FORUM of CLINICAL ONCOLOGY Quarterly official publication of the Hellenic Society of Medical Oncology

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1 Issue 1 Vol. 3 March (PRINTED VERSION) FORUM of CLINICAL ONCOLOGY Quarterly official publication of the Hellenic Society of Medical Oncology Cancer care in the face of predatory capitalism Clinical practice guidelines in oncology: pros and cons ISSN: X Expression of components of Notch signaling pathway in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma using AQUA Linguistic validation of the Greek M.D. Anderson Symptom Inventory - Head and Neck Module Sleep-wake disturbances in patients with cancer and their informal caregivers: a matter of dyads Assessment of older patients in oncology Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura in a patient with lung adenocarcinoma

2 «ÙÚÈÓË ÚÙ» Ó Ê Ú ÙÂ: µôëı ÛÙÂ Ó Á ÓÔ Ó Ù Ê ÚÌ Î appleèô ÛÊ Ï : ÌappleÏËÚÒÛÙ ÙËÓ» ÙÈ ÓÂappleÈı ÌËÙ ÂÓ ÚÁÂÈ» È µ ƒ ÓÂappleÈı ÌËÙ ÂÓ ÚÁÂÈ ÁÈ Ù Ê ÚÌ Î ÁÈ Ù ÓˆÛÙ Ê ÚÌ Î. ËÊÈÛ 274, Ã Ï Ó ÚÈ, ı Ó ËÏ.: , Fax: È ÙÈ Û ÓÙ ÁÔÁÚ ÊÈÎ appleïëúôêôú Â Ó ÙÚ ÍÙ Û ÂapplefiÌÂÓË ÛÂÏ BÈ ÏÈÔÁÚ Ê : 1. ÂÚ ÏË Ë Ú ÎÙËÚÈÛÙÈÎÒÓ appleúô fióùô 2. Aune GJ et al: Ecteinascidin 743: a novel anticancer drug with a unique mechanism of action. Anticancer Drugs 2002;13: Chuck MK et al. Trabectedin. Oncologist 2009;14: Demetri GD. et al. Efficacy and Safety of Trabectedin in patients with advanced or metastatic liposarcoma or leiomyosarcoma after failure of prior anthracyclines and ifosfamide: results of a randomised Phase II study of two different schedules. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2009;27: 5. Carter NJ et al. Drugs 2007;67(15): YON/ONCO/KTX/

3 Publisher Issue 1 Vol. 3 March (PRINTED VERSION) Hellenic Society of Medical Oncology 105, Alexandras Avenue, Gr Athens, Greece tel./ faχ: FORUM of CLINICAL ONCOLOGY Quarterly official publication of the Hellenic Society of Medical Oncology Publication coordinator Mindwork Business Solutions Ltd. 15, M. Botsari Street, GR Kifissia, Athens, Greece tel.: fax: website: Printer: Lithoprint I. Skourias Ltd. Contents 07/ Editorial Different facets of the same problem Vassilios Barbounis Position Articles 09/ Cancer care in the face of predatory capitalism Spyros Retsas 11/ Clinical practice guidelines in oncology: pros and cons - Second Part Constantin Kappas Original Researches 23/ Expression of components of Notch signaling pathway in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) using AQUA: Association with survival and p16 expression Panagiotis Gouveris, Anastasios Dimou, Eirini Pectasides, Theodoros Rampias, George Fountzilas, Amanda Psyrri

4 FORUM of CLINICAL ONCOLOGY Quarterly official publication of the Hellenic Society of Medical Oncology Contents (suite) 29/ Linguistic validation of the Greek M.D. Anderson Symptom Inventory Head and Neck Module Gary Brandon Gunn, Michael I. Koukourakis, Tito R. Mendoza, Charles S. Cleeland, David I. Rosenthal Reviews 32/ Sleep-wake disturbances in patients with cancer and their informal caregivers: a matter of dyads Grigorios Kotronoulas, Yvonne Wengström, Nora Kearney 41/ Assessment of older patients in oncology Athanasios Karampeazis, Georgios Kesisis, Dimitrios Vomvas, Evaggelos Voulgaris, Emmanouil Saloustros, Athanasios G. Pallis; for the Geriatric Oncology Group (GOG) of the Greek Young Oncologists Group Case Report 48/ Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura in a patient with lung adenocarcinoma: A case report and literature review Konstantinos Tryfonidis, Maria Rovithi, John Souglakos, Dimitris Mavroudis, Vassilis Georgoulias

5 FCO /Editorial Teams / 5 Vassilios Barbounis Ioannis Varthalitis Rene Adam Athanassios Argiris Vassileios Avramis Lodovico Balducci George Peter Canellos J.Y. Douillard George Demetri Spyros Linardopoulos Terry Mamounas Anthony Maraveyas Vassiliki Papadimitrakopoulou George Pavlakis Spyros Retsas Philippe Rougier Giorgio Scaglioti T.C. Theoharides Nikolaos Zamboglou Sofia Agelaki Athanassios Anagnostopoulos Gerasimos Aravantinos Athanassios Athanassiadis Dimitrios Bafaloukos Aristotelis Bamias Ioannis Boukovinas Christos Emmanouilides Helen Gogas Stylianos Kakolyris Athanassios Karabeazis Michael Karamouzis Ourania Katopodi Georgios Klouvas Christos Kosmas Georgios Koumakis Thomas Makatsoris Dimitrios Mavroudis Athanassios G. Pallis Christos Panopoulos Christos Papadimitriou Christos Papandreou Konstantinos Papazissis Dimitrios Pektasides Georgios Pentheroudakis Amanda Psyrri Evangelia Razis Georgios Samonis Ioannis Souglakos Konstantinos Syrigos Dimitrios Tryfonopoulos Lambros Vamvakas Michael Vaslamatzis Spyridon Xynogalos Nikolaos Ziras Genetics Medical Oncology Molecular Biology Pathology Radiation Oncology Surgical Oncology Editor-in-Chief General Hospital of Athens Ippokratio, Greece Deputy Editor General Hospital of Chania Agios Georgios, Greece International Editorial Board Paul Brousse Hospital, Paris, France University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, United States Children s Hospital Los Angeles, United States Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida, United States Harvard Medical School, United States Medical Oncology Branch, Centre R. Gauducheau, Paris, France Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, United States Cancer Research UK Centre for Cancer Therapeutics, Chester Beatty Laboratories, London, United Kingdom Cancer Center, Aultman Health Foundation, United States Castle Hill Hospital, United Kingdom UT/MD Anderson Cancer Center, United States NCI at Frederick, United States Cromwell Hospital, United Kingdom Department of Gastroenterology, Hôpital Ambroise Paré, France University of Torino, San Luigi Hospital, Italy Tufts University School of Medicine, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, United States University of Freiburg, Germany Editorial Board University General Hospital of Heraklion, Greece Henry Dunant Hospital, Athens, Greece Agioi Anargyroi Hospital, Athens, Greece General Hospital of Larissa Koutlimpaneio & Triantafylleio, Greece Metropolitan Hospital, Piraeus, Greece University General Hospital of Athens Alexandra, Greece Theageneio Anticancer Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece Interbalkan Medical Center, Thessaloniki, Greece University General Hospital of Athens Laiko, Greece University General Hospital of Alexandroupoli, Greece 401 General Military Hospital of Athens, Greece Medical School, University of Athens, Athens, Greece Bioclinic of Athens, Greece Metropolitan Hospital, Piraeus, Greece General Anticancer Hospital Metaxa, Piraeus, Greece Agios Savvas Anticancer Hospital, Athens, Greece University General Hospital of Patra - Rio, Greece University General Hospital of Heraklion, Greece Department of Medical Oncology, University General Hospital of Heraklion, Greece Agios Savvas Anticancer Hospital, Athens, Greece University General Hospital of Athens Alexandra, Greece University General Hospital of Larissa, Greece Theageneio Anticancer Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece General Hospital of Athens Ippokratio, Greece University General Hospital of Ioannina, Greece University General Hospital of Athens Attikon, Greece Hygeia Hospital, Athens, Greece University General Hospital of Heraklion, Greece University General Hospital of Heraklion, Greece Sotiria Regional Chest Diseases Hospital of Athens, Greece Agios Savvas Anticancer Hospital, Athens, Greece University General Hospital of Heraklion, Greece General Hospital of Athens Evaggelismos, Greece General Hospital of Athens Evaggelismos, Greece General Anticancer Hospital Metaxa, Piraeus, Greece Section Editors Koulis Giannoukakos, NSCR Demokritos, Greece Charalambos Andreadis, Theageneio Anticancer Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece Sam Murray, Metropolitan Hospital, Piraeus, Greece Petroula Arapantoni-Dadioti, General Anticancer Hospital Metaxa, Piraeus, Greece Savvas Papadopoulos, Hygeia Hospital, Athens, Greece Dimitrios Kardamakis, University of Patras Medical School, Greece Odysseas Zoras, University General Hospital of Heraklion, Greece March 2012

