1 THE BACCIIAE OF EURIPIDES THE TEXT, AND A TRANSLATION IN ENGLISH VERSE * A L E X A N D E R K E R R PROFESSOR OF GREEK IN THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN BOSTON, U.S.A. GINN & COMPANY, PUBLISHERS f&be %t&en%ttnt Press 1899
2 COPYRIGHT, 1899 BY ALEXANDER KERR ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
3 & τ - In compliance with current copyright law, U.C. Libraiy Bindery produced this replacement volume on paper that meets the ANSI Standard Z to replace the irreparably deteriorated original. KT? 1991
5 β.., y? -7 7 THE BACCHAE OF EURIPIDES
6 ΤΑ TOT ΔΡΑΜΑΤ02 ΠΡ02ΩΠΑ. ΔΙΟΝΥ202- Χ0Ρ02 ΒΑΚΧΟΝ. ΤΕΙΡΕ2ΙΑ2- ΚΑΔΜ02. ΑΓΑΥΗ. ΠΕΝΘΕΥ2. ΘΕΡΑΠΩΝ. ΑΓΓΕΑ02. ΕΤΕΡ02 ΑΓΓΕΛ02.
7 D RAM ATIS PERSONAE. TEIRESIAS. CADMUS. A SERVANT. A MESSENGER. ANOTHER MESSENGER. AGAVE. CHORUS OF ASIATIC BACCHANALS.
9 THE BACCHAE. HiTHER to Thebes I, Dionysos, come Whom erst the child of Cadmus, Semele, Brought down by fiery lightning, bore to Zeus; And now a god in mortal shape I stand 5 By Dirce's fountain and Ismenos' flood. And here my thunder-smitten mother's tomb I see hard by the house whose crumbling halls Still smoulder with celestial fire unquenched, Hera's eternal outrage on my mother. 10 All praise to Cadoius who hath made this place His daughter's shrine ; but I have wreathed it round On every side with foliage of the vine. Quitting the fields of Lydia rich in gold And Phrygia, through the Persians' sunburnt plains, 15 The Bactrian walls, the Mede's inclement land, I took my way, through Araby the blest, And through all Asia which by the salt sea Extends, with teeming fair-towered cities holding Greek and barbarian tribes together b len t; 20 And there my choral dance and mystic rites Giving, that men might own me for a god, / I visit first of all this land of Hellas. But here in Greece Thebes first I Ailed with shouts Of revelers, their forms in fawn-skins robed, 5 v
11 THE BACCHAE And put into their hands the thyrsus wreathed ^W ith ivy, since my mother's sisters basely Said Dionysos was no son of Zeus, But Semele wedded to a mortal lover Charged upon Zeus her fault, unchastity, 30] By craft of Cadmus, and for this, the lie! About her marriage, Zeus, they vowed, destroyed her. Therefore I drove them raging from the house, And frenzied now they hold the mountain height; Robes of my worship forced I them to wear, 35 And all of womankind among the Thebans, A ll women maddened from their homes I sent; And there together joined with Cadmus' daughters They sit beneath green pines on roofless rocks. For to her sorrow must this city learn 40 [That she knows nothing of my Bacchic rites; And my mother Semele I must defend j By showing men the god she bore to Zeus. j^ "N ow Cadmus his prerogative and power Bestows on Pentheus, from his daughter born, 45 Who Rghts against the gods in slighting me, Depriving me of offerings and prayers. Wherefore I '11 prove myself a god to him And all the Thebans ; then to other lands, Leaving my labors here well done, depart, 50 Showing myself; but if Thebes angered seek The Bacchanals from the mountain down to drag, Leading my Maenads I will join the fray. And to this end, transformed in shape and figure, I have assumed the likeness of a man. 55 Exiles from Tmolos, Lydia's mountain wall,
13 THE BACCHAE. 9 My revel-band, my women, whom I brought From lands barbaric as my ministers, Take ye the timbrels of the Phrygian realm, Devised by mother Rhea and myself; 60 And marching here around the royal house Of Pentheus, beat them, so that Thebes may heed. But with the Bacchanals I will join the dance, Seeking Cithaeron's dells where they are hid. CHORUS. Away from the Asian land, STROPHEi. 65 Departing from Tmolos divine, I urge on For Bromios labor delightful and toil A ll painless, with revel-shouts honoring Bacchus. W ho is this in the way? Who is this? ΑΝτκτκοΡΗΕ i. To the palace in haste let him go, and let all 70 Keep silence and worship, for I will exalt Dionysos with song, as my custom has been. O blest the happy man who knows The mysteries divine, W ho is sincere in life 75 And consecrate in soul, W ith holy purifyings Upon the mountains keeping Bacchic rites, Keeping the lawful orgies too Of the great mother Cybele, 80 And brandishing the thyrsus, And with the ivy crowned, Thus Dionysos serves. Go, go, ye Bacchanals, STROPHEπ.
