1 Chapter 10 Adjectives - Part Adjectives are used to describe or amplify nouns. e.g. the good student, the black coat, wise men, a smart woman English adjectives always keep the same form, regardless of the gender of the noun they are describing, or whether it is singular or plural. Greek adjectives, like Greek nouns, have sets of endings which show the grammatical gender, the case, and the number (singular or plural). A Greek adjective will always agree with (show the same gender, case, and number as) the noun it is describing. The majority of Greek adjectives have the same set of endings as the First Declension for Feminine nouns, and the same set of endings as the Second Declension for Masculine and Neuter nouns. These adjectives are referred to as Adjectives. We have already learned all the endings for typical adjectives. There are some slight variations, corresponding to the variations in the First Declension Feminine nouns Adjectives with endings -ος, -η, -ον : The stem ends in a consonant other than a rho. e.g. ἀγαθος, ἀγαθη, ἀγαθον - good Case Masculine Feminine Neuter Singular Nominative ἀγαθος ἀγαθη ἀγαθον Accusative ἀγαθον ἀγαθην ἀγαθον Genitive ἀγαθου ἀγαθης ἀγαθου Dative ἀγαθῳ ἀγαθῃ ἀγαθῳ Plural Nominative ἀγαθοι ἀγαθαι ἀγαθα Accusative ἀγαθους ἀγαθας ἀγαθα Genitive ἀγαθων ἀγαθων ἀγαθων Dative ἀγαθοις ἀγαθαις ἀγαθοις I find it easiest to learn this table going across, rather than down, the columns, and working up to speed and rhythm like a railway train. 1. ὁ ἀγαθος ἀνθρωπος ἀγαπᾳ τους ἀδελφους αὐτου. The good man loves his brothers. 2. ἡ ἀγαθη ἀδελφη ἀγαπᾳ τους ἀδελφους αὐτης. The good sister loves her brothers. 3. το ἀγαθον παιδιον ἀγαπᾳ τας ἀδελφας αὐτου. The good child loves his sisters. 4. ὁ ἀνθρωπος ἀγαπᾳ τους ἀγαθους ἀδελφους. The man loves the good brothers. 5. ὁ ἀνθρωπος οὐ πλανᾳ The man does not lead τας ἀγαθας ἀδελφας. the good sisters astray. 6. οἱ ἀγαθοι ἀνθρωποι ἀγαπωσιν τους ἀδελφους. The good men love the brothers. 7. ἀγαπωσιν αἱ ἀγαθαι ἀδελφαι Do the good sisters love τον ἀδελφον αὐτων ; their brother? 8. γραφω ἐπιστολην τῃ ἀγαθῃ ἀδελφῃ. I write a letter to the good sister. 9. βλεπεις την ἀδελφην You (singular) see the sister του ἀγαθου ἀδελφου. of the good brother. 10. ἀναγινωσκετε την ἐπιστολην της ἀγαθης ἀδελφης. You read the letter of the good sister.
