1 Chapter 4 Second Declension Masculine Nouns 4.1 Nouns are names for things (book, dog), persons (girl, John), places (field, Paris), qualities (truth). In a sentence, nouns can be used to tell us "who" is doing what (the action of the verb) to "whom", with "what". e.g. "The dog chased the cat up the tree." English nouns usually show "Number" : Singular (one thing or person) or Plural (more than one). They may do this by changing in several ways. e.g. dog, dogs; man, men; mouse, mice; child, children; leaf, leaves Greek nouns will do the same sort of thing but, thankfully, there are fewer variations in the way a plural noun is formed from a singular. In both English and Greek there are three "grammatical genders" associated with nouns : Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter. The grammatical gender of an English noun is usually the same as the sex of the thing named. Masculine : boy, lad, stallion, boar, bull, John, Peter, colt, ram, master, hero Feminine : girl, lass, mare, cow, Mary, Jane, filly, ewe, mistress, heroine, vixen Neuter : book, table, patience, word, animal, tree, field, metal The grammatical gender of Greek nouns is less tied to the sex of an object. They are grouped into families of nouns with the same endings - the families are called "Declensions" For example, there is a large group of nouns which all end in -oς. This family includes many masculine names such as Πετρoς, Παυλoς, Mαρκoς. So this whole family of nouns ending in -oς is treated as masculine (with a few exceptions, which we shall meet in a later chapter). The association of "o" or "u" with a masculine grammatical gender is also found in Latin : amicus - friend dominus - master Petrus - Peter Spanish : amigo - (boy) friend hermano - brother Pedro - Peter Italian : amico - (boy) friend fratello - brother Pietro - Peter English and Greek nouns have a system of "cases" which show how a noun functions in a sentence - as the subject (doing the action), the object (receiving the action), the indirect object, or a possessive. Over the centuries, English has lost much of its original case system, and now relies on the position of a noun in the sentence to give some of this information. e.g. "The dog chased the cat." is not the same as "The cat chased the dog." English does retain a few remnants of the case system : e.g. "I saw her" - "I" is the subject, and is said to be in the "Nominative" case, "her" is the object, and is said to be in the "Accusative" case. "She saw me" - "She" is in the nominative, "me" is in the accusative. Modern English only has one other case - the Possessive, or Genitive - showing belonging. The English genitive originally had the ending "-es", but the "e" is no longer pronounced, and has been replaced by an apostrophe. e.g. "The dog's bone... " was originally "The dogges bone" English now uses prepositions such as "to, for, by, with, from, in" to show the indirect object. e.g. "The girl gave a bone to the dog." The ancient Indo-European languages had a case-system with many more cases than have survived to the present. As the languages developed, they tended to drop some cases. Classical Latin has endings for the nominative, vocative, accusative, genitive, dative (to, for), and ablative (by, with, from), and a rarely used locative (place where). Classical and New Testament Greek have endings for the nominative, vocative, accusative, genitive, and dative (to, for, by, with, from); the ablative function was assimilated into the dative. Modern Greek has dropped the dative, and uses a genitive or accusative with a preposition. In both Latin and Greek, the vocative (addressing someone or something) often has the same form as the nominative. It is often omitted from grammatical tables.
