Εφαρμογές στη Βιοϊατρική Μηχανική ETY-494 Εαρινό εξάμηνο 2015

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1 Εφαρμογές στη Βιοϊατρική Μηχανική ETY-494 Εαρινό εξάμηνο 2015 ΝΙΚΟΣ ΧΡΟΝΗΣ

2 Έχετε να Προτείνετε Εφαρμογές της Βιοϊατρικής Μηχανικής

3 Πως θα μεταφράζαμε το όρο Βιοϊατρική Μηχανική στα Αγγλικά

4 Δημοσιο Χρεος

5 Global Health

6 Communicable Diseases: Ebola, Enterovirus D68, Flu, Hantavirus, HIV/AIDS, Measles, MRSA, Pertussis, Rabies, Sexually Transmitted Disease, Tuberculosis, West Nile Virus


8 Εθνικο Ινστιτούτο Υγειας των ΗΠΑ (National Institute of Health-NIH) Established in 2002

9 Bio-Engineering Education

10 Does Greece need bio-engineers? Money Spent Per year (through NIH) USA ~30 billlion dollars? GREECE US population 320 million people 11 million Per person ~$95 As% GDP 0.2% Number of Doctors 900,000 Number of Bio-Engineers 30,000 0

11 Εφαρμογές της Βιοϊατρικής Μηχανικής

12 World Leaders Getting In Fights https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u3dhkni1mu8

13 Men's 200m - London 2012 Paralympic Games https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a9wlp1stnoy




17 Stephen Hawking

18 Difficulty in Walking? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i_dcwn-cu9g




22 Αγορι η Κοριτσι?

23 Food Worth Dying For


25 Malawian women Image taken from:

26 Bio-System Engineering Genetic Engineering BioFluid Mechanics & BioHeat Transfer Bio- Engineering Medical Physics Tissue Engineering Biomechanics

27 Bio- Engineering Biomechanics

28 BioMechanics I: Forces on Bodies The father of Biomechanics Borelli s analysis of different joints in man

29 Sports Injuries: Boxing Quantitative Modelling Image taken from: ve.html Read more: 8e9f-f669acd65787

30 How Injury takes place? Can you explain COUP versus CONTRECOUP Injury?

31 BioMechanics II: Prosthetics (external) Oscar Pistorius Material: Carbon-fiberreinforced polymer Cost: $15,000 The Flex-Foot Cheetah

32 Πως δουλευει

33 Prosthetics: The Future Robotic Leg The C-Leg : A computerized prosthetic leg - Introduced in the U.S. in unparalleled stability https://www.sciencenews.org/blog/scicurious/future-robotic-leg

34 Video: the C-leg https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wrnkjvjulz0

35 Prosthetics Controlled by the Brain!

36 How it started?

37 Artifical (robotic) Limbs controlled by the Brain! Για τη ΔΗΜΟΣΙΑ ΑΣΦΑΛΕΙΑ Για τη Κινητικα Αναπηρους Watch Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qrt8qcx 3BCo

38 Artificial Limbs Controlled by Brain! e /the-mind-controlled-prostheticlimb-given-wearer-sense-touch.html Also termed Bionics

39 Implantable Prosthetics 1. Total Hip Joint Replacement 2. Total Knee Joint Replacement

40 Αρθρίτιδα (Arthritis) - Αρθρίτιδα: πάνω από 100 διαφορετικές μορφές - 1 στους 5 ενήλικες πάσχει από κάποια αρθρίτιδα διαφορετικής βαρύτητας 4 Παράγοντες Κινδύνου: 1) Ηλικία (μειώνεται η ικανότητα αυτόεπούλωσης των χόνδρων) 2) Διατροφή (ασβέστιο, βιταμίνες C,D) 3) Παχυσαρκία (αυξάνει το βάρος στις αρθρώσεις) 4) Επάγγελμα