2 10.3 Adjectives with endings -ος, -α, -ον : The stem ends in a vowel or a rho. e.g. ἀξιος, ἀξια, ἀξιον - worthy Case Masculine Feminine Neuter Singular Nominative ἀξιος ἀξια ἀξιον Accusative ἀξιον ἀξιαν ἀξιον Genitive ἀξιου ἀξιας ἀξιου Dative ἀξιῳ ἀξιᾳ ἀξιῳ Plural Nominative ἀξιοι ἀξιαι ἀξια Accusative ἀξιους ἀξιας ἀξια Genitive ἀξιων ἀξιων ἀξιων Dative ἀξιοις ἀξιαις ἀξιοις 1. ὁ ἁγιος ἀγγελος λεγει τῳ πιστῳ λαῳ. The holy angel speaks to the faithful people. 2. ὁ πιστος λαος ἀναγινωσκει τα ἁγια βιβλια. The faithful people read the holy books. 3. οἱ ἁγιοι ἀγγελοι ἐν τῳ οὐρανῳ ἠσαν. The holy angels were in heaven. 4. βλεπετε τους ἁγιους ἀγγελους ; Do you see the holy angels? 5. Nαι, βλεποµεν τους ἁγιους ἀγγελους. Yes, we see the holy angels. 6. το πονηρον δαιµονιον βλασφηµει τον Ἰησουν. The evil demon blasphemes Jesus. 7. βλεπεις την µικραν οἰκιαν ἐν τῳ ἀγρῳ ; Do you see the little house in the field? 8. Oὐ. oὐ βλεπω την µικραν οἰκιαν. No. I don't see the little house. 9. ἀγαπᾳς τας ἁγιας ἀδελφας. You (singular) love the holy sisters. 10. ἡ ἑτερα ἀδελφη ἀγαπᾳ το µικρον παιδιον. The other sister loves the small child Position of Adjectives Because of the flexibility of the Greek sentence, adjectives can occur in several positions relative to the noun they describe. i. If there is no Definite Article with the noun, the adjective can come either before or after the noun. e.g. "A holy angel" can be ἁγιος ἀγγελος or ἀγγελος ἁγιος ii. If there is a Definite Article, the article is immediately before the adjective. The adjective and the article are in the attributive position e.g. "The holy angel" can be ὁ ἁγιος ἀγγελος or ὁ ἀγγελος ὁ ἁγιος "the angel, the holy (one)" This is similar to what we have already met in Πατερ ἡµων ὁ ἐν τοις οὐρανοις - ἐν τοις οὐρανοις is describing where the Father is 1. το δενδρον το µικρον ἐστιν ἐν τῳ ἀγρῳ. The small tree is in the field. 2. ἠσαν οἱ λεπροι οἱ πτωχοι ἐν τῳ οἰκῳ ; Were the poor lepers in the house? 3. βλεπεις το ποτηριον το µικρον. You (singular) see the small cup. 4. αὐτοι τηρουσιν την ἐντολην την καινην. They keep the new commandment. 5. ὁ υἱος ὁ ἀγαπητος γραφει ἐπιστολας. The beloved son writes letters. 6. ἀνθρωποι σοφοι οὐ λεγουσιν Wise men do not speak δαιµονιοις πονηροις. to evil demons. 7. ὁ Ἰησους ποιει την καινην διαθηκην. Jesus makes the new covenant. 8. ὁ θεος ὁ ἁγιος ἐχει ἐξουσιαν ἐπι της γης. The holy God has authority over the earth. 9. ὁ Λoυκας ἠν ἐν τῳ ἰδιῳ οἰκῳ. Luke was in his own house. 10. ὁ Παυλος γραφει την ἐπιστολην την καλην. Paul writes the good letter.
3 10.5 Predicate use of Adjectives So far we have used adjectives in an attributive manner, e.g. a black dog, a small cat, the good student, true words ὁ ἀνθρωπος ὁ ἀγαθος.... The good man.... (The man, the good one...) ὁ ἀγαθος ἀνθρωπος.... The good man.... Now we meet the predicate use, e.g. The dog is black. The cat is small. The students are good. The words are true. See Chapter 5 to review the verb εἰµι, and Section 5.4 to review the Predicate. εἰµι and other copulative verbs do not have an object, but a complement. ὁ ἀνθρωπος ἐστιν ἀγαθος. ἀγαθος ἐστιν ὁ ἀνθρωπος. The man is good. The man is good. NOTE that both ἀνθρωπος and ἀγαθος are in the Nominative. ἀγαθος is not in the Accusative, so it is not the object of the verb. There is no object to a copulative verb, but there is a complement which is in the same case as the subject. NOTE also that there is no Definite Article immediately before the adjective. This gives a clear distinction between the attributive use and the predicate use of an adjective. Because Greek can make this distinction, the copulative verb will sometimes be omitted, and the resulting sentence will read like a newspaper headline. ὁ ἀνθρωπος ἀγαθος. ἀγαθος ὁ ἀνθρωπος. "The man good" : The man is good. "Good the man" : The man is good. 1. ὁ Xριστος ἀξιος. Christ is worthy. 