# EE512: Error Control Coding

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1 EE512: Error Control Coding Solution for Assignment on Finite Fields February 16, (a) Addition and Multiplication tables for GF (5) and GF (7) are shown in Tables 1 and Table 1: Tables for GF(5) Table 2: Tables for GF(7) (b) GF (4) = {0, 1, α, α 2 }, α 2 = α + 1, α 3 = 1. The addition and multiplication tables are shown in Table α α α α α 2 α α α α α 2 α 2 α α α α α 2 α 0 α α 2 1 α 2 0 α 2 1 α Table 3: Tables for GF(4) 2. Construction of GF (16) using three different irreducible polynomials: (a) Using π 1 (x) = x 4 + x + 1: Let α be a root of π 1 (x) = 0; α 4 = α + 1. Table 4 shows the construction. (b) Using π 2 (x) = x 4 + x 3 + 1: Let β be a root of π 2 (x) = 0; β 4 = β Table 4 shows the construction. (c) Using π 3 (x) = x 4 + x 3 + x 2 + x + 1: Let γ be a root of π 3 (x) = 0; γ 4 = γ 3 + γ 2 + γ + 1. Table 5 shows the powers of γ. Note that γ is not a primitive element of GF (16), since order of γ 1

2 Power Polynomial Vector α inf α α α 0010 α 2 α α 3 α α 4 α α 5 α 2 + α 0110 α 6 α 3 + α α 7 α 3 + α α 8 α α 9 α 3 + α 1010 α 10 α 2 + α α 11 α 3 + α 2 + α 1110 α 12 α 3 + α 2 + α α 13 α 3 + α α 14 α Power Polynomial Vector β inf β β β 0010 β 2 β β 3 β β 4 β β 5 β 3 + β β 6 β 3 + β 2 + β β 7 β 2 + β β 8 β 3 + β 2 + β 1110 β 9 β β 10 β 3 + β 1010 β 11 β 3 + β β 12 β β 13 β 2 + β 0110 β 14 β 3 + β Table 4: GF(16) using π 1 (x) and π 2 (x). is 5. It can be noticed that the polynomial π 3 (x) = x 4 + x 3 + x 2 + x + 1 can be written as π 3 (x) = (1 + x) 4 + (1 + x) = π 2 (1 + x). Thus (1 + γ) is a root of π 2 (x), and it has to be a primitive element, since π 2 (x) is a primitive polynomial. Table 5 shows the construction of GF (16) using (1 + γ) as the primitive element. Power Polynomial γ inf 0 γ 0 1 γ γ γ 2 γ 2 γ 3 γ 3 γ 4 γ 3 + γ 2 + γ + 1 γ 5 1 Power Polynomial Vector (1 + γ) inf (1 + γ) (1 + γ) 1 + γ 0011 (1 + γ) γ (1 + γ) γ + γ 2 + γ (1 + γ) 4 γ + γ 2 + γ (1 + γ) γ 2 + γ (1 + γ) 6 γ (1 + γ) γ + γ (1 + γ) γ (1 + γ) 9 γ (1 + γ) 10 γ 2 + γ (1 + γ) γ + γ (1 + γ) 12 γ 0010 (1 + γ) 13 γ + γ (1 + γ) 14 γ + γ Table 5: GF (16) using π 3 (x). (d) Isomorphism between two fields is a one-one and onto mapping of the elements of one field to another such that all the operations of the fields are preserved. If φ is an isomorphism from F 1 F 2, φ(a 1 a 2 ) = φ(a 1 )oφ(a 2 ), where a 1, a 2 F 1, is the operation defined in F 1, and o is the operation defined in F 2. Observing the elements of GF (16) constructed using π 1 (x), α 7 is a root of π 2 (x). Thus mapping α 7 GF 1 β GF 2 is an isomorphism between GF 1 and GF 2. Similarily, α 3 is a root of π 3 (x). Thus mapping α 3 GF 1 γ GF 3 is an isomorphism between GF 1 and GF (a) Finding all polynomials of degree 2 and degree 3 that are irreducible over GF(2) and GF(3): 2