15 THE BACCHAE. 11 Restoring Dionysos, 85 The god-descended god, Yea from the Phrygian mountains Bromios To the broad highways of the Grecian land: Whom erst his mother, in the stress ANTisTRomE π. Of childbirth's pangs brought on 90 By the winged shaft of Zeus, An outcast from the womb Brought forth, and quitted life Touched by the thunderbolt's descending stroke. But straightway in a cell of birth 95 Zeus Cronides received him then, For he hides him in his thigh And with clasps of gold coniines him, j From Hera safe concealed.! And he bore the hornm god 100 What time the fates matured him, ί And wreathed his head with crowns : Of serpents, whence the Maenads round their hair } Fling this wild booty captured in the chase. 105 Thebes, nurse of Semele, STROPHE m. Put on the ivy crown ; Bloom, bloom, with garlands green, W ith smilax fruited fair, And with boughs of oak or fir lio Revel in Bacchic rage, And your robes of dappled fawn-skins deck With tufts of silvery locks of w ool: And round the wanton thyrsi consecrate
16 12 BAKXAI. otrtovcr#'- αΰτώ(α y a πασ*α ^ορενσ*ε^ 115 Bpop^os ε3τ* ay ayiy ^tao*oy? εί? opo? eis opo?, ey^a peyet ^vyxyyeyvy? οχλο? a^' io*t(3y παρα KepKiSioy τ' oicrtpiy&i? A^oyyo*p. 120 ω #αλαρενρα Kovpiy- ΆντΜττροφή γ\ Tajy ^ά0εοί τ Κρτ^τα? Aioyeyerope? &ανλοι, ey#a τρ^κορν&? ayrpot? ^8vpo*0Toyoy κυκλωρα 125 τόδε pot Kopv)SayT 9 lyypoy* avsa ^6ακχί,α (ruyroyoj Kepacray asv^soay <&puymt)y avx5y πyεypaτa^ ρατρο? τε 'Pea? e?s χερα 0^Kay, KT^oy euao*pao*t BaK^ay 130 παρα 8έ patyopeyoi SaTvpo^ ρατέρο? e^ayucrayto &a?^ cis 8έ χορενρατα cruy^ay TpieTiypi8&)y, al? ^aipet A(,oyyoro?. 135 ηδύ? ey oypecriy, ευτ^ ay 'Eir^Sos. εκ ^iao*ioy 8popai&)y πεσ*^ πε8οο*ε, ye^spiso? έχωy iepoy eysytoy, a y p e ^ y alpa TpayoKToyoy, i&po^ayoy ^apty, 140 iepeyo? i? ορεα Φρνχ^α, Λνδί,α. ο 8* έπαρχο? Βροριο?, ευοί. ρεγ 8έ yaxaktt 7re8oy, ρεί δ' ΟΜ^ω, ρεί 8έ pe\to-o*ay
17 THE BACCHAE. 13 Yourselves ; soon all the land shall join the dance, 115 When Bromios shall lead his revel-bands Up to the mountain's summit, where awaits ( A multitude of women jfrom looms and shuttles driven, IMade mad by Dionysos. 120 O home of the Curetes, ANTisTROPHE m. And ye all-sacred haunts Of Crete where Zeus was born, Where the tri-plumed Corybantes In caves for me devised 125 This leathern disc tight drawn; Then with its furious sound they joined W ild notes of sweet-toned Phrygian dutes, And in the mother Rhea's hands they placed it, A din to match the Bacchanals' revel-shouts: 130 And by entreaty from the goddess mother The raging satyrs gained the tympanum, And in the dances joined O f the trieteric feasts, The delights of Dionysos. 