2. ἀξια ἡ Mαρια. Mary is worthy. 3. οἱ πρεσβυτεροι εἰσιν ἀξιοι. The elders are worthy. 4. αἱ ἀδελφαι ἀξιαι εἰσιν. The sisters are worthy. 5. το παιδιον ἀξιον ; Is the child is worthy. 6. τα δαιµονια οὐκ ἀξια ἐστιν. The demons are not worthy. 7. οἱ ἀνθρωποι µακαριοι ἠσαν. The men were happy. 8. µικρον το τεκνον. The child is small. 9. ἠν ὁ ἀνθρωπος ἀξιος ; Was the man worthy? 10. ὁ ἀνθρωπος ὁ κακος οὐκ ἀξιος ἠν. The bad man was not worthy Adjectives with no separate Feminine endings There are a few adjectives which do not have separate masculine and feminine forms - they have only a masculine/feminine and a neuter set of endings. This group includes all adjectives starting with the negative prefix ἀ-, and also αἰωνιος (eternal, ageless) 1. ἡ ἀδελφη ἀδικος ἐστιν. The sister is unrighteous. 2. αἱ ἀδελφαι οὐκ ἀδικοι ἠσαν. The sisters were not unrighteous. 3. ἀκαθαρτος ἡ καρδια. The heart is unclean. 4. ἀπιστος ἡ καρδια του ἀνθρωπου. The heart of the man is faithless. 5. ζητουσιν την ζωην την αἰωνιον. They seek (the) eternal life. 6. ἡ γενεα ἡ ἀπιστος The faithless generation οὐ λαµβανει τον Xριστον. does not receive Christ. 7. ἀπιστος ἡ ἀδελφη. The sister is unfaithful. 8. ἡ ἀδελφη ἀδικος ἠν ; Was the sister unrighteous? 9. αἱ ἀδελφαι αἱ ἀπιστοι ἀδικοι εἰσιν. The faithless sisters are unrighteous. 10. ἀκαθαρτος ἡ γλωσσα του ἀνθρωπου. The tongue of the man is unclean.
4 10.7 Use of Adjectives as Nouns When you look at Vocabulary you will see some adjectives which you met previously as nouns. In Greek, it is quite common to use an adjective as a noun, and let the gender of the adjective show whether it is referring to a man, a woman, or a thing. ἁγιοι - holy τυφλος - blind πρεσβυτερος - elder, eldest οἱ ἁγιοι - the holy men/people - the saints ὁ τυφλος - the blind man ὁ πρεσβυτερος - the elder 1. µακαριοι οἱ ἁγιοι. The saints are happy / blessed. 2. οἱ πιστοι µακαριοι ἠσαν. The faithful were happy / blessed 3. ἑκαστος ζητει τα ἰδια. Each (man) seeks (his) own (things). 4. ὁ πρεσβυτερος λεγει τοις ἁγιοις. The elder speaks to the saints. 5. ὁ Ἰωαννης λαλει τοις τυφλοις. John talks to the blind men. 6. οἱ ἀπιστοι οὐ βλεπουσιν τον ἁγιον θεον. The faithless do not see the holy God. 7. οἱ πτωχοι ζητουσιν τους ἀρτους. The poor (men) seek the loaves. 8. αὐτη λαλει τοις πτωχοις ; Does she speak to the poor (men)? 9. ὁ σοφος ἀγαπᾳ την καινην διαθηκην. The wise man loves the new covenant. 10. οἱ ἀπιστοι οὐ µακαριοι εἰσιν. The faithless are not happy / blessed 10.8 Sentences for reading and translation 1. το ἀγαθον παιδιον ἀγαπᾳ τον διδασκαλον τον σοφον. 2. ὁ πρεσβυτερος ὁ σοφος διδασκει τα παιδια αὐτου. 3. ὁ υἱος ὁ ἀγαπητος φανεροι την δοξαν του θεου. 4. ἐν τῃ τριτῃ ἡµερᾳ αἱ πισται ἀδελφαι βλεπουσιν τον Ἰησουν. 5. µακαριοι οἱ καθαροι τῃ καρδιᾳ. 6. ὁ πονηρος οὐκ ἀγαπᾳ τους πιστους διακονους της βασιλειας του θεου. 7. οἱ πρεσβυτεροι γραφουσιν την ἐπιστολην την δευτεραν ταις ἐκκλησιαις ; 8. αὐτος ὁ θεος ἀγαπᾳ τους πτωχους και τους τυφλους. 