1 Rick Griffiths MWF 9:00 Converse 302 Converse 102D; Monday 4:00-6:00 and by appointment Reading Greek: Text and Vocabulary (second edition) (ISBN ) Reading Greek: Grammar and Exercises (second edition) (ISBN ) of the Joint Association of Classical Teachers Greek Course, published by Cambridge University Press. (Available at Amherst Books) Sept. 7, Wed.: Alphabet ἀλφάβητος (ἄλφα βῆτα = A B C s) Known from the Otherwise Exotic Confusing Latin alphabet familiar but easy α Α alpha β Β beta δ Δ delta ε Ε epsilon ζ Ζ zeta ι Ι iota κ Κ kappa μ Μ mu λ Λ lambda ο Ο omicron (= little o) π Π pi σ ς sigma τ Σ tau υ Τ upsilon ω Ψ omega (= big o) γ Γ gamma θ Θ theta ξ Ξ xi φ Υ phi ψ Χ psi 1 η Η eta (looks like n and H ) ν Ν nu (looks like v ) ρ Ρ rho (looks like p and P ) χ Φ chi (= kh not x )
2 Some almost recognizable words with the unfamiliar letters: 1) μικρός ρ Ρ rho 2) μακρός 3) πικρός π Π pi ( bitter ) 4) βάρβαρος ο Ο omicron ( pot ) (= someone who says βα βα ; not civilized [folk etymology]) 5) ὦ βάρβαρε ω Ψ omega ( saw ) ὦ marks an address to someone, e.g., O Socrates 6) βαρβαρισμός σ / ς sigma ( use of a foreign tongue or abuse of one s own tongue ) 7) δρᾶμα δράω is a verb meaning to do 8) δραματικός 9) ἀδικία ἀ = smooth breathing = not-h ( injustice ) 10) ἄκρος 11) πόλις λ Λ lambda Spartan shield with Λ 12) πολιτικός 13) ἀκρόπολις 14) ἐκτός ( outside of ) 15) ξένος ksé-nos ξ Ξ xi (= κ + ς) ( stranger, guest, host ) 2
3 16) ἕξ heks ἑ = rough breathing, hĕ 17) ἑξάγωνος γ Γ gamma 18) τέλος 19) πατήρ η Η eta 20) πατρίς ( land ) 21) λόγος 22) ἥλιος η Η eta ( hē - li - os ) Ἥλιος: 23) σκηνή skē-nē tent stage building Latin scena scene 24) θεός 25) φίλος aspirations (breathings, h and not-h ) h + initial vowel = h + π = φ Υ phi ph (there is no other f ) h + κ = χ Φ chi kh English x ( ξ Ξ xi = x ) h + τ = θ Θ theta th 26) ἀρχή (ar-khē) ἐν ἀρχῇ ἦν ὁ λόγος en ar-khē ēn ho lo-gos 27) ψυχή ψ Χ (= π + σ) psi psu khē 3
4 28) ποταμός 29) ἱπποπόταμος 30) ἄνθρωπος 31) φύσις ἄνθρωπος φύσει πολιτικὸν ζῶον. - Aristotle, Politics 32) ζωδιακός 33) μητρόπολις 34) τράπεζα tra-pe-sda Diphthongs ( double sounds ) (e.g., coop vs. coöperate, co-operate) α ε + ι or υ η ο υ 32) εἰμί (I am) ē - mi 33) εὖ (well) ewww 23) αὐτός (self) ow-tos 24) ταῖς ψυχαῖς (the life-breaths) tice psu-khice 25) υἱός (son) whee-os 26) οἴκοι (at home, adverb) oy-koy (moat but proactive) 4
5 For a fuller account of the alphabet, see Grammar pp I m not asking you to master all of this detail at this moment, but only to be able to pronounce and decipher the words. Sept. 9, Fri. In Text, be able to read out loud and translate reading 1 A (pp. 1-5). In Grammar, memorize the alphabet (p. 1). I ll ask you to be able to recite the alphabet by Monday at the latest. Read about the writing system and pronunciation (pp. 1-3). Breathings (i.e., h and not-h on initial vowels) are part of the spelling of the word and should always be learned. Read the Grammatical introduction (pp. 4-7), which we shall apply in translating the reading. Write out Exercise 2 (p. 3).We ll go over the written exercise in class, and you ll hand in your corrected copies. Sept. 12, Mon. In Text, reading 1 B (p. 7). In Grammar, read through the Grammar for Section 1 A-B (pp. 8-13). Reading