Homework 3 Solutions

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1 Homework 3 Solutions Igor Yanovsky (Math 151A TA) Problem 1: Compute the absolute error and relative error in approximations of p by p. (Use calculator!) a) p π, p 22/7; b) p π, p Solution: For this exercise, you can use either calculator or Matlab. a) Absolute error: p p π 22/ Relative error: π 22/7 π p p p b) Absolute error: p p π Relative error: π π p p p Problem 2: Find the largest interval in which p must lie to approximate 2 with relative error at most 10 5 for each value for p. Solution: The relative error is defined as p p p, where in our case, p 2. We have Therefore, or 2 p p , p , p , p Hence, p This interval can be written in decimal notation as [ , ]. 1

2 Problem 3: Use the 4-bit long real format to find the decimal equivalent of the following floating-point machine numbers. a) b) Solution: a) Given a binary number (also known as a machine number) 0 }{{} s } {{ } c } {{ 0}, f a decimal number (also known as a floating-point decimal number) is of the form: ( 1) s 2 c 1023 (1 + f). Therefore, in order to find a decimal representation of a binary number, we need to find s, c, and f. The leftmost bit is zero, i.e. s 0, which indicates that the number is positive. The next 11 bits, , giving the characteristic, are equivalent to the decimal number: c The exponent part of the number is therefore The final 52 bits specify that the mantissa is f ( ) 1 ( ) 4 ( ) 7 ( ) Therefore, this binary number represents the decimal number ( 1) s 2 c 1023 (1 + f) ( 1) ( )

3 b) Given a binary number 1 }{{} s } {{ } c a decimal number is of the form: ( 1) s 2 c 1023 (1 + f) } {{ 0}, f Therefore, in order to find a decimal representation of a binary number, we need to find s, c, and f. The leftmost bit is zero, i.e. s 1, which indicates that the number is negative. The next 11 bits, , giving the characteristic, are equivalent to the decimal number: c The exponent part of the number is therefore The final 52 bits specify that the mantissa is f ( ) 1 2 ( ) 1 4 ( ) 1 7 ( ) Therefore, this binary number represents the decimal number ( 1) s 2 c 1023 (1 + f) ( 1) ( )

4 Problem 4: Find the next largest and smallest machine numbers in decimal form for the numbers given in the above problem. Solution: a) Consider a binary number (also known as a machine number) , The next largest machine number is (1) From problem 3(a), we know that s 0 and c We need to find f: f ( ) 1 1 ( ) 1 4 ( ) 1 7 ( ) 1 8 ( ) Therefore, this binary number (in (1)) represents the decimal number ( 1) s 2 c 1023 (1 + f) ( 1) ( ) 2 11 ( ) The next smallest machine number is (2) From problem 3(a), we know that s 0 and c We need to find f: 1 ( ) 1 1 ( ) 1 4 ( ) ( ) 1 n f n9 ( ) 1 1 ( ) 1 4 ( ) 1 7 ( ) 1 8 ( ) Note that N 2 n 2 N+1 1. n0 The formula above is a specific case of the following more general equation: N 2 n 2 N+1 2 M. nm Similarly, we also have a formula: N ( ) n ( ) M 1 ( ) N nm To get some intuition about these formulas, consider an example with M 2 and N 5, for instance. 4

5 Therefore, this binary number (in (2)) represents the decimal number ( 1) s 2 c 1023 (1 + f) ( 1) ( ) 2 11 ( ) b) Consider a binary number The next largest (in magnitude) machine number is (3) From problem 3(b), we know that s 1 and c We need to find f: f ( ) 1 2 ( ) 1 4 ( ) 1 7 ( ) 1 8 ( ) Therefore, this binary number (in (3)) represents the decimal number ( 1) s 2 c 1023 (1 + f) ( 1) ( ) 2 11 ( ) The next smallest (in magnitude) machine number is (4) From problem 3(b), we know that s 1 and c We need to find f: ( ) 1 2 ( ) 1 4 ( ) ( ) 1 n f n9 ( ) 1 2 ( ) 1 4 ( ) 1 7 ( ) 1 8 ( ) Therefore, this binary number (in (4)) represents the decimal number ( 1) s 2 c 1023 (1 + f) ( 1) ( ) 2 11 ( )

6 Problem 5: Use four-digit rounding arithmetic and the formulas to find the most accurate approximations to the roots of the following quadratic equations. Compute the relative error. a) 1 3 x x + 1 0; b) 1.002x x Solution: The quadratic formula states that the roots of ax 2 + bx + c 0 are x 1,2 b ± b 2 4ac. 2a 1 a) The roots of 3 x x are approximately x , x We use four-digit rounding arithmetic to find approximations to the roots. We find the first root: 123 ( x ) , x 1 x 1 x ( x 4 2 ) has the following relative error: x 2 x x We obtained a very large relative error, since the calculation for x 2 involved the subtraction of nearly equal numbers. In order to get a more accurate approximation to x 2, we need to use an alternate quadratic formula, namely 2c x 1,2 b ± b 2 4ac. Using four-digit rounding arithmetic, we obtain: x ( ) x 2 x 2 x fl( ) ,

7 b) The roots of 1.002x x are approximately x , x We use four-digit rounding arithmetic to find approximations to the roots. If we use the generic quadratic formula for the calculation of x 1, we will encounter the subtraction of nearly equal numbers (you may check). Therefore, we use the alternate quadratic formula to find x 1 : 2c x 1 b + b 2 4ac , x 1 x 1 x ( ) We find the second root using the generic quadratic formula: x ( 11.01) , x 2 x 2 x ( 10.98)

8 Similar Problem The roots of 1.002x x are approximately x , x We use four-digit rounding arithmetic to find approximations to the roots. We find the first root: x ( 11.01) , x 1 x 1 x If we use the generic quadratic formula for the calculation of x 2, we will encounter the subtraction of nearly equal numbers. Therefore, we use the alternate quadratic formula to find x 2 : 2c x 2 b b 2 4ac ( 11.01) , x 2 x 2 x

9 Problem : Suppose that fl(y) isak-digit rounding approximation to y. Show that y fl(y) y k+1. (Hint: If d k+1 < 5, then fl(y)0.d 1...d k 10 n. If d k+1 5, then fl(y)0.d 1...d k 10 n +10 n k.) Solution: We have to look at two cases separately. Case ➀ : d k+1 < 5. y fl(y) y 0.d 1...d k d k n 0.d 1...d k 10 n 0.d 1...d k d k n k zeros { }} { d k n 0.d 1...d k d k n 0.d k+1 d k n k 0.d 1 d n 0.d k+1 d k d 1 d k 0.d k+1d k k 0.d 1 d d k+1d k k 0.1 since d 1 1, so 0.d 1 d k since d k+1 5, by assumption 5 10 k k+1. Case ➁ : d k+1 5. y fl(y) y 0.d 1...d k d k n (0.d 1...d k 10 n +10 n k ) 0.d 1...d k d k n 0.d 1...d k d k n (0.d 1...d k +10 k ) 10 n 0.d 1 d n 0.d 1...d k d k n 0.d 1...δ k 10 n 0.d 1 d n where δ k d k +1 0.d 1...d k d k d 1...δ k 0.d 1 d 2... k 1 0 s 0. { }} { d k d k k 1 0 s { }} { δ k 0.d 1 d 2... Note that δ k > d k d k+1..., and δ k d k +1,d k+1 5. For example, d k 1, d k+1,δ k 2. k 1 0 s 0. { }} { d 1 d d 1 d k since d 1 1, so 0.d 1 d k 5 10 k k+1. 9

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