6 ƒπ æ Tø à ƒ ƒπ π ø À ƒ : 1. ª π À º ƒª À π À ƒ O : Yondelis 0,25 mg & 1mg ÎfiÓÈ ÁÈ apple ÎÓfi È Ï Ì ÁÈ apple Ú ÛÎÂ È Ï Ì ÙÔ appleúô Á ÛË. 2. π π π π À : ñ Yondelis 0,25 mg ıâ ÊÈ - Ï ÈÔ appleâúè ÂÈ 0,25 mg ÙÚ ÂÎÙ ÓË. 1 ml Ó Û ÛÙ Ì ÓÔ È Ï Ì ÙÔ appleâúè ÂÈ 0,05 mg ÙÚ ÂÎÙ ÓË. ŒÎ Ô Ì ÁÓˆÛÙ ÂappleÈ Ú ÛÂÈ : ıâ ÊÈ Ï ÈÔ appleâúè ÂÈ 2 mg Î Ï Ô Î È 0,1 g Û Î Úfi Ë. ñ Yondelis 1 mg ıâ ÊÈ Ï ÈÔ appleâúè ÂÈ 1 mg ÙÚ ÂÎÙ ÓË. 1 ml Ó Û ÛÙ Ì - ÓÔ È Ï Ì ÙÔ appleâúè ÂÈ 0,05 mg ÙÚ ÂÎÙ ÓË. ŒÎ Ô Ì ÁÓˆÛÙ ÂappleÈ Ú ÛÂÈ : ıâ ÊÈ Ï ÈÔ appleâúè ÂÈ 8 mg Î Ï Ô Î È 0,4 g Û Î Úfi Ë. 3. º ƒª Ã π ª ƒº : fióè ÁÈ apple ÎÓfi È Ï Ì ÁÈ apple Ú ÛÎÂ È Ï Ì ÙÔ appleúô Á ÛË.  Πˆ applefiïâ ÎË ÎfiÓÈ. 4. π π ƒ º ƒπ : 4.1 ÂÚ appleâ ÙÈÎ ÂÓ Â ÍÂÈ : Ô Yondelis ÂÓ Â ÎÓ Ù È ÁÈ ÙËÓ ÓÙÈÌÂÙÒappleÈÛË ÛıÂÓÒÓ Ì appleúô ˆÚËÌ ÓÔ Û ÚÎˆÌ ÙˆÓ Ì Ï - ÎÒÓ ÌÔÚ ˆÓ, ÌÂÙ applefi appleôù ÓıÚ Î ÎÏÈÓÒÓ Î È ÈÊÔÛÊ Ì Ë, ÔÈ ÔappleÔ ÔÈ Â Ó È Î Ù ÏÏËÏÔÈ Ó Ï Ô Ó ÙÔ ÙÔ apple Ú ÁÔÓÙÂ. ÛÙÔÈ-  appleôùâïâûì ÙÈÎfiÙËÙ Û ÔÓÙ È Î Ú ˆ Û ÛıÂÓ Ì ÏÈappleÔÛ ÚÎˆÌ Î È ÏÂÈÔÌ ÔÛ ÚΈÌ. Ô Yondelis ÛÂ Û Ó ÛÌfi Ì appleâáî ÏȈ- Ì ÓË ÏÈappleÔÛˆÌÈ Î ÔÍÔÚÔ ÈÎ ÓË (PLD) ÂÓ Â ÎÓ Ù È ÁÈ ÙË ıâú appleâ ÛıÂÓÒÓ Ì appleôùúôappleè ÔÓÙ,  ÛıËÙÔ ÛÙËÓ appleï Ù Ó, Î ÚÎ ÓÔ ÙˆÓ ˆÔıË- ÎÒÓ. 4.2 ÔÛÔÏÔÁ Î È ÙÚfiappleÔ ÔÚ ÁËÛË : Ô Yondelis appleú appleâè Ó ÔÚËÁÂ Ù È applefi ÙËÓ Âapple ÏÂ Ë È ÙÚÔ ÌappleÂÈÚÔ ÛÙË Ú ÛË ËÌÂÈÔıÂÚ - appleâ. appleú appleâè Ó ÚËÛÈÌÔappleÔÈÂ Ù È ÌfiÓÔ applefi ÂÍÂÈ ÈÎÂ Ì ÓÔ ÔÁÎÔÏfiÁÔ ÏÏÔ Âapple ÁÁÂÏÌ Ù Â ÙÔ ÙÔÌ ÁÂÈÔÓÔÌÈÎ appleâú ı Ï Ë ÂÈ ÈÎÂ Ì ÓÔ ÛÙË ÔÚ ÁËÛË Î ÙÙ ÚÔÙÔÍÈÎÒÓ apple Ú ÁfiÓÙˆÓ. ÔÛÔÏÔÁ : È ÙË ıâú appleâ ÙÔ Û ÚÎÒÌ ÙÔ ÙˆÓ Ì Ï ÎÒÓ ÌÔÚ ˆÓ, Ë Û ÓÈÛÙÒ- ÌÂÓË fiûë Â Ó È 1,5 mg/m 2 ÂappleÈÊ ÓÂÈ ÛÒÌ ÙÔ, Ë ÔappleÔ ÔÚËÁÂ Ù È ˆ ÂÓ ÔÊÏ È Á ÛË ÁÈ 24 ÒÚ ÌÂ È ÛÙËÌ ÙÚÈÒÓ Â ÔÌ ˆÓ ÌÂÙ - Í ÙˆÓ Î ÎψÓ. È ÙË ıâú appleâ ÙÔ Î ÚÎ ÓÔ ÙˆÓ ˆÔıËÎÒÓ ÙÔ Yondelis ÔÚËÁÂ Ù È Î ıâ ÙÚÂÈ Â ÔÌ Â ˆ 3ˆÚË Á ÛË Û fiûë 1,1 mg/m 2, Ì Ûˆ ÌÂÙ applefi PLD 30 mg/m 2. È Ó ÂÏ ÈÛÙÔappleÔÈ ÛÂÈ ÙÔÓ Î Ó ÓÔ ÓÙÈ Ú ÛÂˆÓ applefi ÙËÓ Á ÛË PLD, Ë Ú ÈÎ fiûë ÔÚËÁÂ Ù È ÌÂ Ú ıìfi fi È ÌÂÁ Ï ÙÂÚÔ applefi 1 mg/ïâappleùfi. Ó ÂÓ apple Ú ÙËÚÂ Ù È ÓÙ Ú ÛË Î Ù ÙËÓ Á ÛË, ÔÈ ÂapplefiÌÂÓ ÂÁ ÛÂÈ PLD ÌappleÔÚÔ Ó Ó ÔÚËÁÔ - ÓÙ È Û ÚÔÓÈÎ È ÚÎÂÈ 1 ÒÚ. (µï appleâ Âapple ÛË ÂÚ ÏË Ë Ã Ú ÎÙËÚÈÛÙÈÎÒÓ ÚÔ fióùô PLD ÁÈ ÂÈ ÈÎ Ô ËÁ  ÔÚ ÁËÛË ). ŸÏÔÈ ÔÈ ÛıÂ- Ó appleú appleâè Ó Ï Ô Ó ÎoÚÙÈÎÔÛÙÂÚÔÂÈ, apple.., 20 mg ÂÍ ÌÂı fióë ÂÓ ÔÊÏ ˆ 30 ÏÂappleÙ appleúèó applefi ÙËÓ PLD (Û ıâú appleâ Û Ó ÛÌÔ ) Yondelis (Û ÌÔÓÔıÂÚ appleâ ) fi È ÌfiÓÔ ˆ ÓÙÈÂÌÂÙÈÎ appleúôê Ï ÍË, ÏÏ Âapple ÛË ÂappleÂÈ Ê ÓÂÙ È fiùè apple Ú ÂÈ Ëapple ÙÔappleÚÔÛÙ Ù ÙÈÎ appleôùâï - ÛÌ Ù. ªappleÔÚÂ Ó ÔÚËÁËıÔ Ó appleúfiûıâù ÓÙÈÂÌÂÙÈÎ, fiappleˆ apple ÈÙ ٠È. apple ÈÙÔ ÓÙ È Ù ÎfiÏÔ ı ÎÚÈÙ ÚÈ ÒÛÙÂ Ó ÂappleÈÙÚ appleâ Ë ıâú appleâ Ì Yondelis: applefiï ÙÔ ÚÈıÌfi Ô ÂÙÂÚfiÊÈÏˆÓ (ANC) 1.500/mm 3 ÚÈıÌfi ÈÌÔappleÂÙ Ï ˆÓ /mm 3 ÃÔÏÂÚ ıú ÓË ÓÒÙÂÚÔ Ê ÛÈÔ- ÏÔÁÈÎfi fiúèô (ULN) ÏÎ ÏÈΠʈÛÊ Ù ÛË 2,5 x ULN (ÂÍÂÙ ÛÙ Ëapple ÙÈÎ ÈÛÔ Ó Ì 5-ÓÔ ÎÏÂÔÙÈ ÛË GGT, Â Ó Ë ÍËÛË ı ÌappleÔÚÔ ÛÂ Ó Â Ó È ÔÛÙÈÎ appleúô Ï ÛË ). Â ÎˆÌ Ù ÓË 25 g/l. ÌÈÓÔÙÚ ÓÛÊÂÚ ÛË ÙË Ï Ó ÓË (ALT) Î È Ûapple ÚÙÈÎ ÌÈÓÔÙÚ ÓÛÊÂÚ ÛË (AST) 2,5 x ULN ı ÚÛË ÎÚ ÙÈÓ ÓË 30 ml/ïâappleùfi (ÌÔÓÔıÂÚ appleâ ), ÎÚ ÙÈÓ ÓË ÔÚÔ 1,5 mg/dl ( 132,6 Ìmol/l) Î ı ÚÛË ÎÚ ÙÈÓ ÓË 60 ml/ïâappleùfi (ıâú appleâ Û Ó ÛÌÔ ) Ú ÙÈÓÔʈÛÊÔÎÈÓ ÛË (CPK) 2,5 x ULN ÈÌÔÛÊ ÈÚ ÓË 9 g/dl. Ú appleâè Ó appleïëúô ÓÙ È Ù È ÎÚÈÙ ÚÈ, fiappleˆ apple Ú apple Óˆ, ÁÈ Âapple Ó ÏË Ë ÙË ıâú appleâ. È Ïψ, Ë ıâú appleâ appleú appleâè Ó Î ı ÛÙÂÚ ˆ 3  ÔÌ Â ˆ fiùô Ó appleïëúô ÓÙ È Ù ÎÚÈÙ - ÚÈ. appleú appleâè Ó ÈÂÍ ÁÂÙ È appleúfiûıâùë apple Ú ÎÔÏÔ ıëûë ÙˆÓ ÈÌ ÙÔÏÔÁÈÎÒÓ apple Ú Ì ÙÚˆÓ, ÔÏÂÚ ıú ÓË, ÏÎ ÏÈΠʈÛÊ Ù ÛË, ÌÈÓÔÙÚ Ó- ÛÊÂÚ ÛÂ Î È CPK  ÔÌ È ˆ Î Ù ÙË È ÚÎÂÈ ÙˆÓ appleúòùˆó Ô Î ÎÏˆÓ ıâú appleâ, Î È ÙÔ Ï ÈÛÙÔÓ Ì ÊÔÚ ÌÂÙ Í ÙˆÓ ıâú appleâèòó Û ÂapplefiÌÂÓÔ Î ÎÏÔ. appleú appleâè Ó ÔÚËÁÂ Ù È Ë È fiûë ÁÈ fiïô ÙÔ Î ÎÏÔ applefi ÙËÓ appleúô applefiıâûë fiùè ÂÓ apple Ú ÙËÚÔ ÓÙ È ÙÔÍÈÎfiÙËÙ ıìô 3-4 Î È fiùè Ô ÛıÂÓ appleïëúô Ù ÎÚÈÙ ÚÈ Âapple Ó ÏË Ë ÙË ıâú appleâ. ƒ ıì ÛÂÈ ÙË fiûë Î Ù ÙË È ÚÎÂÈ ÙË ıâú appleâ ÚÈÓ ÙËÓ Âapple Ó ÏË Ë ÙË ıâú appleâ, ÔÈ ÛıÂÓ appleú appleâè Ó appleïëúô Ó Ù ÎÚÈÙ ÚÈ Ó ÊÔÚ appleô Î ıôú ÔÓÙ È apple Ú apple Óˆ. Ó Ï Ì ÓÂÈ ÒÚ ÔÈÔ - appleôùâ applefi Ù ÎfiÏÔ ı Û Ì Ì Ù ÔÈ appleôùâ ÛÙÈÁÌ ÌÂÙ Í ÙˆÓ Î ÎψÓ, Ë fiûë appleú appleâè Ó ÌÂÈÒÓÂÙ È Ó Âapple appleâ Ô, Û ÌÊˆÓ Ì ÙÔÓ apple Ó Î 1 apple Ú Î Ùˆ,ÁÈ ÙÔ ÂapplefiÌÂÓÔ Î ÎÏÔ : ÂÙÂÚÔappleÂÓ <500/mm 3 appleô È ÚΠÁÈ appleâúèûûfiùâúâ applefi 5 ËÌ ÚÂ Û ÓÔ Â ÂÙ È Ì apple ÚÂ- Ùfi ÏÔ ÌˆÍË ÚÔÌ ÔappleÂÓ <25.000/mm 3 ÍËÛË ÙË ÔÏÂÚ ıú ÓË >ULN /Î È ÏÎ ÏÈΠʈÛÊ Ù ÛË >2,5 x ULN ÍËÛË ÛÙÈ ÌÈÓÔ- ÙÚ ÓÛÊÂÚ Û (AST ALT) >2,5 x ULN (ÌÔÓÔıÂÚ appleâ ) >5 x ULN (ıâú appleâ Û Ó ÛÌÔ ), Ë ÔappleÔ ÂÓ appleôî ı ÛÙ Ù È ˆ ÙËÓ ËÌ Ú 21 ÈÂÛ appleôùâ ÏÏ ÓÂappleÈı ÌËÙ ÓÙÈ Ú ÛÂÈ ıìô 3 4 (fiappleˆ Ó Ù, ÌÂÙÔ, ÎfiappleˆÛË) ÊÔ ÌÂȈıÂ Ë fiûë ÂÍ ÈÙ ÙÔÍÈÎfiÙËÙ, ÂÓ appleúôùâ ÓÂÙ È ÍËÛË ÙË fiûë ÛÙÔ ÂapplefiÌÂÓÔ Î ÎÏÔ. Ó Âapple ÓÂÌÊ ÓÈÛÙ ÔÈ appleôùâ applefi Ù ÙÈ ÙÔÍÈÎfiÙËÙ Û ÂapplefiÌÂÓÔ Î ÎÏÔ Û ÛıÂÓ Ô ÔappleÔ Ô apple ÚÔ ÛÈ ÂÈ ÎÏÈÓÈÎfi fiêâïô, Ë fiûë ÌappleÔÚÂ Ó ÌÂȈı appleâú ÈÙ Úˆ ( Ï appleâ apple Ú Î Ùˆ). Ú ÁÔÓÙÂ È ÁÂÚÛË appleôèîèòó ÌappleÔÚÔ Ó Ó ÔÚËÁÔ ÓÙ È ÁÈ ÈÌ ÙÔÏÔÁÈÎ ÙÔÍÈÎfiÙËÙ Û ÌÊˆÓ Ì ÙËÓ ÙÔappleÈÎ Û Ó ıë appleú ÎÙÈÎ. Ó Î 1 Ó Î ÙÚÔappleÔappleÔ ËÛË fiûâˆó ÁÈ ÙÔ Yondelis (ˆ ÌÔÓfi apple Ú ÁÔÓÙ ÁÈ STS ÛÂ Û Ó ÛÌfi ÁÈ Î ÚÎ ÓÔ ÙˆÓ ˆÔıËÎÒÓ) Î È PLD ÚÎˆÌ ª Ï ÎÒÓ ªÔÚ ˆÓ ÚÎ ÓÔ øôıëîòó Àondellis Yondelis PLD Ó ÚÎÙ ÚÈ fiûë 1,5 mg/m 2 1,1 mg/m 2 30 mg/m 2 ÚÒÙË Ì ˆÛË 1,2 mg/m 2 0,9 mg/m 2 25 mg/m 2  ÙÂÚË Ì ˆÛË 1 mg/m 2 0,75 mg/m 2 20 mg/m 2 µï appleâ ÙËÓ SPC ÙË PLD ÁÈ ÏÂappleÙÔÌÂÚ ÛÙÂÚ appleïëúôêôú  ÁÈ ÙÈ Ú ıì ÛÂÈ fiûâˆó PLD. ÙËÓ appleâú appleùˆûë fiappleô Â Ó È apple Ú ÙËÙ appleâú È- Ù Úˆ ÌÂÈÒÛÂÈ ÙË fiûë, ı appleú appleâè Ó ÂÍÂÙ ÂÙ È Ë È ÎÔapple ÙË ıâú appleâ. È ÚÎÂÈ ÙË ıâú appleâ :  ÎÏÈÓÈÎ ÔÎÈÌ, ÂÓ apple Ú Ó appleúôî ıôúèûì Ó fiúè ÛÙÔÓ ÚÈıÌfi ÙˆÓ Î ÎÏˆÓ appleô ÔÚËÁÔ ÓÙ Ó. ıâú appleâ Û Ó ÔÓÙ Ó fiûô È ÚÎÔ Û ÙÔ ÎÏÈÓÈÎfi fiêâïô. Ô Yondelis ÔÚËÁ ıëîâ ÁÈ 6 appleâúèûûfiùâúô Î ÎÏÔ Û 29,5% Î È 52% ÙˆÓ ÛıÂÓÒÓ appleô ÓÙÈÌÂÙˆapple ÛÙËÎ Ó ıâú appleâ ÙÈÎ Ì ÌÔÓÔıÂÚ appleâ Î È fiûë Û Ó ÛÌÔ Î È ÙÔ appleúfiáú ÌÌ, ÓÙ ÛÙÔÈ. Û Ì Ù ÌÔÓÔıÂÚ appleâ Î È Û Ó ÛÌÔ ÚËÛÈÌÔappleÔÈ ıëî Ó ÁÈ ˆ 38 Î È 21 Î ÎÏÔ, ÓÙ ÛÙÔÈ. ÂÓ apple Ú ÙËÚ ıëî Ó ÛˆÚ ÙÈÎ ÙÔÍÈÎfiÙËÙ Û ÛıÂÓ appleô ÓÙÈÌÂÙˆapple ÛÙËÎ Ó Ì appleôïï appleïô Î ÎÏÔ. È È ÙÚÈÎfi appleïëı - ÛÌfi : ÂÓ ÂÈ ÎfiÌ ÙÂÎÌËÚȈıÂ Ë ÛÊ ÏÂÈ Î È Ë appleôùâïâûì ÙÈÎfiÙËÙ ÙË ÙÚ ÂÎÙ ÓË ÛÙÔÓ apple È È ÙÚÈÎfi appleïëı ÛÌfi. ÂÓ apple Ú Ô Ó È - ı ÛÈÌ ÛÙÔÈ Â. ÏÈÎÈˆÌ ÓÔÈ ÛıÂÓ : ÂÓ Ô Ó ÈÂÍ ıâ ÂÈ ÈÎ ÌÂÏ Ù Û ËÏÈÎÈˆÌ ÓÔ ÛıÂÓÂ. ÓÔÏÈÎ ÙÔ 20% applefi ÙÔ 1164 ÛıÂÓ ÛÙÈ ÔÏÔÎÏËÚˆÌ ÓÂ Ó Ï ÛÂÈ ÛÊ Ï ÎÏÈÓÈÎÒÓ ÌÂÏÂÙÒÓ ÌÔÓÔıÂÚ appleâ Ù Ó Óˆ ÙˆÓ 65 ÂÙÒÓ. applefi ÙÔ 333 ÛıÂÓ Ì ΠÚÎ ÓÔ ÙˆÓ ˆÔıËÎÒÓ appleô Ï Ó ÙÚ ÂÎÙ ÓË ÛÂ Û Ó ÛÌfi Ì PLD, 24% Ù Ó ËÏÈÎ 65 ÂÙÒÓ ÌÂÁ Ï ÙÂÚÔÈ Î È 6% Ù Ó Óˆ ÙˆÓ 75 ÂÙÒÓ. ÂÓ apple Ú ÙËÚ ıëî Ó Û ÂÙÈÎ È ÊÔÚ ÛÙÔ appleúôê Ï ÛÊ Ï Û ÙfiÓ ÙÔÓ appleïëı ÛÌfi ÛıÂÓÒÓ. º ÓÂÙ È fiùè Ë Î ı ÚÛË appleï ÛÌ ÙÔ Î È Ô fiáîô Î Ù ÓÔÌ ÙË ÙÚ ÂÎÙ ÓË ÂÓ ÂappleËÚ ÂÙ È applefi ÙËÓ ËÏÈÎ. ø ÂÎ ÙÔ ÙÔ, ÂÓ Û ÓÈÛÙÒÓÙ È Ú ıì ÛÂÈ ÙˆÓ fiûâˆó Ì ÛË appleôîïâèûùèî Ù ËÏÈÎÈ Î ÎÚÈÙ ÚÈ. ÛıÂÓ Ì Ëapple ÙÈÎ ÛÏÂÈÙÔ ÚÁ : ÂÓ Ô Ó ÈÂÍ ıâ ÌÂÏ Ù Ì ÙÔ appleúôùâèófiìâóô Û Ì Û ÛıÂ- Ó Ì Ëapple ÙÈÎ ÛÏÂÈÙÔ ÚÁ. ŒÙÛÈ, ÂÓ È Ù ıâóù È Â ÔÌ Ó ÒÛÙÂ Ó appleúôù ıâ ÌÈÎÚfiÙÂÚË ÂÓ ÚÎÙ ÚÈ fiûë Û ÛıÂÓ Ì Ëapple ÙÈÎ ÛÏÂÈÙÔ ÚÁ. øûùfiûô, Û ÓÈÛÙ Ù È È È ÙÂÚË appleúôûô Î È ÌappleÔÚÂ Ó apple ÈÙÔ ÓÙ È Ú ıì ÛÂÈ ÙË fiûë Û ÙÔ ÙÔ ÛıÂÓ Πıò Í ÓÂÙ È appleèı Ó Ë Û ÛÙËÌ ÙÈÎ ÎıÂÛË Î È ÌappleÔÚÂ Ó Í ÓÂÙ È Ô Î Ó ÓÔ Ëapple ÙÔÙÔÍÈÎfiÙËÙ. È ÛıÂÓ Ì ÍËÌ ÓË ÔÏÂÚ ıú ÓË ÂÓ appleú appleâè Ó ÓÙÈÌÂÙˆapple ÔÓÙ È ıâú appleâ ÙÈÎ Ì Yondelis ( Ï. apple Ú ÁÚ ÊÔ 4.4). ÛıÂÓ Ì ÓÂÊÚÈÎ ÛÏÂÈÙÔ ÚÁ : ÂÓ Ô Ó ÈÂÍ ıâ ÌÂÏ - Ù ÔÈ ÔappleÔ Â Ó appleâúèï Ì ÓÔ Ó ÛıÂÓ Ì ÓÂÊÚÈÎ ÓÂapple ÚÎÂÈ (Î ı ÚÛË ÎÚ ÙÈÓ ÓË <30 ml/ïâappleùfi ÁÈ ÙË ÌÔÓÔıÂÚ appleâ, Î È <60 ml/ïâappleùfi ÁÈ ÙÔ Û Ì Û Ó ÛÌÔ ) Î È ˆ ÂÎ ÙÔ ÙÔ ÙÔ Yondelis ÂÓ appleú appleâè Ó ÚËÛÈÌÔappleÔÈÂ Ù È Û ÙfiÓ ÙÔÓ appleïëı ÛÌfi ÛıÂÓÒÓ ( Ï. apple Ú - ÁÚ ÊÔ 4.4).  ÔÌ ÓˆÓ ÙˆÓ Ê ÚÌ ÎÔÎÈÓËÙÈÎÒÓ Ú ÎÙËÚÈÛÙÈÎÒÓ ÙË ÙÚ ÂÎÙ ÓË, ÂÓ apple Ú ÂÈ ÂÁÁ ËÛË ÁÈ Ú ıì ÛÂÈ fiûâˆó Û ÛıÂ- Ó Ì appleè Ì ÙÚÈ ÓÂÊÚÈÎ ÛÏÂÈÙÔ ÚÁ. ª ıô Ô ÔÚ ÁËÛË : ÓÈÛÙ Ù È ÓıÂÚÌ Ë ÔÚ ÁËÛË Ì Ûˆ ÎÂÓÙÚÈÎ ÊÏ ÈÎ ÁÚ ÌÌ. È Ô ËÁ Â Ó ÊÔÚÈÎ Ì ÙËÓ Ó Û ÛÙ ÛË Î È ÙËÓ Ú ˆÛË ÙÔ Ê ÚÌ Î ÙÈÎÔ appleúô fióùô appleúèó ÙË ÔÚ ÁËÛË, Ï. apple Ú ÁÚ ÊÔ ÓÙÂÓ Â ÍÂÈ : ÀappleÂÚ ÈÛıËÛ ÛÙËÓ ÙÚ ÂÎÙ ÓË Û Πappleôèô applefi Ù Î Ô ÀÊÈÛÙ ÌÂÓË ÛÔ Ú ÌË ÂÏÂÁ fiìâóë ÏÔ ÌˆÍË ÏÔ - ( Ï. apple Ú ÁÚ ÊÔ 4.6) Ó ÛÌfi Ì ÂÌ fiïèô Î ÙÚÈÓÔ apple ÚÂÙÔ ( Ï. apple Ú ÁÚ ÊÔ 4.4) 4.4 È ÈÎ appleúôâè ÔappleÔÈ ÛÂÈ Î È appleúôê Ï ÍÂÈ Î Ù ÙË Ú ÛË: apple ÙÈÎ ÛÏÂÈÙÔ ÚÁ : È ÛıÂÓ ı appleú appleâè Ó appleïëúô Ó ÂÈ ÈÎ ÎÚÈÙ ÚÈ ˆ appleúô ÙÈ apple Ú Ì ÙÚÔ ÙË Ëapple ÙÈÎ ÏÂÈ- ÙÔ ÚÁ ÁÈ Ó Ú ÛÔ Ó ıâú appleâ Ì Yondelis. ıò appleèı ÓÒ Í ÓÂÙ È Ë Û ÛÙËÌ ÙÈÎ ÎıÂÛË ÛÙËÓ ÙÚ ÂÎÙ ÓË ÏfiÁˆ Ëapple ÙÈÎ ÛÏÂÈ- ÙÔ ÚÁ Î È ÂappleÔÌ Óˆ ÌappleÔÚÂ Ó ÍËıÂ Ô Î Ó ÓÔ Ëapple ÙÔÙÔÍÈÎfiÙËÙ, ÔÈ ÛıÂÓ Ì ÎÏÈÓÈÎ Û ÂÙÈÎ Ëapple ÙÈÎ ÓfiÛÔ, fiappleˆ ÂÓÂÚÁ ÚfiÓÈ Ëapple Ù ÙÈ, appleú appleâè Ó apple Ú ÎÔÏÔ ıô ÓÙ È ÛÙÂÓ Î È Ó Ú ıì ÂÙ È Ë fiûë, ÂÊfiÛÔÓ apple ÈÙ ٠È. È ÛıÂÓ Ì ÍËÌ ÓË ÔÏÂÚ ıú ÓË ÂÓ appleú appleâè Ó appleô ÏÏÔÓÙ È Û ıâú appleâ Ì ÙÚ ÂÎÙ ÓË ( Ï. apple Ú ÁÚ ÊÔ 4.2). ÂÊÚÈÎ ÛÏÂÈÙÔ ÚÁ : Î ı ÚÛË ÎÚ ÙÈÓ ÓË appleú appleâè Ó apple Ú ÎÔÏÔ ıâ Ù È appleúèó Î È Î Ù ÙË È ÚÎÂÈ ÙË ıâú appleâ. Û Ì Ù ÌÔÓÔıÂÚ appleâ Î È Û Ó ÛÌÔ Ì Yondelis ÂÓ appleú appleâè Ó ÚËÛÈ- ÌÔappleÔÈÔ ÓÙ È Û ÛıÂÓ Ì Πı ÚÛË ÎÚ ÙÈÓ ÓË <30 ml/ïâappleùfi Î È <60 ml/ïâappleùfi ÓÙ ÛÙÔÈ ( Ï. apple Ú ÁÚ ÊÔ 4.2). ÂÙÂÚÔappleÂÓ Î È ıúôì- ÔappleÂÓ : Œ Ô Ó Ó ÊÂÚı appleôï Û Ó ıìô 3 4 Ô ÂÙÂÚÔappleÂÓ Î È ıúôì ÔappleÂÓ appleô Û ÂÙ ÔÓÙ È Ì ÙË ıâú appleâ Ì Yondelis. appleú appleâè Ó ÈÂÍ ÁÂÙ È appleï Ú ÈÌÔ È ÁÚ ÌÌ Û ÌappleÂÚÈÏ Ì ÓÔÌ ÓÔ È ÊÔÚÈÎÔ Î È Ì ÙÚËÛË ÚÈıÌÔ ÈÌÔappleÂÙ Ï ˆÓ appleúèó ÙËÓ Ó ÚÍË,  ÔÌ - È ˆ ÁÈ ÙÔ appleúòùô Ô Î ÎÏÔ Î È ÛÙË Û Ó ÂÈ Ì ÊÔÚ ÌÂÙ Í ÙˆÓ Î ÎÏˆÓ ( Ï. apple Ú ÁÚ ÊÔ 4.2). È ÛıÂÓ ÔÈ ÔappleÔ ÔÈ ÂÌÊ Ó - Ô Ó apple ÚÂÙfi ı appleú appleâè Ó Ó ËÙ ÛÔ Ó ÁÎ ÈÚ È ÙÚÈÎ ÊÚÔÓÙ. Ó apple Ú ÙËÚËı Ùfi, ı appleú appleâè Ó ÍÂÎÈÓ ÛÂÈ ÌÂÛ appleôûùëúèîùèî ıâú appleâ. Ô Yondelis ÂÓ appleú appleâè Ó ÔÚËÁÂ Ù È Û ÛıÂÓ Ì ÚÈıÌfi Ô ÂÙÂÚÔÊ ÏˆÓ Ó ÊÔÚ ÌÈÎÚfiÙÂÚÔ applefi Î ÙÙ Ú /mm 3 Î È ÚÈıÌfi ÈÌÔappleÂÙ Ï ˆÓ ÌÈÎÚfiÙÂÚÔ applefi Î ÙÙ Ú /mm 3. Ó apple Ú ÙËÚËı ÛÔ Ú Ô ÂÙÂÚÔappleÂÓ (ANC <500 Î ÙÙ Ú /mm 3 ) appleô È Ú- Πappleâúèûûfiùâúâ applefi 5 ËÌ ÚÂ Û ÓÔ Â ÂÙ È Ì ÙËÓ ÂÌÊ ÓÈÛË apple ÚÂÙÔ ÏÔ ÌˆÍË, Û ÛÙ ÓÂÙ È Ë Ì ˆÛË ÙˆÓ fiûâˆó ( Ï appleâ ÂÓfiÙËÙ 4.2). Ù Î È ÌÂÙÔ : Ú appleâè Ó ÔÚËÁÂ Ù È ÓÙÈÂÌÂÙÈÎ appleúôê Ï ÍË Ì ÎÔÚÙÈÎÔÛÙÂÚÔÂÈ fiappleˆ ÂÍ ÌÂı fióë Û fiïô ÙÔ ÛıÂÓ ( Ï. apple Ú ÁÚ ÊÔ 4.2). ƒ ÔÌ fiï ÛË Î È ÛÔ Ú Í ÛÂÈ ÙË CPK (>5 x ULN): ÂÓ appleú appleâè Ó ÚËÛÈÌÔappleÔÈÂ Ù È ÙÚ ÂÎÙ ÓË Û ÛıÂÓ Ì CPK >2,5 x ULN ( Ï. apple Ú ÁÚ ÊÔ 4.2). Œ ÂÈ Ó ÊÂÚı fi È Û Ó Ú ÔÌ fiï ÛË, Û Ó ıˆ ÛÂ Û Ó ÛÌfi ÌÂ Ì ÂÏÔÙÔÍÈÎfiÙËÙ, ÛÔ Ú ÌË Ê ÛÈÔÏÔÁÈÎ ÔÎÈÌ Û Â Ëapple ÙÈÎ ÏÂÈÙÔ ÚÁ /Î È ÓÂÊÚÈÎ appleôï ÔÚÁ ÓÈÎ ÓÂapple ÚÎÂÈ. appleôì Óˆ, ı appleú appleâè Ó apple Ú ÎÔÏÔ ıâ Ù È ÛÙÂÓ Ë CPK fiappleôùâ Ó ÛıÂÓ ÌappleÔÚÂ Ó apple ÚÔ ÛÈ ÂÈ ÔÈ appleôùâ applefi Ù ÙÈ ÙÔÍÈÎfiÙËÙÂ Ì Î Ó Ì Ì Îfi applefióô. Ó Ï ÂÈ ÒÚ Ú ÔÌ fiï ÛË, ı appleú appleâè Ó ÂÊ ÚÌÔÛÙÔ Ó ÁÎ ÈÚ appleôûùëúèîùèî Ì ÙÚ fiappleˆ apple ÚÂÓÙÂÚÈÎ ÂÓ ÙˆÛË, ÏÎ ÏÔappleÔ ËÛË ÙˆÓ Ô ÚˆÓ Î È ÈÌÔ È ÏÈÛË, fiappleˆ ÂÓ Â ÎÓ Ù È. ıâú appleâ Ì Yondelis ı appleú appleâè Ó È ÎÔappleÂ Ì ÚÈ ÙËÓ appleï ÚË Ó ÚÚˆÛË ÙÔ ÛıÂÓ. appleú appleâè Ó ÏËÊıÔ Ó appleúôê Ï ÍÂÈ Â Ó ÔÚËÁÔ ÓÙ È Ù Ùfi ÚÔÓ Ì ÙÚ ÂÎÙ ÓË Ê ÚÌ Î ÙÈÎ appleúô fióù appleô Û ÂÙ ÔÓÙ È ÌÂ Ú ÔÌ fiï ÛË (apple.., ÛÙ - Ù Ó ), ÂappleÂÈ ÌappleÔÚÂ Ó ÍËıÂ Ô Î Ó ÓÔ Ú ÔÌ fiï ÛË. ªË Ê ÛÈÔÏÔÁÈÎ ÔÎÈÌ Û Â apple ÙÈÎ ÂÈÙÔ ÚÁ (LFT): Œ Ô Ó Ó ÊÂÚı ÛÙÔ appleâúèûûfiùâúô ÛıÂÓÂ Ó ÛÙÚ ÈÌ ÔÍÂ Â Í ÛÂÈ ÙË Ûapple ÚÙÈÎ ÌÈÓÔÙÚ ÓÛÊÂÚ ÛË (AST) Î È ÙË ÌÈÓÔÙÚ ÓÛÊÂÚ ÛË ÙË Ï Ó ÓË (ALT). Ô Yondelis ÂÓ appleú appleâè Ó ÚËÛÈÌÔappleÔÈÂ Ù È Û ÛıÂÓ Ì ÍËÌ ÓË ÔÏÂÚ ıú ÓË. È ÛıÂÓ ÌÂ Í ÛÂÈ ÙË AST, ALT Î È ÏÎ ÏÈΠʈÛÊ Ù ÛË ÌÂÙ Í ÙˆÓ Î ÎÏˆÓ ÌappleÔÚÂ Ó apple ÈÙÔ Ó Ì ˆÛË ÙË fiûë ( Ï. apple Ú ÁÚ ÊÔ 4.2). ÓÙÈ Ú ÛÂÈ ÙË ı ÛË ÓÂ- ÛË : ÓÈÛÙ Ù È ÂÓÙfiÓˆ Ë Ú ÛË ÎÂÓÙÚÈÎ ÊÏ ÈÎ appleúfiû ÛË ( Ï. apple Ú ÁÚ ÊÔ 4.2). È ÛıÂÓ ÌappleÔÚÂ Ó Ó appleù ÍÔ Ó ÓËÙÈÎÒ ÛÔ - Ú ÓÙ Ú ÛË ÙË ı ÛË ÓÂÛË fiù Ó Ë ÙÚ ÂÎÙ ÓË ÔÚËÁÂ Ù È Ì Ûˆ appleâúèêâúèî ÊÏ ÈÎ ÁÚ ÌÌ. ÂÍ ÁÁ ˆÛË ÙË ÙÚ ÂÎÙ ÓË ÌappleÔÚÂ Ó appleúôî Ï ÛÂÈ Ó ÎÚˆÛË ÙˆÓ ÈÛÙÒÓ, Ë ÔappleÔ apple ÈÙ ÂÈÚÔ ÚÁÈÎfi Î ı ÚÈÛÌfi. ÂÓ apple Ú ÂÈ Û ÁÎÂÎÚÈÌ ÓÔ ÓÙ ÔÙÔ ÁÈ ÙËÓ ÂÍ ÁÁ ˆ- ÛË ÙË ÙÚ ÂÎÙ ÓË. ÂÍ ÁÁ ˆÛË appleú appleâè Ó ÓÙÈÌÂÙˆapple ÂÙ È Ì ÙËÓ Û Ó ıë ÙÔappleÈÎ appleú ÎÙÈÎ. ÕÏÏ : Û Á ÔÚ ÁËÛË Yondelis Ì ÈÛ - ÚÔ Ó ÛÙÔÏ ÙÔ ÂÓ ÌÔ CYP3A4 ı appleú appleâè Ó appleôêâ ÁÂÙ È ( Ï. apple Ú ÁÚ ÊÔ 4.5). Ó Ùfi ÂÓ Â Ó È Ó Ùfi, apple ÈÙÂ Ù È appleúôûâîùèî apple Ú ÎÔÏÔ ıëûë ÙË ÙÔÍÈÎfiÙËÙ Î È ı appleú appleâè Ó ÂÍÂÙ ÂÙ È Ë Ì ˆÛË ÙË fiûë ÙÚ ÂÎÙ ÓË. appleú appleâè Ó Ï Ì ÓÔÓÙ È appleúôê Ï ÍÂÈ Â Ó ÔÚËÁÔ ÓÙ È Ê ÚÌ Î ÙÈÎ appleúô fióù appleô Û ÂÙ ÔÓÙ È Ì Ëapple ÙÔÙÔÍÈÎfiÙËÙ Ì Ì ÙÚ ÂÎÙ ÓË, ÂappleÂÈ Ô Î Ó ÓÔ Ëapple ÙÔÙÔÍÈÎfiÙËÙ ÌappleÔÚÂ Ó ÍËıÂ. Ù Ùfi ÚÔÓË Ú ÛË ÙÚ ÂÎÙ ÓË ÌÂ Ê ÈÓ ÙÔ ÓË ÌappleÔÚÂ Ó ÌÂÈÒÛÂÈ ÙËÓ appleôúúfiêëûë ÙË Ê ÈÓ ÙÔ ÓË, Ô ËÁÒÓÙ Û apple ÚfiÍ ÓÛË ÙˆÓ Ûapple ÛÌÒÓ. ÂÓ Û ÓÈÛÙ Ù È Ô Û Ó ÛÌfi ÙÚ ÂÎÙ ÓË ÌÂ Ê ÈÓ ÙÔ ÓË ÂÌ fiïè ÂÍ ÛıÂÓËÌ ÓˆÓ ÒÓÙˆÓ ÈÒÓ Î È ÓÙÂÓ Â - ÎÓ Ù È ÚËÙ Ì ÙÔ ÂÌ fiïèô ÁÈ ÙÔÓ Î ÙÚÈÓÔ apple ÚÂÙfi ( Ï. apple Ú ÁÚ ÊÔ 4.3). Ù Ùfi ÚÔÓË Ú ÛË ÙÚ ÂÎÙ ÓË Ì ÏÎÔfiÏ appleú appleâè Ó appleôêâ - ÁÂÙ È ( Ï. apple Ú ÁÚ ÊÔ 4.5). È Ó Ú Û ÁfiÓÈÌË ËÏÈÎ Î È ÔÈ Á Ó Î ÛÂ Ó apple Ú ÁˆÁÈÎ ËÏÈÎ appleú appleâè Ó ÚËÛÈÌÔappleÔÈÔ Ó appleôùâïâûì ÙÈÎ ÓÙÈÛ ÏÏË Ë Î Ù ÙË È ÚÎÂÈ ÙË ıâú appleâ Î È 3 Ì Ó ÌÂÙ ÁÈ ÙÈ Á Ó ÎÂ Î È Ó appleïëúôêôú ÛÔ Ó ÌÂÛ ÙÔÓ ıâú appleôóù È ÙÚfi Â Ó ÛËÌÂȈı ÂÁÎ ÌÔÛ ÓË, Î È 5 Ì Ó ÌÂÙ ÙË ıâú appleâ ÁÈ ÙÔ Ó Ú ( Ï. apple Ú ÁÚ ÊÔ 4.6). Ô Ê ÚÌ ÎÔ Ùfi appleâúè ÂÈ Î ÏÈÔ, ÏÈÁfiÙÂÚÔ applefi 1 mmol (39 mg) Ó ÊÈ Ï ÈÔ, ËÏ., Â Ó È Ô ÛÈ ÛÙÈÎ " ÂÏ ıâúô Î Ï Ô ". µï appleâ Âapple ÛË ÂÚ ÏË Ë Ã Ú ÎÙËÚÈÛÙÈÎÒÓ ÙÔ ÚÔ fióùô ÙË PLD ÁÈ appleâúèûûfiùâúâ ÏÂappleÙÔÌÂÚ appleïëúôêôú  ÁÈ appleúôâè ÔappleÔÈ ÛÂÈ Î È appleúôê Ï ÍÂÈ. 4.5 ÏÏËÏÂappleÈ Ú ÛÂÈ Ì ÏÏ Ê ÚÌ Î ÙÈÎ appleúô fióù Î È ÏÏ ÌÔÚÊ ÏÏËÏÂapple Ú ÛË : appleè Ú ÛÂÈ ÏÏˆÓ Ô ÛÈÒÓ ÛÙËÓ ÙÚ ÂÎÙ ÓË: ÂÓ Ô Ó ÈÂÍ ıâ in vivo ÌÂÏ Ù ÏÏËÏÂapple Ú ÛË. appleâè Ë ÙÚ ÂÎÙ ÓË ÌÂÙ ÔÏ ÂÙ È Î Ú ˆ applefi ÙÔ CYP3A4, Ë Û Á ÔÚ ÁËÛË Ô ÛÈÒÓ appleô Ó ÛÙ ÏÏÔ Ó Ùfi ÙÔ ÈÛÔ Ó ÌÔ apple.., ÎÂÙÔÎÔÓ - fiïë, ÊÏÔ ÎÔÓ fiïë, ÚÈÙÔÓ ÚË, ÎÏ ÚÈıÚÔÌ Î ÓË appleúâappleèù ÓÙË ÌappleÔÚÔ Ó Ó ÌÂÈÒÛÔ Ó ÙÔÓ ÌÂÙ ÔÏÈÛÌfi Î È Ó Í ÛÔ Ó ÙÈ Û ÁÎÂÓÙÚÒ- ÛÂÈ ÙÚ ÂÎÙ ÓË. Ó apple ÈÙÔ ÓÙ È Ù ÙÔÈÔÈ Û Ó ÛÌÔ, apple ÈÙÂ Ù È ÛÙÂÓ apple Ú ÎÔÏÔ ıëûë ÙˆÓ ÙÔÍÈÎÔÙ ÙˆÓ ( Ï. apple Ú ÁÚ ÊÔ 4.4). ÚÔ- ÌÔ ˆ, Ë Û Á ÔÚ ÁËÛË Ì ÈÛ ÚÔ Âapple ÁˆÁ ÙÔ ÂÓ ÌÔ ÙÔ (apple.., ÚÈÊ ÌappleÈÎ ÓË, Ê ÈÓÔ Ú ÈÙ ÏË, Saint John s Wort) ÌappleÔÚÂ Ó ÌÂÈÒ- ÛÂÈ ÙË Û ÛÙËÌ ÙÈÎ ÎıÂÛË ÛÙËÓ ÙÚ ÂÎÙ ÓË. Î Ù Ó ÏˆÛË ÏÎÔfiÏ appleú appleâè Ó appleôêâ ÁÂÙ È Î Ù ÙË È ÚÎÂÈ ÙË ıâú appleâ Ì ÙÚ Â- ÎÙ ÓË ÏfiÁˆ Ëapple ÙÔÙÔÍÈÎfiÙËÙ ÙÔ Ê ÚÌ Î ÙÈÎÔ appleúô fióùô ( Ï. apple Ú ÁÚ ÊÔ 4.4). appleúôîïèóèî  ÔÌ Ó ÂÈÍ Ó fiùè Ë ÙÚ ÂÎÙ ÓË Â Ó È applefiûùúˆì ÛÙÔ P-gp. Ù Ùfi ÚÔÓË ÔÚ ÁËÛË Ó ÛÙÔÏ ˆÓ ÙÔ P-gp, apple.., Î ÎÏÔÛappleÔÚ ÓË Î È ÂÚ apple Ì ÏË, ÌappleÔÚÂ Ó ÌÂÙ ÏÂÈ ÙËÓ Î Ù ÓÔÌ Î È/ ÙËÓ appleôì ÎÚ ÓÛË ÙË ÙÚ ÂÎÙ ÓË. ÛËÌ Û Ù ÙË ÏÏËÏÂapple Ú ÛË, ÁÈ apple Ú ÂÈÁÌ Ë ÙÔÍÈÎfiÙËÙ ÙÔ, ÂÓ ÂÈ ÙÂÎÌËÚȈıÂ. appleú appleâè Ó ÓÂÙ È appleúôûô Û ٠ÙÔÈ appleâúèappleùòûâè. 4.6 ÔÓÈÌfiÙËÙ, Î ËÛË Î È Á ÏÔ : ËÛË: ÂÓ È Ù ıâóù È Âapple Ú- Î ÎÏÈÓÈÎ Â ÔÌ Ó Û ÂÙÈÎ Ì ÎıÂÛË Î Ù ÙËÓ ÂÁÎ ÌÔÛ ÓË.øÛÙfiÛÔ, Ì ÛË ÙÔÓ ÁÓˆÛÙfi ÌË ÓÈÛÌfi Ú ÛË ÙË, Ë ÙÚ ÂÎÙ ÓË ÌappleÔÚÂ Ó appleúôî Ï ÛÂÈ ÛÔ Ú ÁÂÓÓËÙÈÎ ÓˆÌ Ï Â fiù Ó ÔÚËÁÂ Ù È Î Ù ÙË È ÚÎÂÈ ÙË ÂÁÎ ÌÔÛ ÓË. ÙÚ ÂÎÙ ÓË ÂÓ appleú appleâè Ó ÚËÛÈ- ÌÔappleÔÈÂ Ù È Î Ù ÙË È ÚÎÂÈ ÙË ÂÁÎ ÌÔÛ ÓË ÂÎÙfi Â Ó Â Ó È Û ÊÒ apple Ú ÙËÙÔ. Ó ÚËÛÈÌÔappleÔÈËı Π٠ÙË È ÚÎÂÈ ÙË ÂÁÎ ÌÔÛ ÓË, Ô ÛıÂÓ ı appleú appleâè Ó ÂÓËÌÂÚˆı ÁÈ ÙÔÓ appleèı Ófi Î Ó ÓÔ ÁÈ ÙÔ Ì Ú Ô Î È Ó apple Ú ÎÔÏÔ ıâ Ù È appleúôûâîùèî. Ó ÚËÛÈÌÔappleÔÈÂ Ù È ÙÚ - ÂÎÙ ÓË ÛÙÔ Ù ÏÔ ÙË ÂÁÎ ÌÔÛ ÓË, ÔÈ appleèı Ó ÓÂappleÈı ÌËÙ ÂÓ ÚÁÂÈ ı appleú appleâè Ó apple Ú ÎÔÏÔ ıô ÓÙ È ÛÙÂÓ ÛÙ ÓÂÔÁ ÓÓËÙ. ËÏ - ÛÌfi : ÂÓ Â Ó È ÁÓˆÛÙfi Â Ó Ë ÙÚ ÂÎÙ ÓË appleâîîú ÓÂÙ È ÛÙÔ ÌËÙÚÈÎfi Á Ï. apple ÎÎÚÈÛË ÙÚ ÂÎÙ ÓË ÛÙÔ Á Ï ÂÓ ÂÈ ÌÂÏÂÙËı Û Ò. ıëï ÛÌfi ÓÙÂÓ Â ÎÓ Ù È Î Ù ÙË È ÚÎÂÈ ÙË ıâú appleâ Î È 3 Ì Ó ÌÂÙ ( Ï. apple Ú ÁÚ ÊÔ 4.3). ÔÓÈÌfiÙËÙ : È Ó Ú Û ÁfiÓÈÌË ËÏÈÎ Î È ÔÈ Á Ó Î ÛÂ Ó apple Ú ÁˆÁÈÎ ËÏÈÎ appleú appleâè Ó ÚËÛÈÌÔappleÔÈÔ Ó appleôùâïâûì ÙÈÎ ÓÙÈÛ ÏÏË Ë Î Ù ÙË È ÚÎÂÈ ÙË ıâú appleâ Î È 3 Ì Ó ÌÂÙ ÁÈ ÙÈ Á Ó ÎÂ Î È Ó appleïëúôêôú ÛÔ Ó ÌÂÛ ÙÔÓ ıâú appleôóù È ÙÚfi Â Ó ÛËÌÂȈı ÂÁÎ ÌÔÛ ÓË Î È 5 Ì Ó ÌÂÙ ÙË ıâú appleâ ÁÈ ÙÔ Ó Ú ( Ï. apple Ú ÁÚ ÊÔ 4.4). ÙÚ ÂÎÙ ÓË ÌappleÔÚÂ Ó ÂÈ ÁÔÓÔÙÔÍÈÎ ÂappleÈ Ú ÛÂÈ. appleú appleâè Ó Ó ËÙËıÔ Ó Û Ì Ô Ï ÁÈ ÙË È Ù ÚËÛË ÙÔ Ûapple ÚÌ ÙÔ appleúô ÙË ıâú appleâ, ÏfiÁˆ ÙË appleèı ÓfiÙËÙ ÌË Ó ÛÙÚ ÈÌË ÛÙÂÈÚfiÙËÙ ÂÍ ÈÙ ÙË ıâú appleâ Ì Yondelis. Ó ÛËÌÂȈı ÂÁÎ ÌÔÛ ÓË Î Ù ÙË È ÚÎÂÈ ÙË ıâú appleâ, ı appleú appleâè Ó ÂÍÂÙ ÛÙÂ Ë appleèı ÓfiÙËÙ ÁÂÓÂÙÈÎ Î ıô ÁËÛË. ÓÈÛÙ Ù È Âapple - ÛË ÁÂÓÂÙÈÎ Î ıô ÁËÛË ÁÈ ÛıÂÓ appleô ÂappleÈı ÌÔ Ó Ó appleôîù ÛÔ Ó apple È È ÌÂÙ ÙË ıâú appleâ. 4.7 appleè Ú ÛÂÈ ÛÙËÓ ÈÎ ÓfiÙËÙ Ô ÁËÛË Î È ÂÈÚÈÛÌÔ ÌË ÓÒÓ: ÂÓ appleú ÁÌ ÙÔappleÔÈ ıëî Ó ÌÂÏ ÙÂ Û ÂÙÈÎ Ì ÙÈ ÂappleÈ Ú ÛÂÈ ÛÙËÓ ÈÎ ÓfiÙËÙ Ô ÁËÛË Î È ÂÈÚÈÛÌÔ ÌË ÓÒÓ. øûùfiûô, Ô Ó Ó ÊÂÚı ÎfiappleˆÛË Î È/ ÂÍ Ûı ÓÈÛË Û ÛıÂÓ appleô Ï Ì Ó Ó ÙÚ ÂÎÙ ÓË. È ÛıÂÓ ÔÈ ÔappleÔ ÔÈ apple ÚÔ ÛÈ Ô Ó ÔÈÔ - appleôùâ applefi Ù Ù Û Ì Ì Ù Î Ù ÙË È ÚÎÂÈ ÙË ıâú appleâ ÂÓ appleú appleâè Ó Ô ËÁÔ Ó Ó ÂÈÚ ÔÓÙ È ÌË Ó. 4.8 ÓÂappleÈı ÌËÙ ÂÓ Ú- ÁÂÈ : ÎÙfi Â Ó ÔÚ ÂÙ È È ÊÔÚÂÙÈÎ, ÙÔ ÎfiÏÔ ıô appleúôê Ï ÛÊ ÏÂÈ ÙÔ Yondelis Û ÂÙ È ÛÙËÓ ÍÈÔÏfiÁËÛË Û ÎÏÈÓÈÎ ÔÎÈÌ Û ÛıÂÓ ÔÈ ÔappleÔ ÔÈ appleô Ï ıëî Ó Û ıâú appleâ ÌÂ Ù Û ÓÈÛÙÒÌÂÓ ıâú appleâ ÙÈÎ Û Ì Ù Î È ÁÈ ÙÈ Ô ÂÓ Â ÍÂÈ. È appleâúèûûfiùâúôè ÛıÂÓ ÛÙÔ ÔappleÔ Ô ÔÚËÁ ıëîâ Yondelis Ó Ì ÓÂÙ È Ó Ô Ó ÓÂappleÈı ÌËÙ ÂÓ ÚÁÂÈ ÔÈÔ appleôùâ ıìô (91% Û ÌÔÓÔıÂÚ appleâ Î È 99% Û ıâú appleâ Û Ó ÛÌÔ ) Î È ÏÈÁfiÙÂÚÔ applefi Ó ÙÚ ÙÔ ÛÔ Ú ÓÂappleÈı ÌËÙ ÂÓ ÚÁÂÈÂ Ú ÙËÙ ıìô 3 4 (10% Û ÌÔÓÔıÂÚ appleâ Î È 25% Û ıâú appleâ Û Ó ÛÌÔ ). È appleèô Û Ó ÓÂappleÈı ÌËÙ ÓÙÈ Ú ÛÂÈ ÔÈÔ appleôùâ ıìô Ú ÙËÙ Ù Ó Ô ÂÙÂÚÔappleÂÓ, Ó Ù, ÌÂ- ÙÔ, Í ÛÂÈ Û AST/ALT, Ó ÈÌ ÎfiappleˆÛË, ıúôì ÔÎ ÙÙ ÚÔappleÂÓ, ÓÔÚÂÍ Î È È ÚÚÔÈ. Ó ÙËÊfiÚ ÓÂappleÈı ÌËÙ ÂÓ ÚÁÂÈ apple Ú ÙË- Ú ıëî Ó ÛÙÔ 1,9% Î È 0,9% ÙˆÓ ÛıÂÓÒÓ ÛÙÔ ÔappleÔ Ô ÔÚËÁ ıëî Ó Û Ì Ù ÌÔÓÔıÂÚ appleâ Î È Û Ó ÛÌÔ, ÓÙ ÛÙÔÈ. Ù Ó Û Ó appleôù ÏÂÛÌ ÂÓfi Û Ó ÛÌÔ Û Ì Ì ÙˆÓ fiappleˆ apple ÓÎ ÙÙ ÚÔappleÂÓ, ÂÌapple ÚÂÙË Ô ÂÙÂÚÔappleÂÓ, ÔÚÈÛÌ Ó applefi Ù Ì ÛË ÈÌ, Ëapple ÙÈÎ appleúôû ÔÏ, ÓÂÊÚÈÎ appleôï ÔÚÁ ÓÈÎ ÓÂapple ÚÎÂÈ Î È Ú ÔÌ fiï ÛË. ÓÂappleÈı ÌËÙ ÓÙÈ Ú ÛÂÈ È Û ÓfiÙËÙÂ ÙˆÓ ÓÂappleÈı ÌËÙˆÓ ÓÙÈ Ú - ÛÂˆÓ appleô Ó Ê ÚÔÓÙ È apple Ú Î Ùˆ Ù ÍÈÓÔÌÔ ÓÙ È ˆ appleôï Û Ó ( 1/10), Û Ó ( 1/100, ˆ <1/10) Î È fi È Û Ó ( 1/1000, <1/100). apple Ú Î Ùˆ apple Ó Î apple ÚÔ ÛÈ ÂÈ ÙÈ ÓÂappleÈı ÌËÙ ÓÙÈ Ú ÛÂÈ appleô Ó Ê ÚıËÎ Ó Û 1% ÙˆÓ ÛıÂÓÒÓ ÔÈ ÔappleÔ ÔÈ ÓÙÈÌÂÙˆapple ÛÙËÎ Ó ıâú - appleâ ÙÈÎ Ì ÙÔ Û ÓÈÛÙÒÌÂÓÔ Û Ì ÁÈ Û ÚÎˆÌ Ì Ï ÎÒÓ ÌÔÚ ˆÓ (1,5 mg/m 2, 24ˆÚË Á ÛË Î ıâ 3  ÔÌ Â ) Û ÌÊˆÓ Ì ÙËÓ Ù appleôappleôè- ËÌ ÓË Î ÙËÁÔÚ /ÔÚÁ ÓÈÎfi Û ÛÙËÌ ÙÔ MedDRA. Œ Ô Ó ÚËÛÈÌÔappleÔÈËı ÙfiÛÔ ÓÂappleÈı ÌËÙ ÂÓ ÚÁÂÈ fiûô Î È ÂÚÁ ÛÙËÚÈ Î ÙÈÌ ÁÈ apple ÚÔ Û ÓÔÙ ÙˆÓ. ÓÙfi Î ıâ Î ÙËÁÔÚ Û ÓfiÙËÙ ÂÌÊ ÓÈÛË, ÔÈ ÓÂappleÈı ÌËÙ ÂÓ ÚÁÂÈ apple Ú Ù ıâóù È Î Ù Êı ÓÔ Û ÛÂÈÚ ÛÔ - ÚfiÙËÙ. ÙËÁÔÚ /ÔÚÁ ÓÈÎfi Û ÛÙËÌ Ú ÎÏÈÓÈÎ ÂÍÂÙ ÛÂÈ È Ù Ú ÙÔ ÈÌÔappleÔÈËÙÈÎÔ Î È ÙÔ ÏÂÌÊÈÎÔ Û ÛÙ Ì ÙÔ È Ù Ú ÙÔ Ó ÚÈÎÔ Û ÛÙ Ì ÙÔ È Ù Ú ÙÔ Ó appleóâ ÛÙÈÎÔ Û ÛÙ Ì ÙÔ, ÙÔ ıòú Î Î È ÙÔ ÌÂÛÔıˆÚ ÎÈÔ È Ù Ú ÙÔ Á ÛÙÚÂÓÙÂÚÈÎÔ ÓÂappleÈı ÌËÙ ÂÓ ÚÁÂÈ appleô Ó Ê ÚıËÎ Ó Û 1% ÛıÂÓÒÓ Û ÎÏÈÓÈÎ ÔÎÈÌ ÛÙÔ Û ÓÈÛÙÒÌÂÓÔ ıâú appleâ ÙÈÎfi Û Ì [1,5 mg/m 2, 24ˆÚË Á ÛË Î ıâ 3  ÔÌ Â ] ÔÏ Û Ó : ÍËÌ ÓË ÎÚ ÙÈÓÔʈÛÊÔÎÈÓ ÛË Ì ÙÔ * (µ ıìfi 3-4=4%), ÍËÌ ÓË ÎÚ ÙÈÓ ÓË Ì ÙÔ *, ÌÂÈˆÌ ÓË ÏÂ ÎˆÌ Ù ÓË Ì ÙÔ * Ó : ªÂÈˆÌ ÓÔ ÛˆÌ ÙÈÎfi ÚÔ ÔÏ Û Ó : ÂÙÂÚÔappleÂÓ * (µ ıìfi 3=26%, µ ıìfi 4=24%), ıúôì ÔappleÂÓ * (µ ıìfi 3=11%, µ ıìfi 4=2%), Ó ÈÌ * (µ ıìfi 3=10%, µ ıìfi 4=3%), Ï ÎÔappleÂÓ * Ó : Ìapple ÚÂÙË Ô ÂÙÂÚÔappleÂÓ ÔÏ Û Ó : ÂÊ Ï ÏÁ Ó : ÂÚÈÊÂÚÈÎ ÈÛıËÙÈÎ Ó ÚÔapple ıâè, ÛÁ Û, ÏË, apple Ú ÈÛıËÛ Ó : ÛappleÓÔÈ (µ ıìfi 3-4=2%), ÔÏ Û Ó : ŒÌÂÙÔ (µ ıìfi 3-4=6,5%), Ó Ù (µ ıìfi 3-4=6%), ÛÎÔÈÏÈfiÙËÙ (µ ıìfi 3-4<1%) Ó : È ÚÚÔÈ (µ ıìfi 3-4<1%), ÛÙÔÌ Ù ÙÈÙ (µ ıìfi 3-4<1%), ÎÔÈÏÈ Îfi ÏÁÔ, ÛappleÂ, ÏÁÔ Óˆ ÎÔÈÏÈ Î ÒÚ È Ù Ú ÙÔ ÚÌ ÙÔ Î È Ó : ψappleÂÎ ÙÔ appleô fiúèô ÈÛÙÔ È Ù Ú ÙÔ Ì ÔÛÎÂÏÂÙÈÎÔ Ó : ª ÏÁ, ÚıÚ ÏÁ, ÔÛÊ ÏÁ Û ÛÙ Ì ÙÔ Î È ÙÔ Û Ó ÂÙÈÎÔ ÈÛÙÔ È Ù Ú ÙÔ ÌÂÙ ÔÏÈÛÌÔ ÔÏ Û Ó : ÓÔÚÂÍ (µ ıìfi 3-4 <1%) Î È ÙË ıú Ë Ó : Ê ÙˆÛË, ªÂÈˆÌ ÓË fiúâíë, ÀappleÔÎ ÏÈ ÈÌ ÔÈÌÒÍÂÈ Î È apple Ú ÛÈÙÒÛÂÈ Ó : Ô ÌˆÍË ÁÁÂÈ Î È Ù Ú Ó : ÀapplefiÙ ÛË, ŒÍ Ë ÂÓÈÎ È Ù Ú Î È Î Ù - ÔÏ Û Ó : fiappleˆûë (µ ıìfi 3-4=9%), Í Ûı ÓÈÛË (µ ıìfi 3-4=1%) ÛÙ ÛÂÈ ÙË Ô Ô ÔÚ ÁËÛË Ó : ÚÂÍ, ËÌ, ÂÚÈÊÂÚÈÎfi Ô ËÌ, ÓÙ Ú ÛË ÙË ı ÛË ÓÂÛË È Ù Ú ÙÔ apple ÙÔ Î È ÔÏ Û Ó : ÀappleÂÚ ÔÏÂÚ ıúèó ÈÌ * (µ ıìfi 3=1%), ÍËÌ ÓË ÌÈÓÔÙÚ ÓÛÊÂÚ ÛË ÙË ÙˆÓ ÔÏËÊfiÚˆÓ Ï Ó ÓË * (µ ıìfi 3=38%, µ ıìfi 4=3%), ÍËÌ ÓË Ûapple ÚÙÈÎ ÌÈÓÔÙÚ ÓÛÊÂÚ ÛË* (B ıìfi 3=44%, µ ıìfi 4=7%), ÍËÌ ÓË ÏÎ ÏÈΠʈÛÊ Ù ÛË Ì ÙÔ *, ÍËÌ ÓË Á-ÁÏÔ Ù Ì ÏÙÚ ÓÛÊÂÚ ÛË* æ È ÙÚÈÎ È Ù Ú Ó : appleó * Í ÁÂÙ È applefi ÂÚÁ ÛÙËÚÈ Î Â ÔÌ Ó apple Ó Î apple Ú Î Ùˆ apple Ú ÂÈ ÙË Û ÓfiÙËÙ Î È ÙË Ú ÙËÙ ÙˆÓ ÓÂappleÈı ÌËÙˆÓ appleôùâïâûì ÙˆÓ appleô ıâˆúô ÓÙ È ÓËÙÈÎ Û ÂÙÈ fiìâó Ì ÙÔ Ê ÚÌ ÎÔ ÙË ÌÂÏ ÙË Î È Ó Ê ÚÔÓÙ È Û 5% ÙˆÓ ÛıÂÓÒÓ Ì ΠÚÎ ÓÔ ÙˆÓ ˆÔıËÎÒÓ appleô Ù ÈÔappleÔÈÔ ÓÙ È ÒÛÙÂ Ó Ï Ô Ó Yondelis 1,1 mg/ m 2 /PLD 30 mg/m 2 PLD 50 mg/m 2 ÛÙË ÌÂÏ ÙË ET743-OVA-301. ÃÚËÛÈÌÔappleÔÈ ıëî Ó ÙfiÛÔ ÓÂappleÈı ÌËÙ ÂÓ ÚÁÂÈ fiûô Î È ÂÚÁ ÛÙË- ÚÈ Î ÙÈÌ. ÓÙfi Î ıâ ÔÌ ÔappleÔ ËÛË Û ÓfiÙËÙ, Ù ÓÂappleÈı ÌËÙ appleôùâï ÛÌ Ù apple ÚÔ ÛÈ ÔÓÙ È Î Ù ÛÂÈÚ ÌÂÈˆÌ ÓË Ú ÙËÙ. AÓÂappleÈı ÌËÙ ÂÓ ÚÁÂÈ appleô Ó Ê ÚıËÎ Ó Û 5% ÙˆÓ ÛıÂÓÒÓ ÛÙËÓ ÎÏÈÓÈÎ ÌÂÏ ÙË 743- VA-301 ÀÔndelis+PLD n=333 PLD n=330 K ÙËÁÔÚ ÓfiÙËÙ Ì Ì ŸÏÔÈ ÔÈ B ıìô µ ıìfi µ ıìfi ŸÏÔÈ ÔÈ µ ıìô µ ıìfi µ ıìfi /OÚÁ ÓÈÎfi Û ÛÙËÌ (%) 3 (%) 4 (%) (%) 3 (%) 4 (%) Ú ÎÏÈÓÈÎ ÂÍÂÙ ÛÂÈ Ó ÍËÌ ÓË ÎÚ ÙÈÓÈΠʈÛÊÔÎÈÓ ÛË Ì ÙÔ * È Ù Ú ÙÔ ÔÏ Û Ó ÂÙÂÚappleÂÓ * ÈÌÔappleÔÈËÙÈÎÔ Î È ÙÔ Â ÎÔappleÂÓ * ÏÂÌÊÈÎÔ Û ÛÙ Ì ÙÔ Ó ÈÌ * ÚÔÌ ÔÎ ÙÙ ÚÔappleÂÓ * Ó Ìapple ÚÂÙË ÂÙÂÚÔappleÂÓ * È Ù Ú ÙÔ Ó ÚÈÎÔ Ó ÂÊ Ï ÏÁ Û ÛÙ Ì ÙÔ ÛÁÂ Û È Ù Ú ÙÔ Ó appleóâ ÛÙÈ- Ó ÛappleÓÔÈ ÎÔ Û ÛÙ Ì ÙÔ, ÙÔ ıòú - ÎÔ Î È ÙÔ ÌÂÛÔıˆÚ ÎÈÔ È Ù Ú ÙÔ Á ÛÙÚÂ- ÔÏ Û Ó Ù ÓÙÂÚÈÎÔ ŒÌÂÙÔ ÛÎÔÈÏÈfiÙËÙ ÙÔÌ Ù ÙÈÙ È ÚÚÔÈ Ó ÔÈÏÈ Îfi ÏÁÔ ÛappleÂ È Ù Ú ÙÔ ÚÌ ÙÔ ÔÏ Û Ó Ó ÚÔÌÔ apple Ï ÌÔappleÂÏÌ Î È ÙÔ appleô fiúèô ÈÛÙÔ ÙÈ ÂÚ ıúô Û ÈÛıËÛ ÏˆappleÂÎ Ó Í ÓıËÌ Àapple Ú ÚˆÛË ÚÌ ÙÔ È Ù Ú ÙÔ ÌÂÙ ÔÏÈ- ÔÏ Û Ó ÓÔÚÂÍ ÛÌÔ Î È ÙË ıú Ë Ó ÀappleÔÎ ÏÈ ÈÌ ÂÓÈÎ È Ù Ú Î È ÔÏ Û Ó fiappleˆûë Î Ù ÛÙ ÛÂÈ ÙË Ô Ô Í Ûı ÓÈÛË ÔÚ ÁËÛË ºÏÂÁÌÔÓ ÏÂÓÓÔÁfiÓÔ ÚÂÍ È Ù Ú ÙÔ apple ÙÔ ÔÏ Û Ó ÀappleÂÚ ÔÏÂÚ ıúèó ÈÌ * (25.2) (0.3) (12.9) (0.3) Î È ÙˆÓ ÔÏËÊfiÚˆÓ ÍËÌ ÓË Ï ÓÈÓÈÎ ÌÈÓÔÙÚ ÓÛÊÂÚ ÛË* ÍËÌ ÓË Ûapple ÚÙÈÎ ÌÈÓÔÙÚ ÓÛÊÂÚ ÛË* ÍËÌ ÓË ÏÎ ÏÈΠʈÛÊ Ù ÛË Ì ÙÔ * * Í ÁÂÙ È applefi ÂÚÁ ÛÙËÚÈ Î Â ÔÌ Ó È ÎfiÏÔ ıâ ÓÙÈ Ú ÛÂÈ Ó Ê ÚıËÎ Ó ÌÂ Û ÓfiÙËÙ Î Ùˆ applefi 5% ÛÙËÓ ÔÌ Û Ó ÛÌÔ, ÏÏ appleâúèï Ì ÓÔÓÙ È Â Ò ÁÈ ÙËÓ ÎÏÈÓÈÎ Û ÛË ÙÔ : Ô ÂÙÂÚÔappleÂÓÈÎ ÏÔ ÌˆÍË (<1%), Ô ÂÙÂÚÔappleÂÓÈÎ ÛË ÈÌ (<1%), apple ÓÎ ÙÙ ÚÔappleÂÓ (1,8%), ÓÂapple ÚÎÂÈ Ì ÂÏÔ ÙˆÓ ÔÛÙÒÓ (1,5%), ÎÔÎÎÈÔÎ ÙÙ ÚÔappleÂÓ (1,5%), Ê ÙˆÛË, appleó, appleâúèêâúèî ÈÛıËÙÈÎ Ó ÚÔapple ıâè, Û ÁÎÔapple, ÚÈÛÙÂÚ ÎÔÈÏÈ Î ÛÏÂÈÙÔ ÚÁ (<1%), appleóâ ÌÔÓÈÎ ÂÌ ÔÏ (1,2%), appleóâ ÌÔÓÈÎfi Ô ËÌ (<1%),, Ëapple ÙÔÙÔÍÈÎfiÙËÙ (<1%), ÍËÌ ÓË Á ÌÌ ÁÏÔ Ù Ì ÏÈÎ ÙÚ ÓÛÊÂÚ - ÛË, ÍËÌ ÓË Û Â ÁÌ ÓË ÔÏÂÚ ıú ÓË, Ì ÔÛÎÂÏÂÙÈÎfi ÏÁÔ, Ì ÏÁ, ÍËÌ ÓË ÎÚ ÙÈÓ ÓË Ì ÙÔ, Ô ËÌ /appleâúèêâúèîfi Ô ËÌ, ÓÙÈ Ú - ÛÂÈ ÛÙÔ ÛËÌÂ Ô Î ıâùëúè ÛÌÔ. ÙËÓ ÔÌ ÙÔ Yondelis + PLD, ÔÈ ÌË Ï ÎÔ (Î Ú ˆ ÛÈ Ù ) ÛıÂÓÂ Â Ó ËÏfiÙÂÚË Û ÓfiÙËÙ ÂÌÊ - ÓÈÛË ÛÂ Û ÛË Ì ÙÔ Ï ÎÔ ÛıÂÓ Û ÓÂappleÈı ÌËÙ ÂÓ ÚÁÂÈ ıìô 3 4 (96% Ó ÓÙÈ 87%), Î È ÛÔ Ú ÓÂappleÈı ÌËÙ ÓÙÈ Ú - ÛÂÈ (44% Ó ÓÙÈ 23% fiïˆó ÙˆÓ ıìòó). È È ÊÔÚ appleô apple Ú ÙËÚ ıëî Ó Î Ú ˆ ÛÂ Û ÛË Ì ÙËÓ Ô ÂÙÂÚÔappleÂÓ (93% Ó ÓÙÈ 66%), Ó È- Ì (37% Ó ÓÙÈ 14%) Î È ıúôì ÔÎ ÙÙ ÚÔappleÂÓ (41% Ó ÓÙÈ 19%). øûùfiûô, ÔÈ Û ÓfiÙËÙ ÂÌÊ ÓÈÛË ÎÏÈÓÈÎÒÓ ÂappleÈappleÏÔÎÒÓ appleô Û ÂÙ ÔÓÙ È Ì ÈÌ ÙÔÏÔÁÈÎ ÙÔÍÈÎfiÙËÙ fiappleˆ ÛÔ Ú ÏÔÈÌÒÍÂÈ ÈÌÔÚÚ Á, ÂΠӠappleô Ô ËÁÔ Ó ÛÙÔÓ ı Ó ÙÔ ÛÙÔÓ ÙÂÚÌ ÙÈÛÌfi ÙË ıâú appleâ, Ù Ó apple ÚfiÌÔÈÂ Î È ÛÙÔ Ô appleôappleïëı ÛÌÔ. ÓfiÙÂÚ ÓÂappleÈı ÌËÙ ÓÙÈ Ú ÛÂÈ : È Ù Ú ÙÔ ÈÌÔappleÔÈËÙÈÎÔ Î È ÙÔ ÏÂÌÊÈÎÔ Û ÛÙ Ì ÙÔ : ÂÙÂÚÔappleÂÓ : Ô ÂÙÂÚÔappleÂÓ Â Ó È Ë appleèô Û Ó ÈÌ ÙÔÏÔÁÈÎ ÙÔÍÈÎfiÙËÙ. ÎÔÏÔ ıëûâ appleúô Ï ÈÌË ÌÔÚÊ Ù Â ÂÌÊ - ÓÈÛË Î È Ó ÛÙÚ ÈÌfiÙËÙ, Î È Ûapple ÓÈ Û Ó ÛÙËΠ̠apple ÚÂÙfi ÏÔ ÌˆÍË. È Î ÙÒÙÂÚ ÙÈÌ Ô ÂÙÂÚÔÊ ÏˆÓ apple ÚÔ ÛÈ ÛÙËÎ Ó ÛÂ È - ÌÂÛÔ 15 ËÌÂÚÒÓ Î È appleôî Ù ÛÙ ıëî Ó ÂÓÙfi Ì Â ÔÌ. Ó Ï ÛË Ó Î ÎÏÔ appleô ÈÂÍ ıëîâ Û ÛıÂÓ ÛÙÔ ÔappleÔ Ô ÔÚËÁ - ıëîâ Û Ì ÌÔÓÔıÂÚ appleâ Î Ù ÂÈÍÂ Ô ÂÙÂÚÔappleÂÓ ıìô 3 Î È 4 appleâú appleô Û 19% Î È 8% ÙˆÓ Î ÎÏˆÓ ÓÙ ÛÙÔÈ.  ÙfiÓ ÙÔÓ appleïëı - ÛÌfi ÂÌapple ÚÂÙË Ô ÂÙÂÚÔappleÂÓ apple ÚÔ ÛÈ ÛÙËΠÛÙÔ 2% ÙˆÓ ÛıÂÓÒÓ Î È Û <1% ÙˆÓ Î ÎψÓ. ÚÔÌ ÔÎ ÙÙ ÚÔappleÂÓ : Ì Ì Ù ÈÌÔÚÚ - Á appleô Û ÂÙ ÔÓÙ Ó Ì ıúôì ÔÎ ÙÙ ÚÔappleÂÓ ÂÌÊ Ó ÛÙËÎ Ó Û <1% ÙˆÓ ÛıÂÓÒÓ ÛÙÔ ÔappleÔ Ô ÔÚËÁ ıëîâ Û Ì ÌÔÓÔıÂÚ appleâ. Ó Ï ÛË Ó Î ÎÏÔ appleô ÈÂÍ ıëîâ Û ÙÔ ÙÔ ÛıÂÓ Π٠ÂÈÍ fiùè apple ÚÔ ÛÈ ÛÙËΠıúôì ÔappleÂÓ ıìô 3 Î È 4 appleâú appleô Û 3% Î È <1% ÙˆÓ Î ÎÏˆÓ ÓÙ ÛÙÔÈ. Ó ÈÌ : Ó ÈÌ apple ÚÔ ÛÈ ÛÙËΠ۠93% Î È 94% ÙˆÓ ÛıÂÓÒÓ ÛÙÔ ÔappleÔ Ô ÔÚËÁ ıëîâ Û Ì ÌÔÓÔıÂÚ - appleâ Î È Û Ó ÛÌÔ, ÓÙ ÛÙÔÈ. appleôûôûù ÙˆÓ ÛıÂÓÒÓ ÌÂ Ó ÈÌ Î Ù ÙËÓ Ó ÊÔÚ Ù Ó 46% Î È 35%, ÓÙ ÛÙÔÈ. Ó Ï ÛË Ó Î ÎÏÔ appleô ÈÂÍ ıëîâ ÛÙÔ ÛıÂÓ ÛÙÔ ÔappleÔ Ô ÔÚËÁ ıëîâ Û Ì ÌÔÓÔıÂÚ appleâ Î Ù ÂÈÍ fiùè apple ÚÔ ÛÈ ÛÙËÎÂ Ó ÈÌ ıìô 3 Î È 4 appleâú appleô Û 3% Î È 1% ÙˆÓ Î ÎÏˆÓ ÓÙ ÛÙÔÈ. È Ù Ú ÙÔ apple ÙÔ Î È ÙˆÓ ÔÏËÊfiÚˆÓ: Í ÛÂÈ ÙˆÓ AST/ALT: Ú ÙËÚ ıëî Ó apple ÚÔ ÈÎ Í ÛÂÈ ÙË Ûapple ÚÙÈÎ ÌÈÓÔÙÚ ÓÛÊÂÚ ÛË (AST) Î È ÙË ÌÈÓÔÙÚ ÓÛÊÂÚ ÛË ÙË Ï Ó ÓË (ALT) ıìô 3 Û 38% Î È 44% ÙˆÓ ÛıÂÓÒÓ Î È Í ÛÂÈ ıìô 4 Û 3% Î È 7% ÙˆÓ ÛıÂÓÒÓ ÓÙ ÛÙÔÈ. È ÌÂÛÔ ÚfiÓÔ ÁÈ ÙËÓ Âapple Ù ÍË ÙˆÓ Ì ÁÈÛÙˆÓ ÙÈÌÒÓ Ù Ó 5 ËÌ Ú ÙfiÛÔ ÁÈ ÙËÓ AST fiûô Î È ÁÈ ÙËÓ ALT. È appleâúèûûfiùâúâ ÙÈÌ ÌÂÈÒıËÎ Ó Û ıìfi1 appleô ÒÚËÛ Ó ˆ ÙËÓ ËÌ Ú ( Ï. apple Ú - ÁÚ ÊÔ 4.4). Ó Ï ÛË Ó Î ÎÏÔ appleô ÈÂÍ ıëîâ Û ÛıÂÓ ÛÙÔ ÔappleÔ Ô ÔÚËÁ ıëîâ Û Ì ÌÔÓÔıÂÚ appleâ Î Ù ÂÈÍÂ Í ÛÂÈ ı- ÌÔ 3 ÙˆÓ AST Î È ALT Û 12% Î È 20% ÙˆÓ Î ÎÏˆÓ ÓÙ ÛÙÔÈ. Ú ÙËÚ ıëî Ó Í ÛÂÈ ıìô 4 ÙˆÓ AST Î È ALT Û 1% Î È 2% ÙˆÓ Î ÎÏˆÓ ÓÙ ÛÙÔÈ. È appleâúèûûfiùâúâ Í ÛÂÈ ÙÚ ÓÛ ÌÈÓ ÛÒÓ ÂÏÙÈÒıËÎ Ó Û ıìfi 1 ÛÙ Âapple appleâ appleúô ÙË Âapple Ó ÏË Ë ÙË ıâú appleâ - ÂÓÙfi 15 ËÌÂÚÒÓ, Î È ÏÈÁfiÙÂÚÔ applefi 2% ÙˆÓ Î ÎÏˆÓ Â Ó ÚfiÓÔ Âapple ÓfiÚıˆÛË ÌÂÁ Ï ÙÂÚÔ ÙˆÓ 25 ËÌÂÚÒÓ. È Í ÛÂÈ ÙˆÓ ALT Î È AST ÂÓ ÎÔÏÔ ıëû Ó ıúôèûùèî ÌÔÚÊ ÏÏ Âapple ÂÈÍ Ó Ù ÛË ÏÈÁfiÙÂÚÔ ÛÔ ÚÒÓ Í ÛÂˆÓ Î Ù ÙË È ÚÎÂÈ ÙÔ ÚfiÓÔ. ÀappleÂÚ ÔÏÂ- Ú ıúèó ÈÌ : ÔÏÂÚ ıú ÓË ÊÙ Û ÛÙË Ì ÁÈÛÙË ÙÈÌ Ì Â ÔÌ ÌÂÙ ÙËÓ ÂΠψÛË Î È appleô ÒÚËÛ appleâú appleô Ô Â ÔÌ Â ÌÂÙ ÙËÓ ÂΠψÛË. È ÂÍÂÙ ÛÂÈ Ëapple ÙÈÎ ÏÂÈÙÔ ÚÁ È ÁÓˆÛ Ó ÛÔ Ú ÙÔÍÈÎfiÙËÙ (ÈÎ ÓÔappleÔÈ ÙÔÓ ÓfiÌÔ ÙÔ Hy) Î È ÔÈ ÎÏÈÓÈÎ ÂÎ ËÏÒÛÂÈ ÛÔ - Ú Ëapple ÙÈÎ Ï Ë Ù Ó fi È Û Ó Ì ÌÈÎÚfiÙÂÚË applefi1% Û ÓfiÙËÙ ÂÌÊ ÓÈÛË ÌÂÌÔÓˆÌ ÓˆÓ ÂÓ Â ÍÂˆÓ Î È Û ÌappleÙˆÌ ÙˆÓ appleâúèï Ì - ÓÔÌ ÓˆÓ ÎÙÂÚÔ, Ëapple ÙÔÌÂÁ Ï Ëapple ÙÈÎÔ ÏÁÔ. ÚÔ ÛÈ ÛÙËΠıóëûèìfiùëù Û apple ÚÔ Û Ëapple ÙÈÎ Ï Ë Û ÏÈÁfiÙÂÚÔ applefi 1% ÙˆÓ ÛıÂÓÒÓ Î È ÛÙ Ô Û Ì Ù. ÕÏÏ ÓÂappleÈı ÌËÙ ÓÙÈ Ú ÛÂÈ : Í ÛÂÈ CPK Î È Ú ÔÌ fiï ÛË: Í ÛÂÈ CPK ÔÈÔ appleôùâ ıìô apple Ú ÙËÚ ıëî Ó Û 23-26% ÙˆÓ ÛıÂÓÒÓ Î È ÛÙ Ô Û Ì Ù. 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7 FCO /Editorial / 7 Different facets of the same problem Editorial Vassilios Barbounis In recent years, we experience various contradictions within the oncological community. On one extreme there is a plethora of new drugs for a number of malignancies, combined with a profusion of new information which gives hope for favourable outcomes in the fight against cancer. On the other extreme, however, on both sides of the Atlantic, many cancer patients are deprived of basic oncological drugs while novel molecules are out of reach. There is a paradox here: many inexpensive but essential drugs are not produced because they are not profitable enough; equally essential but highly priced drugs are not reimbursed due to financial constraints of the health systems, or because the drug cost exceeds the approved cost of a life-year-gained. The result is the same in both cases, unmet basic medical needs. The same economic model produces different health policies, and different end results; moreover, although opposite pathways are used similar outcomes are evolved: an unacceptable shortage in drugs of huge significance. Likewise, the development of increasingly expensive pharmaceutical agents leads in a vicious circle that exhausts health systems endurances and results in shortage of essential therapeutic agents. S. Retsas, an experienced medical oncologist, in his article (Retsas S. Cancer care in the face of predatory capitalism. FCO 2012; 1:9-10) depicts some of the most repulsive aspects of liberal economy in a clear and eloquent manner. Under the current perspective, systems based on the ideas of a modern mercantilism may nowadays seem absolutely necessary. March 2012