3 i. x 2 + x + 1 is the only irreducible polynomial of degree 2 over GF (2). x 3 + x + 1 and x 3 + x are the irreducible polynomials of degree 3 over GF (2). To check if the irreducible polynomial of degree m over GF (p), f(x) is primitive, it is required to find the smallest number n such that f(x) divides x n 1. If n = p m 1, then f(x) is primitive, If n < p m 1, then f(x) is not primitive. Since there is just one irreducible polynomial of degree 2 over GF (2), it has to be primitive. Both the irreducible polynomials of degree 3 over GF (2) are also primitive. ii. x 2 + x + 2, x 2 + 2x + 2 and x are the irreducible polynomials of degree 2 over GF (3). It can be seen that x divides x 4 1 over GF (3); thus, it is not a primitive polynomial. It can be verified that the other two irreducible polynomials of degree 2 over GF (3)are primitive. x 3 + 2x + 1,x 3 + 2x 2 + 1,x 3 + x 2 + 2,x 3 + 2x + 2,x 3 + x 2 + x + 2 and x 3 + 2x 2 + 2x + 2 are the irreducible polynomilas of degree 3 over GF (3). x 3 + 2x + 1 and x 3 + 2x are the primitive polynomials of degree 3 over GF (3), the rest of the irreducible polynomials are not primitive (It can be verified that they divide x 13 1). (b) Construction of GF (9) in two different ways: i. Construction using primitive polynomial: Consider the primitive polynomial π 1 (x) = x 2 + x + 2. Let α be a root of π 1 (x) = 0; therefore, α 2 = 2α + 1. Power Polynomial Vector(with basis [1,α]) α α 10 α 2 2α α 3 2α α α 5 2α 20 α 6 α α 7 α Table 6: GF 1 (9) ii. Construction using non-primitive polynomial: Consider the non-primitive polynomial π 2 (x) = x Let β be a root of π 2 (x) = 0. Since π 2 (x) is not a primitive polynomial, β will not be a primitive element of GF (9). π 2 (x) can be written as, π 2 (x) = (x + 1) 2 + (x + 1) + 2, Thus (1 + β) is a primitive element of GF (9). Power Polynomial Vector(with basis [1,β]) (1 + β) β (1 + β) 2 2β 20 (1 + β) 3 2β (1 + β) (1 + β) 5 2β (1 + β) 6 β 10 (1 + β) 7 β Table 7: GF 2 (9) To find the isomorphism between GF 1 and GF 2, note that α 2 GF 1 is a root of π 2 (x), thus α 2 β is an isomorphism. 4. (a) Let GF (9) = {0, 1, α, α 2,..., α 7 }, where α is the root of the primitive polynomial π(x) = x 2 + x + 2. The multiplicative group GF (9) = {1, α, α 2,..., α 7 }. Ord(α i ) = n/(n, i), where n 3