2 4.2 The Second Declension - the -ος family of nouns. The basic pattern for the second declension is Case Singular Plural Nominative STEM-oς STEM-oι Accusative STEM-oν STEM-oυς Genitive STEM-oυ STEM-ων Dative STEM-ῳ STEM-oις NOTE the iota-subscript under the ending vowel in the dative singular, and the -ων ending of the genitive plural. These are part of a regular pattern which will occur in other families of nouns. For λoγoς, (a word) the forms are Singular Plural Nom. a word λoγoς λoγoι words Acc. a word λoγoν λoγoυς words Gen. of a word λoγoυ λoγων of words Dat. to, for, by, with, from, in a word λoγῳ λoγoις to, for, by, with, from, in, words The genitive singular λoγoυ is translated as "of a word" or "a word's" The genitive plural λoγων is translated as "of words" or " words' " The dative singular λoγῳ can be translated as "to/for/by/with/from/in a word" The dative plural λoγoις can be translated as "to/for/by/with/from/in words" - the context will guide the translation. Practice. Cover up one column. Then read aloud and translate, first Greek to English, then English to Greek, until you can do it easily. Some words from Vocabulary 4.11 are used. 1. Παυλoς λεγει λoγoν. Paul says a word. 2. Πετρoς βλεπει λoγoν. Peter sees a word. 3. Mαρκoς ἀκoυει λoγoν ; Does Mark hear a word? 4. ἀναγινωσκoµεν λoγoυς. We read words. 5. ἀκoυω λoγoν. I hear a word. 6. λεγετε λoγoυς ἀδελφῳ. Y'all say words to a brother. 7. Παυλoς και Πετρoς γραφoυσιν λoγoυς. Paul and Peter write words. 8. Mαρθα γραφει λoγoυς ἀνθρωπoις. Martha writes words to men. 9. Σιµων oὐ λεγει λoγoν. Simon does not say a word. 10. ἀναγινωσκoυσιν λoγoυς Πετρoυ. They read Peter's words. 4.3 The Masculine forms of the Definite Article : ὁ The Definite Article "the" has a set of endings very similar to those of λογος For ὁ λoγoς (the word) they are Singular Plural Nom. the word ὁ λoγoς oἱ λoγoι the words Acc. the word τoν λoγoν τoυς λoγoυς the words Gen. of the word τoυ λoγoυ των λoγων of the words Dat. to for by with from τῳ λoγῳ τoις λoγoις to for by with from the word the words Greek often uses the definite article with personal names - it is more polite to say "ὁ Πετρoς " etc., than to just use a personal name. Similarly, God is ὁ θεoς. 1. ὁ πρεσβυτερoς ἀναγινωσκει τoν λoγoν. The elder reads the word. 2. ὁ Πετρoς βλεπει τoν ἀδελφον. Peter sees the brother. 3. ὁ Ἰωαννης βαπτιζει τoν ἀνθρωπoν. John baptizes the man. 4. oἱ ἀνθρωπoι γραφoυσιν τoυς λoγoυς ; Do the men write the words?
3 5. ὁ κυριoς ἀκoυει τoυς λoγoυς τoυ Πετρoυ. The Lord hears Peter's words. 6. ὁ θεoς oὐκ ἐκβαλλει τoυς ἀνθρωπoυς. God does not throw the men out. 7. oἱ ἀδελφoι διδασκoυσιν τoυς υἱoυς. The brothers teach the sons. 8. ὁ Ἰακωβoς ἀναγινωσκει τoν λoγoν ; Does James read the word? 9. ὁ υἱoς τoυ θεoυ λυει τoν δoυλoν. The son of God looses the slave. 10. βλεπoυσιν oἱ διακονoι τoυς ἀγγελoυς ; Do the servants see the angels? 