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9 Position Article / 9 Cancer care in the face of predatory capitalism Spyros Retsas Previously at Cromwell Hospital, London, UK Key words: cancer; oncology; drug shortages; health care. Correspondence: Spyros Retsas, MD, FRCP, (Retired) Medical Oncologist, Regent-on-the River, 120 Waterman s Quay, William Morris Way, London SW6 2UW, We live in an extraordinary era of antinomies and confused societal values. In our time, biologists and geneticists unravel within a decade the mysteries of diseases that have eluded human understanding for millennia. Therapeutic innovation now emerges with lightning speed, unimaginable in our student years -yet such innovations prove unaffordable even to wealthy members of the richest societies from which they emanate. What is the purpose of medical progress if these advances become increasingly inaccessible to the many? In an article recently published in the New England Journal of Medicine entitled The shortage of essential chemotherapy drugs in the United States, Gatesman and Smith discuss a problem which is now causing serious concerns about safety, cost, and availability of life-saving anti-cancer treatments [1]. Drugs, mainly generic, that have been successfully used for decades in the treatment of paediatric and adult malignancies such as vincristine, methotrexate, doxorubicin, paclitaxel and others, are now in short supply. In a surprisingly frank analysis of this problem, Gatesman and Smith argue that the main cause of these drug shortages is economic. According to these authors, if drug manufacturers do not make enough profit they will not make drugs [1]. Generic drugs for which manufacturers no longer hold a patent are considerably less expensive than brands for which a pharmaceutical company retains the exclusive right of production. For example, the initial cost of a vial of carboplatin at $125 has now been reduced to $3.5. Another example highlighted by these authors is the generic, solvent-bound paclitaxel at a cost of $312 and the newly branded, protein-bound version of paclitaxel, Abraxane at a cost of $5,824. In the formulation used for Abraxane, the paclitaxel molecule is linked to albumin thus reducing the risk of anaphylaxis associated with the cremophor solvent used in the original drug. This advantage and ease of administration would be welcomed by oncologists and their patients, essentially however, the anti-tumour activity and toxicity profiles of the two versions are largely equivalent [2, 3]. The problem is compounded because oncologists in the USA may have less incentive to administer generic rather than brand-name drugs. The reason -always according to Gatesman and Smith- is that chemotherapeutic drugs are bought and sold in the doctor s office, a practice that has been established in the USA over the past forty years [1]. The Medicare and Medicaid health insurances in the USA reimburse the average sales price of a drug plus 6% to cover practice costs. So, continue Gatesman and Smith, why use paclitaxel (and receive 6% of $312) when you can use Abraxane (for 6% of $5,824)? [1]. The shortage of generic drugs has reached crisis levels recently and required the intervention of the President of the USA. On October 31, President Barack Obama issued an executive order instructing the FDA to broaden reporting of potential drug shortages, expedite reviews of applications to begin or modify production of these drugs, and provide more information to the Justice Department about possible cases of collusion or price gouging. The President also announced his support for House and Senate legislation that would require drug companies to notify the FDA 6 months ahead of a potential shortage [4]. Barack Obama s executive order was greeted by Michael Link, President of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), as a good first step to addressing the problem [4]. Will the shortage of generic chemotherapy drugs in the USA [1, 4, 5] influence oncological practice in Europe? Reflecting on past experience the short answer is yes for a number of reasons. Oncologists may recall the difficulties some March 2012