the grammar sections will be a standing assignment and therefore not indicated below. The besetting problem of beginning Greek is that about three-quarters of the terminology we will ever use comes up immediately. Learn the Summary Learning Vocabulary for Section 1 A-B (p. 13) also a standing assignment. For the moment, learning vocabulary amounts to being able to give me the English translation. I don t ask you to translate from English to Greek in recitation or quizzes. Be able to decline (that is, recite the various endings of a noun or adjective) the definite article, working case-by-case, i.e., ὁ - ἡ - τό / τόν τήν τό (pp. 8-9). Learn the accent (i.e., the four instances without an acute accent). 5
6 Sept. 14, Wed. In Text, readings 1 C and D (pp. 8-11). In Grammar, be able to decline καλός (p. 11; without accents) and conjugate βαίνω (p. 12; with accents). Be able to recite Exercises 1A-B: 1 (p. 11). Write out Exercise 1A-B: 2 (p ); for future reference, note that there is an English-to-Greek dictionary, pp ). A small point now, but one that will become important later: The persistence of the accent on βαίν- is misleading. In indicative verbs, the accent is recessive, that is, it goes back as far as it can depending on whether the last syllable (the ultima) has a short vowel (-ε, -ομεν, -ετε, -ουσι) or a long vowel (-ω. -εις, -ει). The ἀκούω, I hear, with a two-syllable stem is more instructive than βαίνω: Note the pattern of o- and e- vowels after the stem: 1 = o, 2 = e (for this o/e alternation, the so-called theme vowel, see 16b [p. 16]) ἀκούω o 1 ἀκούεις e 2 ἀκούει e 2 ἀκούομεν o 1 ἀκούετε e 2 ἀκούουσι o 1 ἄκουε Cf. βαῖνε (not being able to go back another syllable, the accent turns ἀκούετε into a circumflex a quirk you won t be expected to know). Sept. 16, Fri. In Text, readings 1 E and F (pp ). In Grammar, be able to conjugate the contracted forms of ὁρῶ, ποιῶ, δηλῶ, with accents (p. 21) and imperatives (p. 22). Be able to recite Exercises 1E-F: 1 and 4 and write out 2 and 3 (pp ). (Note that I m not assigning 5). Please learn accents on these contrated forms (almost always a circumflex after the stem of the verb). Again, the accent is recessive, as is apparent if you look at the uncontracted form as given in box on p. 20 top. When two vowels contract, if the first one is accented, a circumflex results: 6
7 Note that -ω and -α vary on the same pattern: 1 = o; 2 = e ὁρά - ω > ὁρῶ 1 -ᾷς 2 -ᾷ 2 -ῶμεν 1 -ᾶτε 2 -ῶσι 1 Sept. 19, Mon. In Text, reading 1 G (pp ). In Grammar, be able to decline ἄνθρωπος, ἔργον, and ἡμέτερος. Be able to recite Exercise 1G: 5 (p. 29); write out Exercises 2 (p. 26) (with accents except for #1 & #5; problem explained in 42 [p. 30]), 3 (p. 27), and 6 (p. 29). Quiz on all vocabulary learned (i.e., be able to give the English meaning). Sept. 21, Wed. In Grammar, in Revision Exercises for 1 A-G be able to recite Exercise A (p. 33) and write out Exercises C (pp ) and D (p. 34). Write out Test Exercise One A-G without looking at vocabulary or grammar. See the guide on pp To be corrected in class and handed in. Learn εἰμί (with accents) on p. 36. This accent is not recessive; on enclitics, see 42 (p. 30). 7
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