41 Anatomy of a Joint CARTILAGE: αρθρικός χόνδρος, είναι ένας ελαστικός, λείος ιστός, ο οποίος καλύπτει τα οστά που έρχονται σε επαφή σε μία άρθρωση και επιτρέπει την ομαλή, με ελάχιστη τριβή, κίνηση των αρθρικών επιφανειώ SYNOVIAL FLUID: αρθρικό υγρό, διευκολύνει την κίνηση των αρθρικών επιφανειών, ενώ παρέχει θρεπτικές ουσίες για τον αρθρικό χόνδρο Image taken from:

42 The Hip Joint Healthy Worn

43 Total Hip Joint Replacement Expanded View 3. The Cup The assembly in place 2. The Ball 1. The Metal Stem Hip replacement is a surgical procedure in which the hip joint is replaced by a prosthetic (artificial) implant

44 Υλικά σε εμφυτεύσιμα προσθετικά μέλη Τεχνικές Απαιτησεις (Specifications): Μηχανικη Αντοχη, Βιοσυμβατοτητα, Διαρκεια ζωης (φθορά) Image taken:

45 Alternative to total Hip Replacement Total hip resurfacing arthroplasty: A bone-preserving procedure that helps restore comfort and function to patients hips damaged by degenerative joint disease Watch Video:

46 Biomechanics: at the Cellular Level Neutrophil chemotaxis (Cell BioMechanics) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z_mxdvzq6du Cells sense and respond to chemical cues and mechanical forces!

47 Cell Mechanics Meet Biology

48 Biomechanics: at the Molecular Level (Molecular Biomechanics) Measuring the force needed to unzip a single DNA molecule! Journal of Muscle Research & Cell Motility, , Volume 23, Issue 5-6, pp Stretching and imaging single DNA molecules and chromatin

49 Bio- Engineering Medical Physics Biomechanics

50 Medical Physics/Imaging: Ultrasound Imaging Ερώτηση: Γιατί η εικόνα δεν είναι ορθογωνισμένη

51 Πως δουλεύει Στηριζεται στην ανακλαση (reflection) ακουστικων κυματων (~MHz) καθως αυτά περνάνε μεσα απο διαφορετικα στρωματα ιστων.

52 Medical Imaging: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI - Μαγνητική Τομογραφία) Images taken from:

53 Πως δουλευει

54 The MRI scanner Image taken from:

55 BioFluid Mechanics & BioHeat Transfer Bio- Engineering Medical Physics Biomechanics

56 BioFluid Mechanics and Atherosclerosis (αθηροσκλήρωση) Atherosclerosis is a disease in which plaque builds up inside your arteries Plaque: degenerative material in the inner layer of artery walls. The material consists of white blood cells, lipids (cholesterol and fatty acids), calcium and a variable amount of fibrous connective tissue.

57 Cross Section of an Atherosclerotic Artery https://andthewaveswego.files.wordpress.com/2011/12/progression-ofcoronary-artery-lesion-morphology1.jpg

58 BioFluid Mechanics: Understanding Plaque Formation Plaque formation and Wall Shear Stress (WS) H. Samady, et al. Coronary artery wall shear stress is associated with progression and transformation of atherosclerotic plaque and arterial remodeling in patients with coronary artery disease. Circulation (2011 Jul 25)

59 Plaque Removal using Angiojet Catheter Removing thrombus mainly from peripheral arteries and veins prior to balloon angioplasty or stent placement Taken from :

60 AngioJet Thrombectomy in Action Watch movie at: US/products/thrombectomy-systems/angiojetthrombectomy-system.html

61 The Stent Treating Stenosis: The Stent The procedure: Angioplasty

62 Stents: Design and Materials Specs: Biocompatibility, minimize inflammation, slow down restenosis

63 BioFluid Mechanics & BioHeat Transfer Genetic Engineering Bio- Engineering Medical Physics Biomechanics

64 Genetic engineering: Genetic engineering Direct manipulation of an organism's genes Genetic engineering uses the techniques of molecular cloning and transformation to alter the structure of genes directly. Examples: -Improving crop technology (not a medical application) -the manufacture of synthetic human insulin through the use of modified bacteria -GFP expression for imaging

65 The result of a chemical reaction called bioluminescence, it occurs when a micro-organism in sea water is disturbed by oxygen Read more:

66 The GFP Protein GPF comes from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria. It has the shape of a barrel. Inside the barrel there is the lightabsorbing complex, which absorbs high-energy UV-light and emits green light.