10 10 / FCO / Cancer care in the face of predatory capitalism years ago with the lack of supplies of Dacarbazine for the treatment of melanoma. The reason for this was never officially disclosed. It may be a coincidence, or maybe not, that this was happening at a time when temozolomide, the oral equivalent of Dacarbazine, was making its debut in the field. The majority of innovations in cancer therapy originate on the other side of the Atlantic. Even if a drug is first developed and approved in Europe, its commercial viability is dependent also upon approval by the FDA. The oxaliplatin saga, first approved in France in 1996 for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer, is a good example. The common practice of comparing a new drug for licensing purposes to a standard treatment with drug(s) also approved by the FDA essentially determines oncology practices worldwide [6]. The latest example of Ipilimumab compared with dacarbazine for the treatment of melanoma exemplifies the issue [7]. Interestingly, the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) in the UK criticised this comparison on the basis that this does not necessarily reflect standard UK practice. The lessons learned from the drug shortages in the USA cannot be ignored by oncologists and their patients in Europe where a financial crisis has already established roots in Greece and Italy and is knocking the door of the more robust economies in the Union. In sickness or in health the unacceptable face of capitalism [8] should be resisted. But when the lives of patients struck by cancer are besieged by profit, predatory capitalism must be repelled. Europe has the know-how to produce generic drugs at affordable prices. In the circumstances and in the interest of patients everywhere, Greece should seize the initiative and lead the way. Conflicts of interest The author declares no conflict of interest. REFERENCES 1. Gatesman ML, Smith TJ. The shortage of essential chemotherapy drugs in the United States. N Engl J Med 365; 18: Epub 2011 Nov Henderson IC, Bhatia V. Nab-paclitaxel for breast cancer: a new formulation with an improved safety profile and greater efficacy. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther 2007 Jul; 7(7): Yamamoto Y, Kawano I, Iwase H. Nab-paclitaxel for the treatment of breast cancer: efficacy, safety, and approval. Onco Targets Ther 2011; 4: Epub 2011 Jul The ASCO Post. SIDEBAR: White House Issues Executive Order on Drug Shortage. November 15, 2011, Volume 2, Issue The ASCO Post. Hagop M. Kantarjian. Chemotherapy Drug Shortages: A Preventable Human Disaster. November 15, 2011, Volume 2, Issue Retsas S. Systemic treatment of melanoma: quo vadis oncologist? J BUON 2007; 12(1): Retsas S. Latest developments in the treatment of melanoma: a penicillin moment for cancer? JRSM 2011; 104(6): Sir Edward Heath. British Statesman and Conservative Prime Minister. House of Commons statement, May FORUM of CLINICAL ONCOLOGY