135 Glad on the mountains is the worshiper EPODE. When from swift revel-bands Upon the earth he falls, Wearing the sacred fawn-skin robe, and thirsting For blood of goats, eating with joy raw flesh, 140 Climbing the Phrygian and the Lydian mountains. But Bromios the leader is, Evoe! * Earth flows with wine, milk, nectar of the bees,
19 THE BACCHAE. 15 And smoke of Syrian frankincense ascends. 145 And the Bacchant leader, holding His flaming torch of hr Upon the thyrsus, darts Inciting to the race and to the dance The wanderers, and rousing them with shouts, 150 As to the air he tosses his bright tresses. And added to the revel-cries Such words as these he shouts aloud : O n! O n! ye Bacchanals, Beauty of Tmolos with its streams of gold, 155 Sing ye of Dionysos, Your voices with the deep-toned timbrels joined, The Evian god in Bacchic strains exalting. With Phrygian shouts and cries, 160 Whene'er the sweet-toned holy flute Sounds forth its sacred sportive airs, Responsive to the Maenads as they wander 165 Off to the mountains; and right gladsome then, As a young colt beside its grazing mother, The Bacchanal bounds forward with swift foot. TEIRESIAS. 170 Hail, porter! from the palace summon forth Cadmus, Agenor's son, who quitting Sidon Girded with towers this city of the Thebans. Go, tell him that Teiresias is waiting. Himself knows why I am come, the covenant 175 Which I who am old have made with him still older, To bind the Bacchic wands, to wear the fawn-skins/ And with the ivy-sprays to crown the head. _
21 THE BACCHAE. 17 CADMUS. O dearest friend! for hearing in the house Thy voice, I knew it, the wise voice of a sage! 180 L o! here I come wearing the sacred garb; For needs must he who is my daughter's son, Lord Dionysos, shown to men a god, As far as in me lies be raised to greatness. Where must we lead the dance? Where stay the foot 185 And shake the hoary locks? Both aged men Are we, Teiresias: as thou art skilled, Expound to me ; for I will never weary By night or day the earth with the thyrsus smiting; In our delightsome pleasure we have grown Forgetful of our years. TEIRESIAS. Thy joy is mine ; 190 I too grow young, I will attempt the dance. CADMUS. Shall we then go in a chariot to the mountain? TEIRESIAS. The god would not have equal honor thus. CADMUS. W e both are old, but I will be thy guide. TEIRESIAS. The god will lead us thither without toil. CADMUS. 195 Shall we alone of the city dance to Bacchus? TEIRESIAS. Yes, we alone are wise, the others foolish.
