γ = 0.2 γ = Online Figure 1 B) relative frequency simulation time (millions of years) γ = γ = γ =

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1 relative frequency Online Figure 1 A) B) C) 0.5 γ = 0.5 γ = γ = 2.2 D) 0.5 Density E) b Density γ = γ = b simulation time (millions of years) F) 0.5 γ = b

2 Online Figure 2 Key Highland Lowland Caribbean North American Other Dispersal Lowland to Highland Highland to Lowland Amazon barbadensis ochrocephalus versicolor arausiaca kawalli autumnalis rhodocorytha dufresniana farinosa imperialis brasiliensis guildingii amazonica viridigenalis finschi agilis albifrons collaria vittata ventralis leucocephala vinacea festiva tucumana pretrei Tangara callophrys velia chilensis inornata mexicana seledon fastuosa desmaresti cyanocephala lavinia gyrola gyrola gyrola chrysotis xanthocephala parzudakii schrankii johannae icterocepha florida arthus cyanotis labradorides vassorii nigroviridis fucosa dowii ruficervix heinei argyrofenges viridicollis cyanoptera vitriolina cucullata cayana meyerdeschaue palmeri cyanicollis cyanicollis larvata nigrocincta varia rufigula xanthogastra guttata punctata punctata

3 Trogon Nyctibius Trogon collaris occurs both widely in lowlands and highlands viridis bairdii melanocephalus violaceus curucui comptus melanurus massena rufus personatus collaris mexicanus elegans maculosus leucopterus griseus grandis bracteatus aethereus Blackbird clade Xiphorhynchus Pseudoleistes guirahuro Pseudoleistes virescens Agelaius flavus Agelaius icterocephalus Agelaius ruficapillus Molothrus badius Oreopsar bolivianus Agelaius thilius Agelaius cyanopus Agelaius xanthophthalmus Amblyramphus holoseri Curaeus curaeus Gnorimopsar chopi Lampropsar tanagrinus Gymnomystax mexicanus Macroagelaius imthurni guttatoides susurrans guttatu flavigaster lachrymosus erythropygius triangularis obsoletus kienerii picus fuscus elegans spixii chunchotambo ocellatus pardalotus

4 Dendrocincla Icterus (f.) ridgwayi anabatina fuliginosa turdina (f.) taunayi homochroa merula tyrianna chrysocephalus cayanensis auricapillus bonana (d.) portoricensis oberi laudabilis (d.) northropi (d.) melanopsis prosthemelas spurius fuertesi cuc igneus wagleri maculialatus mes mesomelas pectoralis graceaneae icterus croconotus chrysater graduacauda parisorum pustulatus bullockii galbula abeillei leucopteryx auratus nigrogularis gularis Psarocolius and relatives Crax and relatives Ramphocelus Psarocolius viridis Psarocolius bifasciatus Gymnostinops montezuma Psarocolius decumanus Psarocolius wagleri Psarocolius atrovirens Psarocolius angustifrons Cacicus solitarius Cacicus sclateri Ocyalus latirostris Psarocolius oseryi Cacicus haemorrhous Cacicus leucoramphus Cacicus chrysonotus Cacicus cela Cacicus (u.) microrhynchus Cacicus uropygialis Cacicus (u.) pacificus Cacicus melanicterus fasciolata alector globulosa blumenbachii rubra alberti daubentoni Nothocrax urumutum salvini Pauxi unicornis tuberosa tomentosa mitu Pauxi pauxi carbo bresilius nigrogularis icteronotus passerinii sanguinolentus Taxonomic note: costaricensis has been recognized as a species but but is not considered so here

5 Pteroglossus bitorquatus beauharnaesii flavirostris aracari pluricinctus castanotis torquatus frantzii erythropygius Baillonius bailloni viridis inscriptus Taxonomic note: humbolti, sanguineus and mariae are not considered full species due to lack of reproductive isolation and are excluded Pionopsitta Veniliornis affinis nigriceps callonotus dignus passerinus cassini kirkii spilogaster Picoides lignarius Picoides mixtus chocoensis pileata pulchra haematotis coccinicolaris barrabandi aurantigena caica vulturina Neotropical Swallow clade Progne elegans Progne chalybea (South) Progne subis Progne murphyi Progne dominicensis Progne cryptoleuca Progne chalybea (North) Progne sinaloae Phaeoprogne tapera Stelgidopteryx ruficollis Stelgidopteryx serripennis Neochelidon tibialis Notiochelidon pileata Atticora fasciata Atticora melanoleuca Notiochelidon cyanoleuca Alopochelidon fucata Notiochelidon flavipes Haplochelidon andecola Notiochelidon murina

6 Myarchus Craniolueca albiceps marcapata vulpina albicapilla pyrrhophia henricae obsoleta erythrops demissa antisiensis curtata baroni semirufus tuberculifer barbirostris swainsoni 1 cephalotes phaeocephalus panamensis ferox venezuelensis swainsoni 2 validus stolidus sagrae oberi antillarum crinitus yucatanensis tyrannulus Anairetes nigrocristatus reguloides agilis flavirostris alpinus parulus fernandezianus Tachycineta albiventer albilinea stolzmanni meyeni leucorrhoa bicolor cyaneoviridis euchrysea thalassina reconstruction uncertain at base Geositta poeciloptera crassirostris punensis rufipennis maritima antarctica isabellina saxicolina peruviana tenuirostris cunicularia 1 cunicularia 2 Taxonomic note: Highland and lowland forms of cunicularia are treated as separate species here.

7 Carduelis yarellii magellanica 2 crassirostris spinescens cucullata atrata olivacea magellanica 1 barbata xanthogastra notata Troglodytes musculus aedon 1 sissonii aedon 2 brunneicollis rufociliatus solstitialis rufulus ochraceus Thryorchilus browni Metallura odomae (williami) primolina baroni (williami) atrigularis phoebe theresiae eupogon aeneocauda tyrianthina Ochthoeca pulchella jelskii diadema spodionota cinnamomeiventris thoracica leucophrys oenanthoides rufipectoralis fumicolor Muscisaxicola juninensis rufivertex cinera (a.lpina) grisea albifrons flavinucha alpina macloviana albilora capistrata maculirostris Amazonian fluviatilis (not shown) is basal to rest of genus Cinclodes nigrofumosus taczanowski patagonicus palliatus atacamensis excelsior aricomae antarcticus fuscus comechingonus oustaleti olrogi pabsti Hemispingus melanotis piurae rufosuperciliarus trifasciatus superciliaris verticalis xanthophthalmus atropileus calophrys auricularis