11 Clinical practice guidelines in oncology: pros and cons Second Part Constantin Kappas Position Article / 11 Medical School of Larissa, Hellas Correspondence: Constantin Kappas, Professor, Medical Physics Dept., University Hospital of Larissa, Viopolis, Larissa, Hellas (GR), ABSTRACT Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines are widely used to promote effective and efficient health care. Clinical oncology practice guidelines are developed for a variety of purposes: to improve quality of care, outcomes of patients, reliability of medical decisions and costeffectiveness; to increase patients information and autonomy of choice; to disseminate best practice by use of standardized criteria; to facilitate training, research and education; to inform third parties; and to decrease practice variation, harm to patients, and professional misconduct. The ethical implications for guideline use are complex and far-reaching. However, practice guidelines can never substitute the clinical judgment of qualified health care professionals, and it is crucial not to be allowed to hinder the development of more effective treatment strategies in the management of cancer patients. This work reviews the pros and cons of using guidelines in Oncology for patients, healthcare professionals, policy-makers, payers and managers. Moreover, it presents potential barriers to physician adherence to guidelines and their dependence on physician knowledge, attitudes and behavior. Finally it examines the minimum requirements for a local group or national body to develop / adopt / review / appraise and evaluate guidelines for a specific clinical area and the ways to disseminate and implement them. Key words: clinical practice guidelines; cancer treatment outcomes; evidence-based medicine; quality of life. PHYSICIAN / ONCOLOGIST BEHAVIOR TOWARDS CPGS Why physicians / oncologists follow / don t follow CPGs? Regularly monitoring physicians attitudes toward CPGs and the way they are implemented can be helpful in evaluating potential barriers to their adoption [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7]. According to recent surveys focused on various medical or surgical topics and originating in Europe, the United States, Canada and Australia [8, 9, 10, 11, 12] the majority of physicians: n refer to CPGs and follow their recommendations most of the time; n believe that guidelines are credible, easy to follow, lead to better patient outcomes, and serve an important role in ensuring high quality care. These conclusions are not universally accepted: according to some researchers, CPGs, despite wide promulgation, have had limited effect on changing physician behavior [13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18]. Especially in Oncology, a rapidly changing field, providers report real barriers to actually following the recommended guidelines [19, 20, 21] and evidence suggests that adherence to CPGs is uneven [22, 23, 24]. These disparate sentiments and the growing awareness of their limitations and harms have done little to curtail the rapid dissemination of guidelines around the world. The enthusiasm for guidelines, and the unrealistic expectations about what they will accomplish, frequently reveals lack of experience and unfamiliarity with their limitations and potential hazards: n The majority of guideline users uncritically accept official recommendations as valuable tools, especially when they stem from prominent professional groups or government bodies. n More conscious users of CPGs investigate carefully the methods used in their development [25]. March 2012