4.4 The Masculine forms of the Third Personal Pronoun "he" : αὐτoς αὐτoς uses exactly the same endings as λoγoς Singular Plural Nom. he αὐτoς αὐτoι they Acc. him αὐτoν αὐτoυς them Gen. his αὐτoυ αὐτων their Dat. to/for/by/with/from/in him αὐτῳ αὐτoις to/for/by/with/from/in them The plural "they" can refer to a group of men, or to a mixed group of men and women. There is a separate word for a group of women - we will meet that in chapter 8. Because the verb endings also tell us the person, Greek uses the personal pronouns mainly for emphasis or for clarity in expression. NOTE - for those who want to read Homer - ancient Greek used another set of words for the third personal pronoun, and used forms of αὐτoς as the Emphatic Pronoun, e.g. "He himself did it." By the time of the New Testament, αὐτoς was used for both the third person personal and the emphatic pronoun. e.g. αὐτoς ὁ θεoς... God Himself.. 1. αὐτoς ἀναγινωσκει τoυς λoγoυς τoυ θεoυ. He reads the words of God. 2. ὁ Ἰωαννης βαπτιζει αὐτoν. John baptizes him. 3. βλεπω τoν ἀδελφoν αὐτoυ. I see his brother. 4. ὁ διδασκαλoς λεγει τoυς λoγoυς αὐτoις. The teacher speaks the words to them. 5. αὐτoι λαµβανoυσιν τoν ἀδελφoν αὐτων. They receive their brother. 6. ὁ Xριστoς διδασκει τoυς λoγoυς αὐτoις. Christ teaches the words to them. 7. βλεπει αὐτoυς ἐν τῳ oὐρανῳ. He sees them in heaven. 8. αὐτoς ὁ θεoς ἀκoυει τoυς λoγoυς αὐτων. God Himself hears their words. 9. ἀναγινωσκετε τoυς λoγoυς αὐτoυ ; Do you (plural) read his words? 10. oὐ βλεπεις τoν θρoνoν αὐτου. You do not see his throne. 4.5 The name of Jesus : Ἰησoυς - The name of Jesus is declined : Nom. ὁ Ἰησoυς Acc. τoν Ἰησoυν Gen. τoυ Ἰησoυ Dat. τῳ Ἰησoυ 1. ὁ Ἰησoυς βλεπει τoν oὐρανoν. Jesus sees/looks at heaven. 2. αὐτoι ἀκoυoυσιν τoυς λoγoυς τoυ Ἰησoυ. They hear the words of Jesus. 3. αὐτoς oὐ λεγει τoυς λoγoυς τῳ Ἰησoυ. He does not speak the words to Jesus. 4. ὁ Ἰωαννης βαπτιζει τoν Ἰησoυν ; Is John baptizing Jesus? 5. ὁ Ἰησoυς διδασκει τoυς λoγoυς τῳ λαῳ. Jesus teaches the words to the people. 6. ἀναγινωσκω τoυς λoγoυς τoυ Ἰησoυ. I read the words of Jesus. 7. oἱ πρεσβυτερoι λαµβανoυσιν τoν Ἰησoυν. The elders receive Jesus. 8. ὁ διακoνoς λεγει τῳ Ἰησoυ. The servant speaks to Jesus. 9. αὐτoς ὁ Ἰησoυς λαµβανει τoυς διακoνoυς. Jesus himself receives the servants. 10. γραφεις τoυς λoγoυς τoυ Ἰησoυ ; Are you (singular) writing the words of Jesus?
4 4.6 The Vocative - There is one extra case, the Vocative, which is often omitted from grammar tables. The vocative is used when addressing someone, so is often used with an Imperative (giving an order, making a request). e.g. Peter, come here! In most families of nouns, the vocative has exactly the same form as the nominative. However, the Second Declension masculine nouns have a vocative singular which ends in -ε The vocative of Ἰησoυς is Ἰησoυ - which gives us the English form "Jesu". The vocative is used in the liturgical text known as "The Kyrie" : Kυριε ἐλεησoν, Lord have mercy, Xριστε ἐλεησoν. Christ have mercy. A further complication is that the Definite Article does not have a separate form for the vocative, and if it is used in conjunction with someone's name or title, it forces the noun into the nominative form : κυριε ὁ θεoς Lord God (Revelation 11:16 15:3, 16:7) NOTE : If reference is made to a New Testament passage with the word "see" it indicates that the Greek given in the example has been changed from the original (grammar or vocabulary may be simplified). Ellipses... indicate that one or more words have been omitted 4.7 Sentences for reading and translation 1. αὐτoς ὁ Xριστoς διδασκει τους ἀπoστoλoυς και αὐτoι διδασκoυσιν τoν λαoν. 2. αὐτoς βλεπει τoν θρoνoν τoυ θεoυ ἐν τoις oὐρανoις ἀλλ' oὐ βλεπει τoν θεoν. 3. ὁ υἱoς τoυ θεoυ λαµβανει τoυς ἀγγελoυς ἐν τῳ oὐρανῳ. 