9. οἱ δικαιοι οὐκ ἀγαπωσιν τα ἐργα του πονηρου. 10. οἱ πιστοι λαµβανουσιν την ζωην την αἰωνιον ἐν τῳ οὐρανῳ Writing Practice : Write the Greek, while saying aloud (Matt. 6:9-12) πατερ ἡµων ὁ ἐν τοις οὐρανοις, ἁγιασθητω το ὀνοµα σου, ἐλθετω ἡ βασιλεια σου, γενηθητω το θεληµα σου, ὡς ἐν οὐρανῳ και ἐπι γης. τον ἀρτον ἡµων τον ἐπιουσιον δος ἡµιν σηµερον και ἀφες ἡµιν τα ὀφειληµατα ἡµων Our Father, the (one) in the heavens, let your name be sanctified, let your kingdom come, let your will / wish happen (come to pass), just as in heaven (so) also on earth. Our bread of / for the day give to us today; and remit/forgive (to) us our debts/guilt, From today's studies, you will recognize that τον ἐπιουσιον (for the day, daily) is describing τον ἀρτον, and both are in the Accusative. They are the object of δος - give! Modern Greek Greetings Modern Greek uses καλος, -η, -ον for greetings such as "Good Morning". As in the English "Goodbye" (God be with ye) the Greek contracts into a one-word greeting : καληµερα pronounced "kalee mair ah" "Good Day" καλη + ἡµερα καλησπερα pronounced "kalee spair ah" "Good Evening" καλη + ἡσπερα καληνυκτα pronounced "kalee NEEK tah" "Good Night" καλη + νυκτα
5 10.11 New Testament Passage for reading and translation : I John 2:7-8 In your Greek New Testament, read the passage aloud several times until you can read it without long pauses or stumbling. Then use the translation helps to translate it. ὑµιν to you ( plural) ἡν which ( feminine, referring back to ἐντολη) εἰχετε you had ( plural; a past tense of ἐχω - I have) ὁν which ( masculine, referring to ὁ λογος) ἠκουσατε you heard ( plural; a past tense of ἀκουω - I hear) ὅ (the thing) which ( Relative Pronoun, nominative singular neuter) ( The accent is what marks this as a relative pronoun rather than a definite article ) ὅ ἐστιν ἀληθες the thing which is true πάλιν again ἐν ὑµιν in you ( plural) παραγεται (it) passed away φαινει (it) shines Vocabulary to learn ἀγαθός -η -ον good, morally upright, useful ἀγαπητός -η -ον beloved ( ἀγαπαω - I love) καινός -η -ον new ( ἡ καινη διαθηκη = the New Testament) κακός -η -ον bad καλός -η -ον good, right, proper ὁλός -η -ον whole πιστός -η -ον faithful ( πιστευω - I trust in, believe) πτωχός -η -ον poor σοφός -η -ον wise ( ἡ σοφια - wisdom) τυφλός -η -ον blind ἅγιος -α -ον holy ἄξιος -α -ον worthy δεξιός -α -ον right ( right-hand, do not use for "correct or righteous") ( ambidextrous people can use both hands equally well.) δίκαιος -α -ον righteous ( ἡ δικαιοσυνη - righteousness) ἴδιος -α -ον one's own, personal ( an idiot does his own thing) µακάριος -α -ον happy παλαιός -α -ον old ( hence palaeontology) ἕτερος -α -ον other, different ( originally "the other, of two") καθαρός -α -ον clean, pure ( catharsis is a cleansing) µικρός -α -ον small ( hence the scientific terms beginning micro- ) πονηρός -α -ον evil πρεσβύτερος -α -ον elder (of two), eldest ἄδικος -oς -oν unrighteous ἀκάθαρτος -oς -oν unclean ἄπιστος -oς -oν faithless, unfaithful αἰώνιος -oς -oν eternal, everlasting ἀληθής -ής -ες true ( Nom. singular. Do not attempt to use other cases yet) ἡ σκοτία darkness το ὀφείληµα debt, guilt, sin ( Nom. singular. Do not attempt to use other cases yet) το φῶς light ( Nom. singular. Do not attempt to use other cases yet) ἤδη already