12 12 / FCO / Clinical practice guidelines in oncology CPG pathway to affect patient outcomes and barriers to physician adherence In spite of positive attitudes about CPGs overall, physicians cite many barriers to using guidelines consistently, effectively, and efficiently in the healthcare setting. Before a practice guideline can affect patient outcomes, it first affects physician knowledge, then attitudes, and finally behavior. Factors limiting adherence include a) a cognitive component (barriers affecting knowledge), b) an affective component (barriers affecting attitude), c) a restriction of physician ability (barriers affecting behavior) [6, 10, 14, 26, 27]. Barriers to Physician Adherence to CPGs have been reviewed by several authors. Among them, Cabana et al. [14] have reviewed 76 articles including 120 different surveys investigating 293 potential barriers to physician guideline adherence (see Table 3). If Table 3 indicates a defensive reaction, these attitudes re- Table 3. Barriers to Physician Adherence Lack of Familiarity and/or Awareness n Volume of information n Time needed to stay informed n Guideline accessibility n (eventually) Skill deficit Knowledge Lack of knowledge (regarding indications and/or contradictions, current recommendations, results of recent drug trials and results of clinical research) does not guarantee familiarity with guideline recommendations and the ability to apply them correctly. Lack of familiarity among physicians is more common than lack of awareness [14, 27]. The expanding body of research makes it difficult for any physician to be aware of every applicable guideline and critically apply it to practice. Lack of Agreement with Guidelines in General Attitudes n Too Cookbook oversimplified guidelines n Too rigid to apply, decrease flexibility n Biased synthesis n Reduce autonomy n Not practical n Not applicable to a practice population n Decrease physicians self-respect n Lacked credible authors n Would make the patient-physician relationship impersonal n Physicians may not agree with a specific guideline or the concept of guidelines in general. Although physicians commonly indicate a lack of agreement when asked about guidelines in theory (from Cabana et al. [14] analysis and others), when asked about specific guidelines, physician lack of agreement is less common. n Practice guidelines were generally perceived to be less useful than other sources of medical information (e.g. personal experience, conferences, colleagues, articles, the Internet, and textbooks [pharmaceutical representatives were the exception]). n Most physicians thought that guidelines are developed for cost-containment reasons [1, 28, 29, 30]. n Physicians perceived practice guidelines as externally imposed rather than as decision-supporting tools. Guidelines might be perceived as rigid protocols and a challenge to physicians autonomy rather than as systematically developed statements to assist practitioner and patient decisions for specific clinical circumstances [31]. n Guidelines seemed to end up being considered as administrative rather than educational and informative. n Physicians seem to resist the idea that guideline development should be multidisciplinary (health administrators, nurses, communication experts, even non-specialist physicians, patient groups and insurance companies) [1, 32]. Only medico-legal experts and methodologists participation was considered important. n Concerns about their limited applicability to individual patients and local settings. Lack of Agreement with Specific Guidelines n Differences in evidence interpretation n Not cost-beneficial (benefits were not worth patient risk, discomfort, or cost) n Lack of credibility by guideline authors (lack of confidence in guideline developer) Guidelines are developed by humans and the process is, therefore, prone to errors and subjective interpretations on the one hand and personal values and cultural backgrounds on the other. Even when clear evidence is available, it is often interpreted differently by different guideline developers in different settings from different cultural or professional backgrounds [33]. For example, USA guidelines for the management of patients with high risk of breast cancer recommend regular self-examination and prophylactic mastectomy (requiring patient consent only). In contrast, the French guidelines do not recommend self-examination (because this may induce fear) and are very strict with regard to prophylactic mastectomy [34]. FORUM of CLINICAL ONCOLOGY

13 Position Article / 13 Lack of Outcome Expectancy n Performance of guideline recommendation will not lead to desired outcome (physicians) n Lack of optimism in the success of counseling, which suggests poor outcome expectancy (patients) If a physician believes that a recommendation will not lead to an improved outcome, the physician will be less likely to adhere. For example, physicians provide smoking cessation counseling. Although most physicians are aware of and agree with the recommendation, many smokers are not counseled to quit during a physician visit. Although counseling may increase a population s quit rate from 3% to only 5% [35], given the prevalence of smoking, even this small change is enormously beneficial. Lack of Self-Efficacy n Inability to perform guideline recommendation Low self-efficacy due to a lack of confidence, inability or a lack of preparation may lead to poor adherence. Lack of Motivation / Inertia of Previous Practice / Psychosocial Barriers n Habit n Routines n Feelings n Attitudes n Beliefs, values and previous experience that affect clinical practice n Physicians / providers interpersonal relationships Patient Factors n Inability to reconcile patient preferences with guideline recommendations n Patient psychological barriers Physicians may not be able to overcome the inertia of previous practice, or they may not have the motivation to change [8, 30, 36, 37]. The readiness for change model, developed by Prochaska and DiClemente [38] describes behavior change as a continuum of steps that include pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance and was applied to physician attitudes toward cancer screening guidelines. The results suggest that close to half of physicians surveyed were in a pre-contemplation stage and not ready to change behavior (i.e. adopt guideline recommendations). The change process model described by Geertsma et al. [16] and the theory of learning and change model described by Fox et al. [39] also suggest similar constructs, i.e. a priming phase and the need for an initial force for change, professional, personal, and/or social. Behavior (External Barriers)* The inability to reconcile patient preferences with guideline recommendations is a barrier to adherence [40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45]. Patients may perceive a recommendation as offensive or embarrassing. Patient Psychological Barriers could be patient- or family attitudes, feelings, beliefs, values and experiences that interfere with successful treatment. Suggested steps for shared decision-making are found in the literature [46, 47]. Guideline Factors n Guideline characteristics (guidelines are not easy to use, not convenient, cumbersome) n Presence of contradictory guidelines (confusing) n Guidelines recommending [16, 39] elimination of an established behavior may be more difficult to follow than guidelines that recommend adding a new behavior [14]. n Physicians tend to disagree over the frequency with which physicians implement CPGs and whether physicians document the reason why they choose not to follow CPGs. n Trialability of a guideline and its complexity are also described as significant predictors of adoption [48]. Environmental Factors n Lack of time n Lack of resources n Lack of reimbursement n Organizational constraints n Increase in malpractice liability Adherence to CPGs may require changes not under physician control, such as acquisition of new resources (e.g. tools, equipment) or facilities, lack of a reminder system, lack of counseling materials, insufficient staff or consultant support, poor reimbursement, accountability gaps, increased practice costs, and increased liability. Lack of time is also commonly described as a barrier to adherence. March 2012