4 is the order of the multiplicative group (8 in this case) and (n, i) denotes the GCD of n and i. Primitive elements are the elements with order 8. Elements of order 2 = { α 4 }; Elements of order 4 = { α 2,α 6 }; Elements of order 8 = { α, α 3, α 5, α 7 } (primitive). Similarly, let GF (16) = {0, 1, α, α 2,, α 14, α 4 = α + 1. Elements of order 3 = {α 5, α 10 }; Elements of order 5 = {α 3, α 6, α 9, α 12 }; Elements of order 15 = {α, α 2, α 4, α 7, α 8, α 11, α 13, α 14 } (primitive). (b) Order of elements in GF(32): Order of the Multiplicative group GF (32) is n = 31. Since n is prime, (n, i) = 1 for all i = all elements are primitive. For all non-zero, non-unity elements of GF (p m ) to be primitive, p m 1 should be prime. 5. (a) Multiplication and addition in GF(p)are defined modulo p. Thus, order of an element a is the smallest number n such that a n = 1 mod p. Using this condition, order of every element can be determined. Moreover, order of any element should divide the order of the multiplicative group p 1. An element is primitive if its order is equal to p 1. GF(7): Elements of order 2 = { 6}; Elements of order 3 = { 2,4}; Elements of order 6 (primitive) = { 3,5}. GF(11): Elements of order 2 = { 10}; Elements of order 5 = { 3,4,5,9}; Elements of order 10 (primitive) = { 2,6,7,8}. (b) All non-zero, non-unity elements of GF (p) cannot be primitive for p > 3 since (p 1) would not be prime, and there would be elements with order less than (p 1). In GF (3) there is only one non-zero, non-unity element and it has to be primitive. ( 6. (a) Let α GF (2 m ). We know that α 2m = α. Therefore, α 2m 1) 2 = α. Hence, α 2 m 1 is a square root of α. (b) Proof is similar to that for the previous part. 7. In GF(16), (x + y) 3 = x 3 + y 3 + 3x 2 y + 3xy 2 = x 3 + y 3 + xy(x + y). Using the given values for x + y and x 3 + y 3, we get that (α 14 ) 3 = α + xy(α 14 ). Simplifying, we get xy = α 14 or y = α 14 /x. Using in x + y = α 14, we get x + α14 x = α14, or the quadratic equation f(x) = x 2 + α 14 x + α 14 = 0. By trial and error, we see that the roots of f(x) in GF(16) are α 6 and α 8. Hence, possible solutions for (x, y) are (α 6, α 8 ) or (α 8, α 6 ). 8. (a) Since x + y = α 3, (x + y) 2 = x 2 + y 2 = (α 3 ) 2 = α 6. We see that the second equation is consistent with and fully dependent on the first equation. The set of solutions is {(x, x + α 3 ) : x GF(16)}. (b) The second equation is inconsistent with the first equation. Hence, no solution exists. 9. We are given that x 3 + y 3 + z 3 = 0 for x, y, x GF(64). Note that x 63 = y 63 = z 63 = 1. Since (a + b) 2 = a 2 + b 2 for a, b GF(64), we see that (a + b) 32 = a 32 + b 32. Using this, we get (x 3 + y 3 + z 3 ) 32 = 0. Simplifying the LHS above, we get that x 33 + y 33 + z 33 = 0. 4

5 10. Suppose β GF(q) is an element of order 5. Then, β is a root of x 5 1, since β 5 1 = 0. Notice that β 2, β 3, β 4 and β 5 = 1 are all distinct and additional roots of x 5 1. Since x 5 1 can have no further roots in GF(q), we get x 5 1 = (x β)(x β 2 )(x β 3 )(x β 4 )(x β 5 ). (a) If α GF(16) is a primitive element, we see that Ord(α 3 ) = 5. Hence, in GF(16)[x]. In GF(2)[x], x = (x + α 3 )(x + α 6 )(x + α 9 )(x + α 12 )(x + 1) x = (x + 1)(x 4 + x 3 + x 2 + x + 1) is a complete factorization into irreducibles. In GF(11), we see from Problem (5a) that 3 is an element of order 5. Hence, x 5 1 = (x 3)(x 3 2 )(x 3 3 )(x 3 4 )(x 3 5 ), = (x 3)(x 9)(x 5)(x 4)(x 1). (b) x 5 1 factors into linear factors over GF(p) when p 1 is a multiple of (a) i. Cyclotomic Decomposition of GF(9) (α: primitive): S = {α 0 } {α, α 3 } {α 2, α 6 } {α 4 } {α 5, α 7 }. Table 8 lists the minimal poynomials. Element Minimal Polynomial 0 x 1 x + 1 α, α 3 x 2 + x + 2 α 2, α 6 x α 4 x + 2 α 5, α 7 x 2 x + 2 Table 8: Minimal polynomials of GF(9). ii. Cyclotomic Decomposition of GF(16) (α: primitive): S = {α 0 } {α, α 2, α 4, α 8 } {α 3, α 6, α 12, α 9 } {α 5, α 2 } {α 7, α 14 α 13, α 11 }. Table 9 lists the minimal poynomials. Element Minimal Polynomial 0 x 1 x + 1 α, α 2, α 4, α 8 x 4 + x + 1 α 3, α 6, α 12, α 9 x 4 + x 3 + x 2 + x + 1 α 5, α 10 x 2 + x + 1 α 7, α 14, α 13, α 11 x 4 + x Table 9: Minimal polynomials of GF(16). (b) Not neccessarily. As a counterexample, the minimal polynomial of α 3 GF(16) (order 5, nonprimitive element) has degree 4. 5

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