular to spherical coordinates swapnizzle 03-03- :5:43 We begin by recognizing the familiar conversion from rectangular to spherical coordinates (note that φ is used

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### 4.6 Autoregressive Moving Average Model ARMA(1,1)

84 CHAPTER 4. STATIONARY TS MODELS 4.6 Autoregressive Moving Average Model ARMA(,) This section is an introduction to a wide class of models ARMA(p,q) which we will consider in more detail later in this

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### Approximation of distance between locations on earth given by latitude and longitude

Approximation of distance between locations on earth given by latitude and longitude Jan Behrens 2012-12-31 In this paper we shall provide a method to approximate distances between two points on earth

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### Phys460.nb Solution for the t-dependent Schrodinger s equation How did we find the solution? (not required)

Phys460.nb 81 ψ n (t) is still the (same) eigenstate of H But for tdependent H. The answer is NO. 5.5.5. Solution for the tdependent Schrodinger s equation If we assume that at time t 0, the electron starts

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### Απόκριση σε Μοναδιαία Ωστική Δύναμη (Unit Impulse) Απόκριση σε Δυνάμεις Αυθαίρετα Μεταβαλλόμενες με το Χρόνο. Απόστολος Σ.

Απόκριση σε Δυνάμεις Αυθαίρετα Μεταβαλλόμενες με το Χρόνο The time integral of a force is referred to as impulse, is determined by and is obtained from: Newton s 2 nd Law of motion states that the action

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### 2. THEORY OF EQUATIONS. PREVIOUS EAMCET Bits.

EAMCET-. THEORY OF EQUATIONS PREVIOUS EAMCET Bits. Each of the roots of the equation x 6x + 6x 5= are increased by k so that the new transformed equation does not contain term. Then k =... - 4. - Sol.

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### 6.3 Forecasting ARMA processes

122 CHAPTER 6. ARMA MODELS 6.3 Forecasting ARMA processes The purpose of forecasting is to predict future values of a TS based on the data collected to the present. In this section we will discuss a linear

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### Differentiation exercise show differential equation

Differentiation exercise show differential equation 1. If y x sin 2x, prove that x d2 y 2 2 + 2y x + 4xy 0 y x sin 2x sin 2x + 2x cos 2x 2 2cos 2x + (2 cos 2x 4x sin 2x) x d2 y 2 2 + 2y x + 4xy (2x cos

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### ( y) Partial Differential Equations

Partial Dierential Equations Linear P.D.Es. contains no owers roducts o the deendent variables / an o its derivatives can occasionall be solved. Consider eamle ( ) a (sometimes written as a ) we can integrate

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### Differential equations

Differential equations Differential equations: An equation inoling one dependent ariable and its deriaties w. r. t one or more independent ariables is called a differential equation. Order of differential

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### Derivations of Useful Trigonometric Identities

Derivations of Useful Trigonometric Identities Pythagorean Identity This is a basic and very useful relationship which comes directly from the definition of the trigonometric ratios of sine and cosine

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### Numerical Analysis FMN011

Numerical Analysis FMN011 Carmen Arévalo Lund University carmen@maths.lth.se Lecture 12 Periodic data A function g has period P if g(x + P ) = g(x) Model: Trigonometric polynomial of order M T M (x) =

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign ECE 310: Digital Signal Processing

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign ECE : Digital Signal Processing Chandra Radhakrishnan PROBLEM SET : SOLUTIONS Peter Kairouz Problem Solution:. ( 5 ) + (5 6 ) + ( ) cos(5 ) + 5cos( 6 ) + cos(

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### D Alembert s Solution to the Wave Equation

D Alembert s Solution to the Wave Equation MATH 467 Partial Differential Equations J. Robert Buchanan Department of Mathematics Fall 2018 Objectives In this lesson we will learn: a change of variable technique

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### Mock Exam 7. 1 Hong Kong Educational Publishing Company. Section A 1. Reference: HKDSE Math M Q2 (a) (1 + kx) n 1M + 1A = (1) =

Mock Eam 7 Mock Eam 7 Section A. Reference: HKDSE Math M 0 Q (a) ( + k) n nn ( )( k) + nk ( ) + + nn ( ) k + nk + + + A nk... () nn ( ) k... () From (), k...() n Substituting () into (), nn ( ) n 76n 76n

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### CHAPTER 48 APPLICATIONS OF MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS

CHAPTER 48 APPLICATIONS OF MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS EXERCISE 01 Page 545 1. Use matrices to solve: 3x + 4y x + 5y + 7 3x + 4y x + 5y 7 Hence, 3 4 x 0 5 y 7 The inverse of 3 4 5 is: 1 5 4 1 5 4 15 8 3

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### k A = [k, k]( )[a 1, a 2 ] = [ka 1,ka 2 ] 4For the division of two intervals of confidence in R +

