Present Participles. Verbal Adjectives with Present Aspect. A lesson for the Paideia web-app Ian W. Scott, 2015

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1 Present Participles Verbal Adjectives with Present Aspect A lesson for the Paideia web-app Ian W. Scott, 2015

2 Participles with Present Aspect Participle = a verbal adjective Allows a whole clause to tell us more about some word in the main clause Present Aspect Views the action as Continuous Repeated/habitual Beginning Timeless Form Like 2 nd aorist participles but with present stem

3 Parts of a Present Active Participle Augment Stem Tense marker Conn. vowel Voice indicator Case ending Complete form - λυ - ο ντ ος λυοντος

4 Comparing Active Participles Augment Stem Tense marker Conn. vowel Voice indicator Case ending Complete form Present Active - λυ - ο ντ ος λυοντος 1 st Aorist Active - λυ σ α ντ ος λυσαντος 2 nd Aorist Active - εἰπ - ο ντ ος εἰποντος

5 Present Active Participle: Singular Example Masculine Feminine Neuter nom. λυων λυουσα λυον gen. λυοντος λυουσης λυοντος dat. λυοντι λυουσῃ λυοντι acc. λυοντα λυουσην λυον voc. λυων λυουσα λυον

6 Present Active Participle: Singular Example Masculine Feminine Neuter nom. λυων λυουσα λυον gen. λυοντος λυουσης λυοντος dat. λυοντι λυουσῃ λυοντι acc. λυοντα λυουσην λυον voc. λυων λυουσα λυον

7 Present Active Participle: Singular Example Masculine Feminine Neuter nom. λυων λυουσα λυον gen. λυοντος λυουσης λυοντος dat. λυοντι λυουσῃ λυοντι acc. λυοντα λυουσην λυον voc. λυων λυουσα λυον

8 Present Active Participle: Plural Example Masculine Feminine Neuter nom. λυοντες λυουσαι λυοντα gen. λυοντων λυουσων λυοντων dat. λυουσι λυουσαις λυουσι acc. λυοντας λυουσας λυοντα voc. λυοντες λυουσαι λυοντα

9 Present Active Participle: Plural Example Masculine Feminine Neuter nom. λυοντες λυουσαι λυοντα gen. λυοντων λυουσων λυοντων dat. λυουσι λυουσαις λυουσι acc. λυοντας λυουσας λυοντα voc. λυοντες λυουσαι λυοντα

10 Present Active Participle: Plural Example Masculine Feminine Neuter nom. λυοντες λυουσαι λυοντα gen. λυοντων λυουσων λυοντων dat. λυουσι λυουσαις λυουσι acc. λυοντας λυουσας λυοντα voc. λυοντες λυουσαι λυοντα

11 Parts of a Present Middle/Passive Participle Augment Stem Tense marker Conn. vowel Voice indicator Case ending Complete form - λυ - ο μεν ου λυομενου

12 Comparing Middle Participles Augment Stem Tense marker Conn. vowel Voice indicator Case ending Complete form Present - λυ - ο μεν ου λυομενου Middle/Passive 1 st Aorist Middle - λυ σ α μεν ου λυσαμενου 2 nd Aorist Middle - εἰπ - ο μεν ου εἰπομενου

13 Present Mid/Pass. Part.: Singular Example Masculine Feminine Neuter nom. λυομενος λυομενη λυομενον gen. λυομενου λυομενης λυομενου dat. λυομενῳ λυομενῃ λυομενῳ acc. λυομενον λυομενην λυομενον voc. λυομενε λυομενη λυομενον

14 Present Mid/Pass. Part.: Singular Example Masculine Feminine Neuter nom. λυομενος λυομενη λυομενον gen. λυομενου λυομενης λυομενου dat. λυομενῳ λυομενῃ λυομενῳ acc. λυομενον λυομενην λυομενον voc. λυομενε λυομενη λυομενον

15 Present Mid/Pass. Part.: Plural Example Masculine Feminine Neuter nom. λυομενοι λυομεναι λυομενα gen. λυομενων λυομενων λυομενων dat. λυομενοις λυομεναις λυομενοις acc. λυομενους λυομενας λυομενα voc. λυομενοι λυομεναι λυομενα

16 Present Mid/Pass. Part.: Plural Example Masculine Feminine Neuter nom. λυομενοι λυομεναι λυομενα gen. λυομενων λυομενων λυομενων dat. λυομενοις λυομεναις λυομενοις acc. λυομενους λυομενας λυομενα voc. λυομενοι λυομεναι λυομενα

17 Clues for Parsing Participles Is it a participle? Verb stem Voice indicator (-ντ-, -εσ-, -μεν-) Noun ending Tense? Aorist -σα- (1 st aorist) 2 nd aorist stem Present no -σα- present stem

18 Clues for Parsing Participles Voice? Middle -μεν- Active -ντ- -εσ- (-ους-, -ασ-) Declension? Active Middle/Passive 2 1 2

19 Clues for Parsing Participles Irregular active forms (no voice indicator) Masc. nom. sing. -ας (1 st aorist) -ων (2 nd aorist, present) Neut. nom. sing. -ν (aorist and present) Masc./neut. dat. plur. -ασι(ν) (1 st aorist) -ουσι(ν) (2 nd aorist, present)

20 Present Substantive Participles Same as aorist but with present aspect ὁ ἐρχομενος, the man who is going ἡ λυουσα, the woman who usually releases το λεγομενον, the thing that was often said

21 Present Adverbial Participles Same uses aorist but with present aspect Causal ἐρχομενος, because he is going Concessive λυουσα, although she usually released Purpose λεγομενον, so that it was often said Etc.

22 Present Temporal (Adverbial) Participles Main action happens at the same time as the participial action Often translate with while or when [Ἐρχομενος τῃ πολει], πορευσομαι εἰς τῃ ἀγορᾳ. [While I am coming to the town], I will go into the market.

23 Present Temporal (Adverbial) Participles Main action happens at the same time as the participial action Often translate with while or when [Μισθων ἐργατην], Σιμων τινα ξυλον ἠγορασεν. [While he was hiring a worker], Simon bought some wood.

24 Keep Learning You can learn more about present participles here: Mounce, Basics of Biblical Greek (3 rd edition) Present adverbial participles, (pp ), (pp ) Participles with μι verbs, 35.4 (p. 327) Relative time, (pp ) Periphrastic constructions, (pp ) Wallace, Basics of New Testament Syntax (1 st edition) Participle, pp Tense, Present, pp !

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