14 14 / FCO / Clinical practice guidelines in oncology present important barriers to guideline implementation. Exploring and understanding them might increase the acceptance and use of practice guidelines and the likelihood of producing the expected changes. Researchers [1, 49] point out the difference in attitude among non-practicing clinicians and those directly involved at the patient bedside: hospital clinicians, as they have to apply their decisions to individual patients, seem to have more reservations about guidelines, their usefulness, and the participation of non-physicians in their development and use. DEVELOP / SEARCH AND IMPLEMENT CPGS Studies that report large improvements in clinical care suggest the potential of guidelines when detection or development, evaluation, dissemination, and implementation are all appropriate [50, 51]. Studies that report small improvements or none may reflect failure at any stage during the introduction or evaluation of the guidelines [52]. Table 4 briefly presents the different stages / steps for the development and dissemination of CPGs. It is underlined that only if appropriate strategies are selected at each stage will CPGs achieve full potential. In order to find or develop guidelines, there are requirements which must be met at a satisfactory level: Resources and skills at the organizational level [22, 27, 54, 55, 56]: n Good interpersonal skills. n Specific skills for monitoring the use of guidelines and knowledge of methods of guideline development and appraisal. n Identification of the appropriately skilled and experienced people (and a leader) to coordinate and develop the necessary interventions. n Cost estimation of guideline production. n Coordination of data sources involved in determining practice patterns and needs, professional associations interested in CPG development, hospitals, CME providers [55] and patient or healthcare provider groups. n Knowledge of the effectiveness of different dissemination and implementation strategies. Levels of evidence Results of CPG assessments provided an ambiguous picture of the quality of sources which do not match the definition of systematic review; or the searching methods were unclear (at least a considerable number of them) used to build guidelines. The main conclusions that can be drawn from these results are: n The quality of a guideline is determined by the quality of the base of evidence, and not only by the rigor of its development. n When using recommendations, oncologists should be aware that these could be based on poor underlying documents, i.e. their credibility could be undermined by lack of methodological rigor. The highest level of evidence (see Table 5) is derived from large, high-quality RCTs (the best clinical trials) or metaanalyses [57]. There are two important remarks / questions on this point: a) The former relates to how groups of methodological experts would define the best clinical trials as even RCTs that are large and well-designed, have limitations. These include: a) the selection of a limited sample of patients, who may not be typical of others with the same disease, b) the application of treatments under ideal conditions, which may not be applicable to a wider population. Large, well conducted outcome studies that take into account underlying differences in populations can provide a relatively high level of evidence regarding different strategies of management, and are complementary to RCTs. Table 4. Steps in the development and dissemination of CPGs [from 48, 53] 1. A local group or a national body decides to develop CPGs in a clinical area in which there is a need for such guidelines (select clinical problem: rank in order of priority, define and refine the problem, frame the clinical problem). 2. Data is synthesized from research information and relevant practice patterns by searching the literature (including existing guidelines) and then weighing the strength of the evidence from the resulting trials or studies. 3. Data is reviewed, appraised, distilled and collated as guidelines; that is, as recommendations about strategies for investigation and management. 4. The sponsoring organization and other interested organizations then endorse the guidelines. 5. CPGs are disseminated, usually by traditional means such as mailing them to members or publishing them in recognized professional clinical journals. 6. Various groups or individual practitioners may attempt to implement the guidelines more actively, through various and often multiple strategies to assist, convince or otherwise influence physicians, patients and their caregivers. 7. CPGs are subjected to re-appraisal, evaluation and reiteration of the process. FORUM of CLINICAL ONCOLOGY

15 Position Article / 15 Table 5. Levels of evidence at descending order, used in establishing guidelines [25, 58, 59] 1. High-quality randomized controlled trials or meta-analyses 2. Small randomized controlled trials 3. Non-randomized trials with concurrent controls 4. Non-randomized trials with historical controls 5. Quasi-experimental studies 6. Non-experimental descriptive studies (e.g. comparative, and case-control studies) 7. Expert committee reports or opinions or clinical experience of respected authorities, or both b) The latter relates to whether this best evidence, once identified, can indeed inform a clinician on how to treat a patient. It is important to remember that a clinical trial can only answer the question that it has been designed to address: is drug A better than, equal to, or worse that drug B in treating patients with newly-diagnosed leukemia? The real question that such a trial is designed to answer is: is drug A, when used as it was in this trial, better than, equal to, or worse than drug B when used as it was in this trial, in the population included in the trial, for the endpoints addressed in this trial? [60]. The lowest level of evidence derives from the opinion of an expert panel. As stated by Feinstein: The opinion of experts has been a traditional source of all the errors throughout medical history [61]. Developing, appraising and adapting guidelines Development of CPGs: The development of guidelines raises several process issues with ethical and practical dimensions. These include choice of topics, group composition, definition of benefits and harms to include as outcomes, evaluating evidence, and forming recommendations. Maximizing the validity [62] of guidelines and ensuring their use in clinical practice also requires evidence-based implementation strategies to local factors [63, 64]. A number of National Organizations have at one point created their own guidelines based on the local needs. The process by which they can set their clinical priorities, and produce and disseminate the corresponding CPGs comprise a number of components/ steps which should be followed and completed [22, 53, 56, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, see also Table 4]. Nevertheless, most healthcare organizations do not have the resources and skills to develop valid guidelines from scratch [25, 75]. They should try to identify previously developed rigorous guidelines and adapt them for local use. Identifying published CPGs is problematic. Many guidelines are not indexed in the commonly available bibliographic databases. Some CPGs are catalogued on the internet and such sites may become the best source for identifying guidelines [58]. The first step in gathering the evidence [25] is to see whether a suitable, recent systematic review has already been published. If not, a computer search of Medline and Embase is the usual starting point. For example, randomized controlled trials provide the best evidence to answer questions about the effectiveness of treatments, whereas prospective cohort studies generally provide the best evidence for questions about risk. The Cochrane controlled trials register [77] contains references to over 200,000 clinical trials that have been identified though database and hand searching. Checking references in articles will show additional relevant articles not identified by the computer search, and having experts in the field examine the list of articles helps ensure that there are no obvious omissions. Evaluation and Appraisal: Evaluating CPGs guidelines to assess their quality, potential inherent risks [50, 78, 79] and impact on practice, ensures that the process of care reflects guideline recommendations [80]. When an organization has identified relevant guidelines of acceptable quality, it should appraise their validity before deciding whether to adopt their recommendations. Adopting recommendations from guidelines of questionable validity may lead to harming patients or wasting resources on ineffective interventions [54]. If appraised guidelines are not available from these sources, organizations should undertake their own appraisal [criteria available, e.g. 21, 81, 82, 83]. Find appraisal instruments In the literature, one can find appraisal instruments to evaluate the CPGs [3, 31, 66, 81, 84, 85, 86]. E.g. the Appraisal of Guidelines, Research, and Evaluation - (AGREE) Collaboration, endorsed by the WHO as accepted standard in guidelines development [21, 58, 80, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, provides a framework for international CPG development. AGREE is easy to use and could be applied consistently on a broad range of guidelines. It has been noted that scores for cancer guidelines were high with the instrument. The final AGREE instrument consists of 23 key items categorized into six domains. Each domain is intended to measure a separate dimension of guideline quality [87]. March 2012

16 16 / FCO / Clinical practice guidelines in oncology Table 6. The AGREE Instrument Domains 1. Scope and Purpose n The overall objectives of the guideline are specifically described. n The clinical questions covered by the guideline are specifically described. n The patients to whom the guideline is meant to apply are specifically described. Comments Address the overall aim of the guideline, the specific clinical questions and the target patient population. 2. Stakeholder Involvement n The guideline development group includes individuals from all pertinent professional groups. n Patients views and preferences have been sought. n Guideline target users are clearly defined. n The guideline has been piloted among target users. Focus on the extent to which the guideline represents the views of its intended users. Guideline development needs to be carried out by a local multidisciplinary cancer specialists group to ensure local acceptance and use [21, 69, 75, 93]. This also includes patient groups. 3. Rigor of Development n Systematic methods were used to search for evidence. n The criteria for selecting the evidence are clearly described. n The methods for formulating the recommendations are clearly described. n The health benefits, side-effects and risks have been considered in formulating the recommendations. n There is an explicit link between the recommendations and the supporting evidence. n The guideline has been externally reviewed by experts prior to its publication. n A procedure for updating the guideline is provided. Evaluate the process used to locate and synthesize the evidence and to formulate and update the recommendations. 4. Clarity and Presentation n The recommendations are specific and unambiguous. n The different options for condition management are clearly presented. n Key recommendations are easily identifiable. n The guideline is supported with tools for application. Address language and format. Busy clinicians need patient-specific, user-friendly guidelines that can be easily consulted in the daily medical practice by referring to flowcharts or written statements [94]. Good guidelines present clear information with a precise and simple terminology about the management options available and the likely consequences of each [95, 96]. 5. Applicability n The potential organizational barriers in applying the recommendations have been discussed. n The potential cost implications of applying the recommendations have been considered. n The guidelines present key review criteria for monitoring and/or audit purposes. Guidelines should be useable in the current organization of care and must fit into routine practice and the time constraints present. In addition, review criteria should be developed, linking the guideline use to audits and other quality improvement initiatives. FORUM of CLINICAL ONCOLOGY

17 Position Article / Editorial Independence n The guideline is editorially independent from the funding body. n Conflicts of interest of guideline development members have been recorded. An increasing number of guidelines are externally funded, either directly or indirectly. There should be an explicit statement that the views and/or interests of the funding body have not influenced the final recommendations. It is worthwhile to notice that a high number of cancer guidelines are included in the AGREE project [88]. Dissemination and implementation It has been shown that applying CPGs in Oncology has lead to changes in practice when a) they are part of a structured program and are issued by a recognized professional organization [27, 88, 97]; b) dissemination and implementation are an integral part of the guideline development process [85, 91, 98, 99]; and c) the strategy of their dissemination is active and aggressive [4, 5, 22, 51, 54, 100, 101]. Evidence-based guidelines have to be complemented by evidence-based implementation [ Conformance quality, 102]. In this context, researchers [8, 14, 22, 53, 54, 86, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110] were able to identify that CPG dissemination or implementation processes have mixed results: n the most common way to access CPGs is online, either through medical journals or guideline statements. Additionally, health information technology - HIT tools (customized electronic medical records, clinical decision support modules, information networks) would make it easier to provide evidence-based care; n a number of strategies had some effect (educational outreach visits, academic detailing, reminders, interactive educational meetings, conferences, ad hoc workshops and information meetings for small groups); n some strategies were moderately effective (audit with feedback, local opinion leaders, local consensus procedures, patient mediated interventions); n some relatively passive methods are weak (mailing to targeted healthcare professionals, educational materials, didactic educational meetings and traditional continuing medical education) and have little or no effect. However, no strategy is invariably effective. The adoption of any innovation or the dissemination of new medical knowledge should be considered in a holistic, contextual manner [53]. Organizations should use multifaceted interventions to disseminate and implement guidelines [5, 15, 54, 62, 72, 73, 111, 112, 113, 114]. Keep guidelines up-to-date: A final, but important consideration is the need to keep guidelines up-to-date. The use of recent systematic reviews can considerably limit the workload of literature searching [115, 116, 117, 118]. The guideline can be updated as soon as each piece of relevant new evidence is published, but it is better to specify a date for updating the systematic review underpinning the guideline [25]. It has been suggested that, in principle, the update procedure should be performed every three years [82, 119, 120]. Quality of Oncology CPGs Using various appraisal instruments, results show that the quality scores for the oncology guidelines are higher than those obtained for guidelines in other disease areas (e.g. see Bergers et al. [121], 100 guidelines, including 32 oncology guidelines, 13 countries) for almost all aspects: Multidisciplinary development, selecting evidence and formulating recommendations: The higher scores might reflect a specificity of oncology, which has the tradition of a multidisciplinary approach and is heavily reliant on clinical trials as part of routine practice. Cancer patients often require a transparent, multidisciplinary treatment approach because the treatment modalities (such as surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy) cannot be provided by the same specialist. There is some evidence to suggest that the absence of multidisciplinary care may affect survival [121, 122]. Health benefits, side-effects, and harms (various options clearly presented): Cancer treatments tend to have more side-effects, some of which are short term and other long term. The uncertainty of the outcome for an individual patient, particularly in terms of length of survival, means that other outcomes such as quality of life need to be considered. This might explain the significant differences in favor of oncology guidelines [121]. Applicability: The lower scores in the domain of Applicability [88, 123] are explained by the fact that guidelines generally fail to address issues such as barriers to implementation and cost implications, and do not include criteria for monitoring. These low scores emphasize the need to take into consideration implementation during the development process to ensure that guidelines have an influence on clinical practice [13, 124]. Patient involvement: Even if patient preferences seem to be more routinely considered in oncology than in other fields [121, 125, 126, 127, 128], the scores are low. This could be explained by the difficulty of identifying the most appropriate methods and the lack of resources for involving patients in the process of guideline development; therefore, more research is needed in this area. March 2012

18 18 / FCO / Clinical practice guidelines in oncology CONCLUSIONS CPGs increasingly form part of current practice and will become more common over the next decade. They represent the current state of the art in medicine. The major aim of developing CPGs should be to improve the quality of care delivered by providers rather than to punish those who do not meet criteria. For this purpose guidelines should be valid, reliable, clinically applicable, clear and revised whenever new scientific evidence emerges or if consensus changes. CPGs in Oncology: n are useful tools for increasing patient access to optimal cancer strategies (diagnostic and therapeutic) resulting in improved health outcomes in terms of avoidance or reduction in morbidity and mortality and of improving costeffective management of individuals with malignancies; n decrease any inappropriate variation in performance and increase the likelihood of patients receiving a uniform and consistent standard of care, irrespective of where they live and by whom they are treated; n patients are comforted by the fact that there is solid evidence backing why the practitioner has chosen a particular type of treatment; n can be used as citable evidence for malpractice litigation. However: n Statistics and medical evidence do not necessarily apply to any single patient and there is substantial medical uncertainty regarding individual outcomes. n CPGs might be too restrictive in their recommendations or controversial. n CPGs will not address all the uncertainties of current clinical practice and should be seen as only one strategy that can help improve the quality of care that patients receive. n CPGs can never substitute the clinical judgment of qualified health care professionals, and when the patient fails standard therapy, or does not fit the criteria, practitioners must use their best judgment, hopefully with documented input from peers. n CPGs should not be allowed to hinder the development of more effective treatment strategies in cancer patient management. Recommendations that do not take into account the latest evidence can result in suboptimal, ineffective or even harmful practice [21]. Is cancer treatment being applied well? The choice of therapy for a particular patient depends optimally on evidence that the selected treatment leads to a better outcome and/or lower risk of side-effects compared with alternative management strategies. Even if management of patients complies with guidelines and with evidence-based medicine, the outcome remains depending on how well treatment is delivered. Quality of cancer care is difficult to define and evaluate. Determining the right treatment requires a hierarchy of evidence from clinical trials -and high quality clinical trials at that- to determine and supplement that evidence. Evidence-based guidelines are then useful in increasing compliance with evidence-based treatment. Multiple studies (reviewed in Hillner et al. [129]) have shown that this depends on how frequently a practitioner or center treats a particular cancer site: generalists/oncologists should concentrate on what they do well and most often. This also has implications for health-care policy makers who need to consider restricting complex treatments to centers with a minimum volume level. Another way to improve quality of care may be to recruit patients to clinical trials. Several studies have suggested that patients treated in clinical trials have a better outcome than patients who receive similar treatment but are not in a clinical trial [130, 131, 132]. Treatment of the patient as a whole requires that the oncologist not only attempts to treat the tumor and increase survival, but relieves the side-effects of both cancer and the treatment, and improves QOL [133]. In other words: n Take into account patient s preferences regarding treatment (e.g. aggressive treatment for small gains in survival, or the reverse) [47, 134]. n Improving QOL and symptom control are important goals of cancer treatment, and important endpoints of clinical trials (e.g. management of pain and cancer-related fatigue) [135]. n Apply effective communication, e.g. patient satisfaction leaving consultation, high use of open-ended questions, great empathy, use of psychosocial probing [17, 136, 137, 138, 139]. In summary, The past decade has seen a remarkable growth in the development of CPGs and an increased realization of their value. Initially driven by the principles of evidence-based medicine, the need for cost-efficient care and the desire to optimize health outcomes, the CPG movement is now firmly ensconced in the literature and in the minds of many practicing oncologists. Aimed at using guidelines effectively, ESMO has initiated an important process to inform clinical decisions in medical oncology. ESMO has chosen a number of important disease entities and created a set of relevant Minimal Clinical Recommendations [48 85, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146]. Each of the MCRs provides vital, evidence-based information for physicians, including malignancy incidence, diagnostic criteria, staging of disease and risk assessment, treatment plans and follow-up. They aim to provide the user with a set of requirements for a basic standard of care that ESMO considers necessary in European countries without any intention to replace extensive clinical practice guidelines or review articles. FORUM of CLINICAL ONCOLOGY