Chapter 3. Fuzzy Arithmetic 3- Fuzzy arithmetic: ~Addition(+) and subtraction (-): Let A = [a and B = [b, b in R If x [a and y [b, b than x+y [a +b +b Symbolically,we write A(+)B = [a (+)[b, b = [a +b

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### MATH 150 Pre-Calculus

MATH 150 Pre-Calculus Fall, 014, WEEK 11 JoungDong Kim Week 11: 8A, 8B, 8C, 8D Chapter 8. Trigonometry Chapter 8A. Angles and Circles The size of an angle may be measured in revolutions (rev), in degree

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### ΚΥΠΡΙΑΚΗ ΕΤΑΙΡΕΙΑ ΠΛΗΡΟΦΟΡΙΚΗΣ CYPRUS COMPUTER SOCIETY ΠΑΓΚΥΠΡΙΟΣ ΜΑΘΗΤΙΚΟΣ ΔΙΑΓΩΝΙΣΜΟΣ ΠΛΗΡΟΦΟΡΙΚΗΣ 19/5/2007

Οδηγίες: Να απαντηθούν όλες οι ερωτήσεις. Αν κάπου κάνετε κάποιες υποθέσεις να αναφερθούν στη σχετική ερώτηση. Όλα τα αρχεία που αναφέρονται στα προβλήματα βρίσκονται στον ίδιο φάκελο με το εκτελέσιμο

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### Reminders: linear functions

Reminders: linear functions Let U and V be vector spaces over the same field F. Definition A function f : U V is linear if for every u 1, u 2 U, f (u 1 + u 2 ) = f (u 1 ) + f (u 2 ), and for every u U

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### Quadratic Expressions

Quadratic Expressions. The standard form of a quadratic equation is ax + bx + c = 0 where a, b, c R and a 0. The roots of ax + bx + c = 0 are b ± b a 4ac. 3. For the equation ax +bx+c = 0, sum of the roots

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### SCITECH Volume 13, Issue 2 RESEARCH ORGANISATION Published online: March 29, 2018

Journal of rogressive Research in Mathematics(JRM) ISSN: 2395-028 SCITECH Volume 3, Issue 2 RESEARCH ORGANISATION ublished online: March 29, 208 Journal of rogressive Research in Mathematics www.scitecresearch.com/journals

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### *H31123A0228* 1. (a) Find the value of at the point where x = 2 on the curve with equation. y = x 2 (5x 1). (6)

C3 past papers 009 to 01 physicsandmathstutor.comthis paper: January 009 If you don't find enough space in this booklet for your working for a question, then pleasecuse some loose-leaf paper and glue it

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### F-TF Sum and Difference angle

F-TF Sum and Difference angle formulas Alignments to Content Standards: F-TF.C.9 Task In this task, you will show how all of the sum and difference angle formulas can be derived from a single formula when

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### b. Use the parametrization from (a) to compute the area of S a as S a ds. Be sure to substitute for ds!

MTH U341 urface Integrals, tokes theorem, the divergence theorem To be turned in Wed., Dec. 1. 1. Let be the sphere of radius a, x 2 + y 2 + z 2 a 2. a. Use spherical coordinates (with ρ a) to parametrize.

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### 3.4. Click here for solutions. Click here for answers. CURVE SKETCHING. y cos x sin x. x 1 x 2. x 2 x 3 4 y 1 x 2. x 5 2

SECTION. CURVE SKETCHING. CURVE SKETCHING A Click here for answers. S Click here for solutions. 9. Use the guidelines of this section to sketch the curve. cos sin. 5. 6 8 7 0. cot, 0.. 9. cos sin. sin

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### Forced Pendulum Numerical approach

Numerical approach UiO April 8, 2014 Physical problem and equation We have a pendulum of length l, with mass m. The pendulum is subject to gravitation as well as both a forcing and linear resistance force.

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### Problem 1.1 For y = a + bx, y = 4 when x = 0, hence a = 4. When x increases by 4, y increases by 4b, hence b = 5 and y = 4 + 5x.

Appendix B: Solutions to Problems Problem 1.1 For y a + bx, y 4 when x, hence a 4. When x increases by 4, y increases by 4b, hence b 5 and y 4 + 5x. Problem 1. The plus sign indicates that y increases

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### C.S. 430 Assignment 6, Sample Solutions

C.S. 430 Assignment 6, Sample Solutions Paul Liu November 15, 2007 Note that these are sample solutions only; in many cases there were many acceptable answers. 1 Reynolds Problem 10.1 1.1 Normal-order

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### Ordinal Arithmetic: Addition, Multiplication, Exponentiation and Limit

Ordinal Arithmetic: Addition, Multiplication, Exponentiation and Limit Ting Zhang Stanford May 11, 2001 Stanford, 5/11/2001 1 Outline Ordinal Classification Ordinal Addition Ordinal Multiplication Ordinal

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### An Inventory of Continuous Distributions

Appendi A An Inventory of Continuous Distributions A.1 Introduction The incomplete gamma function is given by Also, define Γ(α; ) = 1 with = G(α; ) = Z 0 Z 0 Z t α 1 e t dt, α > 0, >0 t α 1 e t dt, α >

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### Answer sheet: Third Midterm for Math 2339

Answer sheet: Third Midterm for Math 339 November 3, Problem. Calculate the iterated integrals (Simplify as much as possible) (a) e sin(x) dydx y e sin(x) dydx y sin(x) ln y ( cos(x)) ye y dx sin(x)(lne

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### ( ) 2 and compare to M.