Chapter 12 Second Declension Feminine Nouns First Declension Masculine Nouns Indeclinable Nouns NOTE : This Chapter may be postponed until later in the course. 12.1 We have already met the largest groups
Attica Intermediate Classical Greek Readings, Review, and Exercises Cynthia L. Claxton University of California, Irvine New Haven & London Copyright 2014 by Yale University. All rights reserved. This book
English to Greek vocabulary in lessons 1-10 E to Greek vocabulary, lessons 1-10, p1 Try to remember the highlighted vocabulary! Nouns Aeneas (mythic Trojan hero said to have founded Rome) = Αἰνείας, ου,
This arrangement of the Greek text and the English translation is in the Public Domain. The Greek text is that of the Westcott and Hort, edition of 1893; New York: Harper & Brothers, Franklin Square (usually
ΛΥΧΝΟΣ «Λύχνος τοῖς ποσί μου ὁ νόμος σου καὶ φῶς ταῖς τρίβοις μου» Ψαλμ 118, 105 A GREEK ORTHODOX PERIODICAL FOR YOUNG PEOPLE Volume 28, Issue 4 JUNE 2013 JULY 2013 The Foremost Apostles Peter and Paul
Feb. 9, Wed. In TV translate Nine A-B. In GE read about usage of the dative (#190, pp. 179-80) and about time phrases (#191, p. 181). Be able to conjugate the aorist infinitives (1 st & 2 nd, active and
BECAUSE YOU ASKED 1 Cor. 14:33 For God is not the author of confusion, but of peace, as in all churches of the saints. 1. Because you read the Greek New Testament I d like to know since Him is left our
Posted 25 th June 2012 The following is a section of a chapter for a new Book on the Diachronic Approach to exegeting New Testament problems. Τὸν ἄρτον ἡμῶν τὸν ἐπιούσιον What Does This Mean? In the Lord
Basic Hellenistic Greek Morphology Rodney A. Whitacre Copyright 2011 This review is a handout I have used with students for a number of years. I have also prepared parsing practice exercises with an answer
Saints Constantine and Helen Greek Orthodox Churc h of Washington, DC October 26, 2014 6th Sunday of Luke THE MISSION OF THE STS. CONSTANTINE & HELEN GREEK ORTHODOX CHURCH OF WASHINGTON DC in Silver Spring,
The holy glorious and all-praiseworthy Apostle Philip Τοῦ Ἁγίου ἐνδόξου καί πανευφήµου Ἀποστόλου Φιλίππου November 14 Philip was born in Bethsaida beside the Sea of Galilee, as were Peter and Andrew. Instructed
Chapter 7. PLUSES AND MINUSES CREATING OR IMPROVING RHETORICAL FIGURES With one of the most beautiful poetic parts of Scripture before him, the Greek translator of the book of Isaiah was faced with a challenging
STS. PETER & PAUL Greek Orthodox Church 527 Bridgeport Rd. East Kitchener, Ontario N2K 1N6 CANADA (519) 579-4703 email@example.com Volume 7, Issue 2 Sts. Peter and Paul Greek Orthodox
Ευαγγελισμός της Θεοτόκου The Annunciation Greek Orthodox Cathedral 555 North High Street, Columbus, Ohio 43215 Phone: (614) 224-9020 www.greekcathedral.com Sunday of the Holy Myrrhbearers (Third Sunday
The Design and Use of a Multiple-Alphabet Font with Ω Yannis Haralambous 1 and John Plaice 2 1 Atelier Fluxus Virus, 187, rue Nationale, 59800 Lille, France. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org 2 School of Computer
Oxford Cambridge and RSA GCSE (9 1) Classical Greek J292/03 Prose Literature B Sample Question Paper Date Morning/Afternoon Time allowed: 1 hour Do not use: a dictionary * 0 0 0 0 0 0 * First name Last
All Creation Trembled Orthodox Hymns of the Passion Service Greek and English liturgical texts and other media available at www.hchc.edu/allcreationtrembled Ἑλληνικὰ καὶ ἀγγλικὰ λειτουργικὰ κείμενα καὶ