19 Position Article / 19 Finally, wavering among very opposite statements as e.g. Few buzzwords can irritate me more than quality of care, especially when someone else s standards are applied to my clinical work... and The key point is that implementing guidelines means modifying behavior is better to adopt behavior as follows: Guidelines must enhance -not limit- decision making within the physician-patient relationship [96, 147]. Open remark [148, 149, 150, 151]: What is required is PROTOCOLS, rather than guidelines. Guidelines connote an officially sanctioned truth from which one departs at her or his peril. Protocols are procedures for the management of specific conditions developed by expert groups. Unlike guidelines, protocols do not pretend to contain the ensemble of current wisdom, and different schools of thought may have different protocols for managing the same condition. 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22 22 / FCO / Clinical practice guidelines in oncology 141. Pavlidis N, Hansen H & Stahel R. ESMO Clinical Recommendations: a practical guide for medical oncologists. Ann Oncol 2007; 18: Pavlidis N, Hansen H & Stahel R. ESMO Clinical Recommendations: using the easier and faster approach to oncology guidelines. The original idea. Ann Oncol 2009; 20(suppl 4):iv7-iv Pavlidis N, Hansen H & Stahel R. ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines: development, implementation and dissemination. Annals of Oncology 2010; 21(suppl 5):v7-v Pentheroudakis G, Stahel R, Hansen H & Pavlidis N. Heterogeneity in cancer guidelines: should we eradicate or tolerate? Ann Oncol 2008; 19: Stahel R. Letter to the Editor. Ann Onc 2002; 13: Stahel R. ESMO Minimum Clinical Recommendations: assuring common standards of care. Annals of Oncology 2005; 16(suppl 1):i5-i Talcott JA. Quality of care in prostate cancer: important to start and too important to stop here. J Clin Oncol 2003; 21: More J. Protocols rather than Guidelines. BMJ 1999; 318: Bottomley A. Developing clinical trial protocols for quality of life assessment. Appl Clin Trials 2001; 10: Katterhagen G. Physician compliance with outcome-based guidelines and clinical pathways in oncology. Oncology (Huntingt) suppl 1996; 10: Sisk JE. Promises and hazards of strategies to implement change. J Qual Improv 1995; 21: Langer CJ & Mehta MP. Current management of brain metastases, with a focus on systemic options. J Clin Oncol 2005; 23: Brem SS, Bierman PJ, Black P, et al. Central nervous system cancers: Clinical practice guidelines in oncology. J Nat Compr Canc Netw 2005; 3: NCCN; Clinical practice guidelines in oncology. Available from: Kalemkerian G. Guidelines are never enough: A commentary on when guidelines are not enough. J Clin Oncol 2007; 25(13): Noordijk EM, Vecht CJ, Haaxma-Reiche H, et al. The choice of treatment of single brain metastasis should be based on extracranial tumor activity and age. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1994; 29: Bajaj GK, Kleinberg L & Terezakis S. Current concepts and controversies in the treatment of parenchymal brain metastases: Improved outcomes with aggressive management. Cancer Invest 2005; 23: FORUM of CLINICAL ONCOLOGY

23 Original Research / 23 Expression of components of Notch signaling pathway in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) using AQUA: Association with survival and p16 expression Panagiotis Gouveris 2, Anastasios Dimou 2, Eirini Pectasides 2, Theodoros Rampias 2, George Fountzilas 3, Amanda Psyrri 1,2 1 Attikon University General Hospital, Athens, Greece 2 Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA 3 Department of Medical Oncology, Papageorgiou Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki School of Medicine, Thessaloniki, Greece Correspondence: Panagiotis Gouveris, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA, ABSTRACT Background: Deregulation of Notch signaling is implicated in carcinogenesis. The role of Notch in solid malignancies is highly context-dependent as it functions as an oncogene in some cancers and as a tumor suppressor in others. We sought to determine the association between components of Notch signaling pathway and outcome in a retrospective cohort of HNSCC. Patients & Methods: We analyzed protein expression levels of Notch1, Notch3, Notch4, Jagged1 using automated image acquisition and analysis (AQUA) on a tissue microarray, composed of 122 primary HNSCC cases. We examined the association of Notch protein expression with outcome (overall survival) and p16 expression status. Results: Eighty-two of 122 (67%) cases had sufficient tissue for analysis concerning all the examined proteins. There was an association of high Notch4 with improved overall survival (Hazard Ratio: 2.2 for low versus high Notch4, p= 0.05). We found statistically significant positive correlations between all the examined proteins and p16 expression. Conclusions: High protein levels of Notch4 are associated with improved overall survival in HNSCC. Notch4, similar to Notch1, may have a tumor suppressor role in head and neck carcinogenesis but this result needs to be validated in large cohorts. Key words: Notch signaling pathway; AQUA; tissue microarray; HNSCC; p16. INTRODUCTION The Notch pathway is a highly conserved cell signaling mechanism present in most multicellular organisms. It controls cell fate decisions, including cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis [1]. Notch proteins constitute a family of four transmembrane receptors (Notch1 to Notch4) that contain an extracellular domain with EGF-like repeats and an intracellular domain. The extracellular domain acts as receptor [2, 3]. Ligand binding leads to a cleavage in the transmembrane region of the C-terminal protein fragment, resulting in the release of the intracellular domain (Notch-IC) followed by its nuclear translocation. The whole procedure results in Notch target genes transcription activation. The Notch ligands (Jagged1, Jagged2, and Delta1 to Delta4) represent transmembrane proteins that, like Notch, contain multiple epidermal growth factor-like repeats in their extracellular domain. Because most ligands are also transmembrane proteins, the receptor is normally triggered only from direct cell-to-cell contact and groups of cells can organize themselves [3-6]. Notch signaling is involved in many nonmalignant diseases including CADASIL (Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Sub-cortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy) [7], MS (Multiple Sclerosis) [8], Tetralogy of Fallot [9], Alagille syndrome: (genetic disorder that affects the liver, heart, and other systems) [10]. Regarding malignant neoplasms, Notch1 is involved in the pathogenesis of T-lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), where it was shown that aberrant Notch signaling promotes tumorigenesis [11, 12]. The role of Notch as oncogenic factor was further supported in several studies [13-15]. However, there are also studies which strongly indicate a tumor March 2012

24 24 / FCO / Expression of components of Notch signaling pathway in HNSCC suppressor function for Notch [6, 12, 16-18]. Two recent studies showed that Notch1 mutations is a frequent event in HNSCC [19, 20]. In the study by Agrawal et al., 40% of the Notch1 mutations were predicted to result in truncated gene product implying a tumor suppressor function of Notch in this malignancy [19]. Notch1 gene is a p53 target in human keratinocytes [18]. Inactivation of p53 by E6 protein of high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) results in reduced Notch1 expression [21]. In oropharyngeal cancer cell lines, Deltex-1, a significant activator of Notch pathway, and HES1, a transcription factor whose expression is initiated by Notch, were found to be upregulated after repression of E6/E7 viral oncogenes [22]. Therefore, restoration of p53 after E6 silencing results in activation of Notch pathway in HPV16+ head and neck squamous cell carcinomas cell lines [22]. Taken together, it appears that Notch1 also functions as a tumor suppressor in HPV-associated malignancies. In head and neck carcinomas, p16 expression is a surrogate marker for oropharyngeal primary site and HPV-association [23]. p16 expression defines biologically and clinically distinct subgroups of oropharyngeal squamous cell cancers (OSCC) [24]. In the present study, we sought to examine the prognostic value of Notch signaling pathway proteins in a retrospective cohort of HNSCC. In addition, our plan was to determine the association between p16 protein status and Notch signaling network protein expression. PATIENTS & METHODS Inclusion criteria were histologically confirmed primary squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck treated at Yale-New Haven Hospital and the Aristotle University Hospital between 1992 and 2005, with either external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) or gross total surgical resection and postoperative radiotherapy. Exclusion criteria included presentation with metastatic or recurrent disease or failure to receive a full course of radiation therapy. Patients with incomplete clinical-pathological data or those lost to followup were also excluded. Tissue Microarray Construction Following institutional review board approval, tissue microarray was constructed as previously described [25]. Tissue cores of 0.6 mm in size were obtained from paraffinembedded formalin-fixed tissue blocks from the archives of the Yale University and Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Department of Pathology. Hematoxylin- and eosin-stained slides from all blocks were first reviewed by a pathologist to select representative areas of invasive tumor to be cored. The cores were placed on the recipient microarray block using a Tissue Microarrayer (Beecher Instrument, Silver Spring, MD). All tumors were represented with at least twofold redundancy. Previous studies have demonstrated that the use of tissue microarrays containing one to two histospots provides a sufficiently representative sample for analysis by immunohistochemistry. Addition of a duplicate histospot, while not necessary, does provide marginally improved reliability [25]. Cores from HPV16-positive SiHa cell lines fixed in formalin and embedded in paraffin were selected for positive controls and included in the array. Quantitative Immunohistochemistry Tissue microarrays were deparaffinized and stained as previously described [26, 27]. We analyzed the expression of Notch signaling pathway proteins (Notch1, Notch3, Notch4, Jagged1) using automated image acquisition and analysis (AQUA) on tissue microarray. Moreover, we examined expression of the Notch proteins in relation to outcome (overall survival) and p16 protein expression status. Slides were incubated with primary antibody at 4 C overnight (see Table 1). For the correlation with p16 we used the p16 AQUA scores from a previous study, where the same tissue microarray was used [28]. These antibodies have been extensively validated in previous studies using immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis of neoplastic tissue and tumor cell lines. Subsequently, slides were incubated with goat anti-mouse secondary antibody conjugated to a horseradish peroxidase-decorated dextran polymer backbone (Envision, Dako Corporation, Carpinteria, CA) for 1hr at room temperature. Tumor cells were identified by use of anti-cytokeratin antibody (rabbit anti-pan-cytokeratin antibody, 1:100, Z0622, Dako Corporation, Carpinteria, CA) with subsequent goat anti-rabbit antibody conjugated to Alexa 546 fluorophore (1:100, A11035, Molecular Probes, Table 1. Antibodies used for immunohistochemistry Antibody target Species Type Dilution Company Identifier Notch1 rabbit Monoclonal 1:100 Cell Signaling Notch3 rabbit Polyclonal 1:250 Santa Cruz sc-5593 Notch4 rabbit Polyclonal 1:250 Santa Cruz sc-5594 Jagged1 rabbit Polyclonal 1:250 Santa Cruz sc-8303 FORUM of CLINICAL ONCOLOGY

25 Original Research / 25 Eugene, OR). We added 4, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) to visualize nuclei (Prolong Gold with DAPI, P36931, Molecular Probes, Eugene, OR). Fluorescent chromogen Cy- 5 tyramide (1:50, Perkin Elmer Corp, Wellesley, MA) was used for target identification. Cy-5 (red) was used because it is well outside the green-orange spectrum of tissue autofluorescence. Automated Image Acquisition and Analysis Automated image acquisition and analysis using automated quantitative protein analysis (AQUA) has previously been described [29]. It is an automated scoring system for assessing biomarker expression and constitutes an ideal scoring system for tissue microarrays, as it eliminates the subjectivity of the traditional scoring system and provides more continuous and reproducible results. In brief, monochromatic, high-resolution (1,024 1,024 pixel; 0.5μm) images were obtained of each histospot. We distinguished areas of tumor from stromal elements by creating a mask from the cytokeratin signal. 4, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole signal was used to identify nuclei, and the cytokeratin signal was used to define cytoplasm. Overlapping pixels (to a 99% confidence interval) were excluded from both compartments. The signal (AQUA score) was scored on a normalized scale of 0 to 255 expressed as pixel intensity divided by the target area. AQUA scores for each subcellular compartment as well as the tumor mask were recorded. AQUA scores for duplicate tissue cores were averaged to obtain a mean score for each tumor. Statistical Analysis Histospots containing <5% tumor as assessed by mask area (automated) were excluded from further analysis. Progression-free survival and overall survival were assessed by Kaplan-Meier analysis with log-rank score for determining statistical significance. We used the X-tile program [30] to select the optimal single cutoff for each of the examined proteins to distinguish between a group with high expression and a group with low expression. Associations between markers were assessed using a nonparametric Spearman rank correlation coefficient, rho and unpaired t test. RESULTS Clinical and Pathological Variables Our study included 122 patients with histologically confirmed primary HNSCC. Demographic and clinicopathological variables for the cohort are summarized in Table 2. Eightyone out of 122 cases had sufficient tissue for Notch1 analysis. Sixty-six out of 122 cases had sufficient tissue for Notch3 analysis. Eighty-two out of 122 cases had sufficient tissue for Notch4 analysis. Eighty-two out of 122 cases had sufficient tissue for Jagged1 analysis. For each of the examined proteins we excluded from the analysis those cases (among 122) which did not have sufficient tissue for our estimations. These cases did not differ from the ones included in our analysis with respect to patient gender, tumor, site, TNM stage, histological grade, and OS, as assessed by Fisher s exact test, and log-rank test, respectively. Demographic, clinical and pathologic data are given in Table 2. The median tumor mask AQUA scores were: For Notch1: 902 (range ), for Notch3: 3191 (range ), for Notch4: 3691 (range ) (Figures 1, 2), for Jagged1: 7545 ( ). No correlation between AQUA score and survival was observed for Notch1, Notch3, Jagged1 (Figure 3A, 3B, 3C). However, using the X-tile program, we found a cutoff AQUA score (4657) at which high values of Notch4 were associated with better 5-year survival. The 5-year survival rate was 57% for patients with low Notch4 expression, while it was 72% for patients with high Notch4 expression. The Hazard Ratio was 2.2 for low Notch4 versus high Notch4 (p=0.05) (Figure 3D). There were positive correlations between Notch1 and p16 (r=0.3538, p=0.0014), Notch1 and Jagged (r=0.3860, p=0.0005), Notch4 and p16 (r=0.2284, p<0.05), Notch4 and Jagged (r=0.6207, p<0.0001), Notch3 and p16 (r=0.3040, p=0.0131), Notch3 and Jagged (r=0.6877, p<0.0001), Notch1 and Notch4 (r=0.5199, p<0.0001), Notch1 and Notch3 (r=0.6134, p<0.0001), Notch3 and Notch4 (r=0.6422, p<0.0001). Each of the aforementioned correlations was validated by means of unpaired t test (p<0.05 in all cases). Table 2. Demographic, clinical and pathologic data n Gender Male 66 Female 16 TNM stage I 6 II 11 III 23 IV 39 Unknown 3 Tumor site Oral cavity 25 Larynx 28 Oropharynx 22 Hypopharynx 3 Unknown 4 Tumor grade Well differentiated 12 Moderately differentiated 38 Poorly differentiated 22 Unknown 10 March 2012

26 26 / FCO / Expression of components of Notch signaling pathway in HNSCC Figure 1. Two histospots with low Notch4 expression (tumor mask AQUA score 1498 and 1074, respectively) Figure 2. Two histospots with high Notch4 expression (tumor mask AQUA score 6104 and 6265, respectively) DISCUSSION In the present study, we found that Notch4 protein expression might be a favorable prognostic marker in HNSCC. There was no association of Notch1, Notch3, Jagged1 with prognosis. Our study is limited by the retrospective nature of the cohort and the small number of cases. In addition, the statistical significance of the positive prognostic impact of Notch4 was marginal (p=0.05). Therefore, these results need validation in large cohorts before their clinical implementation. Two recent studies reported on the mutational landscape of HNSCC [19, 20]. Agrawal et al. [19], by performing exome sequencing of HNSCC, identified inactivating mutations in Notch1 as a frequent event in this tumor type. Forty percent of the 28 mutations identified in Notch1 were predicted to result in truncated protein, suggesting that Notch1 functions as a tumor suppressor gene in HNSCC. In addition, Notch1 null mice develop epithelial tumors [16]. A tumor suppressor role for Notch1 has also been found in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia [31]. As discussed previously, Notch plays a dual role in carcinogenesis in a cell-type specific context: as an oncogene leading to stem cell maintenance in FORUM of CLINICAL ONCOLOGY

27 Original Research / 27 Figure 3. Kaplan-Meier survival curves comparing overall survival estimations between low and high Notch1 (A), Notch3 (B), Jagged1 (C) and Notch4 (D) groups. Patients with high Notch4 expression exhibit a higher probability of OS (OS at 5 years 72% vs. 57%) some leukemias or as tumor suppressor leading to terminal differentiation in others such as HNSCC. Our findings are in line with these studies indicating a tumor suppressor role for Notch [6, 12, 16-19] in HNSCC. Contrary to our findings, a previous study had shown an association of Jagged1 and Notch1 expression with poor prognosis in head and neck cancer [32]. Positive correlations between each one of the three examined Notch proteins (Notch1, Notch3, Notch4) and Jagged are quite expected, because of the well-known role of Jagged as a Notch ligand. However, there seems to be an interesting co-expression of Notch1, Notch3, Notch4. There is also positive correlation between Notch1, Notch3, Notch4 with p16. As we have already mentioned, Deltex-1, a significant activator of Notch pathways, and HES1, a transcription factor whose expression is initiated by Notch, were found to be upregulated after repression of E6/E7 viral oncogenes [22]. In other words, HPV-induced oropharyngeal cancers are expected to demonstrate low expression of Notch pathway proteins. Regarding p16, HPV-induced oropharyngeal cancers demonstrate high expression of p16 [24]. Therefore, HPV-induced oropharyngeal cancers seem to be characterized by low Notch and high p16. It appears that inactivation of Notch is one of the mechanisms the virus utilizes to induce malignant phenotype in host cells. In our study there is a positive correlation of Notch1, Notch3 and Notch4 with p16. What differentiates this study is that it includes cancers from all the head and neck sites, the vast majority of which are not HPV-induced. A previous study, which also included cancers from all the head and neck sites, validated p16 as a favorable prognostic marker in head and neck cancer [28], besides to its well-known role as favorable prognostic marker in oropharyngeal cancer. Therefore, the positive correlation of Notch proteins with p16 shown in our study is consistent with a possible role of Notch4 as positive prognostic factor. It is also consistent with the tumor suppressor function of Notch. The role of Notch signaling pathway proteins in head and neck cancer deserves further study. March 2012

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