Problems and Solutions for Section 4.2 4.9 through 4.33) 4.9 Calculate the square root of the matrix 3!0 M!0 8 Hint: Let M / 2 a!b ; calculate M / 2!b c ) 2 and compare to M. Solution: Given: 3!0 M!0 8

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### Econ 2110: Fall 2008 Suggested Solutions to Problem Set 8 questions or comments to Dan Fetter 1

Eon : Fall 8 Suggested Solutions to Problem Set 8 Email questions or omments to Dan Fetter Problem. Let X be a salar with density f(x, θ) (θx + θ) [ x ] with θ. (a) Find the most powerful level α test

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### Solution Series 9. i=1 x i and i=1 x i.

Lecturer: Prof. Dr. Mete SONER Coordinator: Yilin WANG Solution Series 9 Q1. Let α, β >, the p.d.f. of a beta distribution with parameters α and β is { Γ(α+β) Γ(α)Γ(β) f(x α, β) xα 1 (1 x) β 1 for < x

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### SOLUTIONS TO MATH38181 EXTREME VALUES AND FINANCIAL RISK EXAM

SOLUTIONS TO MATH38181 EXTREME VALUES AND FINANCIAL RISK EXAM Solutions to Question 1 a) The cumulative distribution function of T conditional on N n is Pr (T t N n) Pr (max (X 1,..., X N ) t N n) Pr (max

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### 26 28 Find an equation of the tangent line to the curve at the given point Discuss the curve under the guidelines of Section

SECTION 5. THE NATURAL LOGARITHMIC FUNCTION 5. THE NATURAL LOGARITHMIC FUNCTION A Click here for answers. S Click here for solutions. 4 Use the Laws of Logarithms to epand the quantit.. ln ab. ln c. ln

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### DiracDelta. Notations. Primary definition. Specific values. General characteristics. Traditional name. Traditional notation

DiracDelta Notations Traditional name Dirac delta function Traditional notation x Mathematica StandardForm notation DiracDeltax Primary definition 4.03.02.000.0 x Π lim ε ; x ε0 x 2 2 ε Specific values

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### Chapter 6: Systems of Linear Differential. be continuous functions on the interval

Chapter 6: Systems of Linear Differential Equations Let a (t), a 2 (t),..., a nn (t), b (t), b 2 (t),..., b n (t) be continuous functions on the interval I. The system of n first-order differential equations

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### SOLUTIONS TO MATH38181 EXTREME VALUES AND FINANCIAL RISK EXAM

SOLUTIONS TO MATH38181 EXTREME VALUES AND FINANCIAL RISK EXAM Solutions to Question 1 a) The cumulative distribution function of T conditional on N n is Pr T t N n) Pr max X 1,..., X N ) t N n) Pr max

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### 1 String with massive end-points

1 String with massive end-points Πρόβλημα 5.11:Θεωρείστε μια χορδή μήκους, τάσης T, με δύο σημειακά σωματίδια στα άκρα της, το ένα μάζας m, και το άλλο μάζας m. α) Μελετώντας την κίνηση των άκρων βρείτε

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### forms This gives Remark 1. How to remember the above formulas: Substituting these into the equation we obtain with

Week 03: C lassification of S econd- Order L inear Equations In last week s lectures we have illustrated how to obtain the general solutions of first order PDEs using the method of characteristics. We

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### ST5224: Advanced Statistical Theory II

ST5224: Advanced Statistical Theory II 2014/2015: Semester II Tutorial 7 1. Let X be a sample from a population P and consider testing hypotheses H 0 : P = P 0 versus H 1 : P = P 1, where P j is a known

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### Parametrized Surfaces

Parametrized Surfaces Recall from our unit on vector-valued functions at the beginning of the semester that an R 3 -valued function c(t) in one parameter is a mapping of the form c : I R 3 where I is some

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

### Jackson 2.25 Homework Problem Solution Dr. Christopher S. Baird University of Massachusetts Lowell

Jackson 2.25 Hoework Proble Solution Dr. Christopher S. Baird University of Massachusetts Lowell PROBLEM: Two conducting planes at zero potential eet along the z axis, aking an angle β between the, as

Διαβάστε περισσότερα