23 THE BACCHAE. 19 CADMUS. Too long we linger; hold my hand in thine. TEIRESIAS. W ell spoken, join and link thy hand to mine. CADMUS. I born a mortal do not scorn the gods. TEIRESIAS. 200 Against the gods we do not match our wisdom. Our sires' traditions of a faith as old As time no argument shall overthrow, Not even when wisdom comes from subtle thought. Some one will say that I disgrace my age, 205 In that with ivy crowned I go to dance. Not so, the god hath Axed no test of age, Both young and old must mingle in the rite; But equal honor he would have from all, Nor chooses worshipers from favored classes. CADMUS. 210 Since thou, Teiresias, dost not see the light, I shall become thy seer, to speak for thee. Lo, to the palace hastes Echion's son, Pentheus, by me made ruler of the land. He shudders! what mischance will he recount? 215 Late absent from this land and just returned, I hear of strange ills in the city rife. Our women have departed from th^jnhames For their feigned revels; on thick-shaded mountains
25 THE BACCHAE. 21 They rush like furies, honoring with dances 220 Bacchus, the new-made god, whoever that is; Amid each festive throng the mixing-bowls Stand crowned, while cowering in the wilderness, One here, one there, they yield to secret love, Maenads inspired appearing, hut in sooth ^ 225 They worship Aphrodite more than Bacchus. / All whom I 've captured, them with fettered hands ^ Safe in the prison do my servants keep; But those still free 1 11 hunt down from the mountain, Agave, her who bore me to Echion, 230 Autonoe, the mother of Actaeon, And Ino these made fast in iron bonds I soon from their vile orgies will restrain. They say there is a stranger hither come, A juggling wizard from the Lydian land, 235 With ruddy face, with fragrant golden curls, The grace of Aphrodite in his eyes, Who day and night holds converse with the throng, Feigning to teach young maidens Bacchic rites. But if I capture him within this house, 240 From making the thyrsus ring and his hair stream back 1 11 stop him, severing his neck and trunk. 'T is he says Dionysos is a god, Sewn up of old within the thigh of Zeus; But the darning bolt consumed the child with the mother, 245 Who falsely called herself the wife of Zeus. Do not these deeds, this outrage of the stranger Whoe'er he be, deserve the fatal halter? But here another wonder I behold, The seer Teiresias wearing dappled fawn-skins,
26 22 BAKXAI. 250 πατέρα Te piyrpos τ^? ep^?, πολνμ yexidy, yap^kt /3ακχ υουτ' - ayaiyopat, πατ ρ, τό y^pas vpaty et<tope5y yovy ονκ έχομ. ονκ απ-otwa^ets Kwo-oy; ονκ exev<9epay <9Jpo-oo pe^o-ets χ^ίρ', ep^s pi?tpos πάτίρ; 265 ότι ταντ' eveto*as, Tetpeo*ta- τόί/ ' as ^exen Tor δαζαον' αμ^ρώποκτίμ ettr^epcyy yeoy ο-λτοπίίμ πτίρωτου? κάρπνρωμ ptcr^ous ^epetu. et p^ ere y^pas ττολίομ e^eppveto, κα^σ* ay ey Βακχαίσ*<, Secrptos peo*ats, 260 TeXeTa? πονηρά? etcay ajy * yvyai-^ί y a p όπον ^ο τρ ν ο! ey δαίτί ytyyetat yayo?, ονχ vytes ousey ert, Xeya) τωυ opytiyy. τ ^ Socro-e/3eia?. XOPOi. <3 ^ey', οΰκ atsei &ous KaSpoy Te Toy <T7retpayTa y^yey^ ο-τάχυυ; 265 'Extoyos δ' aiy παί? κατακτχομί^ yeyos; TEIPE^IA^. OTay λα/3ρ Τί.? T<3y λογωυ <iy^p tro^o? /<raxas ά^ορρά?, ον pey' epyoy eg Xeyety- crv δ^ ίντροχον pey γλώσσαν ώ? (έρονών e^ets, ey Tots Xoyoto*t δ* ονκ eyeto*t crot f/<peyes'. 270 ^pao-vs δέ [yxcjo-crp] καί Xeyety o?o? τ' ay?)p κακο? ττολίτ/ρ ytyyetat yocy ονκ έχωμ. ^ovros δ' ό δαέρων ό yeo? oy σ*ν 6tayeX as, ονκ ay δνναέρ^μ p eye^os e^ew ety oo-o? 6ra0' 'Ελλαδ' eo-tat. δυο yap, <3 yeayta, 275 τα πρωτ' ey άυ^ρωποίο-ί' Aipnp-iyp & ά- y ^ δ eo-tty, oyopa δ' όποτορου /SouXet KaXet- auti? pey ey ^potcrty ektpe^et /3poTovs-