67 Green fluorescent protein (GPF) is naturally expressed in jellyfish How is it done?

68 2008 Nobel Price in Chemistry - Martin Chalfie (Columbia University)

69 BioFluid Mechanics & BioHeat Transfer Genetic Engineering Bio- Engineering Medical Physics Tissue Engineering Biomechanics

70 Tissue Engineering: Creating Human Tissue/Organs national-magazine-honors-creators-oflife-saving-3d-printed-airway-splint

71 How it is done?

72 Bio-System Engineering Genetic Engineering BioFluid Mechanics & BioHeat Transfer Bio- Engineering Medical Physics Tissue Engineering Biomechanics

73 BioSystems Engineering: Total Artificial Heart A Total Artificial Heart (TAH) is a device that replaces the two lower chambers (ventricles) of the heart. Pneumatically Driven Diaphragm You might need a TAH for one of 2 reasons: - To keep you alive while you wait for a heart transplant - You have end-stage heart failure in both ventricles Read and Watch:

74 Implanting the TAH The sequence in which the native heart is removed and the total artificial heart transplant is placed An artificial heart or LVAD is made out of metal, plastic, ceramic, and animal parts.

75 BioMedical Transducers Ex vivo In vivo Image taken from :

76 Artificial Retina

77 Artificial Retina https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aakio5l-5pc

78 Portable Medical Devices The Blood Pressure Meter Then Why measure blood pressure? Today

79 HyperTension and Heart Diseases

80 Question: How does Smoking affect arteries? Image taken from: %20Stroke-Smoking%20Effects-Arteries%20Hardening.html

81 In Summary 1. Smoking damages the lining of your arteries, leading to a build up of fatty material (atheroma) which narrows the artery. 2. The carbon monoxide in tobacco smoke reduces the amount of oxygen in your blood. This means your heart has to pump harder to supply the body with the oxygen it needs. 3. Nicotine stimulates your body to produce adrenaline, which makes your heart beat faster and raises your blood pressure, making your heart work harder. 4. Your blood is more likely to clot, which increases your risk of having a heart attack or stroke. https://www.bhf.org.uk/heart-health/risk-factors/smoking

82 The Good News https://www.pinterest.com/pin/ /

83 From Wearable Consumer Electronics to Wearable Medical Devices m/gregory-weinkauf/glucosemonitoring_b_ html


85 Wearable Continuous Glucose Monitor https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c0peodgs4hg

86 Global Health and Bio-Engineering

87 Point-of-care (POC) Biochips NEED to perform testing in the field 1. Blood is obtained from the patient s finger ~ 1 cm Lab-on-chip System 2. The sample is being processed by the biochip ~ 10 cm 3. The biochip is placed inside the data analysis device for blood analysis.

88 Glucose Point-of-care Monitor 1. Lancet 2. Blood Strip (biochip) 3. Glucometer

89 The future of Glucose Monitoring FIRST INSULIN PUMP 1978

90 The future of Glucose Monitoring Micro/Nano Technology A MicroPump A - The Pump itself B- The Cannula C -Continuous Glucose Monitoring Sensor

91 The Vision: The Lab on Chip Concept Lab-on-a-chip (LOC) is a term for devices that integrate (multiple) laboratory functions on a single chip of only millimeters to a few square centimeters in size and that are capable of handling extremely small fluid volumes down to less than pico liters.


93 Bio-System Engineering Genetic Engineering BioFluid Mechanics & BioHeat Transfer Bio- Engineering Medical Physics Tissue Engineering Biomechanics