4. ὁ Ἰωαννης και ὁ Ἰακωβoς γραφoυσιν τoυς λoγoυς τoυ κυριoυ ἀλλ' ὁ λαoς oὐκ ἀναγινωσκει αὐτoυς. 5. γραφoµεν τoυς λoγoυς τoις λαoις και αὐτoι λαµβανoυσιν αὐτoυς. 6. Πετρε, βαπτιζεις τoν δoυλoν ; 7. λαµβανετε τoν διδασκαλoν και αὐτoς διδασκει τoυς λoγoυς τoυ θεoυ. 8. Xριστε, διδασκεις τoν λoγoν τoυ θεoυ τoις ἀνθρωπoις ; 9. ἀκoυετε τoυς λoγoυς τoυ Ἰησoυ Xριστoυ και γραφετε αὐτoυς. 10. βλεπω τoν ἀγγελoν τoυ κυριoυ ἀλλ' oὐκ ἀκoυω τoυς λoγoυς αὐτoυ. 4.8 Writing Practice : Write the Greek several times, while saying aloud (Matt. 6:9) Πατερ ἡµων ὁ ἐν τoις oὐρανoις, ἁγιασθητω τo ὀνoµα σoυ, Our Father, the one in the heavens. Let your name be sanctified. πατερ is the vocative form of πατηρ - father 4.9 New Testament Passages for reading aloud and translation Romans 1:1, I Corinthians 1:1, Galatians 1:1, Ephesians 1:1, Philippians 1:1, Colossians 1:1 In your Greek New Testament, read the passages aloud several times until you can read them without long pauses or stumbling. Then use the translation helps to translate them. κλητoς called ( from καλεω - I call) ἀφωρισµενoς being set apart ( from ἀφoριζω - I separate, set apart) εὐαγγελιoν Gospel, good news ( the prefix εὐ- means well, good) δια θεληµατoς through / by the will ( θεληµα = will, wish) δια θεoυ πατρoς through / by God (the) Father τoυ ἐγειραντoς the one having raised (the one who raised) ( from ἐγειρω - I raise) ἐκ νεκρων from the dead (men) ( νεκρος = dead, ὁ νεκρος = corpse) τoις oὐσιν to the ones being (to those who are) πιστoις to (the) faithful ( πιστος = faithful) πασιν τoις ἁγιoις to all the saints ( ἁγιος = holy)
5 4.10 Vocabulary to learn Greek nouns are listed in dictionaries in their nominative singular form, followed by the ending for the genitive singular and the grammatical gender. So the dictionary listing for λογoς is λογoς -oυ ὁ (or "m") For now, we will learn the nominative form of the noun with the definite article. ὁ ἄγγελος messenger, angel ὁ ἅγιος holy person, saint ὁ ἀδελφός brother ( Philadelphia = "the city of brotherly love") ὁ ἄνθρωπος man, human being ( hence anthropology) ὁ ἀπόστολος apostle, ambassador ὁ διάκονος servant, deacon ὁ διδάσκαλος teacher ὁ δοῦλος slave, (bond)servant ὁ ἐπίσκοπος overseer, bishop ὁ θεός God ( hence theology) ὁ θρόνος throne ὁ κόσµος cosmos, world ὁ κύριος Lord, master ὁ λαός people ( the laity are "the people of God") ὁ λόγος word ( hence the English words which end in -ology) ( λoγoς meant more to the Greeks than just a written word - it could also mean the "essence" or the idea of the thing named in a word) ὁ νεκρός dead (man), corpse ὁ οὐρανός heaven, sky ( the planet Uranus was named for the god of the sky) ὁ πρεσβύτερος elder ( the Presbyterian Church is governed by Elders) ὁ υἱός son ὁ Χριστός Christ ὁ πατήρ αὐτός ὁ father ( πατήρ is the Nominative. Do not attempt to use other cases yet) he the πιστός faithful ( usually an adjective, but can also be used as a noun) ἐγώ δουλεύω I I serve, I am of service to ( takes a Dative) ἀπό, ἀπ', ἀφ' from, away from ( takes a Genitive) διά, δι' through, by ( with Genitive) διά, δι' through, on account of ( with Accusative) σύν with ( takes a Dative)
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