27 THE BACCHAE. 250 My mother's father too, great cause of mirth, W ith a ferule reveling father, I'm ashamed " To see your hoary age bereft of sense. My mother's sire, the ivy from thy head Cast off, and from the thyrsus free thy hand. 255 Thy counsel this, Teiresias; thou wilt reap More gain from auspices and offerings By introducing this new god to men. Did not thy hoary age deliver thee, Thou wouldst be sitting 'mid the Bacchanals bound, 260 For bringing in vile mysteries: for where To women at the banquets wine gives joy, Naught in their worship call I good and pure. CHORUS. Words impious! dost not, sire, revere the gods, And Cadmus, sower of the earth-born crop? 265 Dost thou bom of Echion shame thy race? TEIRESIAS. When the sage gains fair subject for discourse, 'T is no hard task for him to reason w ell; But thou appearing wise hast a glib tongue, Yet in thy words there is no wisdom found. 270 But the man bold of speech and eloquent Proves a bad citizen for want of sense. Now this new deity, whom thou dost mock, Such power as I can ne'er express shall have In Hellas. Youth! there are two things by man 275 Accounted hrst; the deity Demeter (Or mother Earth perchance thou fain wilt call her) With solid food sustains the life of man;
29 THE BACCHAE. 25 But other needs this son of Seinale Has met, has found and introduced to mortals 280 The dow h^j^sa^r^m drhrin^t elease^om pain To wretched men when t l i^ ^ i^ ile d with wine, And* gives'fliem sleep, relief from d&ly ills, ΊΝο? *! * thef eirther-yeme^ 'Tis"he^a*SOdrma5es peace^^th-iho pfhail.gnds^ 286 AncTthus through him do men enjoy rich blessings. " HimTlost thou mock as sewn up m tne tiugil Of Zeus? I will reveal to thee this truth. What time Zeus snatched him from the lightning's dame, And to Olympus bore the infant god, 290 Hera desired to cast him forth from heaven; But Zeus contrived against her like a g o d : He took a part of the earth-encircling ether And made of this a pledge, but Dionysos He saved from Hera's rage; and men soon tell 295 That he was nurtured in the thigh of Zeus ; By interchange of words they made the fable, Because the god had been a pledge to Hera. A prophet is this god; for Bacchic rage Andlhadness hold large gift of prophecy; 300 And when the ^ 3 in ^ W ^ eh fers the body, He makes the frantic tell what is to llel And intee might^f*a?es too Keldlafes; For a host standing armed in line of battle Panic oft scatters ere they touch the spear; 305 And this is also madness sent from Bacchus. Thou yet shalt see him even on Delphic rocks, Bounding with pine torch o'er the twin-peaked summit, Swaying and brandishing his Bacchic wand,
31 THE BACCHAE. 27 Grown great in Hellas. Pentheus, heed my words! 310 Presume not that mere power prevails with men, Nor, even if with thy mind diseased thou think it, Think thyself wise at all; within the land Receive the god, honor him with libations, Join in the sacred dance and crown thy head. It is not Dionysos who will force 316 The women to be chaste^lnni self-control. Constant in all things, this is naturc's g ift: Consider this: even in the Bacchic revels SHe*who is modest will be undehled. Lo, tiiou art glad when many throng the gates, 320 Glad too when Thebes exalts the name of Pentheus; So he, I think, delights in being honored. I then and Cadmus, whom thou dost deride, W ill crown our heads with ivy and will dance, A hoary pair, yet must we join the dance, 325 Nor will I heeding thee assault the god. The fell disorder of thy mind no drugs Can cure, yet shalt thou not lack remedies. CHORUS. Thou dost not with thy words, old man, shame Phoebus, And honoring Bromios, that great god, thou art wise. CADMUS. 330 My son, well hath Teiresias counseled thee; Abide with us, within the pale of custom, For now thy mind's distraught, thy wit is folly. Even though he is no god, as thou dost say, Call thou him god, and tell the glorious falsehood, 336 That the child of Semele may be thought divine, And honor come to us and all our house.
32 28 BAKXAI. όρά? το^ 'AKTaMyo? a0xtoy popoy, oy ωροο*ί,τοί, οτκάλακε? as ε^ρε^ατο 8^ a*7racrayto, Kp Lcro*oy' ey KvyayMi,? 340 ^Αρτφ,^δο? elyai, κορπάσ-ayt*, y opyacrly. o ρη πά^η? σ-j, δεΰρό ετον οττε^ω κάρα κί,σ*ο*ω* ρε^?y^itjy τω ^εω Tip?yy δίίδον. ΠΕΝΘΕΤ^. ού ρη προσ-οάτεί? χείρα, ^ακχεάσεί? δ' My, ρη δ ε^ορορ^εί, pωp^ay T?)y o*i!)y φ,ο^; 345 τη? οτη? δ* ayo^a? τ ^ δ ε Toy δί,δάcγκaλoy δ^κηy ρετεψ,ί,. εττε^χετω Tt? ώ? τάχο?, ελ0α^ δε ^ακον? τουδ* ^ οίά^οο*κο7τεί ροχλογ? τρ^α&ον κayc^τ/)ε^oy έρπαλ^, ay<m κάτω τα 7rayTa σ*νγχεα? όρου, 350 καί σ-τερρατ ay^o^? καί 0uAXato-ty ρέ&?. ραλί,σ*τα yap yty δη^οραί, δράσ*α? τάδε. OL δ aya TroX^y σ*τεi.χoyτε9 ε^^ενσ*ατε Toy 0?yXupop(^oy ^yoy, o? είσ*^ερεί yoo*oy Kaiyyyy yuyat^ καί, Χεχη λνρα&εταί,. 355 καυπερ λά^δητε, δέο-p^oy πορευσ-ατε δευρ avroy, ω? ay λενσάρου δίίκη? Tux^y ^ y p ^Kpay β ά κ χ ευ α ν ey Θη^αί,? ίδω^ ΤΕΙΡΕ^ΙΑ^. ώ ο-χέτλί,', ώ? ουκ οΐο-(?α που ποτ εΐ λoyωy. pεpηya9 ηδη καί ^ i y ε^εο*τη? (^pεyωy. 360 σ -τ ε ίχ ω ^ τ^ρεγ?, Κάδρε, κά^α^τωρε(?α υττερ τε τουτου καί,7τερ oyto? ayp^ov υπέρ τε πολεω? Toy 0εδυ ρηδέυ yέoy Spay, αλλ έπου ροί. κίο-σ-&ου βάκτρου ρέτα* π6ψω S' aw/)<?oc^ σ-ω^' κάγώ το ο*ο^-
33 THE BACCHAE. 29 Thou dost behold Actaeon's wretched fate, Whom ravenous hounds which he had fed and fondled Tore in the meadows limb from limb for boasting 340 That in the chase he distanced Artemis. Lest thus thou fare, let me with ivy crown Thy head; with us give honor to the god. Lay not thy hand on me, thyself go revel, Nor make me share thy imbecility. 345 But on this teacher who hath made thee mad I will take vengeance. Quick! let some one haste, Approach his seat where he takes auguries, With levers lift it, turn it upside down, And all things in confusion throw together, 350 Giving his fillets to the winds and storms; For by this course I best shall torture him. Go others of you through the town, seek out The effeminate stranger who with new disease Afdicts our women and dishonors marriage. 355 And if ye catch him, bring him hither bound, To die by stoning, righteous penalty, When he has seen in Thebes a bitter revel. TEIRESIAS. O wretched man! thou knowest not what thou sayest, Now art thou crazed and thou wast daft before Let us go, Cadmus, and beseech the god, Both for this savage prince and for the city, To bring upon us no calamity. Follow me, bring the staff with ivy wreathed; Try to sustain my form as I do thine.